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Teachers’ toolkit

Positive Coaching Scotland Transforming Scottish youth sport so sport can transform Scotland’s youth


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THROUGH SPORT, YOUNG PEOPLE CAN LEARN VALUABLE LIFE LESSONS. That is why sportscotland – the national agency for sport – is leading the national implementation of the Positive Coaching Scotland (PCS) programme. This is a cultural change programme designed to create a positive environment for young people in sport. PCS focuses on using sport to help and support children’s learning and the development of their life skills. Delivered in partnership with Winning Scotland Foundation, along with our local and national partners, the Positive Coaching Scotland programme will: • Empower teachers, parents, coaches and club leaders to help create a more positive sporting environment for young people • Support young people, along with their teachers, coaches, parents and club leaders, to win through increasing their effort, respect and responsibility • Use workshops and tailored support materials to encourage this change in approach and so inspire young people to reach their maximum potential • Improve the quality of coaching through systematic training and development • Help educate young people to compete effectively; win through concerted effort; learn from losing and cooperate positively, while at the same time encourage them to develop new skills. Winning in life and in sport is achieved through effort! This toolkit is designed for teachers who: • Deliver Physical Education (PE) or Physical Activity and Sport (PAS) • Organise extra-curricular sport activities, or • Organise sports clubs and teams The toolkit makes direct links to Health and Wellbeing Experiences and Outcomes and is a valuable resource in delivering Curriculum for Excellence.

Louise Martin, CBE Chair of sportscotland

Positive Coaching Scotland

Welcome to Positive Coaching Scotland

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About PCS PCS: Sport and young people in Scotland • Sporting provision for young people • Key influencers in young peoples’ lives

PCS: A new coaching philosophy • Double Goal Coach • Your role • PCS: The three key principles • Using this toolkit • PCS: Key learning outcomes


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sportscotland sees a nation where sport is a way of life. PCS supports this aim by ensuring that all children and young people have access to a positive sporting environment. PCS offers a new approach – a practical alternative to the ‘win at all costs’ mentality and a timely response to the challenges facing youth sport. It provides tools, activities and a framework for a positive sporting experience for young people and coaches alike.

Sporting provision for young people

PCS can help to create a positive experience in sport for a young person and through physical education, physical activity and sport it can teach children and young people character-building life lessons. Participation in sport and physical activity promotes the development of physical competencies; supports and encourages improved fitness; and fosters the development of personal and interpersonal skills. Good health and positive wellbeing is central to effective learning and preparation for successful independent living. The PCS programme promotes the health of all within the school community and builds a framework to support mental, social, emotional and physical wellbeing.

Positive Coaching Scotland

PCS: Sport and young people in Scotland


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By involving the whole community – teachers, parents, coaches and club leaders – PCS is encouraging a cultural shift in sport in Scotland, inspiring young people to always do their best. PCS sets a new standard for all the key influencers in a young person’s life. Teachers Teachers have the opportunity to prepare children for the future by fostering positive, life-long attitudes towards physical education, physical activity and sport. PCS contributes to the aims of Curriculum for Excellence, providing a practical context for Health and Wellbeing Experiences and Outcomes. Parents Parents can use the principles of PCS to influence the way their child thinks and feels about physical education, physical activity and sport which can help them to stay involved longer. PCS highlights the potential that sport has for building self-confidence through learning from mistakes and teaching children valuable life lessons. Coaches PCS can change the way coaches think about winning. It encourages coaches to reject a ‘win at all costs’ mentality and focus instead on encouraging young people to try harder, learn more and stay in sport longer. Club leaders PCS helps club leaders to create a positive sporting culture within their club or organisation which in turn helps retain members and volunteers.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Key influencers in young people’s lives

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By embracing the PCS approach to coaching, you will be the type of coach whom your pupils remember for the rest of their lives, for all the right reasons.

Double Goal Coach

The Double Goal Coach ethos has two main aims. 1. Winning • Learning to compete effectively • Wanting to win, not at all costs, but through concerted effort 2. Teaching young people vital, character-building life skills through sport that will equip them for the future • Leadership • Resilience • Teamwork • Decision making • Problem solving • Persistence • Compassion These skills are aligned to the core skills of Curriculum for Excellence: communication, numeracy, problem solving, information technology and working with others.

Your role • Ensure that young people have fun. • Inspire young people to be the best they can be in both sport and in life. • Recognise that a positive sporting experience can help develop self-confidence and self-esteem. • Equip yourself with the most effective methods and practices in your delivery of PE and PAS. Remember, as a teacher, you are someone who can influence how young people experience physical activity and sport.

Positive Coaching Scotland

PCS: A new coaching philosophy


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1. Honour our sport (ROOTS): Inspiring and motivating children and young people to respect rules, opponents, officials, team mates and self. 2. Redefine ‘winner’ (ELM): Helping children and young people focus on giving their best effort every time, developing learning skills and recovering and learning from mistakes. 3. Fill the emotional tank (E-TANK): Ensuring we encourage, teach, appreciate, provide non-verbal support and know how to praise children and young people Positive Coaching Scotland provides teachers with practical tools and activities to achieve Health and Wellbeing Experiences and Outcomes through Physical Education (PE), Physical Activity and Sport (PAS). While Positive Coaching Scotland has a particular focus on Heath and Wellbeing there are many opportunities for development across the breadth of the curriculum. The three PCS principles of honour our sport, redefine ‘winner’ and fill the emotional tank can help you ensure that children and young people develop the knowledge, understanding, skills, capabilities and attributes necessary for them to be good citizens. For teachers, PCS offers a fun approach to Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport. PCS is designed to help children and young people develop and apply skills for life, work and learning. Positive Coaching Scotland can improve the self-belief, confidence, resilience and motivation of children and young people – leading to improved learning.

