Page 1

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL

VOLUME 17 . NUMBER 1 . MARCH 1963 230 PARK AVENUE . NEW YORK 17, N. Y.

~~ECONOMIC

TRENDS IN THE SOVIET UNION": SOME CONCLUDING COMMENTS BASED ON A CONFERENCE SPONSORED BY THE COMMITTEE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH* by Simon Kuznets

THE CONCLUDING chapter in Economic Trends in the Soviet Union, "A Comparative Appraisal" (pages 333372), brings together some measures of the economic growth of the USSR and a number of other countries, based on such data as were readily available, and makes comparisons, specifically, of over-all rates of growth, measures of industrial structure, capital formation proportions, consumption expenditures, and foreign trade proportions. Even in this sketchy review the distinctive quantitative, and the implicit institutional and human, characteristics of the economic growth of the USSR stand out

• The content of this article is reprinted by permission of the publishers from Abram Bergson and Simon Kuznets (eds.), Economic Trends in the Soviet Union, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, copyright, 1968, by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. The volume resulted from the conference on the economics of Soviet industrialization held at Princeton, New Jersey, May 6-8, 1961, by the Committee on Economic Growth, in accordance with plans developed for the committee by the two editors. Mr. Kuznets, Professor of Economics at Harvard University, has served as chairman of that committee since its appointment in 1949. Its other members at the time of the conference and during the past two years have been Richard Hartshorne of the University of Wisconsin, the late Melville J. Herskovits of Northwestern University, Bert F. Hoselitz of the University of Chicago, Wilbert E. Moore of Princeton University, Neil J. Smelser of the University of California, Berkeley, and Joseph J. Spengler of Duke University. For an over-all view of the committee's program see the present author's "Notes on the Study of Economic Growth," Items, June 1959, pp. IlI-17; for a report on an earlier conference on the same subject, sponsored by the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies, see Abram Bergson, "The Conference on Soviet Economic Growth: Conditions and Perspectives," Items, September 1952, pp. 29-88. Economic Trends in the Soviet Union was published in February ($9.75).

clearly. It is a case of high rates of growth, with large inputs of resources and heavy human costs; of rapid shifts in industrial structure, away from agriculture and with emphasis on the industrial sector-both in terms of shares and relative product per worker-that differed in its speed and concentration from other countries; of limiting consumption and maximizing capital investment, achieved in combination with relatively moderate capital-output ratios to permit rapid aggregate growth; and of deliberate isolation from the rest of the world, so that the selective borrowing of production devices and the very limited exposure to the example of high and free consumption levels in other countries could be assured. Finally, the suggested contrast between the 1928-40 period-with its violent internal shifts, tremendous input of resources, low and falliqg, consumption, and low rates of growth per unit of ~put-and the period after 1950-with its apparently rapid rise not only in product, but also in efficiency and in consumption-emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of the post-World War II period, to help us understand this apparently new phase in the economic growth of the USSR and what it portends. Rather than discuss the statistical comparisons further, I prefer to raise some major questions relating to the very basis of such comparisons. In particular application to a comparison of the economic growth of a country like the USSR with that of others, two broad groups of questions arise: (i) Are our statistical measures, as usually defined and approximated, applicable to the USSR? (ii) Assuming that we can make (or dis1


in the process of economic growth. But it was apparently much greater relatively in the USSR. Finally, what about the cost of repression of freedom, the losses in human creativeness and welfare, that result from the ~ forceful replacement of the judgment of the members . . of the community by the judgment of the dictatorial "planners"? The losses that resulted from the dead hand of control, from the conversion of literature, theatre, painting, and all the arts into production-propaganda devices, from the ruthless breaking of family and other group loyalties in service to the state, and from persistent isolation of the community from the rest of the world have been far-reaching indeed-as anyone comparing these fields of human life in the USSR and other countries (including pre-Communist Russia) can see. In addition to these costs omitted from our economic calculation, there are returns that have escaped account; and these were probably enjoyed in the USSR to a far greater degree than in other countries. The removal of inequalities based on inherited wealth and private monopolies, with the distortions in the consumption and the whole pattern of life that such inequalities introduce, must be considered a major positive contribution. The greater possibility of employment in productive work, and of a rise in the economic and social scale commensurate with ability, in the service of what appeared to be a social ideal, was another positive aspect that we do not include directly in our measures. Re-II moval of much economicJ if not political, uncertainty was another positive element in the economic growth of the USSR not fully matched in other countries. Some of the costs and returns just noted could be estimated by dint of statistical ingenuity: the reduction in services of housewives and other family members, the economic value of human capital consumed at rates above the minimum feasible, and even the positive returns involved in removal of undesirable income and wealth inequalities and restraints on economic opportunities. But even for some of these the economic price tag may seem rather irrelevant. For some others, such as restraint of freedom, the curbing of creative arts, and the like, no economic calculus is appropriate. And one may ask whether this whole range of questions is relevant to the study of economic growth-bearing as they do upon aspects of life that are far beyond and transcend merely economic processes and values. Of course, one can define economic growth in terms of the measures that we in fact employ; and if this is done, these questions are ruled out of account. But since the study of a defined process pursues some rational goal, one may ask what that goal is, if the study of economic growth, as gauged by standard methods, may be so overshadowed by ignored important costs and returns

regard) the necessary adjustment suggested by a positive answer to the first question, which "other" countries should be selected for a meaningful comparison? APPLICABILITY OF STATISTICAL MEASURES In considering the applicability of our statistical measures, particularly the aggregative, to the study of the economic growth of the USSR, I have in mind problems other than those with which the scholars in the field have struggled so hard and with some success: the omission of items that should be included, such as certain types of services; the prices that have to be adjusted to reflect more reasonably the production relations; and the very scarcity, discontinuity, and errors in many of the primary data, resulting partly from internal inefficiency, partly from built-in biases, and partly from official efforts at a statistical blackout. These problems are serious enough, and without the patient and persistent efforts of a group of Western scholars, little in the way of useful measures would have been available. I have assumed here that these problems have been solved with reasonable success, and have accepted the adjusted estimates for the USSR as broadly comparable, in reflecting the underlying concepts, with the measures for other countries. My concern here is rather with questions relating to the institutional peculiarities of the USSR experience. There were clearly costs and returns in the economic growth that occurred in the USSR to which counterparts are either absent or of much smaller relative magnitude in the experience of other countries. Thus, there was a substantial loss of human life in the 1930's, occasioned by the violence of collectivization and experiences in labor camps that greatly reduced the life expectancy of their inmates-all in order to force the kind of economic growth that occurred. In our accounts the consumption of material capital is included as a cost but the extra consumption of human capital that may be induced by means aimed directly at economic goals is excluded (except in the minor form of accident insurance). This cost, while present in some periods in other countries, was probably much greater relatively in the USSR. Another omission is suggested by the high rate of absorption of females into the labor force of the USSR. What effect did this absorption have on the provision (unpaid) of services within the private household? Did it, combined with the shortage of residential housing, reduce such services materially? We do not include unpaid services of housewives and other family members within the household in national product-for reasons that can easily be defended; and there probably has been a reduction of such services in other countries

