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SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 18 . NUMBER 3 . SEPTEMBER 1964 230 PARK AVENUE· NEW YORK, N. Y. 10017

GENETICS AND THE SOCIAL SCIENCES by Gardner Lindzey ,. THIS brief paper is intended to accomplish three things: (1) It will cite some of the evidence of substantial interest among social scientists in research and formulations dealing with the genetics of behavior. (2) It will outline briefly some illustrative areas where a knowledge of genetics, or genetics of behavior research, has made some contribution to social science or might reasonably be expected to make such a contribution in the future. (3) It will summarize some activities of the Council's Committee on Genetics and Behavior 1 that are intended to facilitate advances in this area. A number of recent developments suggest a growing interest in the implications of genetics for the social sciences. Among these are: (a) two summer conferences on behavior genetics-supported by the National Science Foundation, organized by Benson Ginzburg of the University of Chicago, Jerry Hirsch who served as chairman, Howard Hunt of Columbia University, and Gerald E. McClearn, and held at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences; (b) a recent conference on human genetics of behavior, arranged by Steven G. Vandenberg of the University of Louisville and supported by the National Institute of Mental Health; (c) a grow• This paper is a modified version of a talk presented to the board of directors of the Social Science Research Council at its annual meeting in September 1962. Preparation of the paper was facilitated by grants from the Ford Foundation and the National Institute of Mental Health, and it was written while the author was in residence at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. I am particularly grateful for the helpful suggestions of David A. Hamburg. 1 The members of the committee are Gardner Lindzey, University of Texas (chairman); Ernst W. Caspari, University of Rochester; Theodosius Dobzhansky, Rockefeller Institute; David A. Hamburg, Stanford University; Jerry Hirsch, University of Illinois; Gerald E. Me· Clearn, University of California, Berkeley; James N. Spuhler, University of Michigan; staff, Ben Willerman.

ing number of courses on genetics of behavior or behavior genetics at major universities in the past five years; (d) recent publications devoted in part or wholly to reporting or surveying research dealing with genetics and behavior, the most important of which is Behavior Genetics, by Fuller and Thompson.2 A comparison of this volume with the last similar review 8 makes clear a rapid acceleration of research activity in this area. Indeed, it seems safe to say that among comparative and physiological psychologists, physical anthropologists, and psychiatrists there is now extensive interest in the genetics of behavior. Moreover, in recent years occasional evidence of comparable interests on the part of personality and social psychologists and sociologists has appeared. An excellent overview of many of the developments lying behind these activities may be found in Dobzhansky's Mankind Evolving. 4 The question why there should now be this increased interest poses a challenge for the sociologist of knowledge, but it is a challenge we shall skirt, aside from a few passing observations. One of the seductive qualities of the area of genetics of behavior lies in the enormous advances-theoretical, instrumental, empirical-that have been made within genetics in a mere five or six decades. These developments have no parallel in any behavioral science and they have led to the emergence of a set of tools, techniques, designs, and concepts that offer unusual power to the behavioral scientist who finds them 2 John L. Fuller and William R. Thompson, Behavior Genetics, New York: John Wiley &: Sons, 1960. 8 Calvin S. Hall, "The Genetics of Behavior," in S. S. Stevens, ed., Handbook of Experimental Psychology, New York: John Wiley &: Sons, 1951, pp. 304-329. • Theodosius Dobzhansky, Mankind Evolving, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962.

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pended to empirical generalizations, or laws, concerning behavior in much the same way that age, sex, religion, socioeconomic status, and similar variables are now used. Just as the competent behavioral scientist attempts __ to sample, or study, variation in socioeconomic status, religion and age, so should the investigator have a responsibility for sampling the genotype. Brunswik 5 made an enduring contribution to design of behavioral research by showing that traditional sampling of subjects ignored the importance of sampling objects or situations and thus produced findings that could be generalized from one subject to another but not from one situation to another. A crucial task for the future is to demonstrate that adequate experimental design often demands that population sampling be expanded to embrace biological (genotype) sampling as well as traditional demographic variables, in essence to promote recognition of the importance of biological variation for behavioral laws. The genetic concept of pleitropism (multiple effects from a single gene) and a host of empirical findings, showing covariation between genotype and behavior, make it clear that a science of behavior that ignores genetic variation sets marked limits on the progress it can hope to make. In other words, in a variety of behavioral domains the investigator who chooses to ignore (neither controlling nor systematically varying) genetic variation makes unnecessarily difficult the task of understanding and controlling the phenomena he is studying. While it is relatively easy to make a compelling case for the importance of a genetic parameter in the study of behavior, one should remember that the singular significance of such a source of variation will depend on a number of identifiable conditions: (1) Depending on the organism under study, the genetic parameter may be easy to control and essential, or much more difficult to control and perhaps not quite so essential. Such a continuum of ease of controlling or studying genetic variation is represented by drosophila, mouse, rat, primate, and man. It would be much more difficult to understand, and to justify, indifference to the genetic parameter in the case of drosophila and mice than in that of human beings. (2) The nature of the response process under investigation certainly influences the relevance of genetic variation. The behavioral scientist who is concerned with complex institutional outgrowths of behavior-such as religion, economic change, or international relations-may find it much more difficult to introduce genetic variation into his research designs, and indeed to make a rational case for the importance of genetic variation, than one who is concerned with Mongolism,

relevant to his work. Moreover, few would question that in the past the predominant values of American social scientists have strongly emphasized plasticity of behavior, social amelioration, and the overriding importance of environmental variation as a determinant of behavior. Consequently, a heightening of interest among contemporary social scientists in genetic variation may be viewed as a partial compensation for excesses of the past. It is paradoxical that one of the factors that contributes to the vigorous activity in this area is just this insularity of American social scientists in regard to genetic determinants of behavior. This long-standing scotoma has left vast gaps in information about the discipline of genetics, as well as striking empirical voids. Consequently, there appear to be more evident and important problems waiting to be attacked here than in many other major research areas. Questions pertaining to genetic determinants of behavior are in many cases so untouched that investigators are still looking for main effects rather than attempting to fill in the missing points on a relatively well-understood function. All this tends to give an air of excitement, novelty, and challenge to research in the area, and this is in marked contrast to some sectors of the social science world. A final factor that may have led to the increased research activity is the ubiquitous acceptance by geneticists of the essential contributions of environmental variation. Whatever may have been true in the past, the well-trained geneticist today consistently views the genotype as influencing behavior only in interaction with environmental determinants. One may fairly state that the most fascinating problems in this general domain have to do with interactions of genotype and environment. More important than the question why we now see a resurgence of interest in genetics and behavior is the question of what benefits to social science may reasonably be expected from this development. The following discussion of potential areas of interaction between genetic and social science research problems is neither exhaustive nor representative; it may be considered nothing more than an arbitrary selection intended to illustrate the diversity or breadth of potential interactions, and also to include both areas where there are already solid accomplishments and areas where even the future possibility of such accomplishments is very much in dispute. GENETIC VARIATION AS A GENERAL PARAMETER IN THE STUDY OF BEHAVIOR

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Virtually all scientists working in this area are personally committed to demonstrating the fundamental importance of a genetic parameter that must be ap-

D Egon Brunswik, "Representative Design and Probabilistic Theory in a Functional Psychology," Psychological Review, 62:l9!J-2l7, 1955.

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difficulties or dangers in attempting to construct laws or generalizations that can be applied confidently to all or most organisms. It is not surprising that many defenders of an idiographic approach to the study of behavior have attempted to strengthen their position by pointing out that what we know of human biology indicates the virtual certainty that no two individuals are genetically identical, excepting the special and infrequent instance of identical twins. But demonstration that there is no likelihood of genetic identity of individuals does little more than introduce the real problem. No sentient student of behavior would deny the fact of individual uniqueness; the essential question is how far one can advance while ignoring this uniqueness, and what steps can be taken to incorporate it in research and theoretical formulations. The major contribution of genetics of behavior research to resolution of this problem is related to the methods and techniques that permit one to examine findings against a background of genetic variation, to ascertain whether the differences in behavior associated with particular kinds or degrees of genetic variation are so profound that it would be relatively useless to attempt to generalize across the different groups of subjects. For example, if we examine the function linking two variables (let us say anxiety and sociability, or hours of deprivation and rate of conditioning) in many different genotypes and it remains constant or involves only minor deviations, we may conclude with some confidence that the finding can be generalized widely without undue concern for genetic differences. The point is that one can never know this without actually studying genetic variation, and the findings in past research suggest that in many cases the association between two variables or conditions does not remain constant, or nearly so, in the face of genetic variation. No one argues seriously that findings can be generalized without limit from one species to another, and it is well understood that the differences between species that make such generalization hazardous have to do with characteristics that are under genetic control. Yet some of the behavioral scientists who are most apprehensive about generalizations across species show least concern for the possibility that genetic variation within a species may necessitate attention to the limits of generalization. It seems at least possible that among human subjects as well as among other animals there are structural, qualitative, or type differences that would make difficult the construction of valid and nontrivial laws that would apply to all categories of individuals. Research in behavior genetics is certain to examine this likelihood, and in the most fortunate of instances might

intelligence, or even personality organization. (3) Another consideration is the relevance of evolution to the discipline or empirical area involved. In those areas where behavior is consistently placed in an evolutionary framework, where the formulations of Darwin are considered highly relevant to a full understanding of behavior, it is almost inevitable that the investigator will be concerned with genetic variation, genetic changes over time, and particular selection pressures. (4) There is also the general empirical and theoretical state of development within the area in question. In a domain where elegant and highly rigorous experimentation is possible (for example, sensory and comparative psychology) and where theoretical formulation has sufficient precision to permi t the specification of a variety of well-understood parameters, neglect of biological variation as one of these is less excusable. On the other hand, in areas where experimentation is the exception rather than the rule, where formulation is seldom formally precise, and variables are seldom given adequate coordinating definitions, it is difficult to see just how the genetic parameter could improve things and easy to understand why investigators have not paid much attention to this source of variation. One may conclude that the importance of controlling or studying genetic variation when studying behavior is ubiquitous, although in certain areas genetic variation plays a more indispensable role than in others. The least that the sophisticated investigator should be capable of is a clear and explicit account of the strategic basis for ignoring genetic variation, if such is his decision. LIMITS TO GENERALITY

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A classic polarity that on occasion has threatened to sunder some social sciences is the issue of how broadly one can generalize across groups, types, or classes of individuals. Sometimes this issue appears as a matter of emphasis on the exclusive importance of individual uniqueness; on other occasions it is formulated as an opposition between the nomothetic and idiographic methods (recently referred to as one of the "hardiest perennial weeds in the garden of psychology" 8); on still others it may be phrased in terms of the need for a typological or "personological" approach to the study of behavior. In all these cases the defenders of individuality and the idiographic approach-however fumbling, poetical, or unconvincing their arguments-share, sometimes unknowingly, a concern for a biological truism: the essential uniqueness of all living organisms and the 6 Robert R. Holt, "Individuality and Generalization in the Psychology of Personality," Journal Of Personality, 50:577-404, 1962.

