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DYNAMIC SYSTEMS responsive, adaptive, kinetic

Emergent Technologies & Design 2010-2011 Gabriel Ivorra Morell (MSc) Cesar MartĂ­nez (MArch) Sebastian Partowidjojo (MArch)


Disclaimer 2


3

Programme: Term: Student’s name: Tittle: Course tutors: Submission date:

Emergent Technologies & Design 2010-2011 Gabriel Ivorra Morell (MSc) DYNAMIC SYSTEMS responsive, adaptive, kinetic Mike Weinstock George Jeronimidis 16-09-2011

Declaration: “I certify that this piece of work is entirely our own and that any quotation or paraphrase from the published or unpublished work of others is duly acknowledged.”


Table of Contents 4


5

Abstract

Domain

Proposed Methods

Research Development

Methods

Exploration

Design Application

00. ABSTRACT 01. DOMAIN 01.1. INTRODUCTION 01.2. CASE STUDIES

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 04.1. DIGITAL ALGORITHM

01.2.1. FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES 01.2.1.1. Gary Chang Hong Kong Apartment 01.2.1.2. Dominique Perrault Olympic Tennis Center 01.2.1.3. Heatherwick Studio. Rolling Bridge 01.2.1.4. Hans Kupelwieser and Werkraum Wien. Lakeside Stage

04.1.1. Grasshopper Experimentation 04.1.2. Component Breakdown 04.1.3. Design Parameters

01.2.2. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSES 01.2.2.1. Chuck Hoberman_Audiencia Provincial 01.2.2.2. Jean Nouvel_Institut du Monde Arabe 01.2.2.3. Andrew Payne_ Shape Memory Alloy Panel System 01.2.2.4. Achim Menges and Steffen Reichert _Responsive Surface Structure

01.3. EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION

02. METHODS

04.2. DIGITAL AND PHYSICAL COMPARISON 04.3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE 04.3.1. Unit Adaptability 04.3.2. Data Processing

05. DESIGN APPLICATION 05.1. DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS 05.2. BRIDGE APPLICATION

02.1. INTRODUCTION 02.2. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES

05.2.1. Power Source 05.2.2. Material Analysis 05.2.3. Structural Analysis 05.2.4. Foundation 05.2.5. Fabrication & Assembly

02.2.1. Folding 02.2.2. Open-Source Robotic 02.2.3. Hybrid System

02.3. CONCLUSION AND PROPOSED METHODS

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS 03.1. KINEMATIC: space and volume 03.1.1. Origami Patterns

06. CONCLUSION; learning, limitation, and

further exploration (M.Arch)

07. APPENDIX

03.2. KINETIC: surface control

03.2.1. Global Control 03.2.2. Local Control 03.2.3. Assembly And Scale Change 03.2.4. Actuator Types

04.1.3.1. Surface Boundaries 04.1.3.2. Surface Divisions 04.1.3.3. Surface Extrusion 04.1.3.4. Actuators Placement 04.1.3.5. Actuators Distribution 04.1.3.6. Anchor Points 04.1.3.7. Material Resistance

07.1. APPENDIX 01 Digital and Physical Comparison. Other Configurations

07.2. APPENDIX 02

03.3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE

03.4. EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION

08. BIBLIOGRAPHY

03.3.1. Environmental Readings 03.3.2. Responsive Types

Different Applications. Other Applications


Abstract 6

00


7

The growing interest of responsive system as new form of design drives our interest to explore its variables and limitations. As a response to overpopulation in cities and limited land boundaries, our proposal is to develop a system that minimizes land use by constantly adapting its volume to various functions and activities within a single structure that otherwise would result in buildings being unoccupied for large periods of time. In addition, the system will also be constantly adjusting its surface to different space qualities by reading changes in the environment such as; wind, sun, temperature, or humidity level. In order to ease assembly processes and reduce fabrication cost, we aim for a standardized component based system. A single component will be aggregated to form a surface which will then be exposed to different possible configurations. Local and global behaviour can be engineered through different distribution of joint systems (kinematic) and actuators (kinetic). This distribution sets a hierarchy which then is linked together as one controllable robotic system.

The fitness criteria for the design development is defined by the scale of the component which informs the structural integrity; the duration of the movement which informs the forces needed; and the ratio of the kinetic and static elements which inform the programmatic functions and control points. This system will be tested through a series of digital and physical prototypes. Instead of any particular design proposal, several architectural applications will be suggested. In the near future, further exploration will be dedicated for an architectural design proposal in a larger scale. Effectively, the objective of this dissertation is to develop a dynamic system capable of shape change enabling several configurations through the aggregation of a single component. Collective reading from different parameters within the system will result in Emergent Behaviour.


Domain 8

01


9

01. DOMAIN 01.1. INTRODUCTION 01.2. CASE STUDIES 01.2.1. FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES 01.2.1.1. Gary Chang_Hong Kong Apartment 01.2.1.2. Dominique Perrault_Olympic Tennis Center 01.2.1.3. Heatherwick Studio_Rolling Bridge 01.2.1.4. Hans Kupelwieser and Werkraum Wien _ Lakeside Stage 01.2.2. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSES 01.2.2.1. Chuck Hoberman_Audiencia Provincial 01.2.2.2. Jean Nouvel_Institut du Monde Arabe 01.2.2.3. Andrew Payne_Shape Memory Alloy Panel System 01.2.2.4. Achim Menges and Steffen Reichert _ Responsive Surface Structure

01.3. EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION


10

01. DOMAIN


01.1. Introduction

11

Introduction In general, responsive architecture is defined as the type that transforms its elements in response to specific conditions. These conditions are read and transferred to different types of triggers/actuators which may vary depending on different purposes of the transformations. People have attempted in designing kinetic architecture that responds to different programs, climate changes, and aesthetical reasons. However, no one has attempted to develop a system that responds to variours parameters. This investigation will test the limits and versatility of a responsive system that aims to respond to multiple parameters.