Positive Coaching Scotland

PCS: The three key principles


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This toolkit is designed for teachers involved in: • Delivering Physical Education (PE) or Physical Activity and Sport (PAS) • Organising extra-curricular sport activities, or • Organising sports clubs or teams This toolkit provides you with tools and activities to enable you to get the most out of Physical Activity and Sport for your pupils. These tools are essential to the delivery of the PCS philosophy and as a teacher and coach can help you create, maintain and promote a positive sporting culture within your school. They can be used in your classroom and during out-of-school-hours sessions. With direct links to Health and Wellbeing Experiences and Outcomes it is a valuable resource that supports the delivery of Curriculum for Excellence. The PCS teachers’ toolkit has three main sections: 1. PCS principles 2. Worksheets 3. Appendices In the following pages the key PCS principles are presented in detail. The theory behind each principle is explained and you are provided with tools that support behaviours associated with each principle as well as an activity that demonstrates the principle in a school setting. Additionally, direct connections to Health and Wellbeing Experiences and Outcomes are provided for each principle. The appendices offer a range of templates that support the tools and activities in the toolkit. Like most toolkits you are not expected to use every tool and activity. With an understanding of the key PCS principles you will find the tools and activities that best suit the needs of the pupils you work with.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Using this toolkit


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The cornerstone of the Positive Coaching Scotland strategy is the Double Goal Coach ethos, supported and driven by the three key principles. It is critical that the key influencers in a young person’s life – teachers, parents, coaches and club leaders – adopt the values and ethos of Double Goal Coach to ensure that children and young people gain life skills which they will be able to use both in sport and in life. On completion of this workshop, and with the support of this toolkit, you will understand the following concepts and principles. • Understand the background and context of PCS so that you can: – Discuss the benefits of Positive Coaching Scotland – Know the ethos of a Double Goal Coach • Understand key principle 1: Honour our sport (ROOTS) so that you can: – Explain the meaning of ROOTS – Identify positive and negative practical examples of ROOTS – Discuss tools which can be used to implement ROOTS • Understand key principle 2: Redefine ‘winner’ (ELM) so that you can: – Describe ‘winning’ in a PCS context – Identify the difference between scoreboard and mastery coaching – Discuss methods by which you can implement mastery coaching • Understand key principle 3: Fill the emotional tank (E-TANK) so that you can: – Explain the concept of the emotional tank – Identify ways in which to fill and drain a young person’s emotional tank – Describe tools which can be used to fill each participant’s emotional tank

Positive Coaching Scotland

PCS: Key learning outcomes


Three key principles 1. Honour our sport

3. Fill the emotional tank

Honour our sport: Coaching tools

Fill the emotional tank: Coaching tools

• Teaching and discussing ROOTS • Culture keeper • Practise through practice • Parents’ meetings • Developing self control routines • Nipping problems in the bud • Teachable moments

• Fun activities • Magic ratio • Giving constructive criticism • Behaviour management • Buddy system • Positive charting

Honour our sport: Activity

2. Redefine ‘winner’ Redefine ‘winner’: Coaching tools • Rewarding effort • Dealing with mistakes • Effort goals

Redefine ‘winner’: Activity

Fill the emotional tank: Activities

Conclusion Next steps


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In today’s society, we face a number of increasingly challenging social issues that often overflow into youth sport such as: • Coaches focused on winning at all costs • Pushy parents/guardians • Disrespect for officials • Violence on the touchline Youth sport should not be confused with professional or elite sport. The focus of youth sport should be on participation and enjoyment, a positive mental attitude and passion – values shared with professional and elite sport but without the ‘win at all costs’ mentality often associated with the elite end of sport. It is important to recognise that youth sport should not be about winning at all costs, but should be about the development of young people. Youth sport coaches and those delivering physical education and activity to children and young people need to behave in a different manner from those involved in professional sport. When delivering activity sessions you should try to create a culture where honouring the sport is at the heart of what you do. In other words this culture should simply be ‘the way we do things here’. You are one of the most influential people in a young person’s life. Through sport and physical activity, and with the Double Goal Coach ethos, you have a tremendous opportunity to instil and reinforce positive values and to be a positive guide on a young person’s journey through life. As a teacher, it is crucial that you show young people how to honour our sport – that is why ROOTS is such a critical factor in adopting the Double Goal Coach ethos as it enables young people to develop life skills both in sport and in life. Use Worksheet 1 to record positive and negative examples which you have experienced in your teaching. You can carry out a similar exercise with the children and young people you teach in order to raise their awareness of ROOTS.

Positive Coaching Scotland

1. Honour our sport


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• Teaching and discussing ROOTS • Culture keeper • Practise through practice • Parents’ meetings • Developing self control routines • Nipping problems in the bud • Teachable moments These useful coaching tools are described in more detail below.