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is a belief that powerfully motivates some social scientists and for them the study of genetics of behavior must have a special zest.

even provide a basis for classifying subjects into groups that could' be fruitfully treated as comparable or belonging to the same class. It seems clear that in many areas of human research an investigator who studied subjects of distinctive genetic endowment-producing, for example, Down's Syndrome (Mongolism), sensory deficiencies, or intellectual impairment-and attempted to generalize his findings broadly would encounter enormous difficulties. The situation is even clearer in the case of behavior of lower animals. If the same experimental treatment (gentling) produces no effect on rate of learning with one genotype and a highly significant increase in the rate of learning in another genotype,7 or if infantile trauma has one effect with this genotype and another effect with another, 8 it seems clear that empirical statements must be linked with the genetic substrate of the subjects, so that the findings may not lead to faulty generalization.

BEHAVIOR PATHOLOGY

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The study of abnormalities or pathological deviations in behavior is important not only because of the prevalence of the disorders and the social problems they create, but also because such study has contributed greatly to the understanding of normal behavior. Many of the empirical generalizations and theories that are applied widely in the social sciences owe their origin to the study of mentally disturbed subjects. More research on the human genetics of behavior has been conducted in this area than in any other, and has led to impressive results in many cases. 9 Here we shall mention three types of inquiry that illustrate both their diversity and the varying degrees of progress that have been made. One of the most impressive outcomes of genetic studies of pathology can be observed in connection with phenyketonuria a severe form of mental deficiency. This disorder has been known for some years to be controlled by a single recessive gene, and more recently it has been shown to involve an "inborn error of metabolism" linked to the amino acid phenyalanine. Once this deficiency in the normal metabolic process had been • identified, it proved possible largely to prevent this type • of mental retardation by introducing appropriate environmental variation (a diet minimizing intake of phenyalanine) very early in life. This is not only an instance where genetic study has provided the basis for a thorough understanding of a socially significant form of behavior pathology, but also one showing clearly that genetic determination does not necessarily imply immutability or the existence of a fixed characteristic. In this case, identification of the genetic process and associated physiological mechanisms provided the basis for prompt and efficient environmental control of the trait or character. A second interesting example is Down's Syndrome (Mongolism) which, as a result of cytological advances, is now definitely known to be genetically controlled. The multiple deviations in behavior that characterize this disorder are typically associated with trisomy or translocation involving the 21st chromosome. This relatively recent discovery has not yet led to a full integration of previously discovered correlates of the disorder or to identification of the underlying physiological and biochemical mechanisms. There seems little doubt, however, that such a firm cytological finding will en-

UNITY (PYRAMID) OF SCIENCE In spite of harsh encounters in the past with biological reductionism, many behavioral scientists continue to display considerable interest in the integration of concepts, findings, and formulations that have been developed in the various disciplines concerned with behavior. The methodological sophistication of behavioral scientists has increased to a point where they no longer need fear that their entire area of concern may be engulfed by, for example, molecular biology or physiological genetics. The limits of reductionism are now sufficiently well understood so that such effort (whether involving biological, psychological, or social reduction) no longer warrants serious thought. Given this greater intellectual freedom, it is easier for the social scientist to recognize that there may be potential gains from placing the concepts, problems, and methods of his discipline beside comparable elements within the biological sciences. Aside from the objective gains for the investigator who uses the methods, designs, and concepts of genetics in studying behavior, it is obvious that linking genetic formulations and findings with those from other sciences concerned with behavior serves concretely to bring together important parts of the pyramid of sciences. While an interest in the eventual emergence of a coherent pyramid of science is considered by many to be an illusory premise or a kind of religious belief, still it

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7 Gardner Lindzey and Harvey D. Winston. "Maze Learning and Effects of Pre-training in Inbred Strains of Mice." Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55 :748-752. 1962. 8 Gardner Lindzey. Harvey D. Winston. and Martin Manosevitz. "Early Experience. Genotype. and Temperament in Mus Musculus," ibid., 56:622-629, 1963.

o Cf. Curt Stem. Principles of Human Genetics, 2nd ed .• San Francisco: W_ H. Freeman and Company. 1960_

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the joint contributions of both environmental and genetic variation. Perhaps the most obvious implication of what has just been said is that the investigator or theorist concerned with this disorder would be unwise not to give careful consideration to the potential role of genetic variation. In fact, the firmest evidence in regard to determinants of schizophrenia implicates hereditary factors. Moreover, it seems clear that the person with reasonable sophistication in both social science and genetics is better prepared to appraise the strengths and flaws of existing data and, more important, to specify the kinds of evidence needed to provide unambiguous information concerning the heritability of the disorder. Finally, it is altogether possible that appropriately designed genetic studies may yield results that question the utility of the concept of schizophrenia or suggest the value of narrowing its range of reference and using it in combination with other concepts, as suggested by Meehl.

courage and facilitate research that should eventually produce a general understanding of the disease process and possibly a basis for its prevention or amelioration. The third example we have chosen is schizophrenia. Here is a diagnostic entity where neither the underlying mechanism nor the genetic process is fully understood, but a great deal of behavior genetic research has yielded some relevant findings. The disorder itself has been the focus of enormous interest on the part of psychiatrists, psychologists, and other social scientists because of its high frequency and bizarre and diverse manifestations. Indeed, whether schizophrenia is considered as societal problem or social science enigma, it ranks among the foremost of these in our time. A number of studies of genetic determinants of schizophrenia have used the proband method, as well as the comparison of concordance rates (same diagnosis) in dizygotic and monozygotic twins. Almost all have produced evidence supporting genetic variation as an important determinant of the disorder. There are, of course, significant criticisms that can be raised against these studies,IO but the general tenor of the evidence seems unmistakable. Indeed, Meehl after a careful survey of the relevant data concluded, "I would argue that the concordance rates in the twin studies need not be accepted uncritically as highly precise parameter estimates in order for us to say that their magnitudes represent the most important piece of etiological information we possess about schizophrenia." 11 In spite of the many consistencies in the data that have been collected, there is little agreement in regard to the mode of inheritance or even the general role of hereditary determinants. For example, Kallman 12 interprets the findings as consistent with a single (mutant) gene recessive genetic model, while Book 13 and others lean toward a single dominant gene model, and many observers (d. Fuller and Thompson) have inclined toward polygenic determination. It should be noted that in relation to schizophrenia, as with other topics, the formulation of heredity versus environment as a radical dichotomy is hopelessly obsolete and obstructs research progress. Investigators of schizophrenia are beginning to move away from such formulations and to show a more reasonable interest in

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF LEARNING Theories of learning that have emerged largely from laboratory experimentation represent, with psychoanalytic theory, the most exportable psychological commodity that has yet been produced. It is interesting, therefore, that in recent years some of the generalizations most frequently encountered in the literature on learning have appeared to be at least partially limited by the genotype of the subjects to which they are applied. As a result of selection studies,14 comparison of "homozygous strains" of animals,15 and hybridization studies,lo it is clear that at least in lower animals the rate of learning, the absolute level of performance, and the role of many determinants of learning are all influenced by genetic variation. As Hirsch 17 and others have argued, there is growing evidence that full understanding of the learning process will be achieved only when genetic variation has been given explicit and systematic treatment. RACE DIFFERENCES IN BEHAVIOR No area of research in the social sciences has led to more prolonged and acrimonious debate than the study

10 See D. D. Jackson, "A Critique of the Literature on the Genetics of Schizophrenia," in D. D. Jackson, ed., The Etiology of Schizophrenia, New York: Basic Books, 1960, pp. 37-87; and David Rosenthal, "Problems of Sampling and Diagnosis in the Major Twin Studies of Schizophrenia," Journal of Psychiatric Research, 1:1l6-134, 1962. 11 Paul E. Meehl, "Schizotaxia, Schizotypy, Schizophrenia," American Psychologist, 17:827, 1962. 12 Franz J . Kallman, Heredity in Health and Mental Disorder, New York: W. W. Norton &: Co., 1953. IS Jan A. Book, "Schizophrenia as a Gene Mutation," Acta Genetica, 4:133-139, 1953.

14 Robert C. Tryon, "Genetic Differences in Maze-learning Ability in Rats," Thirty-ninth Yearbook of the National Society for tile Study of Education, Part I, Bloomington: Private School Publishing, 1940, pp. 111-1l9. 15 Lindzey and Winston, op. cit. 16 Harvey D. Winston, "Heterosis and Learning in the Mouse," Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 57:279-283, 1964. 11 Jerry Hirsch, "Individual Differences in Behavior and Their Genetic Basis," in E. L. Bliss, ed., Roots of Behavior, New York: Harper &: Row. 1962. pp. 3-23.