t

2


as to dwindle into insignificance. I assume that the measurement and analysis of economic growth along what might be called traditional lines is justified in the belief • that noneconomic costs and returns are not so large and II' different as to spell misery and failure despite relative success with respect to traditionally measured economic growth. Indeed, an implication of such consonance between economic and other values is woven into the very fabric of economic definitions and measurements, geared as they are to the framework of a libertarian, nonslave society. It is therefore better to raise some of these questions relating to noneconomic costs and returns, rather than dismiss them implicitly as noneconomic. Whether these missing, and economically unmeasurable, aspects of the economic growth of the USSR are really so large as to overshadow the economically measurable results, is a judgment that must be faced. And such a judgment would benefit from a more intensive study of the institutional and organizational arrangements within the USSR and other countries-a subject with which I am not familiar. But I believe that our interest in the measurement of economic growth proper, even with various adjustments to accepted economic concepts, is conditioned by the general premise that the noneconomic costs and returns, in the USSR and in the other countries, are not so dominant over the economic ones as to make the analysis meaningless-either in the sense that these economic measures will provide no explanation of the economic past and no insight into the economic future; or in the sense that economic success, as measured, is irrelevant or makes only an insignificant contribution to the total positive performance in terms of the whole complex of goals of the societies that are being compared. The preceding paragraphs were written with a national product concept in mind that has marked welfare implications, if only in the sense that consumption outlay is considered a final product (and that sense affects also the production potential, since final product determines what is net product). In the case of the USSR, we could perhaps abandon that concept entirely, and shift to the notion of increase in national power as the only substance of final product. The measures would then be radically recast, since only the increase in certain types of material and human capital would be included -and industrial structure, distribution by type of capital and by type of consumption, et cetera, would be quite different. I am not sure that we know enough about national power to classify capital formation, government consumption, and personal consumption by their contribution to it; but I am sure that such an allocation, for the USSR and other countries, would yield measures that would differ materially from those we have.

I

MEANINGFUL COMPARISONS WITH OTHER COUNTRIES Even if we assume broad comparability with other countries, we still must choose those countries and periods that delimit segments of growth experience with which the economic growth of the USSR from 1928 to 1958 can be meaningfully compared. The comparison is meaningful if in ordering the data, it answers a question that is of interest to us; and the interest may arise out of a variety of sources. If, for example, the interest stems from an assumption of latent conflict between the USSR and the United States, the economic growth of the two will be compared in terms and criteria, as well as choice of periods, that bear most directly upon that interest (with perhaps a shift toward a concept of national power along the lines suggested above). If we are interested in comparing the economic growth of the United States and the USSR as typical (or most favorable) examples of free and forced growth, respectively, our choice of aspects and periods will be different. Or we may want to compare the economic growth of the USSR and .lapan, because they are the two latecomers among the major countries that have entered upon the phase of industrialization and modern economic growth. Finally, we may be quite catholic in our approach, and assume that all countries entering modern economic growth-early or late, large or small, libertarian or authoritarian--display some significant common characteristics of growth; and that deviations from them, within limits, are reflections of the historical and locational peculiarities of individual countries. In this case we would compare the economic growth of the USSR with that of every other country in which modern economic growth has occurred. Thus, in general, comparisons could be guided by two types of purpose. The first may be defined as political, in that the interest stems from the possible impacts of differences in rate and structure of economic growth on the relations and balances among nations in a changing world setting. The tendency would then be to compare the economic growth of the USSR with that of other major countries on the world scene (not with small nations unless these could somehow be envisaged as acting as a unit); and to emphasize aspects and periods that bear most directly upon changes in international relations and balance of power. The second may be defined as analytical, in that the interest in the comparison lies in testing some hypotheses concerning common and divergent characteristics of economic growth and of the factors behind them; and the content of these hypotheses would decide the choice of countries, aspects, and periods for comparison.


and make comparisons, in full awareness of their limitations but in the justified trust that in the process (even if it is not directed to sharply defined questions) we will add much to our understanding if only because of our relative ignorance. Yet we cannot disregard the distinction between the two bases of comparison suggested above, and perhaps others that could be formulated, for they obviously would give rise to choices and conclusions that, relating as they would to different questions, would be in different realms of discourse.

In practice, general considerations of the kind just suggested may be qualified by difficulties in the supply of data and in understanding, particularly since the guiding concepts of international relations and national power are subject to alternative definitions, and since we do not have many tested hypotheses concerning characteristics of modern economic growth (particularly with respect to the sequence of phases and to the long-term changes in the quantitative coefficients). It may, therefore, be legitimate to prepare multipurpose measures

ROCKEFELLER FOUNDATION CONTINUES SUPPORT OF COUNCIL FELLOWSHIPS AND GRANTS-IN-AID THROUGH CAPITAL GRANT THE Rockefeller Foundation, which together with the former Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial and the General Education Board has contributed continuously since 1925 to support of the Council's fellowship and grant programs, has recently given $1,500,000 to the Council to be expended for the same purposes during the coming decade. Principal and income from this grant will be applied to support of research training fellowships, faculty research fellowships, and grants-in-aid, all of which are offered without restriction as to discipline or subject of interest within the broadly defined area of the social sciences. This gift has been gratefully accepted as tangible evidence of recognition by the officers and trustees of the Foundation of the continuing need to give talented

individuals the best possible training and opportunities for independent research along lines of their own interest. Until after the Second World War, the Rockefeller Foundation and its two affiliates were the only source of the Council's funds for unrestricted fellowships and grants. The combined contributions of the three organizations to these programs have aggregated about $6,500,000, of which nearly $6,000,000 has come from the Rockefeller Foundation itself. In recent years addi- • tional funds have been received from other founda- . . tions. Amortized over a period of ten years, the new grant should provide annually a somewhat larger sum than that contributed by the Foundation through previous grants for the same programs.