Teaching and discussing ROOTS

Ensure the young people you work with are aware of ROOTS and what it stands for. By explaining the ROOTS messages and ensuring young people understand them, you will be able to reinforce them regularly. This will encourage them to give their best, stick to the rules and also have fun. More importantly, you can be proud of them and they can be proud of themselves. Always remember you are one of the key influencers in a young person’s life and you have a fantastic opportunity to teach them important lessons which will set the standard for the rest of their lives – in and beyond sport.

Culture keeper

A culture keeper can help to shape the culture of a team. Having this person reinforce the honour our sport message is an excellent way of preventing many of the negative issues which can occur in youth sport. Teachers, parents, coaches, club leaders and even other young people can be culture keepers. The nominated person(s) should be able to relate well to others and be outgoing and engaging. Their main role is to: • Be familiar with the three key principles of PCS (particularly ROOTS) • Get to know the parents and other people involved with the club/organisation • Be a role model and take the lead – demonstrate to others how to honour our sport • Enlist the help of others to ensure everyone continues to abide by the ethos of PCS.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Honour our sport: Coaching tools


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Just as you develop drills for improving skills, if you want children and young people to honour our sport, you should take situations when they arise to help teach pupils how to react appropriately and understand other people’s roles. Why not let pupils officiate, take times or record observations?

Parents’ meetings

Every club or team should hold a pre-season parents’ meeting – or even better, a parents’ workshop – to address the three key principles which underpin the Double Goal Coach ethos. A parents’ meeting can be extremely useful – principally because parents are more likely to be ‘on side’ when they understand what the club or organisation is about. The draft agenda and notes provided in this toolkit will help you to organise and run parents’ meetings – but remember, these are suggestions and ideas only, and are not meant to be memorised or read word for word. Use your own enthusiasm and a positive and friendly delivery to bring parents on board.

Developing self control routines

When you feel that a decision has gone against your pupil or team, and you feel angry or frustrated, it is important that you remain positive and continue to honour our sport. You must remember the important position you hold as a role model for your pupils. You should have a mechanism which you can use to help control your temper – and you should share it with your pupils or team to help them develop self control techniques too. Some examples of self control routines include: • Squeezing a stress ball • Walking away • Taking deep breaths • Counting to ten

Nipping problems in the bud

Even with all the tools provided in this toolkit, you may still face situations where pupils or parents (e.g. at extracurricular events) do not honour our sport. These situations should be addressed immediately and not allowed to escalate. You may find it uncomfortable to intervene and challenge inappropriate behaviour. However, without intervention this behaviour will only get worse.

Teachable moments

During sessions and when playing sport there will be many instances when you can teach the principle of honour our sport. These situations might be positive or negative – such as someone losing graciously or a pupil taunting an opponent. There are also many examples that can be drawn from the world of sport and provide a context to discuss things with your pupils. By using a picture or video as a prompt, and asking targeted questions, you can encourage pupils to discuss a particular situation.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Practise through practice


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In 2001 Tour De France cyclist Lance Armstrong stopped in a race to wait for an opponent who had crashed before restarting the competition. In an interview Armstrong stated that he performed better when pushed by a great opponent. He went on to win that individual race and eventually the whole competition. Some questions to ask your pupils are given below. • What do you think of Lance Armstrong’s action? • Why do you think he would risk winning the race in this way? • Was this an example of honour our sport? • Would it have been wrong if Armstrong had not waited for his opponent to get back up? • Do you think he might have gone further than was necessary to show respect for his opponent? • Do you think you would have done what Lance Armstrong did? • Would you help an opponent even if it meant that you risked losing? This activity can be developed further by discussing a negative example perhaps of someone cheating. When the pupils understand the concept of honour our sport they can be set the goal of researching their own example. Working in teams the pupils present their stories and host a discussion with the class. Further progression can lead to teams creating and performing their own teachable moments for the class. Skills focus: Literacy, ICT, investigative and interpersonal skills, leadership, decision making, organisational and team working, research, presentation skills and taking responsibility. Links to Experiences and Outcomes: I am learning skills and strategies which will support me in challenging times, particularly in relation to change and loss. HWB 0-07a / HWB 1-07a / HWB 2-07a / HWB 3-07a / HWB 4-07a Honour our sport is about inspiring and motivating young people to respect rules, opponents, officials, team mates and self.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Honour our sport: Activity


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To help young people become successful in life, teachers need to recognise that constantly focusing on winning the game or match is about short-term achievement and may hinder long-term development. PCS shifts the emphasis from a scoreboard culture (winning at all costs) to a mastery culture (winning through effort). A focus on mastery tends to decrease anxiety and increase self-confidence. When children experience less anxiety, they tend to have more fun taking part in sport and stick at it longer. Self-confidence

Anxiety

MASTERY CULTURE

SCOREBOARD CULTURE

• Effort

• Results driven

• Learning

• Comparison with others

• Mistakes happen

• Mistakes unacceptable

Anxiety ATHLETE IS IN CONTROL

Self-confidence ATHLETE IS NOT IN CONTROL

Professor Joan Duda of Birmingham University conducted a study during the 2000 Olympics in Sydney, using athletes coached in a mastery environment versus those coached in a scoreboard environment. She discovered a statistically significant difference in performance: Athletes coached to focus on mastery won significantly more Olympic medals than their counterparts whose focus was on winning medals.

Positive Coaching Scotland

2. Redefine ‘winner’


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Win verb, won, win•ning Manage to succeed or achieve something by effort: – a determination to win through against all odds.