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of racial differences. This is clearly a domain where appropriate design of research and accurate interpretation of data demand an understanding of modem genetic concepts. Indeed, in recent years, primarily under the influence of physical anthropologists, the technical use of the term race has come more and more to be linked by definition to variation in gene frequencies. IS Adequate comprehension of the masses of data collected because of an interest in this problem demands not only social science sophistication but also an understanding of the fundamentals of population genetics-of genetic drift, assortative mating, selection pressure, and kindred concepts. While reasonable sophistication concerning these concepts does not guarantee concordance among various investigators and theorists, it is guaranteed that without such understanding many of the interpretations placed on relevant data will be infirm. More specifically, one may argue that it is unlikely that any contemporary social scientist, given a reasonable background in genetics and awareness of established findings in regard to such behavioral characters as color vision and taste sensitivities, would assert that there is no evidence for genetically determined differences in behavior between races. Needless to say, the existence of such differences has no bearing on decisions concerning the political, legal, or social treatment of members of different races. These are ,appropriately rooted in value and ethical premises. It seems probable that if investigators in this area had possessed more knowledge of genetics in the past, there would have been less emphasis on the study of racial differences in general intelligence, in view of the virtual impossibility of disentangling the respective influences of genetic and environmental variation on a character so complex and so heavily influenced by language and culture. In general, it appears that the accurate interpretation of existing data and the development of plans for obtaining more illuminating data in the future depend on a reasonable balance in genetic and social science training. INTELLIGENCE AND SOCIAL CLASS The relation between the well-known class differences in measured intelligence and genetic factors has been the subject of several interesting analyses. Dobzhansky in a recent issue of Science and in Mankind Evolving considered various social structural conditions in relation to genetically determined abilities and concluded that caste systems possessed relatively little biological efficiency. He also suggested, in regard to a par-

ticular caste system: "India has performed the grandest genetic experiment ever attempted with human materials. For possibly as long as 100 generations, people were bred for genetic specialization in different occupations .... It appears ... that the 'experiment' turned out to be a failure, in the sense that the castes have not become genetically specialized for their respective occupations. Modem India has discovered that the low castes contain at least some individuals capable of performing quite creditably the functions heretofore reserved for the high ones; and it has also discovered that the converse is true." 19 Tryon 20 has approached the problem from quite a different perspective and, assuming that society is organized into groups primarily in terms of socioeconomic status or, as he calls it, "money reward," he reasons that persons who achieve particular economic levels tend to have certain genetically determined characters in common and also that they are more likely to mate with one another. Thus, with time this assortative mating produces groups that are at least partially distinct in terms of these genetically determined characters. Indeed, he argues that the general intelligence factor extracted by our conventional test and factor analytic procedures has actually been produced by assortative mating influenced by a unitary reward system. Fuller and Thompson argue that in all societies there is selection for plasticity or • general intelligence and that consequently one should • not expect to find biologically determined differences in intelligence between races or societies. On the other hand, they think that a society that selects differentially within various classes can well survive and therefore one might observe class differences in genetic factors relevant to intelligence. The most technical analysis of this problem is that by Halsey,21 who constructed several models, making various assumptions concerning class differences in intelligence and its mode of inheritance. Although one could readily quarrel with some of his assumptions (the most serious violation of what is known to be true is his assumption of single gene determination of intelligence), his approach offers much promise. Moreover, his analyses specify at least some conditions under which class differences in intelligence must be accepted as primarily attributable to environmental variation. The importance of these papers lies less in the particular conclusions they have reached than in their illustration of the direct relevance of genetic concepts and methods for eventual understanding of the relation

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"Genetics and Equality," Science, 137:113, July 13, 1962. Robert C. Tryon, "Behavior Genetics in Social Psychology," Amen· can Psychologist, 12:453, 1957. 21 A. H. Halsey, "Genetics, Social Structure and Intelligence," British Journal of Sociology, 9:15-28, 1958. 19

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C. Boyd, Genetics and the Races of Man, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1950; and Stanley M. Gam, ed., Readings on Race, Springfield, Ill.: Charles C Thomas, 1960. 18 William

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between social class and intelligence. The investigator who approaches this problem with full understanding of both population genetics and relevant social science methods is in a much better position to produce illuminating findings and theories than the person who is familiar with only one of these domains. The areas of potential interaction between the social sciences and genetics we have just cited are obviously weighted by the author's greater familiarity with psychology than with other social sciences. It should be emphasized that in none of these examples is it our intention to suggest that an understanding of genetic concepts will provide an easy or automatic solution to the major empirical and theoretical problems of the social sciences. Nor should it appear that the interaction between genetics and the social sciences is likely to benefit only the social scientist. In fact, much genetic research on behavior conducted by biologists could be improved by greater sophistication in the concepts and methods of the social sciences, and a few such developments have occurred. Here, however, we have selfishly adopted the perspective of the social scientist. THE COUNCIL'S COMMITTEE

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The Committee on Genetics and Behavior was appointed in September 1961, with its present membership. Its actions have been guided by the general premise that social scientists would benefit from greater exposure to modem genetics. Its broad purposes have been the effective dissemination among social scientists of knowledge concerning genetics and the stimulation of research in significant areas relevant to genetics and behavior. The major activities that have been completed or arranged are a summer training institute on behavior genetics and a European conference on human behavior genetics. The summer institute was under the general direction of Gerald McClearn and was held by the University of California, Berkeley, June 22 - July 31, 1964, with financial support provided by the National Institute of Mental Health. The principal members of the teaching staff, in addition to Messrs. McClearn and Hirsch, were Joseph B. Birdsell, Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles; Robert C. Roberts, Senior Scientific Officer, Institute of Animal Genetics, Edinburgh; David Merrell, Professor of Zoology, University of Minnesota; David Rosenthal, Laboratory of Psychology, National Institute of Mental Health; James McGaugh, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Oregon. There were 30 students, who had recently completed their doctoral training or were at an advanced stage of graduate work. They were

approximately evenly divided between those whose primary background was in a social science and those who had been trained in biological science or medicine. The first four weeks of the institute were devoted to two parallel sequences, designed to present the most relevant aspects of modern genetics to the social scientist and selected aspects of psychology and anthropology to the biological scientist. The lectures and laboratory sessions were scheduled so that each student could attend all lectures if he chose. The last two weeks were devoted to applications of the methods and concepts of genetics to behavioral research. Lectures, demonstrations, individual conferences, and laboratories were all utilized. Among the major topics considered were general genetics, population genetics, biometrical genetics, heritability, inbreeding, selection, origin of species, polymorphism, measurement of behavior, conditioning, behavioral development, schizophrenia, and human microevolution. The European conference has been arranged by James N. Spuhler for the purpose of improving communication between American and European scholars who share an interest in the genetics of human behavior. The conference is to be held on September 1725, 1964, under the joint auspices of the committee and the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research at its conference center in Burg Wartenstein, with funds provided by the Foundation. The general focus of the conference is on "Behavioral Consequences of Genetic Differences in Man." The participants and subjects of their papers are as follows: types, genotypes, and the genetic diversity in populations, Mr. Dobzhansky; polymorphism and natural selection, John M. Thoday, University of Cambridge; implications of primate paleontology for behavior, G. Kurth, University of Gottingen; implications of primate neon to logy for behavior, B. 1. DeVore, Harvard University; sense perception and behavior, H. Kalmas, University of London; morphology and behavior, Mr. Lindzey; hereditary factors in psychological variation in man, S. G. Vandenberg, University of Louisville; intellectual functioning and the dimensions of human variation, Mr. Hirsch; psychopathology, J. A. Book, University of Uppsala; individual differences in stress responses, Mr. Hamburg; dimensional analysis, Louis Guttman, Israel Institute of Applied Social Research; genetics and child development, Hanus Papousek, Institute for the Care of Mother and Child, Prague; the behavioral consequences of morphological diversity, F. Keiter, University of Wiirzberg; psychological research and behavioral phenotypes, Mr. McClearn; human population genetics and behavior, L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, University of Pavia; patterns of mating in human populations, Mr. Spuhler.

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MONETARY POLICY AND THE RATE OF ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: A PROJECT OF THE COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC STABILITY by Franco Modigliani·

AT THE end of the summer of 1963 the Committee on Economic Stability relinquished to the Brookings Institution further responsibility for testing and applyin-g the econometric model of the United States which the committee had been developing during the preceding two years. A comprehensive report on the work done on this project under the committee's auspices has been prepared, and is scheduled for publication early in 1965. 1 At the conclusion of participation in this effort the committee undertook to re-examine for the Council other research needs relating to problems of economic stability and instability. A result was the decision to explore the feasibility of intensifying research on the links between the supply of money, and other variables within the control of monetary and credit authorities, and the course of economic activity. Economists have long been concerned with the significance of these variables, and of the channels through which they operate, but the importance assigned to them has varied widely at different points in the development of economic thinking. Broadly speaking, the classical tradition tended to de-emphasize the role of money as an autonomous factor. Money was regarded as a veil tending to obscure but having in reality no independent lasting effect on the mechanism controlling the allocation of resources to the production of goods and their distribution among the participants in the economic process. On the other hand, some of the preKeynesian analysts concerned with business fluctuations assigned to money a more important autonomous role. Keynes' "General Theory," with its emphasis on wage rigidity and "liquidity preference," could be interpreted as assigning to money a central role in the explanation of "underemployment equilibrium." In fact, however, much of the Keynesian literature of the 1940's and early 1950's assigned scant importance to money. The level of economic activity was seen as determined

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by the propensity to save, the volume of investment, and fiscal policy; and both saving and the rate of investment were deemed, in fact if not in principle, to be unresponsive to the tools of monetary policy. The postwar experience and new developments in economic analysis, which were perhaps partly spurred by that experience, have tended to modify earlier thinking. At the present time one might, at the risk of extreme oversimplification, distinguish three main trends of opinion among those concerned with macroeconomics. There is still probably a sizable group that clings to the earlier Keynesian view that money is, at best, of secondary importance among the forces that shape the course of economic activity. At the other end of the spectrum there is a small but influential body, of which Milton Friedman is the principal spokesman, which holds that variations in the rate of expansion of the money supply are one of the most important sources of economic instability. This school tends to conclude that money is too powerful and complex a tool to be entrusted to human minds for use as a means of economic stabilization and recommends the abolition of discre- • tion in monetary management and the substitution of • an inflexible rule calling for an expansion of the money supply at a constant rate. Furthermore, this school regards the effectiveness of money as so evident at the aggregate level that it has little interest in study of the channels through which money operates. These channels, the school holds, are numerous and pervasive and their relative importance may shift in time, but the final outcome is predictable and this is all that matters. Between these two extremes there is a significant body of opinion that monetary policy can exert an important influence on economic activity, and for this very reason can and should be exploited as one of the important and most flexible tools of economic stabilization. However, it is generally agreed by those who hold this view that there are wide gaps in our qualitative and quantitative knowledge of the mechanisms through which the tools of monetary policy operate, and that these gaps urgently need to be filled by means of empirically supported propositions, in order to bolster confidence in the use of these tools. Conscious of this need, the Committee on Economic Stability has asked two of its members, the writer and • James Duesenberry, to consider what might be done ~ to speed and increase the effectiveness of research in this area.