COMMITTEE BRIEFS CONTEMPORARY CHINA: SUBCOMMITTEE ON RESEARCH ON CHINESE SOCIETY

ment in Taiwan: The Role of Government," both by Bernard Gallin, Michigan State University; "The Leadership Doctrine of the Chinese Communist Party: The Lesson of the People's Commune," John Wilson Lewis, Cornell University; "Some Problems of the Chinese Family in Treacherous River, Province Wellesley, Federation of Malaya," William H. Newell, International Christian University, Tokyo; "The Chinese Population and Chinese Society," Irene B. Taeuber; "Japanese Studies of Chinese Guilds," Ezra F. Vogel and Tamako Yagai, Harvard University; "Structure and Environment: The Fishermen of¡ South China," Barbara E. Ward, Birkbeck College, University of London; "Some Thoughts on the Study of Chinese Urban Communities," C. K. Yang, University of Pit ~urgh. Other participants, in addition to members of the subcommittee and staff, were: Myron Cohen, Columbia University; Marion J. Levy, Jr., Princeton University; ltobert M. Marsh, Cornell University; Donald E. Willmott, University of Toronto; and Arthur P. Wolf, Cornell University.

Morton H. Fried (chairman), John C. Pelzel, G. William Skinner, Irene B. Taeuber; staff, Bryce Wood. The fifth seminar in the series sponsored by the subcommittee, and the second on research on micro-organization in Chinese society, was held at the Castle Harbour Hotel, Bermuda, on January 19-20. Whereas the preceding seminar had considered the family and other small-scale social groups with reference to general aspects of cohesion and tension, the January meeting was concerned largely with case studies of small-scale social organization, as suggested by the titles of the papers presented: "Economic Determinants of Social Organization in a Taiwan Fishing Village," Norma Diamond, Cornell University; "Some Problems of Rural People's Communes of China," Gargi Dutt, Harvard University; "Land Reform in Taiwan-Its Effect on Rural Social Organization and Leadership," and "Rural Develop4

II


EXCHANGES WITH THE SOVIET ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (Advisory Committee Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Henry L. Roberts (chairman), Frederick Burkhardt, Robert F. Byrnes, Gregory Grossman, Pendleton Herring, Philip E. Mosely, Marshall D. Shulman, Ernest J. Simmons. Under the 1962-63 exchange program for scholars in the humanities and social sciences, arranged by agreement between the American Council of Learned Societies and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the following scholars have been selected to carry on research in the Soviet Union: Klaus Berger, Professor of Art History, University of Kansas, for study of French paintings and drawings in Soviet museums; Robert F. Byrnes, Professor of History, Indiana University, for study of the historical works of V. o. Kliuchevsky; Robert W. Campbell, Associate Professor of EconomicS, Indiana University, for research on methods of determining the economic effectiveness of capital investments and the introduction of new techniques in industry; Michael Cherniavsky, Associate Professor of History, University of Chicago, for research on the social and political beliefs of the Russian Old Believers in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; Lewis S. Feuer, Professor of Philosophy and Social Science, University of California, Berkeley, for research on historical materialism and the sociology of ideas; Chauncy D. Harris, Professor of Geography, University of Chicago, for research on industrialization of the USSR and urban development under conditions of planned national economy; Leon Lipson, Professor of Law, Yale University, for study of the use of extrajudicial tribunals in Soviet law enforcement today; Boris Schwarz, Professor of Music, Queens College, for study of Soviet Russian contributions to musical research. An announcement concerning this program appears on page 12 infra. LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (Joint with American Council of Learned Societies) Robert N. Burr (chairman), Fred P. Ellison, Joseph Grunwald, Joseph A. Kahl, Robert E. Scott, Stanley J. Stein, Charles Wagley; staff, Bryce Wood.

A conference on continuity and change in Latin America was held by the committee at Scottsdale, Arizona, January 30 - February 2, in accordance with plans developed for the committee by John J. Johnson of Stanford University, who is editing the papers for publication by the Stanford University Press. The conference brought together social scientists and scholars in the humanities from Latin America and the United States, representing a wide range of research interests. The interplay between tradition and innovation seemed to the committee to deserve especial attention at the present time, when new developments in the Latin American countries are being emphasized. Selected participants prepared papers, for advance circulation, in which the broad theme of continuity and change was approached through studies of different social groups in Latin America: "The Villagers," Mr. Wagley; "Rural Labor," Richard N. Adams, University of Texas; "The Landholding Elements," Harry W. Hutchinson, University of Florida; "The Business Community," W. Paul Strassmann, Michigan State University; "The Writers," Mr. Ellison; "The Artists," Gilbert Chase, Tulane University; "The Military," Lyle N. McAlister, University of Florida; "The Bureaucrats," Mr. Scott; "The Students," Kalman A. Silvert, Dartmouth College; "Urban Labor," Frank Bonilla, American Universities Field Staff; "Comparisons of Latin America with Other Areas," Ronald P. Dore, London School of Economics and Political Science. Other participants, in addition to members of the committee and staff, included L. A. Costa Pinto, University of Brazil; Henry F. Dobyns, Cornell University; John E. Englekirk, University of California, Los Angeles; Orlando Fals Borda, National University of Colombia; Peter Gregory, University of Chile; H. Field Haviland, Jr., Brookings Institution; Pendleton Herring; Albert O. Hirschman, Columbia University; John B. Howard, John S. Nagel, and James F. Tierney, Ford Foundation; John J. Johnson, Carl B. Spaeth, and John Wirth, Stanford University; Manfred Max-Neef, Pan American Union; Robert G. Mead, University of Connecticut; Frederic A. Mosher, Carnegie Corporation of New York; Manning Nash, University of Chicago; Juan Orrego-Salas, Indiana University; Robert A. Potash, University of Massachusetts; and Schuyler C. Wallace, Foreign Area Fellowship Program.

PERSONNEL DIRECTORS OF THE COUNCIL The following persons have been designated by the seven national social science organizatiQns associated with the Council to serve as directors of the Council for the threeyear term 1963-65: Joseph B. Casagrande, University of Illinois, by the American Anthropological Association FrancQ Modigliani, Massachusetts -Institute of Technolo-gy, by the American Economic Association Louis Morton, Dartmouth Col]ege, by the American Historical Association - 5

David B. Truman, Columbia University, by the American Political Science Association Gardner Lindzey, University of Minnesota, by the American Psychological Association William J. Goode, Jr., Columbia University, by the American Sociological Association Stanley Lebergott, Wesleyan University, by the American Statistical Association. Another new member of the Council's board of directors is Karl A. Fox of Iowa State University, designated by the American Economic Association to succeed Gardner Ackley (t:esigned) for the balance of the term 1962-64.