A winner in life is someone who: • Gives their best at all times • Continues to learn and improve • Does not let mistakes, or fear of making mistakes, stop them from trying new things

Coaches who encourage effort, irrespective of outcome, will see their young people try harder the next time.

Coaches who encourage effort, irrrespective of outcome, will see their players try harder the next time.

EFFORT

Every experience should be a learning opportunity. Young people will fail to learn if your definition of success for them is only winning on the scoreboard.

Every experience should be a learning opportunity. Young people will fail to learn if your definition of success for them is only winning on the scoreboard.

LEARNING

Coaches who embrace the Double Goal Coach ethos recognise the importance of mistakes. They use them to provide educational support and teach players or athletes to learn from mistakes and bounce back from them.

Coaches who embrace the Double Goal Coach ethos recognise the importance of mistakes. They use them to provide educational support and teach players or athletes to learn from mistakes and bounce back from them.

MISTAKES HAPPEN

Positive Coaching Scotland

Oxford dictionary definition (Revised 2nd Edition)


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Carol Dweck of Stanford University has identified that people can possess two different mindsets and that this has implications for the way people respond to criticism or develop beliefs. These mindsets are directly linked to the mastery coaching concept. The first is a fixed mindset, where people see their ability as being set. They view this simply as having talent or not. They are afraid of making mistakes and so hide them when they do. Their main focus is on looking good rather than learning. Dweck has described this as a ‘dead-end mindset’ as whether the person succeeds or not is determined by factors outside of their control, for example their environment or opponents. The other is a growth mindset. People with this mindset believe they have the ability to grow and improve regardless of the level at which they started. In essence, they believe that through effort and hard work they can get better. This links closely to how young people being coached by a Double Goal Coach deal with mistakes. Dweck states: “People with a fixed mindset think effort is for people without talent. They are afraid of making mistakes, so they hide them. Learning takes a back seat to looking good. It’s in the growth mindset where people believe that you can develop talent – it’s not fixed. The growth mindset incorporates effort, learning and recovering from mistakes and this thinking is inherent to the PCS framework.” You should take these different mindsets into consideration when giving feedback to pupils and Dweck offers clear guidance on the appropriate type of feedback to give. Wrong feedback: “Great shot – you really are talented!” Although this may sound like good feedback, it actually focuses on the talent rather than the effort. This reinforces a fixed mindset and the idea that the pupil has little or no control over their development. Correct feedback: “Great attempt at goal! You really have been working hard in practice!” This reinforces the idea that the goal attempt was the result of effort and so will encourage the pupil to try harder in the future and to have more confidence to make that attempt at goal By continually encouraging a growth mindset in your pupils, you are promoting a mastery culture which increases confidence, reduces anxiety and makes them better prepared to try hard and learn from their mistakes.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Mindset


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• Rewarding effort • Dealing with mistakes • Effort goals These useful coaching tools are described in more detail below.

Rewarding effort

All good teachers recognise pupils when they try hard. To get children to work their hardest, you should recognise their effort – especially when it is unsuccessful – so they know you value their effort above all. Reinforcing effort and hard work leads to better results over time and an increased desire to try harder.

Dealing with mistakes

Fear of making mistakes can impact negatively on the performance of an athlete or team. It is important for you to understand why mistakes are made. There are generally four reasons: 1. The athlete or team doesn’t understand what you have asked them to do. 2. They understand what you have asked them to do, but choose not to do it. 3. They understand what you have asked but are in the early stages of learning and are unable to achieve the task. 4. They understand what you have asked but are physically unable to achieve the task. How coaches and young people deal with mistakes can be one of the most important things they do. Mistake ‘rituals’ help young people bounce back and continue to concentrate on the rest of the game. Here are some examples of mistake rituals: • Flushing – pretending to pull a chain to flush the loo as if to flush away the mistake. • No sweat – wiping their brow as if to wipe the mistake away. • Parking – putting the mistake to one side and reflecting on it at a later time (during training).

Positive Coaching Scotland

Redefine ‘winner’: Coaching tools


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Effort goals

Effort goals are about how hard a pupil tries and are largely under the pupil’s control. They are motivating to pupils because they control the goal and can easily see when and where progress is made. In contrast, outcome goals tend to focus on the end result and often on scoring more than an opponent. They don’t take into account any of the effort made to achieve them.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Rituals like these remind young people that mistakes are inevitable and the most important thing is how they recover from them. Encourage your pupils to take time to reflect on the mistakes they make during practice or the game itself and then work with them to understand why the mistake was made and to learn to let go of it. Any issues can then be addressed so that the pupil can learn and improve.


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Effort goals, set at the correct level, are achievable over time and this allows pupils to progress towards an outcome goal. Effort goals are achievable regardless of the competition. As a rule people tend to do what they will be rewarded for. If children and young people are recognised for trying hard in sports and games, they will be more likely to continue playing. Over time, if pupils achieve their effort goals, they will see the value of being involved in physical activity and therefore develop lifelong, healthy attitudes to activity and sport. Below are some examples to help highlight the difference between each type of goal.