• The author is Professor of Finance at Massachusetts Institute of Technology and has been a member of the Council'S Committee on Economic Stability for the past two years. Its other members are: Law· rence R. Klein, University of Pennsylvania (chairman); Moses Abramovitz, Stanford University; Martin Bronfenbrenner, Carnegie Institute of Technology; James S. Duesenberry, Harvard University; Karl A. Fox, Iowa State University; R. A. Gordon, University of California, Berkeley; Bert G. Hickman, Brookings Institution; David W. Lusher, Council of Economic Advisers; Geoffrey H. Moore, National Bureau of Economic Research. 1 James S. Duesenberry, Lawrence R. Klein, and Edwin Kuh, eds., A Quarterly Econometric Model of the U.s. Economy, Rand McNally Be Company and North-Holland Publishing Company (in press).

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As a preliminary step, a small group of economists actively concerned with such research met in Washington on March 13-14 for an informal discussion. The group was recruited primarily from universities and other institutions in the East and Middle West, and a similar meeting of economists from the western part of the country was held on July 16-18 at the University of California, Los Angeles under the sponsorship of its Institute of Government and Public Affairs.2 The aim of the Washington meeting was to pool the experience of the group for three main purposes: (1) to survey the present state of knowledge as shown by published works and research in progress; (2) to examine the possibility of closer coordination of relevant research in progress in universities and other institutions and by the staff of the Federal Reserve System, so as to avoid duplications and maximize the effectiveness of ongoing research; (3) to consider possible needs for data not now available which might be developed or obtained cooperatively from government sources. The March meeting was devoted primarily to reviewing the main links between the monetary supply and other variables which have been considered in the literature, and suggesting some which have so far received little attention; and surveying both major approaches to the problem and significant published and unpublished contributions. On the basis of the discussion a memorandum on the present state of knowledge is being prepared by the secretary of the meeting, John H. Wood of the staff of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. This is being circulated to all economists who are known to be actively interested in the area, to obtain 2 Present at the Washington meeting. in addition to Messrs. Duesenberry. Hickman. and Modigliani of the committee. were G. L. Bach. and Allan H. Meltzer. Carnegie Institute of Technology; Martin J. Bailey. Agency for International Development; William C. Brainard. Yale University; Daniel H. Brill. Frank de Leeuw. Robert C. Holland. Albert R. Koch. Stanley J. Sigel. and John H. Wood of the staff of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System; Joseph W. Conard. Swarthmore College; Donald R. Hodgman. University of Illinois; Guy H. Orcutt. University of Wisconsin; Warren L. Smith. University of Michigan; Robert Solomon. Council of Economic Advisers; Paul Webbink. Social Science Research Council. Messrs. Meluer. Modigliani. and Sigel also attended the July meeting. in which the other participants were Armen A. Alchian. Karl Brunner. Werner Z. Hirsch. H. Laurence Miller. and J. Fred Weston. University of California. Los Angeles; Meyer L. Burstein. and Robert L. Crouch. Northwestern University; Carl Christ. Johns Hopkins University; Michael L. De Prano. University of Southern California; David L. Grove. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco; Charles F. Haywood. Bank of America. San Francisco; Homer Jones. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis; John H. Kareken. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis; David E. W. Laidler. Jacob B. Michaelsen. and Hyman P. Minsky. University of California. Berkeley; Thomas Mayer. University of California. Davis; James R. Schlesinger. RAND Corporation; Edward S. Shaw. Stanford University; Robert Weintraub. Committee on Banking and Currency. U.S. House of Representatives.

their comments, additions, and emendations. The July meeting was primarily devoted to a review of theoretical and empirical work in progress on the determinants of the demand for and supply of money and its relation to monetary policy and the monetary mechanism. The participants in the March meeting urged that funds that have been provided by the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System be used for an exploratory project having both substantive and methodological interest. This project is concerned with what is probably the least controversial of the links through which monetary policy may affect aggregate demand, namely, investment in plant and equipment. The prevailing view from roughly the mid-1930's to the mid1950's was that this link, though present in principle, was in fact quantitatively quite negligible and swamped by many other factors. This view seemed to find some support in empirical studies, but in recent years has come to be questioned increasingly. A number of econometric studies have uncovered rather impressive evidence that after other influences are controlled effectively, at least in the postwar period, the terms on which capital is available as measured by the conventional yardstick of long-term interest rates have had a conspicuous effect on this component of aggregate demand. These studies have tended, however, to suffer from one difficulty which is being increasingly encountered in many areas of econometric research. This might well be characterized as the embarrassment of too many riches. Until quite recently economics was largely speculative; few systematic attempts were made to formulate hypotheses in testable form and to test them rigorously. The development of interest in econometrics has tended to change this, but is giving rise to a new problem. What often happens is that each investigator sets out with his own hypothesis and obtains evidence for it from a set of data assembled for this purpose from published sources or "field" studies. However, very little attention, if any, is given to comparing one's hypothesis with rival hypotheses. Even when this is done, the latter tend to be little more than straw men set up to be easily knocked down. The project to be sponsored by the committee will attempt to correct this situation by relying on a rather novel approach, which, if successful, may have significant future potential for other research. The project will start by surveying the most promising current hypotheses and will try to replicate the tests supporting these hypotheses on the basis of a uniform set of data and test procedures. At the same time it will try to develop a variety of procedures (e.g., by testing the hypotheses on subaggregates and possibly by using data

37


not only on investment outlays but also on investment plans and the data on new commitments collected by the National Industrial Conference Board). In addition, and this is probably the most novel aspect of the design, an attempt will be made to secure the cooperation of the original investigators in the form of criticisms of the proposed test of their model and suggestions for possible alternatives. If this approach proves feasible and useful, additional financing may be sought by the Council in order to extend the project gradually and test various other mechanisms linking monetary policy with economic activity. Detailed work intended to result in papers to be discussed at a further conference in the fall has been under way during the summer at the Massachusetts Institute

of Technology under the guidance of Edwin Kuh, on behalf of Mr. Duesenberry and the writer. Robert W. Resek of the University of Illinois has been engaged in research on capital expenditures, and Shirley M. Almon of Wellesley College on capital appropriations. The outcome could contribute significantly to our understanding of the modus operandi of monetary factors, increasing the utility and reliability of monetary policy and permitting a more effective utilization of monetary factors in models applicable in forecasting. The close association between the committee's new undertaking and its earlier sponsorship of the econometric model of the United States insures the prompt incorporation in that model of any promising results obtained in the new venture.

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PERSONNEL INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TRAVEL GRANTS

Jack W. Peltason, Professor of Political Science, University of Illinois International Social Science Council, Second Conference on Data Archives in the Social Sciences, Paris, September 28-30, 1964 Samuel P. Huntington, Professor of Government, Harvard University International Social Science Council and Instituto Torcuato di Tella, International Conference on Compara- • tive Social Research on Developing Countries: Intra- • country Discontinuities in the Process of Economic and Social Development in Latin America, Buenos Aires, September 7-16, 1964 Kingsley Davis, Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley Joseph A. Kahl, Professor of Sociology-Anthropology, Washington University Juan J. Linz, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Columbia U niversi ty Seymour M. Lipset, Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley K. H. Silvert, Professor of Government, Dartmouth College International Social Science Council and UNESCO, conference on a network of social science data archives, Cologne, July 15-22, 1964 Philip E. Converse, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Michigan "Project Metropolit" (cooperative study of metropolitan change in the Scandinavian capitals) Conference on Ecological Research, University of Stockholm, July 15-17, 1964 Frank L. Sweetser, Professor of Sociology, Boston University European Society for Rural Sociology, and Rural Sociological Society, First World Congress on Rural Sociology, Dijon, August 16-20, 1964 Thomas R. Ford, Professor of Sociology, Rural Sociology, and Behavioral Science, University of Kentucky

Under the program administered by the Committee on International Conference Travel Grants-George Garvy (chairman), Joseph B. Casagrande, Rowland A. Egger, Louis Morton, Matilda White Riley, Roger W. Russell, and Harry Venneman-additional awards have been made, at meetings of its staff subcommittee, to assist social scientists resident in the United States to attend international meetings outside this country:

Thirty-sixth International Congress of Americanists, Barcelona, August 31 - September 2; Madrid, September 4-5; Seville, September 8-9, 1964 Woodrow Borah, Professor of History, University of California, Berkeley Seventh International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Moscow, August 3-10, 1964 Robert F. Spencer, Professor of Anthropology, University of Minnesota International Conference on Asian History, University of Hong Kong, August 30 - September 5,1964 John F. Cady, Professor of History, Ohio University Robert Van Niel, Associate Professor of History, Russell Sage College International Geographical Union, Twentieth International Geographical Congress, London~July 19-28, 1964 Merle C. Prunty, Jr., Professor of Geography, University of Georgia Anthony S. Reyner, Professor of Geography, Howard University International Political Science Association, Sixth World Congress, Geneva, September 21-25, 1964 Henry J. Abraham, Professor of Political Science, University of Pennsylvania Arnold J. Heidenheimer, Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Florida Charles E. Lindblom, Professor of Economics, Yale University

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FOREIGN AREA FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM

I

In the second year of administration of the Foreign Area Fellowship Program by the Social Science Research Council and American Council of Learned Societies, fellowships have been awarded for study of five major world areas. As of August 15, the following 229 appointments have been accepted for 1964-65 (a few additional appointments are expected): African Studies Program

David B. Abernethy, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research and preparation of a dissertation in Southern Nigeria and the United States on the politics of mass education in Southern Nigeria (renewal). J. Michael Armer, Ph.D. in sociology, University of Wisconsin, postdoctoral fellowship, for research in the United States and Northern Nigeria on the effects of mass education on the traditional values of youth in Northern Nigeria. Lucy C. Behrman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Boston University, for Arabic language training and research on the nature of French conquests and the African reaction.