Leighton W. Hazlehurst, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1962-63, for research and completion of a dissertation on family organization and urbanization in a northern • city in India. • Paul ~ockings, ~h.D: candidate i~ anthropology, UniversIty of CalIfornIa, Berkeley, for completion of a dissertation on social roles in the contemporary cultural adaptation of the Badaga of southern India. William E. Hoehn, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in economics, Northwestern University, for research in the Netherlands on econometric methods. Elizabeth Hopkins, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Columbia University, and Social Science Research ~ouncil research training fellow 1961-62, for research m Uganda and completion of a dissertation on the development of a modem African legal system. Harol.d B: Johnson,. Jr., Ph.D. candidate in history, UmversIty of ChIcago, postdoctoral fellowship for anth;opological training and for research in Spain on medIeval and contemporary peasant society in Galicia. Mark. Kes~elman, Ph.D. candidate in political science, UmversIty of Chicago, for research in France and completion of a dissertation on local politics and the role of the mayor in France. Micha~l Joseph Lavelle, S..J., Ph.D. candidate in economICS, Boston College, for research on the Soviet image of the United States economy, 1953-63. Murray .J. Lea~, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, UniversIty of ChIcago, for research in India on Sikh social organization and behavior. Gene Andrew .Mag!-lire, Ph.D. can~idate in government, • Harvard UmversIty, for research m Tanganyika on the W political history of the Sukuma, 1947-63. Marvin D. Markowitz, Ph.D. candidate in international relations .and government, Columbia University, for research m Congo on the political role of Christian missions in that country, 1908-60. John S. Matthiasson, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology Cornell University, for research on Baffin Island o~ Eskimo adjustment to Canadian law. R. Marvin McInnis, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Pennsylvania, for research in Canada and the United States on differences in per capita income among the Canadian provinces. Kevin. L. ¥cKeough, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Umve~sIt~ of Kansas, for rese~rc~ o~ suburban voting behaVIOr m Cook County, IllmOIs, m the 1960 Presidential election. Constantine Menges, Ph.D. candidate in international relations, Columbia University, for research on limitation of violence in World War II. James R. Millar, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Cornell University, for research on income and prices in the collective farm sector of the Soviet economy. Zane .L. Miller, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of ChIcago, for research on "Boss" Cox and the municipal reformers: Cincinnati Progressivism, 1884-1914. Edward .I. Mitchell, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Pennsylvania, for research in England on econometric theory and technique. • Jon R. Moris, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, North- • western University, for research in England and Kenya on the cultural ecology of the Rift Valley highlands.

RESEARCH TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Social Science Personnel-George H. Hildebrand (chairman), Harry Alpert, Charles E. Gilbert, Irving L. Janis, David M. Schneider, and Paul Webbinkat its meeting on March 11-12 voted a total of 54 awards, 6 postdoctoral and 48 predoctoral research training fellowships, of which 7 made provision for completion of doctoral dissertations. The complete list follows: John P. Bell, Ph.D. candidate in history, Tulane University, for research in Costa Rica on the revolution of 1948. L. Kent Bendall, Instructor in Philosophy, Wellesley College, postdoctoral fellowship for study of generative transformational theories of linguistic description. Lowell C. Bennion, Ph.D. candidate in geography, Syracuse University, for research in Germany on the causes and effects of emigration from southwest Germany, 1740-86. Robert Max Berdahl, Ph.D. candidate in history, University of Minnesota, for research in Germany on the Prussian Conservative party, 1866-76. Stephen D. Berger, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard University, for research in Germany on reintegration of German society after World War II. Thomas H. Charlton, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, Tulane University, for research in Mexico on the archaeological and ethnographical settlement patterns in the valley of Teotihuacan. F. T. Cloak, Jr., Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Wisconsin, for research in Trinidad on the diffusion and adoption of culture traits. Robert M. Cook, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Princeton University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1962-63, for research and completion of a dissertation on planned social change. Joseph M. Firestone, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Michigan State University, for research on the meaning and measurement of political integration. James Friguglietti, Ph.D. candidate in history, Harvard University, for research in France on social and religious implications of the adoption of the French Revolutionary calendar, 1793-1802. Andrew H. Gantt II, Ph.D. candidate in economics, Harvard University, for research on interrelations between fiscal policy and unemployment. James L. Gibbs, Jr., Assistant Professor of Anthropology, University of Minnesota, postdoctoral fellowshiy for training in psychometric and clinical methods 0 personality assessment. John Randall Gillis, Ph.D. candidate in history, Stanford University, for research in Germany on the conflict of conservative elite factions in Prussia after 1848. James Leroy Govan, Ph.D. candidate in government, Columbia University, for research on the role of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff as adviser to the President, 1942-62. Thomas H. Greene, Ph.D. candidate in government, Cornell University, for research in France on the French Communist party, 1953-63. Thomas G. Harding, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Michigan, for research in Australia and New Guinea on cultural adaptation and interrelations in Melanesia. 6


I

I

Janet Rothenberg Pack, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of California, Berkeley, for research on economic implications of disarmament. Richard M. D. Piazza, Ph.D. candidate in history, Northwestern University, for research in Germany on General Erich Ludendorff's rationale for totalitarian military dictatorship, 1904-37. Gerald M. Platt, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, University of California, Los Angeles, postdoctoral fellowship for training at Harvard University on theoretical analysis of ethnic and race relations. Albert Lewis Rhodes, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Southern Methodist University, postdoctoral fellowship for study at the University of Michigan of change in rural-urban differentiation in the United States. Sue Denman Roark, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Peru on a peasant market system. Howard Rosenthal, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in France on continuity and change in its social system. Dorothy Ross, Ph.D. candidate in history, Columbia University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1962-63, for completion of a doctoral dissertation on the life and intellectual influence of G. Stanley Hall. Kenneth I. Rothman, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Harvard University, for research in London and Sierra Leone on higher education in a culturally heterogeneous West African setting. Lawrence F. Schiff, Ph.D. candidate in social psychology, Harvard University, for research on the social and political behavior and beliefs of members of a conservative student organization. Robert Shapiro, Ph.D. candidate in economics, University of Pennsylvania, for research on relations between the financial system and national income. Martin Gary Silverman, Ph.D. candidate in anthropology, University of Chicago, for research in the Fiji Islands on the development of local organization in the resettled Banaban-Gilbertese community. Roberta G. Simmons, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Columbia University, for experimental study of the resolution of role conflict by first-line supervisors. Eleanor Singer, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Columbia University, for research on the influence of birth order on social mobility. John Richard Sisson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research in India on the development of the party system in the state of Rajasthan. Larry K. Smith, Ph.D. candidate in history, Yale University, for research on Will H. Hays and the Republican Party, 1914-21: a case study of a national chairmanship. John D. Sprague, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Stanford University, postdoctoral fellowship for training in theory formalization and the construction and use of models. Victoria Steinitz, Ph.D. candidate in social psychology, Harvard University, for research on imbalanced attitudes. Esther Wey, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Loyola University, Chicago, for research on social and cultural