Effort Goals

Outcome Goals

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Rounders Run hard to first base

Beat the throw to first base

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Hockey Sprint back after losing possession

Gain possession of the ball

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Football Sprint after the ball when it is in play

Get to the ball first and control it

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Gymnastics Complete your sequence as smoothly as possible

Make no mistakes in your sequence

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Basketball Try to get more shots

Score more baskets

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Athletics Beat your best time

Win the race

The link between effort goals and outcome goals Outcome goals can discourage effort, especially for younger children or children lacking in confidence. It’s not that you should pay no attention to outcome goals – because there is a definite connection between effort and outcome goals. Effort goals should, over time, move a pupil toward an outcome goal. If a pupil focuses on effort goals and begins to achieve them, the pupil’s performance will improve and, over time, they will begin to achieve the outcome goals they desire.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Redefine ‘winner’: Activity


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Progress towards achieving these goals can be discussed like any other learning target and can also be included in statement of learning intentions at the start of each lesson. Effort goals for talented young people Effort goals are not just for mismatched performers or teams. Effort goals can be useful for a talented pupil who could be winning easily against classmates. For example, set them a goal to beat their personal best on the athletics track or to make more runs into space on the netball court. This will encourage them to focus on the effort made in their own performance regardless of the level of their classmates. By identifying realistic, challenging but achievable effort goals, pupils can be encouraged to try hard to improve performance. Further development – stretch goals Stretch goals go a little beyond what a pupil thinks they can do, but are achievable with effort over time. Whether pupils achieve them or not, they learn the benefits of reaching beyond expectations and are more likely to do better than if they only set easily achievable goals. Stretch goals should be revisited regularly to ensure they are not so ambitious that they discourage pupils. When stretch goals are properly set, they become ‘Just-right Challenges’ that pupils are excited to achieve. Achievement of these goals can be recorded in Personal Learning Plans (PLP) and can therefore be acknowledged by parents. Skills focus: This activity can be developed to include decision making, team working, taking responsibility, literacy and numeracy, communication, problem solving, information technology and working with others. Links to Experiences and Outcomes: I make full use of and value the opportunities I am given to improve and manage my learning and, in turn, I can help to encourage learning and confidence in others. HWB 0-11a / HWB 1-11a / HWB 2-11a / HWB 3-11a / HWB 4-11a Winning is about effort, learning and how we respond to mistakes.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Setting effort goals Effort goals can be set by the teacher but, as we know, it is more powerful to involve children in setting their own goals. Initially, pupils may not understand the difference between an effort goal and an outcome goal so you may need to stress that effort goals are 1) about how hard they try and 2) under their control. You can stimulate the discussion by suggesting some possible effort goals. Then ask pupils to select effort goals they want to achieve. This can be recorded as any other learning target and can be short term, weekly or longer term across a school year. The ideal situation is for pupils to set their own effort goals and attach a number to them for each lesson, or game.


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A child or young person with good self-esteem has the confidence to try new things and make new friends. When they have confidence in themselves they understand that if things do go wrong, they can put them right and continue to progress. In order to build self-confidence and self-esteem in children and young people, it is vital that teachers give consistent encouragement and praise. For many children and young people, confidence is fragile and can waiver depending on performance. Additionally, negative comments from coaches or parents can discourage young players and create anxiety. Positive Coaching Scotland introduces the concept of the emotional tank. If a young person’s emotional tank is filled then they have more confidence and will perform better. On the other hand, if their tank is empty then they can become negative, dispirited and give up easily. Perhaps the most important benefit of the emotional tank is more teachable pupils. When a pupil’s emotional tank is empty they can be discouraged easily. They may not pay attention when you try to help them improve. They may be easily distracted in class. Below are some different ways of filling or draining a young person’s emotional tank.

FILLING THE TANK • Praising truthfully and specifically

F F

NEN TSET LILSI SE RIASIE PA PR

FILL FILL

O OD DY Y LALA NG NG UAG UA GE E

E E

• Listening • Showing appreciation • Using positive body language

SH B SHO E IV E B OW SIITTIV W APP AP RECIATION PO S O PREC IATION P

DRAINING THE TANK

F F

SS SIESE ITCIIC CIRTI CR

DRAIN DRAIN

LALA NG NG UA UA GE GE

E E

AR ARC DYY CAASM D BO SM IG BO IVE T E A N G O IGNORE NE GATIV RE NE

• Criticising • Using sarcasm • Ignoring effort • Using negative body language

Positive Coaching Scotland

3. Fill the emotional tank


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Encourage your participants using verbal and non-verbal communication.

ENCOURAGEMENT

Sport is a fantastic way of teaching life lessons. Coaches should utilise teachable moments.

Sport is a fantastic way of teaching life lessons. Coaches should utilise teachable moments.

TEACH & DISCUSS

Praise effort regardless of outcome. Pay special attention to effort goals.

Praise effort regardless of outcome. Pay special attention to effort goals.

APPRECIATE EFFORT

Encourage and build confidence with positive body language.

Encourage and build confidence with positive body language.

NON-VERBAL SUPPORT

Develop mutual trust by giving truthful and specific feedback.

Use praise to develop mutual trust by giving truthful and specific feedback.

KNOW HOW TO PRAISE

Positive Coaching Scotland

Encourage your participants using verbal and non-verbal communication


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• Fun activities • Magic ratio • Giving constructive criticism • Behaviour management • Buddy system • Positive charting These useful coaching tools are described in more detail below.