Elon H. Gilbert, Ph.D. candidate in agricultural economics, Stanford University, for completion of degree course requirements, multidisciplinary area studies, and intensive Swahili language training. Nicholas J. Gubser, B. Litt. candidate in social anthropology, Oxford University, for intensive Italian, Amharic, and Galla language training and multidisciplinary area studies in Europe. John R. Harris, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Northwestern University, for multidisciplinary area studies and research on entrepreneurship as an obstacle to rapid economic development. Svend E. Holsoe, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Boston University, for archival and field research in the United States, England, and Africa on the Vai people of Liberia and Sierra Leone. John M. Janzen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for study in Europe and the Republic of The Congo of the political and religious structure of the BaKongo of Western Equatorial Africa. G. Wesley Johnson, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Senegal, Europe, and the United States on a political history of four communes of Senegal (renewal). Willard R. Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for preparation of a dissertation on the creation of an integrated political community in the Federal Republic of Cameroun (renewal).

Fred J. Berg, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for Swahili language training and additional area training. Mario J. Bick, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for an ethnographic study in England and Tanganyika of the effect of the national government on Fipa institutions.

Charles M. H. Keil, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for Tiv language trainin~ and an ethnomusicological study in England and NIgeria of tribal groupings of the Benue-Congo linguistic subfamily.

Charles S. Bird, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in the United States, Europe, and the Republic of Mali on syntax of the Bambara language.

Raymond K. Kent, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for Malagache language training and research in Paris and the Malagasy Republic on a history of the Malagasy Republic (renewal). Martin A. Klein, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Paris and the United States on an African society (renewal).

Louis Brenner, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of degree requirements, Arabic language training, and multidisciplinary area studies. William A. Brown, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for multidisciplinary area studies, Arabic language training, and research in the United States, Morocco, and the Republic of Mali on the social and intellectual background of the Mali religious revolution of 1818.

Wyatt MacGaffey, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, for research in the Republic of The Congo on the social structure and the evolution of customary law among the BaKongo. Gene A. Maguire, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Tanganyika, England, and the United States on the political history of the Sukuma of Tanganyika (renewal). David C. Mulford, D. Phil. candidate in political science, Oxford University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in England on constitutional change and political parties in Northern Rhodesia, 1957-64 (renewal).

Nicholas G. Carter, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for multidisciplinary area studies and research in the United States and Nigeria on applications of programming techniques in a developing country. John D. Esseks, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in Engfand and Ghana on Ghana's economic development since 1957. Steven M. Feierman, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for multidisciplinary area studies in England.

Joseph S. Nye, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for preparation of a dissertation on Pan Africanism and unification in East Africa (renewal).

Frederick C. Gamst, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for an ethnographic study in Ethiopia of the Kemant Agau peoples (renewal).

Mary E. Read, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Minnesota, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Tanganyika, England,

39


and economic development in a small town in Madhya Pradesh (renewal). Frank P. Baldwin, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for Korean language training and re- • search in the United States and Japan on the Korean • Independence Movement of March 1919. Joseph N. Bell, Ph.D. candidate in comparative literature, Princeton University, for research in Turkey and Egypt on secular love in late classical Arabic literature. Gail L. Bernstein, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Japan and the United States on Kawakami Hajime (1879-1946) and the path to Marxism (renewal). James A. Bill, Ph.D. candidate in politics, Princeton University, for multidisciplinary course work and Persian language training. Angela S. Burger, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for preparatIon of a dissertation on the politics of building an opposition: a study of political parties in Uttar Pradesh (renewal). Philip B. Calkins, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for Persian language training and research in England, India, and Pakistan on the Mughal administration in seventeenth-century Bengal (renewal). James D. Clarkson, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Chicago, for completion of research in Malaysia on the Hakka Chinese farmers (renewal). Edwin A. Cranston, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Stanford University, for research in Japan on the literary genre known as uta-monogatari. Ralph C. Croizier, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for preparation of a dissertation on attitudes toward traditional medicine in modern China (renewal). Craig Dietrich, Ph.D. candidate in economic history, University of Chicago, for course work and Japanese language training. John J. Donohue, S.J., Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research on Buwayhid rule in Iraq, 945-1000 A.D. (renewal). George S. Elison, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for preparation of a dissertation on the intellectual background of the "closed country" policy in seventeenth-century Japan (renewal). Gary L. Fowler, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Syracuse University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Libya and the United States on patterns of land tenure and use in Libya (renewal). Marcus F. Franda, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for preparation of a dissertation on images of political authority among graduates in West Bengal (renewal). Paul Friedland, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for course work relating to East Asia, and research on the military aspects of reforms during the Sung Dynasty. Peter M. Gardner, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, for completion of research and ~ preparation of a dissertation in Paris and the United ,. States on acculturative pressures on the Paliyar tribe (renewal).

and the United States on legal change among the Sukuma in Tanganyika (renewal). John A. Rowe, Ph.D. candidate in comparative tropical history, University of Wisconsin, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Uganda and the United States on a historical study of a Buganda political leader in 1875 (renewal). Arnold G. Rubin, Ph.D. candidate in art history, Indiana University, for research in Europe and Nigeria on Jukun arts and their cultural contexts (renewal). Satish C. Saberwal, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Kenya and the United States on social structure among the Embu (renewal). John S. Saul, Ph.D. candidate in politics, Princeton University, for multidisciplinary area studies and African language training in London. Aaron L. Segal, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research in East Africa on efforts toward closer union and federation in East Africa (renewal). Paul F. Semonin, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Ghana, for research in Algiers, Europe, and West Africa on the influence of the Algerian Revolution on political change in West Africa. Leo Spitzer, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for multidisciplinary area studies (renewal). Jack R. Stauder, Ph.D. candidate in social anthropology, University of Cambridge, for research in Ethiopia on the relation of ecology to the social structure of the Masango of Southwest Ethiopia. Nikolaas J. van der Merwe, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for multidisciplinary area studies and research in the United States and the Republic of South Africa on African archaeology and physical methods for the dating of iron. Sidney R. Waldron, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on social change in an urban area in Ethiopia (renewal). Richard F. Weisfelder, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for Sasuto language training, multidisciplinary area studies, and research in England and Basutoland on the development of political parties and political interest groups in Basutoland. Wolfgang O. Weissleder, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Europe and the United States on certain aspects of traditional Ethiopian society (renewal). Claude Welch, D.Phil. candidate in social studies, Oxford University, for completion of a dissertation in England on recent attempts at political unification in West Africa (renewal).

41

Asia and Near East Studies Program Kamel S. Abu Jaber, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Syracuse University, for preparation of a dissertation on the Arab Baath SocialIst Party (renewal). Edward F. Ambrose, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of Pennsylvania, for completion of research in India on the relationship between values and attitudes 40


J. Mason Gentzler, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in Chinese litera-

Bernard M. Key, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Berkeley, for course work in political science related to the Far East.

ture, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of ~ dissertll;tion in Japa~ and the United States on a hterary bIOgraphy of LlU Tsungyuan (renewal).

Charles F. Keyes, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Thailand and the United States on the integration of a Northeastern Thai peasant community into the national sociocultural system (renewal).

Thomas W. Gething, Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, University of Michigan, for Thai language training, course work relating to Southeast Asia, and research in the United States and Thailand on linguistic change of the Thai language.

Carl Leban, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research in Taiwan on the founding of the Wei Dynasty (renewal).

Mary Lou Green, Ph.D. candidate in literature, Columbia University, for research in the United States and Turkey on fourteenth- and fifteenth-century Ottoman Turkish literature.

Frits Levenbach, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on the role of the Liberal-Democratic Party in the making of Japanese foreign policy (renewal).

Robert L. Hardgrave, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Chicago, for research in India on the social determination of political behavior in Tanjore District.

Henry T. Lewis, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for preparation of a dissertation on social and cultural changes resul ting from migration in northern Luzon (renewal).

George C. Hatch, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for Chinese and Japanese language training and research on the historical progress of philosophy and art in the Sung Dynasty (renewal).

R. William Liddle, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for completion of research in Indonesia on local leadership and political development in the county of Simalungunjcity of Sian tar (renewal).

Boruch K. Helman, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for a program leading to the Ph.D. in government and Middle Eastern Studies. Paul G. Hiebert, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Minnesota, for completion of a socioeconomic study in India of the Amrahbad Plateau (renewal).

Stanley B. Lubman, J.S.D. candidate in comparative law, Columbia University, for intensive Chinese language training and study of Soviet politics and institutions, and Chinese Communist legal systems.