determinants of choice of dissertation projects in sociology. Marvin Zonis, Ph.D. candidate in political science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in Iran on impediments to political consensus. Harriet Anne Zuckerman, Ph.D. candidate in sociology, Columbia University, and Social Science Research Council research training fellow 1962-63, for research and completion of a dissertation on patterns of collaboration in scientific work. FACULTY RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Faculty Research Fellowships-John Useem (chairman), Lawrence E. Fouraker, John D. Lewis, Gardner Lindzey, Charles Sellers, and Fritz Stern-held the second of its two meetings scheduled for 1962-63 on March 18. It voted to award 16 fellowships, as follows: Joseph Adelson, Associate Professor of Psychology, University of Michigan, for research on the development of political thinking during adolescence. Morris A. Copeland, Professor of Economics, Cornell University, for research on the institutional organization of the American economy. W. Frederick Cottrell, Professor of Government and of Sociology and Anthropology, Miami University, for research on the unified rules movement and the railroads (renewal of grant-in-aid awarded in 1961-62). Robert Dubin, Research Professor of Sociology, University of Oregon, for research in Europe, Israel, and the United States on microcultural differences in behavior. James Eayrs, Associate Professor of Political Economy, University of Toronto, for research in Canada on the making of Canadian national security policy, 1945-62. Walter M. Kollmorgen, Professor of Geography, University of Kansas, for research on economic and other aspects of the grazing of transient cattle in the bluestem pasture area of Kansas and Oklahoma. Cornelius Krahn, Professor of Church History, Bethel College, for research in the United States on the Radical Reformation in the Low Countries. William Letwin, Associate Professor of Industrial History, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research in England on the effects of English colonial policy on American economic development, 16201776. Joseph Lopreato, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of Massachusetts, for research in Italy on social stratification and mobility. Floyd G. Lounsbury, Professor of Anthropology, Yale University, for a linguistic and sociological study of systems of kinship. Robert A. Nisbet, Professor of Sociology, University of California, Riverside, for research on the develo{'ment of the idea of community in European thought In the nineteenth century. Norman J. Padelford, Professor of Political Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for research on potential levels of cost and support of the United Nations. Earl Pomeroy, Professor of History, University of Oregon, for research on the structure of political nonpartisanship in the Pacific Coast states since 1910.

7


David Donald, Professor of History, Johns Hopkins University, for research in England on Senator Charles Sumner during the Civil War and Reconstruction. Louis G. Geiger, Professor of History, Colorado College, for research on the history of higher education in the • Rocky Mountain states. ,. Paul Goodman, Instructor in History, Brooklyn College, for research on the origins and evolution of the Democratic-Republican party of the South, 1780-1815. Herbert G. Gutman, Assistant Professor of History and Social Science, Fairleigh Dickinson University, for research on the social and economic structure of selected industrial towns and cities in the United States, 1870-90. Sydney V. James, Assistant Professor of History, University of Oregon, for research on changing institutional patterns in colonial Rhode Island. David Kettler, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Ohio State University, for research in Europe on an intellectual biography of Karl Mannheim. Richard D. Lambert, Professor of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania, for research in India on patterns of interaction between subordinate government officials and the public, and on recruitment and occupational mobility among factory workers in Poona. Abba P. Lerner, Professor of Economics, Michigan State University, for research in England on recent developments in capital theory. Charles E. Lindblom, Professor of Economics, Yale University, for research in France and Norway on the making of complex decisions. Glendon Schubert, Professor of Political Science, Michigan State University, for research on attitudes and values of members of the U.S. Supreme Court as re- • flected in their decisions, 1946-62. W Matthew Simon, Assistant Professor of Economics, Queens College, for research on investment and trade patterns of European creditor nations, 1865-1914. Fritz Stern, Associate Professor of History, Columbia University, for research in Europe and the United States on the history of the Bleichroder Bank, 1860-90.

Robert O. Schulze, Associate Professor of Sociology, Brown University, for research on the historical relationship between economic power and public leadership in an urban community. R. B. Stevens, Associate Professor of Law, Yale University, for research in England on the House of Lords as a judicial body since 1875, in comparison with the U.S. Supreme Court (renewal). Helen Shirley Thomas, Social Studies Consultant, Baltimore County Board of Education, for research on the judicial philosophy of Justice William O. Douglas and his contributions to American public law. POLITICAL THEORY AND LEGAL PHILOSOPHY FELLOWSHIPS The Committee on Political Theory and Legal Philosophy Fellowships-J. Roland Pennock (chairman), David Easton, Jerome Hall, John H. Hallowell, Robert G. McCloskey, and Sheldon S. Wolin-on March 9 awarded 5 fellowships: Margot L. Drekmeier, Instructor in History, Stanford University, for research on the implications of Freudian theory for democratic political thought. Gerald Friedberg, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research on the career and thought of John Spargo. Isaac Kramnick, Ph.D. candidate in government, Harvard University, for research in England on the life and political thought of Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke. William Leon McBride, Ph.D. candidate in philosophy, Yale University, for research on the concept of fundamental change in legal systems. Kirk S. Thompson, Ph.D. candidate in political science, University of California, Berkeley, for research on the treatment of political action in modern constitutional theory. GRANTS-IN-AID

GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON AMERICAN GOVERNMENTAL AND LEGAL PROCESSES

The Committee on Grants-in-Aid-Paul J. Bohannan (chairman), Alfred D. Chandler, Holland Hunter, William H. Riker, Guy E. Swanson, and Gordon Wright-held the second of its two meetings scheduled for 1962-63 on March 25-26. It voted to award 17 grants-in-aid, as follows:

The Committee on Political Behavior-David B. Truman (chairman), William M. Bean~y, Angus Campbell, Oliver Garceau, V. O. Key, Jr., Avery Leiserson, and Edward H. Levi-at its meeting on February 21 awarded 7 grants for research on American governmental and legal processes:

Dean Albertson, Assistant Professor of History, Brooklyn College, for research on the Presidency of Warren G. Harding. Raymond F. Birn, Instructor in History, University of Oregon, for research in France on the influence of certain periodical journals, 1740-89. Robert H. Bremner, Professor of History, Ohio State University, for research on the impact of the Civil War on social work and philanthropy. Robert E. Burns, Assistant Professor of History, University of Notre Dame, for research in England and Ireland on Anglo-Irish politics in the age of the American Revolution. Morris Davis, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Tulane University, for research on Greek models of the political system.