Fun activities

When a session seems to be a bit flat, or pupils are losing concentration or motivation, a great way to fill emotional tanks is to include some fun and enjoyable activities. Fun activities should get pupils laughing and enjoying the break in routine – this will give them a lift for the remainder of the session. Some examples of activities include: • Dodge ball • Rounders • Tig/tag • Head tennis

Magic ratio

There will be times when you have to give constructive criticism to a pupil – this is an integral part of teaching. When giving criticism try to give five positive comments to every single negative comment. Research has shown that this magic ratio of 5:1 is ideal. Although five comments may sound like a lot, feedback can take the form of positive body language such as smiling or giving a thumbs up or high five.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Fill the emotional tank: Coaching tools


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It is important to give criticism in a manner which allows the pupil to use the information and be empowered to improve. Below are some methods which can be used to deliver criticism without draining the emotional tank in the process. • Avoid non-teachable moments – find the right time to give feedback (after the match may not be the best moment). • In private – people accept criticism better in private rather than in front of a crowd. • Ask permission – if it is something that does not require immediate comment, or that the player is not ready to hear or deal with, then seek their permission before giving feedback. • If/then statements – can help put suggestions into context. Compare “You need to bend your knees” with “If you bend your knees more, then you’ll get more range for your 3-point shots”.

Behaviour management

Using the tools provided by Positive Coaching Scotland should help to minimise levels of bad behaviour. However, situations that cannot be ignored may still arise. If they do, then: • Reinforce the behaviour you want to encourage • Ignore behaviour you don’t want • When you can’t ignore behaviour, use the three Cs – Intervene calmly – Be consistent – Be aware of consequences In some circumstance there may be an opportunity to use restorative practice techniques. Remaining calm and in control is key to resolving behavioural issues. Awareness of consequences in sport provides valuable lessons for all aspects of life.

Buddy system

Teachers should not be the only people responsible for filling children’s and young people’s emotional tanks. Wouldn’t it be great if you had a class of pupils who filled each other’s emotional tanks? This is achievable with the use of a buddy system.

Positive charting

Positive charting is a technique for recording positive effort. This toolkit provides you with a template of a chart which you can use to record instances and examples of pupils efforts (see Appendix 6). This charting exercise is also something you can ask others to complete, for example, players sitting out, parents, other coaches or teachers. Sharing these positive points with the wider group at the end of a session or game will encourage greater effort and higher energy next time.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Giving constructive criticism


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Buddy system

After you have introduced and discussed the principle of ‘fill the emotional tank’ and the pupils are comfortable with the idea then it’s time to try the buddy system. Partner classmates before a lesson, and ask them to fill each other’s tanks. At the end of the task, ask your pupils to share what they did to fill their classmates’ emotional tanks and how it affected performance. The following ideas may help you prepare pupils for this exercise. “I want you to look for things that your buddy is doing well. Remember you need to be truthful, or else it won’t mean anything. Also, try to tell your buddy exactly what they did right.” (Links to AiFL peer assessment.) “During the next exercise I want you to focus on filling your buddy’s emotional tank. Filling your buddy’s emotional tank is as important as doing the exercise. At the end I am going to ask your buddies what you did to fill their tanks.” Prepare pupils by discussing some examples before the exercise begins. “What can you say when someone makes a good pass? What about when someone makes a great effort but it doesn’t work out? What can you say to someone who falls down during an activity?” On completion of the exercise ask them: “Who had their emotional tank filled by a buddy? How did you feel when that happened? Do you think it can help you try harder or play better?” There are other variations of this tool that you may be familiar with or think appropriate for younger children. Examples include ‘2 Stars and a Wish’, ‘Think, Pair and Share’ and ‘Stars and Strikes’.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Fill the emotional tank: Activities


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If the buddy system is a success in class and you want to develop the use of the tool ask your pupils to try it at home. Ask them to focus on filling the emotional tank of a parent, brother or sister and watch what happens so that they can report back. For some this will be a big step and it may take several tries before they are confident enough to do it. Skills focus: This activity can be developed to include decision making, team working, taking responsibility, literacy and numeracy, communication, problem solving and working with others. Links to Experiences and Outcomes: I understand that my feelings and reactions can change depending upon what is happening within and around me. This helps me to understand my own behaviour and the way others behave. HWB 0-04a / HWB 1-04a / HWB 2-04a / HWB 3-04a / HWB 4-04a

Positive Coaching Scotland

Further development As pupils become experienced in filling an emotional tank you can extend the buddy system by making pupils responsible for two other pupils. Eventually everyone can be encouraged to fill the emotional tanks of everyone else in their class.


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Teachers often spot things which are not being done in the right way and then try to correct or improve them. As you know, it is equally important – and valuable – to spot things that are being done well and to reinforce these points with pupils as this will encourage them to continue. It is important to find the things in pupil’s performances that are being done right and to reinforce them so pupils continue to do them. Positive charting is a great technique for recording positive effort and success during lessons or sports. Positive charting can reinforce and increase the number of ‘right things’ that your pupils do. It also creates a wonderful, positive atmosphere in which pupils are more receptive to being critiqued and corrected because they feel appreciated. Here’s how positive charting works Write down each pupil’s name as in the template below. If there is a specific action you want to look for then record it as shown. Actions can be team building behaviour as well as physical effort. Pupil:

Tommy

Look for:

Encouraging team mates

Notes:

– Tommy gave Ian a thumbs-up when he tried to make a pass. – Tommy helped a team-mate when he fell over after a tackle.