Roy M. Hofheinz, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in Taiwan and Japan on Chinese Communist rural organization policies (renewal).

Byron K. Marshall, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research on the modern Japanese business class (renewal). John T. McAlister, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Yale University, for research and preparation of a dissertation in France and the United States on the Indo-Chinese War.

Philip C. Huang, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for classical Chinese language tutoring and completion of research in Taiwan on the Constitutional Movement in China, 1905-11 (renewal).

William J. McCoy, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in linguistics, Cornell University, for research in Hong Kong on the Szeyap dialects of Cantonese.

Alfred B. Hudson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation on a Ma'anjan Dajak village in Central Borneo, Indonesia (renewal).

Bruce W. McGowan, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for research in Turkey on a transcription of a late sixteenth-century Ottoman tax register.

Ronald B. Inden, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India, Pakistan, and the United States on the history of the Kayastha caste (renewal).

Barbara S. Miller, Ph.D. candidate in philosophy and literature, Columbia University, for South Asian area courses, and Sanskrit language training (renewal).

John C. Jamieson, Ph.D. candidate in oriental languages, University of California, Berkeley, for Korean language training and research in Korea for a mid-twelfth century Korean history.

Peter M. Mitchell, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for intensive Chinese and Japanese language training and research on Chinese and Japanese nineteenth-century history (renewal).

Dale R. Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in literature, University of Michigan, for Chinese language training, course work relating to the Far East, and research in the United States and Taiwan on form in the Arias of Yuan Dynasty drama.

Sidney C. Moore, Jr., Independence, Missouri, ethnomusicologist, for intensive Thai language training, study of field and laboratory methods, and course work in the United States.

Delmos J. Jones, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Cornell University, for a study in Thailand of variation among five villages of the Lahu.

Charles Morrison, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India, England, and the Umted States on litigation in a North Indian peasant community (renewal).

Lawrence D. Kessler, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for conversational Chinese language training and research in the United States and Taiwan on the revolt of the three feudatories of the Early Ch'ing Period, 1673-81.

William F. Morton, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for pre~aration of a dissertation on China policy and politics ill Japan, 1927-29 (renewal).

41


David B. Nissman, Ph.D. candidate in Turkic studies, Columbia University, for intensive colloquial Arabic language training and research in the United States and Egypt on the language and vocabulary of Kipchak manuscrIpts (renewal). William A. Oates, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in the Netherlands and United States on the socioeconomic history of Priangan Residency, West Java, 1870-1920 (renewal). Michel C. Oksenberg, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for intensive advanced Chinese language training and research in the United States and Hong Kong on the Chinese Communist political process in rural areas, 1955-58 (renewal). James B. Palais, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Korea and the United States on the political history of Korea and its opening to trade, 1875-85 (renewal). Ronald Provencher, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for course work relating to Southeast Asia and research in the United States and Malaysia on social interaction among rural Malay migrants to Kuala Lumpur after 1947.

Richard J. Smethurst, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for intensive Japanese language training and research in Japan on the Imperial Army Reserve Association and the Youth Association, 1910-45. Charles D. Smith, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Michigan, for research in Egypt on Muhammad Husayn Haykal of the Liberal Constitutionalist Party. E. Gene Smith, Ph.D. candidate in philology, University of Washington, for Sanskrit language training, course work, and research in the United States and the Netherlands on a recent Tibetan philosophical treatise. Richard H. Solomon, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for Chinese language training and completion of research in Hong Kong and Taiwan on Chinese cultural attitudes toward social authority and political leadership (renewal). William M. Speidel, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research in the United States, Japan, and Taiwan on Liu Ming-ch'uan in Taiwan, 1884-91 (renewal). Donald Y. Sur, Ph.D. candidate in ethnomusicology, University of California, Los Angeles, for Korean and classical Chinese language training and course work in Korea (renewal).

Kenneth B. Pyle, Ph.D. candidate in history, Johns Hopkins University, for preparation of a dissertation on modern Japanese nationalist thought, 1887-97 (renewal).

Glen W. Swanson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for Turkish language training and completion of research in Turkey and England on the Ottoman military institution from the reign of Abdul Hamid II to World War I (renewal).

Robert R. Reed, M.A. candidate in geography, University of California, Berkeley, for Indonesian language training, course work, and completion of a thesis.

Victor R. Swenson, Ph.D. candidate in international studies, Johns Hopkins University, for preparation of a dissertation on the politics and government of the second Ottoman Constitutional Period, 1908-13 (renewal).

Carl A. Riskin, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Berkeley, for Chinese language tutoring, area course work, and preliminary research for the dissertation.

t

Nancy Tanner, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Indonesia and the United States on the Minangkabau (renewal).

Arthur L. Rosenbaum, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for intensive spoken Chinese language training and research in Taiwan on the construction and operation of the Peking-Mukden Railway, 18801911.

Earl D. Thorp, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research in India on the development of the Swatantra political party. David A. Titus, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Japan and the United States on the Imperial Institution In postwar Japan (renewal).

John E. Rothenberger, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for multidisciplinary course work and Arabic language training.

Richard P. Tucker, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for Marathi language training, completion of research, and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on the growth of democratic politics in Maharashtra, 1856-1900 (renewal).

Evelyn T. Sakakida, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in Japan on the economic history of the Ming Dynasty in China. James C. Scott, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for Malay language training and research in the United States and Malaysia on Malayan bureaucracy.

Frederic E. Wakeman, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Taiwan, Japan, England, and the United States on social change in Canton in the early nineteenth century (renewal).

James T. Siegel, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Indonesia and the Umted States on Islamic ideology in relation to political development (renewal).

Walter J. Ward, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on the Jaina community (renewal).

John R. Sisson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in India and the United States on the development of political parties in Rajasthan (renewal).

John R. Watt, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for Chinese and Japanese language training, and research in the United States and Japan on local government in eighteenth-century China.

42

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Constance M. Wilson, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation on Thailand during the reign of Rama IV, 1851-68 (renewal).

II

Made~ine . B. Leons~ Ph.p. candidate in anthropology,

UmversIty of CahfornIa, Los Angeles, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Bolivia and the United States on a community in Bolivia (renewal).

Joel M. Woldman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, . University of Michigan, for preparation of a dissertation on changing patterns of local self-government in the Dehra Dun District, India (renewal).

Frederick D. Levy, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for preparation of a dissertation on decision making by the national government of Venezuela as to allocation of capital resources (renewal).

Murray B. Woldman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Michigan, for preparation of a dissertation on district administration in India: Dehra Dun, a case study (renewal).

Joseph Le Roy Love, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of course requirements and oral examinations and research in the United States and Brazil on the relationship of economic ideologies to Brazilian government policy, 1884-1930 (renewal).

Alexander B. Woodside, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for Vietnamese language training and course work relating to Southeast Asia. David K. Wyatt, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for preparation of a dissertation on the beginnings of modem education in Thailand during the reign of King Chulalongkorn (renewal).

Mary Lowenthal, M.A. candidate in history, and Latin American Institute Certificate candidate, Columbia University, for Portuguese language training and completion of degree requirements.

Latin American Studies Program

Milton D. Lower, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Texas, for research in Chile on its economic development (renewal).

David P. Barkin, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Yale University, for preparation for examinations, and multidisciplinary course work. Warren K. Dean, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Florida, for preparation of a dissertation on a history of the Paulist Entrepreneurship, 1889-1945 (renewal).

James M. Malloy, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Pittsburgh, for attendance at a special summer session, course work, and Spanish language training.

Ralph S. della Cava, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Brazil and the United States on a history of Ceara during the Old Republic (renewal).

Paul I. Mandell, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Columbia University, for research in Brazil on the changing land patterns in Southern Goias. Peter G. Marzahl, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Wisconsin, for preparation for examinations, and research in the United States, Colombia, and Spain on the Cabildo of Popayan, Colombia in the seventeenth century (renewal).

Kenneth P. Erickson, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for Portuguese language training and completion of degree requirements (renewal). Philip N. Evanson, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Virginia, for Portuguese language training and multidisciplinary course work.

William P. McGreevey, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for preparation of a dissertation on the development of the Colombian economy (renewal).

Jane Fearer, graduate student in anthropology, Oxford University, for attendance at a special summer session, Spanish language training, multidisciplinary course work, and research in the United States and Colombia on social and political organizations of the Indians of the Sierra Nevado de Santa Maria. William O. Freithaler, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Michigan, for attendance at a special summer session and for multidisciplinary course work.

R. Herbert Minnich, Ph.D. candidate in sociology and Assistant Director of Latin American Center, University of Florida, for a comparative study in Brazil of two Mennonite communities. William P. Mitchell, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, for multidisciplinary course work, Quechua language training, and research in the United States and Peru on the relation between Indian political organization and acculturation in the Peruvian highlands.

June E. Hahner, Ph.D. candidate in history, Cornell University, for attendance at a special summer session and for research in the United States and Brazil on the role of the Brazilian military, 1889-1910.

David J. Myers, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Los Angeles, for multidisciplinary course work and preparation for examinations.

Bruce H. Herrick, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for preparation of a dissertation on internal migration, unemployment, and economic growth in postwar Chile (renewal). John M. Ingham, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for attendance at a special summer session, Spanish language training, course work, and preparation for examinations. Ludwig Lauerhass, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Los Angeles, for preparation of a dissertation on Brazilian totalitarianism and the political role of Getulio Vargas (renewal).

Michael G. Owen, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for preliminary linguistic research, interdisciplinary course work, and methodological training in linguistics. Riordan Roett, III, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for preparation for examinations, multidisciplinary course work, and research in the United States and Brazil on the political impact of U.S. Foreign Aid on Brazil. 43


Paul M. Cocks, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for preparation for examinations, and research on the role of the Party Control Committee in the Soviet Union and People's Republic of China (renewal). James E. Connor, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the Soviet State Bank as an instrument of central control. Dusko Doder, M.A. candidate in history, and East Central European Institute Certificate candidate, Columbia University, for completion of course work. Charles Frazee, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on the Orthodox Church in Greece, 1821-52 (renewal).