Milton C. Cummings, Jr., Research Associate, Brookings Institution, for completion of a study of elections to the U.S. House of Representatives, 1920-62. John H. Fenton, Professor of Government, University of Massachusetts, for completion of a study of politics in six midwestern states (renewal of grant made in 1960). Duane Lockard, Associate Professor of Politics, Princeton University, for a comparative analysis of the passage and application of antidiscrimination legislation in selected cities and states. Theodore Lowi, Assistant Professor of Government, Cornell University, for research on the relationships between national policies and political structures. 8


Roy Sieber, Leonard Thompson-on January 15 made the following 8 grants for research relating to Africa south of the Sahara:

Nelson W. Polsby, Assistant Professor of Government, Wesleyan University, for research on the politics of the U.S. House of Representatives. James W. Prothro, Professor of Political Science, University of North Carolina, for research on political participation of Negroes in the South. Raymond E. Wolfinger, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Stanford University, for research on Presidential leadership.

David W. Ames, Associate Professor of Anthropology, San Francisco State College, for research in Nigeria on the social position and role of the musician among the Ibo and Hausa peoples. Holger L. Engberg, Assistant Professor of Finance, New York University, for research in East Mrica and England on the East African Currency Board and the establishment of a central bank for East Africa. Creighton Gabel, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, Northwestern University, for completion in the United States of analysis of materials from the Lochinvar Mound, a Later Stone Age site in Northern Rhodesia. Ravi L. Kapil, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, for research in the Republic of Somalia on political integration in the Somalilands. Jane M. Murphy, Research Associate, Departments of Anthropology and Psychiatry, Cornell University, for research in Nigeria on the changing role of women in that country. George E. Simpson, Professor of Sociology and Anthropology, Oberlin College, for research in Nigeria on religious cults in Ibadan. Preston Valien, Visiting Professor of Sociology, Brooklyn College, for research in the United States on changing attitudes toward marriage and the family in Nigeria. Aristide R. Zolberg, Assistant Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, for research in Mrica on the politics of economic development in Senegal, Mali, and Niger.

SENIOR AWARDS FOR RESEARCH ON GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS The Committee on Political Behavior, now in charge of administration of the program of senior awards for research on governmental affairs, on February 21 made 2 appointments: Walter Dean Burnham, Instructor of Political Science, Kenyon College, for studies of election statistics in the United States. Marian D. Irish, Professor of Government, Florida State University, for research on the conduct of American foreign policy, 1953-63. GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY The Committee on National Security Policy Research -William T. R. Fox (chairman), Morris Janowitz, Klaus Knorr, G. A. Lincoln, John W. Masland, Robert E. Osgood, Arthur Smithies, Robert C. Wood-on February 11 made the following 6 grants for research in its field: John McV. Haight, Jr., Assistant Professor of History, Lehigh University, for research in Europe and the United States on American aid to the European democracies at war, 1938-41. Paul Y. Hammond, Research Associate, Washington Center of Foreign Policy Research, for research on the role of military capabilities and operations in American foreign policy since World War II. Gabriel Kolko, Visiting Assistant Lecturer in Economic History, University of Melbourne, for research on the business community and the formation of national security policies since 1946. Robert E. Kuenne, Associate Professor of Economics, Princeton University, for research on an economic model of deployment applicable in other fields. Richard A. Preston, Professor of History, Royal Military College of Canada, for travel to England and other countries for research on the evolution of the military structure of the Commonwealth. Robert H. Puckett, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Mary Washington College, for research on American national space policy: an analysis of civilianmilitary interests in space.

GRANTS FOR ASIAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Asian Studies, of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council-John A. Pope (chairman), William T. de Bary, Paul S. Dull, Richard D. Lambert, Horace I. Poleman, and Rodger Swearingen-at its meeting on February 2-3 made the following 20 grants for research during 1963-64: Michael M. Ames, Assistant Professor of Sociology, McMaster University, for research in Ceylon on religion, social structure, and social change. Hans H. Baerwald, Lecturer in Political Science, University of California, Los Angeles, for an institutional analysis in Japan of the Diet in Japanese politics. Cyril Birch, Associate Professor of Modern Chinese Language and Literature, University of California, Berkeley, for research in the Far East on the poetry of Hsii Chih-mo (1895-1931) and of his successors. Kwang-chih Chang, Instructor in Anthropology, Yale University, for research on the prehistoric and early historic archaeology of China, especially on the social basis for the Shang and Chou mythology and art. Ainslie T. Embree, Assistant Professor of Indian History, Columbia University, for research in India on the determinants of the foreign policy of India in the nineteenth century. William .1. Gedney, Professor of English and of Southeast Asian Languages, University of Michigan, for research on comparative Thai linguistics.

GRANTS FOR AFRICAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on African Studies, of the American Council of Learned Societies and the Social Science Research Council-Alan P. Merriam (chairman), L. Gray Cowan, William O. Jones, Horace M. Miner, Karl J. Pelzer, 9


James C. Harle, Assistant Keeper, Eastern Art, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford University, for a study in India of the early structural Temples in Dharwar. Walter Hauser, Assistant Professor of History, University of Virginia, for research in India on the Kisan Sabhas (Peasant Associations) in recent history and politics. Leon Hollerman, Associate Professor of Statistics, Claremont Men's College, for research in Japan on the role of foreign trade in its economy since World War II. Chu-tsing Li, Associate Professor of Art, State University of Iowa, for a study in the Far East of Chao Meng-fu (1254-1322) and the art of the Early Yuan Dynasty. Tien-yi Li, Professor of Chinese Literature and Culture, Yale University, for research in the Far East and Europe on Chinese fiction. William P. MaIm, Assistant Professor of Music and Literature, University of Michigan, for research in Japan on the music of the Japanese Puppet Theatre. Richard B. Mather, Associate Professor of Chinese, University of Minnesota, for an annotated translation in Japan of the fifth-century Chinese collection of anecdotes, Shih-shuo hsin-yu. Karl H. Menges, Professor of Altaic Philology, Columbia University, for research in the Soviet Union and Iran on the Turks of Central Asia during the Chaghatai period. Aloys A. Michel, Assistant Professor of Geography, Yale University, for research in West Pakistan and northern India on the regional effects of partition and the Indus waters division. Lawrence Olson, Japan Representative, American Universities Field Staff, Inc., for research in Southeast Asia on Japan's economic, cultural, and political relations with Asia since 1952. John M. Rosenfield, Research Fellow in Oriental Art, Harvard University, for research in Japan on the history of Japanese art, especially of the Kamakura period (renewal). Harold Schiffrin, Instructor in Asian Studies, Hebrew University, for research and preparation in the Far East and Israel of a political biography of Sun Vat-sen. David R. Sturtevant, Associate Professor of History, Muskingum College, for research on agrarian unrest in the Philippines, 1890-1955. Thomas R. Williams, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Sacramento State College, for an ethnological survey in British North Borneo and Indonesian Borneo of the North Borneo and Kalimantan native peoples. GRANTS FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES The Joint Committee on Latin American Studies, sponsored with the American Council of Learned SocietiesRobert N. Burr (chairman), Fred P. Ellison, Joseph Grunwald, Joseph A. Kahl, Robert E. Scott, Stanley J. Stein, and Charles Wagley-at its meeting on January 31 made the following 16 grants for research:

Louis E. Bumgartner, Associate Professor of History, University of Denver, for research in Spain on the coming of independence in Central America. Ben G. Burnett, Associate Professor of Political Science, Whittier College, for research in Chile on the role of • interest groups in the Chilean political system. W Aaron V. Cicourel, Assistant Professor of Sociology, University of California, Riverside, for research in Argentina on ideology, trade unionism, and family structure. Calvin Hall, Director, Institute of Dream Research, for a comparative study in Latin America of the contents of dreams by persons living in diverse circumstances. Benjamin Keen, Professor of History, Jersey City State College, for research in Mexico on the Aztec image in Western thought from Cortez to the present. Solomon Lipp, Professor of Romance Languages, Boston University, for research in Argentina on men and movements in twentieth-century Argentine philosophy. Armin K. Ludwig, Instructor in Geography, Colgate University, for research in Brazil on the effects of governmental planning on the flows of goods and people to and from the new Federal District. L. V. Padgett, Associate Professor of Political Science, San Diego State College, for research in Mexico on patterns of recruitment of Mexican legislators, 1946-61. Phyllis .J. Peterson, Instructor in Government, Indiana University, Southeastern Campus, Jeffersonville, for research in Brazil on its political party system. Fredrick B. Pike, Associate Professor of History, University of Notre Dame, for research in Peru on its political, social, and intellectual history since 1880. Rollie E. Poppino, Assistant Professor of History, University of California, Davis, for research in Brazil on • its social and economic history. W Alfred J. Tapson, Instructor in History, City College of San Francisco, for research in the United States on the development and influence of the frontier in Argentina. S. Samuel Trifilo, Associate Professor of Spanish, Marquette University, for research on Brazil, Chile, and Peru as seen by nineteenth-century British travelers. Richard S. Weckstein, Associate Professor of Economics, Brandeis University, for comparative study in Mexico of three types of land reform. GRANTS FOR RESEARCH ON THE NEAR AND MIDDLE EAST The Joint Committee on the Near and Middle East, sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies -John A. Wilson (chairman), Morroe Berger, George Lenczowski, Albert J. Meyer, Herbert H . Paper, William D. Schorger, and G. E. von Grunebaum-met on January 28-29. It has made the following 10 grants for research: Nicholas Heer, Visiting Lecturer in Arabic, Yale University, for research on the concept of existence in Islamic religious and philosophical thought. Abraham Hirsch, Associate Professor of Economics, Brooklyn College, and Eva Hirsch, Assistant Professor of Economics, Long Island University, joint award for research on changes in Turkish farm income and its purchasing power, 1927-60. • John B. Kelly, Visiting Lecturer in History, University • of Michigan, for research in England on the rise of the Saudi Sultanate of Najd, c. 1880-1922.

Norman A. Bailey, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Queens College, for research in Colombia on the Centro de Estudio y Accidn Sociales. Dwight S. Brothers, Associate Professor of Economics, Rice University, for research in Mexico on Mexican financial development. 10


Union and the Netherlands on interaction between the intelligentsia and the Russian industrial working class,

Benjamin Rivlin, Professor of Political Science, Brooklyn College, for research in France and North Africa on Maghreb unity: problems and prospects for regional cooperation and integration in North Africa west of Egypt. Helen Anne B. Rivlin, Associate Professor of History, University of Maryland, for research in Egypt on Egypt and the West, 1798-1882 (renewal). Hisham B. Sharabi, Associate Professor of Middle East History and Government, Georgetown University, for research in Syria and Iraq on the Arab intellectuals of the Ottoman Empire, c. 1875-1925. Louise E. Sweet, Associate Professor of Anthropology, Indiana State College, Pennsylvania, for ethnographic research in London and Bahrain on the present status of traditional economic patterns in Bahrain. Frank Tachau, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Rutgers-The State University, for research in Turkey on Turkish political parties at the provincial level: a case study of political parties in a transitional environment. John L. Teall, Associate Professor of History, Mount Holyoke College, for research on the practice of agriculture in the Byzantine Empire. Walter F. Weiker, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Rutgers-The State University, Newark, for research in Turkey on processes of integration of the rural population into Turkish national life.

•

1900-1917.

Eugene A. Hammel, Professor of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, for research in Yugoslavia on unilateral ritual kinship. Peter H. Juviler, Assistant Professor of Political Science, Hunter College, for research in the United States on family and state in the Soviet Union. Jerzy F. Karcz, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of California, Santa Barbara, for research in the United States on the economics of Soviet agricultural marketing. Rado L. Lencek, Assistant Professor of Russian, University of Illinois, for research in Yugoslavia on contemporary colloquial standard Slovene. Raymond P. Powell, Associate Professor of Economics, Yale University, for research in the United States on monetary theory and monetary planning in the Soviet Union. Albert .J. Schmidt, Associate Professor of History, Coe College, for research in the United States on Russian architecture and ci ty planning. Leon Smolinski, Associate Professor of Economics, Boston College, for research in the United States on the scale and performance of Soviet industrial establishment. Edward C. Thaden, Associate Professor of History, Pennsylvania State University, for research in the United States on conservative nationalism in Russia in the nineteenth century. Valdis .1. Zeps, Assistant Professor of Slavic Languages, University of Wisconsin, for research in the United States on a synchronic description of the morphophonemics of the Latgalian (East Latvian) verbal system.