Positive Coaching Scotland

Positive charting


28

At the start of the next session begin with a quick review of your positive charting notes. Take each player in turn and share the positive comments with the group. This should take no more than 30 seconds per pupil. When you are comfortable with the activity you can split the group in two and set one group the challenge of positively charting their classmates. Skills focus: This activity can be developed to include decision making, team working, taking responsibility, literacy and numeracy, communication, problem solving and working with others. Links to Experiences and Outcomes: I make full use of and value the opportunities I am given to improve and manage my learning and, in turn, I can help to encourage learning and confidence in others. HWB 0-11a / HWB 1-11a / HWB 2-11a / HWB 3-11a / HWB 4-11a

Positive Coaching Scotland

During a game or session be on the lookout for positive things that pupils do. Aim to find the same number of comments for each pupil. Aim for three comments but one is acceptable. You may have to look hard with some pupils but be honest and don’t be tempted to write something that isn’t true.


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Positive Coaching Scotland helps educate young people about winning, losing and cooperation, while at the same time encouraging them to learn and develop life skills which can equip them for the future. As a teacher and coach, you can help to achieve this by applying the techniques and principles found within this toolkit to your involvement with children and young people in Physical Education, Physical Activity and Sport.

Next steps • Commit to using one tool or activity in the next week • Spread the positive coaching message • Visit the website: www.sportscotland.org.uk/pcs

Positive Coaching Scotland

Conclusion


Worksheets Worksheet 1: ROOTS Worksheet 2: Effort goals


SELF

TEAM MATES

OFFICIALS

OPPONENTS

RULES

Positive

Worksheet 1 – ROOTS Negative


6

5

4

3

2

1

Effort goals

Worksheet 2 – Effort goals Outcome goals


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Appendices Appendix 1: Double Goal Coach ethos Appendix 2: Draft parents’ meeting agenda and notes Appendix 3: Effort log Appendix 4: Session plan Appendix 5: 50 ways to say ‘well done!’ Appendix 6: Positive charting Appendix 7: Player stage development Appendix 8: Further reading


Appendix 1 – Double Goal Coach ethos


Appendix 2 – Draft parents’ meeting

agenda and notes

1. Welcome and introductions An opportunity to talk about: • The club or organisation’s set up and background • Who you are and why you are involved with young people • Who the other key figures in the club or organisation are 2. Positive Coaching philosophy An opportunity to: • Describe PCS • Describe the Double Goal Coach ethos and three key principles • Explain ROOTS, ELM and E-TANK • Introduce examples of coaching tools and how they can be used 3. Team expectations for the season Let parents know what you expect from them and from their children over the season and stress positive outcomes: • Every individual’s skills will improve • Every individual will have the opportunity to participate/compete • Everyone involved with the club or organisation will enjoy the season and will have contributed to a positive club culture • Every individual will be as committed to the sport at the end of the season as at the start, and will want to be back next year You might also want to ask parents about their expectations from the club/organisation and for the season ahead. 4. Where and how to get information An opportunity to talk about: • League website, Scottish governing body of sport website, local authority website • How you let teams know about more immediate events – eg. cancelled games or changes in venue


5. Equipment requirements Provide specific details about any equipment or kit that may need to purchased – what is essential and what is not 6. Parent volunteer requirements and conduct An opportunity to: • Invite people to commit themselves to specific tasks such as providing transport, refreshments or recording/camera equipment for matches • Emphasise the importance of committing to the culture of PCS and of the club/organisation – every parent has a role to play – explain that parents are expected to honour our sport as well as the participants • Appoint a culture keeper 7. Practice and game/event scheduling and arrangements You can: • Hand out schedules of games/events at this point so parents know what to expect in the months ahead • Distribute a list of what the athletes/players are expected to bring with them to practice and games eg. equipment, kit etc • Discuss timings and travel arrangements 8. AOB


Date:

Name

Attendance

  Sport:

Appendix 3 – Effort log

Effort

Behaviour

Attitude

  Coach:

Water

Encouragement

Team work

Assisting others

Total points

Points scale 1 Unsatisfactory 2 Satisfactory 3 Good 4 Very good 5 Excellent


Yes

  Location:

Positive outcomes (coaches’ goals)

Session Plan

Participant’s clothing, footwear, jewellery appropriate?  No

Telephone available?  No

Facility Health and Safety Information   Yes

Effort goals (pupils’ goals)

Potential hazards:

First Aid kit available?   No

  Yes

  Location:

Activities/games/drills & equipment (session content & equipment)

Venue/Facility:

Duration:

Participant information (abilities/medical issues):

Aim of session:

No. of participants:

Date:

Equipment required:

DG Coach:

Appendix 4 – Session plan


THAT WAS REALLY GOOD!

KEEP IT UP!

OUTSTANDING!

YOU REALLY ARE LEARNING QUICKLY!

YOU WORKED WELL TODAY!

THAT’S RIGHT!

WELL DONE!

THAT WAS GREAT, YOU REMEMBERED TO...

THAT’S THE BEST YOU’VE EVER DONE AT...

YOU DID REALLY WELL TODAY!

YOU’RE NEARLY THERE!

KEEP ON TRYING!

I THINK YOU’VE GOT IT NOW!

PERFECT!

TREMENDOUS!