Nan Baker Rosenn, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Yale University, for research in the Dominican Republic on the land tenure system of a small peasant community (renewal). Thomas S. Schorr, Ph.D. candidate in cultural anthropology, Tulane University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Colombia and the United States on the changing cultural ecology of a segment of Colombian agricultural life (renewal). Harold D. Sims, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Florida, for attendance at a special summer session, preparation for examinations, and multidisciplinary course work. Peter H. Smith, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for attendance at a special summer session and research in the United States and Argentina on economic thought in Argentina.

t1

Joseph Fuhrmann, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of course requirements and preparation for examinations (renewal).

Pierre A. D. Stouse, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Wisconsin, for preparation of a dissertation on the resettlement of abandoned banana lands in Costa Rica (renewal).

Zvi Gitelman, lVI.A. candidate in public law and government, and Russian Institute Certificate candidate, Columbia University, for completion of course work.

Judith D. Tendler, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Columbia University, for Portuguese language training and research in Brazil and Argentina on the power programs in those countries (renewal).

Harvey Glasser, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for preparation for examinations and completion of research on Russian Marxist images of the Communist future (renewal).

Agnes E. Toward, Ph.D. candidate in education, University of Texas, for research in Brazil on Brazilian educational ideology.

Peter Golden, M.A. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of course work and Georgian language training.

Ivan A. Vallier, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Columbia University, for attendance at a special summer session, Spanish language training, and multidisciplinary course work.

Franklyn Griffiths, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of course require- • ments and preparation for examinations. •

James A. Whittington, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Tulane University, for attendance at a special summer session, Spanish language training, and research in the United States and Colombia on the family, kinship, and status in the Departamento del Choco.

Richard Hellie, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for completion of course work and preparation of a dissertation on the Ulozhenie (law code) of 1649 as a reflection of {,olitical, social, and economic change since the Sudebnzk (law code) of 1589 (renewal).

James W. Wilkie, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for research and preparation of a dissertation in Mexico and the United States on the Mexican Revolution and the rise of Lazaro Cardenas, 1928-34.

Ralph Hellmold, Ph.D. candidate in government, and Russian Institute Certificate candidate, Columbia University, for completion of course work and Russian language training. Thomas W. Hoya, M.A. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of course work, and Russian language training.

Soviet and East European Studies Program

John Hutchinson, D.Phil. candidate in history, University of London, for preparation for examinations, completion of course requirements, and research in London and Helsinki on the Union of October 17 in the Russian State Duma, 1906-17 (renewal).

Kendall Bailes, M.A. candidate in history, and Russian Institute Certificate candidate, Columbia University, for completion of course work and Polish and German language training.

Frank Ingram, Russian Area Certificate candidate in Slavic language and literature, Indiana University, for Russian language training and completion of course work.

Thomas P. Bernstein, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Hong Kong and the United States on Soviet and Chinese village policies relating to the collectivization of agriculture (renewal). Larry Caldwell, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Harvard University, for Russian area studies.

A. Ross Johnson, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for Serbo-Croatian language training and preliminary research in the United States and Yugoslavia for a dissertation (renewal).

H. William Chalsma, Ph.D. candidate in Russian litera· ture, University of Washington, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Helsinki on Russian Acmeism.

Edward Keenan, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the relations between Muscovy and the Kazan' Khanate, 1437-1552.

44

• ,.


Bernard Oppel, Ph.D. candidate in history, Duke University, for Russian language training and for completion of research on Russo-German foreign relations, 1904-06.

Jerome Kraus, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for completion of course requirements, preparation for examinations, and research for a dissertation. Michael J. Lavelle, S. J., Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, lor Russian language training and completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the Soviet image of the United States economy, 1953-63 (renewal).

Jaroslaw Pelenski, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the concept of empire in Russian political thought in the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries (renewal).

Francis M. Leversedge, M.A. candidate in economic geography, University of Chicago, for Russian language training and completion of course work.

Thomas Pesek, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of a dissertation on Karel Havlicek and the origins of the Czech political life (renewal).

Madeline Levine, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literature, Harvard University, for completion of course requirements, including Old Church Slavonic, German, and Russian language training (renewal).

Philip Pomper, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chicago, for preparation of a dissertation on Petr Lavrovich Lavrov, 1823-1900 (renewal).

Alan Lichtenstein, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the Moscow University "Western group" of professors (renewal).

Suzanne Porter, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of course requirements and preparation for examinations. John Quigley, Jr., M.A. and LL.B. candidate, Harvard University, for completion of Russian area studies.

William Lofgren, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of research in Prague and Vienna on the impact of the Russian Revolution of 1905-07 on Czechoslovakian political thought.

Alexander Rabinowitch, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on the July Days (renewal).

Linda Lubrano, M.A. candidate in government, and East European Institute Certificate candidate, Indiana University, for completion of course work.

e

William Rosenberg, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for Russian language training and completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on the struggle of Russian liberals to establish constitutional government, from 1917 to the emigration of the Cadet Party (renewal).

Ellen Magaziner, M.A. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of course work in Regional Studies on the Soviet Union. George Majeska, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for preparation for examinations, and research on the changing image of Byzantium in tales of medieval Russian travelers to Byzantium (renewal).

Don K. Rowney, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on the Generation of October (renewal). Richard Rudolph, Ph.D. candidate in history, and East European Certificate candidate, University of Wisconsin, for completion of course requirements and preparation for examinations, including Czech and German language training.

Paul Marantz, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of course requirements (renewal). Sally Meiklejohn, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on Poland's Recovered Territories (renewal).

Joseph Schiebel, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Washington, for completion of research in Switzerland on Russian Marxist concepts of precapitalist Russian state and society.

Ellen Mickiewicz, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Yale University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation on Soviet political education in the Communist Party schools (renewal).

Emily Schottenfeld, M.A. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of course work in Soviet Regional Studies.

James C. Mills, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of course requirements and research on Miliutin's influence on Russian domestic and foreign policy, 1861-81 (renewal).

Arnold Schrier, postdoctoral student in history, Indiana University, for participation in the Slavic Workshop and the language study tour of the Soviet Union (renewal).

Roger P. Morris, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in London and the United States on Soviet foreign policy toward India, 1953-61.

Joel Schwartz, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on the Komsomol in the post-Stalin period (renewal). Robert Shadet, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for/reparation of a dissertation on E. B. Pashukanis an the politics of Soviet law, 1924-38 (renewal).

Thomas S. Noonan, Ph.D. candidate in history and archaeology, Indiana University, for completion of research and preparation of a dissertation in Western Europe and the United States on the Dnieper trade route in Kievan Russia.

Marshall Shatz, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of research in Europe on Jan Waclaw MachaJski and the Workers' Conspiracy (renewal).

Katherine O'Connor, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic language and literature, Harvard University, for course work and German language training (renewal). 45


Ihor Stebelsky, Ph.D. candidate in geography, University of Washington, for completion of course requirements, Soviet area studies, and preparation for examinations. Philip Stewart, Ph.D. candidate in government, Indiana University, for preparation of a dissertation on the Oblast Party Commlttee: a study of local politics under Khrushchev (renewal). Gale Stokes, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for Serbo·Croatian language training, completion of course requirements, and preparation for examinations. Robert Stuart, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Wisconsin, for completion of course requirements and research on the structure and planning methods of Soviet state and collective farms, with specific reference to productivity implications. Ronald Suny, M.A. and Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of M.A. course work and preparation for examinations (renewal). John Swanson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of Wisconsin, for Arabic language training and preparation for examinations. William Taubman, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for completion of degree requirements and research on the theory and J?ractice of transition to full Communism in the Soviet Union (renewal). Robert Whittaker, Ph.D. candidate in Slavic literature, Indiana University, for completion of requirements and preparation for examinations (renewal). Michael Widmer, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for completion of research on Soviet government. Betty Jo Winchester, Ph.D. candidate in history, Indiana University, for completion of degree requirements and research on relations between Hungary and Germany, 1937-39.

Western European Studies Program Aubrey Diem, Associate Professor of Geography, University of Waterloo, Ontario, for German language training and research in Canada and Europe on urban development problems of four European cities. Robert P. Grathwol, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Chica&o, for completion of course work, German language traming, and preparation for examinations. Keith Legg, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for modern Greek language training and research in Greece on political recruitment. Charles S. Maier, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in France, Germany, and Italy on conservative politics in those countries, 1918-24. Vojtech Mastny, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, for completion of degree requirements and research on the German "Protectorate" in Bohemia and Moravia, 1939-45. Catherine McArdle, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for French language training and research in the United States and Europe on security policy-making in the German Federal Republic and in France. John P. McKay, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of California, Berkeley, for German language training, interdisciplinary course work, and research on the roles of French, Belgian, and German direct investment and entrepreneurship in Russian industrialization to 1914. Mathilda Messing, M.A. candidate in government, Columbia University, for course work for the Western • European Institute Certificate and toward the Ph.D. • Howard L. Rosenthal, postdoctoral student in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for Italian language training, interdisciplinary course work, and research in Europe on public and elite opinion in Western Europe.

PUBLICATIONS The Acquisition of Language. edited by Ursula Bellugi and Roger Brown. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 29, No.1 (Serial No. 92), June 1964. Sponsored by the Committee on Intellective Processes Research. Lafayette, Indiana: Child Development Publications. 191 pages. $3.50. Attitudes and Social Relations of Foreign Students in the United States, by Claire Selltiz, June R. Christ, Joan Havel, and Stuart W. Cook. Sponsored by the former Committee on Cross-Cultural Education. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, May 1963. 448 pages. $9.00.