GRANTS FOR SLAVIC AND EAST EUROPEAN STUDIES The Subcommittee on Slavic and East European Grants (of the Joint Committee on Slavic Studies sponsored with the American Council of Learned Societies)-Donald W. Treadgold (chairman), Deming Brown, John C. Campbell, Norman Kaplan, and George Y. Shevelov-at a meeting on February 9 made the following 17 grants for research:

INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE TRAVEL GRANTS Under the program administered by the Committee on International Conference Travel Grants, 12 additional awards have been made by its staff subcommittee, to assist social scientists resident in the United States to attend the following international congresses and other meetings outside this country:

John A. Armstrong, Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, for research in Europe on West European perceptions of the Soviet elite. Oswald P. Backus, Professor of History, University of Kansas, for research in the Soviet Union on a history of Poland and Lithuania, 1385-1795, and on the role of the West Russians in the development of Muscovite state and law, 1481-1649. George Barany, Assistant Professor of History, University of Denver, for research in Vienna on a political biography of Count Stephen Szechenyi. Frederick C. Barghoorn, Professor of Political Science, Yale University, for research in the United States on the Soviet political system. Samuel H. Baron, Associate Professor of History, Grinnell College, for research in Europe on the westernization of Russia. John S. Curtiss, Professor of History, Duke University, for research in Europe on Russia's Crimean War. Elaine R. Hagstrom, Research Fellow in Linguistics, Indiana University, for research in Finland and the Soviet Union for a descriptive grammar of Samoyed, particularly Nenets. Leopold Haimson, Associate Professor of Russian History, University of Chicago, for research in the Soviet

Eighth Intel--American Congress on Psychology, Mar del Plata, Al-gentina, April 2-6, 1963 Dorothy H. Eichorn, Associate Research Psychologist, Institute of Human Development, University of California, Berkeley Harry F. Harlow, Professor of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Eugene Jacobson, Professor of Psychology, Michigan State University Eleanor E. Maccoby, Associate Professor of Psychology, Stanford University Boyd R. McCandless, Professor of Psychology, Indiana University UNESCO and the International Sociological Association, International ConfeTence on Compamtive Political Sociology, TampeTe, Finland, August 26-31, 1963 Juan .1. Linz, Assistant Professor of Sociology, Columbia University Seymour M. Lipset, Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley 11


Sixth International Congress on Collective Economy. Rome. April 8-10. 1963 John Perry Miller, Professor of Economics and Dean of the Graduate School, Yale University International Geographical Union Commission on Methods • of Economic Regionalization. Second General Meeting• • Lancut. Poland. September 9-13. 1963 Edward L. Ullman, Professor of Geography, University of Washington Third Congress on Peruvian History. Peru. August. 1963 John V. Murra, Visiting Professor of Anthropology, Yale University

Conference on Comprehensive Planning of Agriculture in Developing Countries to be held by the International Conference on Science in the Advancement of New States, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth, Israel, August 18-28,1963 Bruce F. Johnston, Professor of Economics, Food Research Institute, Stanford University Conference on Documentation on Russia and Eastern Europe, sponsored by the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes, Paris, March 22-23, 1963 Witold S. Sworakowski, Assistant Director, Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace

ANNOUNCEMENT ACLS EXCHANGE PROGRAM WITH THE ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE USSR

This program is exclusively for the conduct of research, and United States scholars who participate in it will be under the sponsorship of Institutes of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. The ACLS has no arrangements for exchanges with universities. Mter candidates are accepted by the ACLS for participation in the program their research topics and plans will be subject to approval by the Academy. Travel costs and the expenses of board and room while in the Soviet Union will be paid for United States scholars taking part in the program, and they will receive an allowance for the purchase of materials needed for their research projects. Research grants, up to an amount equivalent to salary, will be awarded to participants who are on unpaid leave of absence. No provision can be made for the expenses of dependents who accompany them. Past experience indicates that the Soviet Union will issue visas to the dependents of exchange scholars who wish to accompany them but that the only housing available will be hotel rooms and that it may not be possible to arrange for children to attend Soviet schools. Requests for application forms should be addressed to Miss Marie.T. Medina, American Council of Learned Societies, 345 East 46 Street, New York 17, N. Y.

During the past two years a modest program of exchanges agreed to by the American Council of Learned Societies and the Academy of Sciences of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics has provided opportunities for scholars in the humanities and social sciences to carry on research in the opposite country. It is expected that a new program to cover exchanges during the calendar years 1964 and 1965 will be negotiated during the coming summer or fall. May 15. 1963 has been set as a deadline for receipt of applications for participation in the program at any time during the two-year period. and selections will be made within a few weeks thereafter. Depending upon the number of exchanges provided for in the agreement, it may be possible to consider additional applications at a later date, but all scholars who can make plans at this time are urged to request application forms at once and to submit them by May 15. The preceding agreement provided for the exchange of from 12 to 15 scholars during a two-year period, for visits of from three to ten months each. Some increase in numbers will be sought in the negotiations for renewal; the duration of visits is expected to remain the same.

tI

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH COUNCIL 230

PARK

AVENUE,

NEW

YORK

17,

N.

Y.

Incorporated in the State of Illinois, December 27, 1924, for the purpose of advancing research in the social sciences Directors, 1963:

ABRAM BERGSON, PAUL J. BOHANNAN, DORWIN CARTWRIGHT, JOSEPH B . CASAGRANDE, JOHN A. CLAUSEN, THOIIIAS C. COCHRAN,

JAMES S. COLEMAN, KARL A. Fox, WILLIAM

J.

GOODE, JR., LoUIS GOTTSCHALK, CHAUNCY D . HARRIS, H. FIELD HAVILAND, JR., PENDLETON HERIuNG,

GEORGE H. HILDEBRAND, WAYNE H. HOLTZMAN, NATHAN KEYFITZ, STANLEY LEBERGOIT, GARDNER LINDZEY, PHILIP

J.

McCARTHY, FRANCO MODICLIANI,

LoUIS MORTON, J. ROLAND PENNOCK, HERBERT A. SIMON, GUY E. SWANSON, DAVID B. TRUMAN, JOHN W. TUKEY, CHARLES WAGLEY, S. S. WILKS,

MALCOLM M. WILLEY, DONALD YOUNG

OfJicers and Staff:

PENDLETON HERRING,

President;

Vire-President; ELBRIDGE SIBLEY, Executive Associate; StaD Associates; CATHERINE V. RONNAN, Financial Secretary

PAUL WEBBlNK,

IsBELL, FRANCIS H. PALMER, ROWLAND L. MITCHELL, JR.,

12

BRYCE WOOD, ELEANOR C.

Items Vol. 17 No. 1 (1963)  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you