YOU’RE DOING MUCH BETTER TODAY!

GOOD EFFORT OUT THERE TODAY!

TOP STUFF!

YOU’RE REALLY WORKING HARD TODAY!

THAT’S A REAL IMPROVEMENT!

BRILLIANT!

I KNEW YOU COULD DO IT!

YOU MUST HAVE BEEN PRACTISING YOUR...

THAT’S LOOKING GOOD!

WONDERFUL!

TERRIFIC!

SUPER!

NOW YOU’VE GOT THE HANG OF IT! THAT’S MUCH BETTER!

GOOD WORK!

FINE WORK!

I’M PROUD OF YOUR EFFORT BECAUSE...

SPOT ON!

FANTASTIC!

THAT’S IT!

EXCELLENT!

YOU’RE LEARNING FAST!

YOU’RE GETTING BETTER!

NICE JOB!

GREAT EFFORT! I’M SO PROUD OF YOU!

I’M PROUD OF YOUR EFFORT TODAY!

After competition

THAT’S AS GOOD AS I HAVE SEEN!

GREAT WORK!

THAT’S GREAT!

KEEP UP THE GOOD WORK!

THAT’S BETTER!

GOOD THINKING!

THAT’S GOOD!

THAT’S THE WAY TO DO IT!

During competition

Appendix 5 – 50 ways to say ‘well done!’


Pupil:

Look for:

Notes: •

Pupil:

Look for:

Notes: •

Pupil:

Look for:

Notes: •

Pupil:

Look for:

Notes: •

Pupil:

Look for:

Notes: •

Pupil:

Look for:

Notes: •

Appendix 6 – Positive charting

Notes: •

Look for:

Pupil:

Notes: •

Look for:

Pupil:

Notes: •

Look for:

Pupil:

Notes: •

Look for:

Pupil:

Notes: •

Look for:

Pupil:

Notes: •

Look for:

Pupil:


Appendix 7 – Player stage

development

The physical development of a young person is a multi-staged process. It is related to the important biological, psychological and social developments which occur in their life. The pathway begins with the youngest of children and allows them to develop basic psycho-motor skills like agility, balance, coordination and speed. These early stages are not sport specific, but instead focus on the generic skills and knowledge which are required for young people to engage in, and appreciate, all forms of physical activity and sport. In addition, the pathway will encourage individuals to participate in physical activity and sport for the rest of their lives. And for those with potential, it can also provide the platform for elite performance. This approach to coaching links critically to the theory of PCS. By appreciating the need to tailor your session content to the correct level of your participant’s stage of development, you will ensure that they develop the correct skills, at the correct rate – and it will make implementing ROOTS, ELM and E-TANK a much easier process. An example of incorrect session content includes coaches copying session plans from elite level sport and trying to use them with young players. This may dishearten and upset them as they may not be physically able to complete the skills/drills set. This can have a negative impact on every aspect of the PCS ethos. Fundamentals An opportunity to talk about: • Fun and participation • General overall development • Agility, balance, coordination and speed • Introduction to simple rules of ethics in sport Learning to play • Fun and participation • General sports skills • Cognitive and emotional development • Introduction to mental preparation • Introduction to lifestyle management • Introduction to warm up and cool down


Playing to develop • Development and sport specific skills • General strength and conditioning techniques • Individual training programmes • Further development of mental preparation • Introduction to flexibility training Training to compete • Participation and performance differentiation • Individualised event/position physical training • Event/position specific technical training • Playing in competitive situations • Advanced mental preparation • Optimise ancillary capacities Training to win • Performance • Optimisation of physical capacities and tapering target competitions • Further development of technical, tactical and playing skills • Modelling of all possible aspects of training and performance • Frequent regeneration breaks • Maximise ancillary capacities


Appendix 8 – Further reading Bigelow, B. (2001). Just let the kids play. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, Inc. Brown, B. (2003). Teaching character through sport: Developing a positive coaching legacy. Monterey, CA: Coaches Choice. Bloom, B.S. (1985). Developing talent in young people. New York, NY: Ballantine Books. Duda, J.L. (2005). Motivation in sport: The relevance of competence and achievement goals. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Dweck, C.S. (1999). Self-theories and goals: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis. Kuchenbecker, S. (2000). Raising winners: A parent’s guide to helping kids succeed. New York, NY: Times Books. Lancaster, S. (2002). Fair play: Making organized sports a great experience for your kids. New York, NY: Prentice Hall Press. Leonard, G. (1991). Mastery. New York, NY: Plume. Sanders, S. (1999). Champions are raised, not born: How my parents made me a success. New York, NY: Delacorte Press. Thompson, J. (2010). The power of double-goal coaching. Portola Valley, CA: Balance Sports Publishing, LLC. Thompson, J. (2007). Positive coaching – In a nutshell. Palo Alto, CA: Warde Publishers, Inc. Thompson, J. (2003). The double-goal coach. New York, NY: HarperCollins Inc. Thompson, J. (1995). Positive coaching: Building character and self-esteem through sports. Palo Alto, CA: Warde Publishers, Inc.


Our partners PCS is delivered by sportscotland – the national agency for sport. www.sportscotland.org.uk/pcs In partnership with:

www.winningscotlandfoundation.org

www.positivecoach.org Our founding funder:

Wood Family Trust


Positive Coaching Scotland - Teachers' toolkit