Processes Research. Lafayette, Indiana: Child Development Publications. 196 pages. $3.50. Bureaucracy and Political Development, edited by Joseph LaPalombara. Studies in Political Development 2, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Pnnceton: Princeton University Press, August 1963. 501 pages. $8.50. Communications and Political Development, edited by Lucian W. Pye. Studies in Political Development 1, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Pnnceton: Princeton University Press, April 1963. 395 pages.

Basic Cognitive Processes in Children, edited by John C. Wright and Jerome Kagan. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Vol. 28, No.2 (Serial No. 86), 1963. Sponsored by the Committee on Intellective

Concentration in the Manufacturing Industries of the ~ United States: A Midcentury Report, by Ralph L. Nelson. Economic Census Studies 2, sponsored by the Committee

~~

46

.


on Analysis of Economic Census Data. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1963. 302 pages. $7.50.

of Chicago Community and Family Study Center, 1964. 480 pages. $5.50.

Continuity and Change in Latin America, edited by John J. Johnson. Product of the conference held by the Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, January 30 - February 2, 1963. Stanford: Stanford University Press, September 1964. 394 pages. $6.75.

Problems in Measuring Change, edited by Chester W. Harris. Proceedings of a conference sponsored by the former Committee on Personality Development in Youth. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, October 1963. 269 pages. $7.50.

Economic Transition in Africa, edited by Melville J. Herskovits and Mitchell Harwitz. Based on papers prepared for the conference on the economies of Sub-Saharan Africa, November 16-18, 1961, sponsored by the Committee on Economic Growth. Evanston: Northwestern University Press, August 1964.462 pages. $7.95.

Scientists and National Policy Making, edited by Robert Gilpin and Christopher Wright. Product of a conference, October 4-5,1962, Jointly sponsored by the Committee on National Security Policy Research and the Columbia University Council for Atomic Age Studies. New York: Columbia University Press, February 1964. 316 pages. $7.50.

Economic Trends in the Soviet Union, edited by Abram Bergson and Simon Kuznets. Outgrowth of a conference, May 6-8, 1961, sponsored by the Committee on Economic Growth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, February 1963. 406 pages. $9.75.

Studying Politics Abroad: Field Research in the Developing Areas, by Robert E. Ward, with Frank Bonilla, James S. Coleman, Herbert H. Hyman, Lucian W. Pye, and Myron Weiner. Sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, August 1964. 254 pages. $2.50.

The Education of Sociologists in the United States, by Elbridge Sibley. A study financed by the Russell Sa~e Foundation at the suggestion of the American SOCIological Association, for which the author was granted partial leave from the Council. New York: Russell Sage Foundation, December 1963. 218 pages. $3.50.

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, Handbook II: Affective Domain, by David R. Krathwohl, Benjamin S. Bloom, and Bertram B. Masia. Prepared with the aid of the former Committee on Personality Development in Youth. New York: David McKay Company, June 1964. 210 pages. $2.50.

Generalization in the Writing of History, edited by Louis Gottschalk. Report of the former Committee on Historical Analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, January 1963. 268 pages. $5.00.

"Transcultural Studies in Cognition," edited by A. Kimball Romney and Roy G. D'Andrade, American Anthropologist (Special Publication), Vol. 66, No.3, Part 2, June 1964. Report of a conference sponsored by the Committee on Intellective Processes Research. 253 pages. $2.75.

New Perspectives on the House of Representatives, edited by Robert L. Peabody and Nelson W. Polsby. Prepared with the aid of the Committee on Political Behavior. Chicago: Rand McNally & Company, November 1963. 392 pages. Cloth, $6.50; paper, $3.50.

U. S. Census of Population: 1960, Occupation by Earnings and Education, by Herman P. Miller. Bureau of the Census, Subject Reports, Final Report PC(2)-7B. Prepared primarily for use in a mono~aph under the program of the Committee on PopulatIOn Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1963. 318 pages. $2.00.

Political Modernization in Japan and Turkey, edited by Robert E. Ward and Dankwart A. Rustow. Studies in Political Development 3, sponsored by the Committee on Comparative Politics. Pnnceton: Princeton University Press, May 1964.510 pages. $8.75.

U. S. Census of Population: 1960, Type of Place: Demographic, Social, and Economic Data for States, by UrbanRural and Metropolitan-Nonmetropolitan Residence, by Irene B. Taeuber. Bureau of the Census, Selected Area Reports, Final Report PC(3)-IE. Prepared for use in a monograph under the program of the Committee on Population Census Monographs in cooperation with the Bureau of the Census. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, August 1964. 481 pages. $3.75.

The Political Systems of Empires, by S. N. Eisenstadt. Prepared with the aid of the Committee on Comparative Politics. New York: Free Press of Glencoe, June 1963. 543 pages. $15.00. Population Mobility within the United States, by Henry S. Shryock, Jr. Initiated under the program of the former Committee on Census Monographs. Chicago: University

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 230

PARK

AVENUE,

NEW

YORK.

N.

Y.

10017

Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1964:

BERNARD BAlLYN. ABRAM BERGSON, DORWIN CARTWRIGHT. JOSEPH B. CASAGRANDE, THOMAS C. COCHRAN, JAMES S. COLEMAN, HAROLD

C. CONKLIN. KARL A. Fox, WILLIAM J. GOODE. JR., MORRIS H. HANSEN, CHAUNCY D. HARRIS, PENDLETON HERRING, GEORGE H. HILDEBRAND, NATHAN

I

KEYFITZ, THOMAS S. KUHN, STANLEY LEBERGOTT, GARDNER LINDZEY, QUINN McNEMAR, FRANCO MODlGLlANI, LouIS MORTON, J. ROLAND PENNOCK, DON K. PRICE, LEo F. SCHNORE, HERBERT A. SIMON, GUY E. SWANSON, DAVID B. TRUMAN, JOHN W. TUKEY, CHARLES WAGLEY, DONALD YOUNG

Officers and Staff: IsBELL, ROWLAND

PENDLETON HERRING,

President;

PAUL WEBBINK,

Vice-President;

ELBRIDGE SIBLEY,

Executive Associate; BRYCE WOOD,

L. MITCHELL, JR., BEN WIu..EllMAN, Staff Associates; CATHERINE V. RON NAN, Financial Secretary

47

ELEANOR C.


ANNOUNCEMENT An applicant must show that his research will be advanced by such a period of personal consultation and practice, and that his proposed visit has been approved by the host institution and investigator. The grant from the Council will provide an allowance equivalent to round-trip tourist air travel and a per diem allowance of $16 for living expenses while at the host institution for not more than 15 days. Applications, on forms supplied by the Council, may be submitted up to May I, 1965. Decisions will be announced within about 6 weeks after receipt of applications and payments may be made immediately thereafter. Inquiries should be addressed to Social Science Research Council Fellowships and Grants, 230 Park Avenue, New York, N .. y. 10017.

TRAVEL GRANTS FOR INTENSIVE STUDY OF COMPUTER SIMULATION PROGRAMS This new program is offered, under the sponsorship of the Committee on Simulation of Psychological and Social Processes and with funds provided by the International Business Machines Corporation, to assist social scientists whose current research on simulation involves use of a computer model of human behavior, but who cannot obtain adequate instruction in its use at their own institutions. Grants to such persons who have received the Ph.D. degree, or have completed all requirements for it except the dissertation, will provide for spending up to 15 days at a computer installation where an arrangement for intensive study of a simulation program and supervised training in its use has been made with a particular investigator.

COUNCIL FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS OFFERED IN 1964-65: DATES FOR FILING APPLICATIONS AND ANNOUNCEMENTS OF AWARDS • Grants for Asian Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017, December I, 1964; • awards, about 12 weeks thereafter •

Applications for fellowships and grants offered by the Council during the coming year will be due, and awards will be announced, on or before the respective dates listed below. Because full consideration cannot be assured for late applications, and because preliminary correspondence is frequently necessary to determine under which program a given proposal should be submitted, prospective applicants should communicate with the Council if possible at least three weeks in advance of the pertinent closing date. Inquiries and requests for application forms should indicate the candidate's age, place of permanent residence, present position or activity, degrees held and degree currently sought if any, the general nature of the proposed training or research, and the duration and amount of support desired. A brochure describing the several programs is available on request addressed to Social Science Research Council Fellowships and Grants, 230 Park Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10017.

• Grants for Research on Contemporary China, applications, December 15, 1964; awards, February 1, 1965 • Grants for Latin American Studies, applications, December 15, 1964; awards, February I, 1965 • Grants for Near and Middle Eastern Studies, applications, December 15, 1964; awards, February I, 1965 • Grants for Slavic and East European Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017, December 15, 1964; awards, within 10 weeks thereafter Travel Grants for Intensive Study of Computer Simulation Programs, applications, uf to May I, 1965; awards, within 6 weeks after receipt 0 applications

Research Training Fellowships, applications, December I, 1964; awards, March 15, 1965

• Travel grants for international conferences on Slavic and East European Studies, applications to be submitted to American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York, N. Y. 10017

Faculty research fellowships and grants-in-aid, first competition: applications, November 2, 1964; awards, January 4, 1965; second competition: applications, February I, 1965; awards, April I, 1965

• Foreign Area Fellowships, applications to be submitted to Foreign Area Fellowship Program, 444 Madison Avenue, New York, N. Y. 10022, by November I, 1964; awards, Mrica and Latin America, March 15, 1965; Asia and the Near East, Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, and Western Europe, March 30, 1965

Grants for Research on American Governmental and Legal Processes, applications, December I, 1964; awards, February 15, 1965 Grants for Research on International Organization, applications, December I, 1964; awards, February 15, 1965 • Grants for Mrican Studies, applications, December 15, 1964; awards, February I, 1965

• Offered under a joint program of the American Council of Leamed Societies and the Social Science Research Council.

48

• ,..

Items Vol. 18 No. 3 (1964)  
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