12

01. DOMAIN


01.2. Case Studies

13

Case Studies Current built projects are being investigated in regards to responsive systems embeded within architecture. In this sub-chapter, two major categories of responsive systems will be studied more in depth. The first category covers kinetic system that transform their shape and volume in response to different programmatic functions. The second category covers shape change within architecture responding to the immediate climatic condition. The first category deals with permanent structures while the second category corresponds to temporary structures.


14

01. DOMAIN

Functional Responses

Fig. 1.01

This first category is to explore architecture that transforms its geometry based on different programmatic functions. These projects utilize simple and conventional mechanisms to slide and rotate objects through the use of hinges, gears, pulleys and compound systems. Small scale projects are actuated manually while larger scale projects use the application of controlled actuators; such as pneumatic pumps, hydraulics, and etc. As a result, these simple systems give the possibility to make a monolithic entrance, turn indoor to outdoor, increase square meters, provide shelter, etc. In general, projects in this category perform in longer time scale (less aggressive) and stand permanently as a structure.

Fig. 1.02

Gary Chang_Hong Kong Apartment Due to the limited space in Hong Kong, 32 sqm apartments becomes the average size for two-bedroom apartments. Local architect Gary Chang manages to design and renovate his open studio apartment to a transformable 24 rooms apartment with specific different functions and layouts. This was made possible by using simple mechanisms such as sliding walls that reveal rooms and fold down tables and chairs in order to maximize space. These configuration types can be changed manually based on one’s needs and desires.


01.2. Case Studies

15

Fig. 1.01 Different plan configurations in Gary Chang’s apartment [Ref. Illustrative:1.01] Fig. 1.02 Sliding walls inside Gary Chang’s apartment [Ref. Illustrative:1.02] Fig. 1.03 Hydraulics and railing system on the roof of Olympic Tennis Center, Madrid [Ref. Illustrative:1.03]

Fig. 1.03

Dominique Perrault_Olympic Tennis Center In Madrid, Spain, Dominique Perrault designed an Olympic Tennis Center that is 80,000 sqm and holds up to 20,000 seating. This facility has 3 main courts that can later be changed to different configuratios. In turn, hosting different activities such as; tennis courts, political rallies, fashion shows, and music concerts. Different configurations are made possible by simple movements of the roof structure. Each court has its own mechanically operated roof structure. The roof system is mounted with hydraulic mechanisms for vertical tilting; coupled with horizontal displacement resulting into three possible configurations per court. In total, 27 different configurations can be achieved for different spatial qualities. These range from indoor, semi outdoor, and outdoor spaces.

Fig. 1.04

Fig. 1.04 27 Different roof configurations for Olympic Tennis Center, Madrid [Ref. Illustrative:1.04]


16

01. DOMAIN

0’00”

1’30”

2’00”

Fig. 1.05

Heatherwick Studio_Rolling Bridge In the canal inlet in Paddington Basin, London, Heatherwick Studio has designed a standard pedestrian bridge, however, it curls up every Friday during lunch time in order to allow boats to pass by. The bridge spans 12.75 m. and is built from eight components fabricated from steel and timber. Each component is equipped with a pair of hydraulic cylinders powered by hydraulic pumps. When the hydraulics are engaged, the top railing reduces its length forcing the bridge to curl up toward the direction of the fix foundation point. The bridge was constructed in 2004 and Thomas Heatherwick and was honoured with the British Structural Steel Award for this innovative solution in the following year.


01.2. Case Studies

0’00”

17

0’30”

Fig. 1.05 Heatherwick Studio’ Rolling Bridge. Operation sequence [Ref. Illustrative:1.05]

0’45”

Hans Kupelwieser & Werkraum Wien_Lakeside Stage Another project that takes advantage of hydraulic power mechanisms is Lakeside Stage by the artist Hans Kupelwieser who teamed up with an engineering office Werkraaum Wien. Just like Heatherwick Studio, this team coupled hydraulics with pumps, however, utilizing a different application. Pivot points are located between hydraulic dampers and a water tank controlled drainage system. Water from the lake is pumped up to the tank, the weight of the water then counteracts the hydraulic system and results in tilting a 13m x 13m timber and steel structure for a seating area. In the full upward position, this seating area functions as a shelter and acoustic shell. When the shelter is not needed, then the process can be reversed. Then, by draining the water from the tank, the roof structure slowly tilts down into a seating area.

0’60”

Fig. 1.06

Fig. 1.06 Hans Kupelwieser & Werkraum Wie’s Lakeside Stage. Operation sequence [Ref. Illustrative:1.06]


18

01. DOMAIN

Fig. 1.07

6:00 AM

7:00 AM

8:00 AM

9:00 AM

10:00 AM

11:00 AM

12:00 PM

13:00 PM

14:00 PM

15:00 PM

16:00 PM

17:00 PM

Environmental Responses

Fig. 1.08

The second category covers projects which respond to climatic and environmental conditions. Most mechanism types utilize swivel and rotation movements within a fixed axis. Environmental responsive systems are usually not self supported and depend on a primary structural system. This type of system works best as a facade system, roof shading device or canopy. In general, projects in this category perform in a daily basis.

Fig. 1.09

Chuck Hoberman_Audiencia Provincial Using the StrataTM shading system (colaboration venture from ABI, Adaptive Building Initiative, involving both Hoberman and Buro Hapold), Hoberman populates Audiencia Provincial’s central circular atrium in order to minimize solar gain while allowing natural daylight to infiltrate the space. The roof surface is populated with series of hexagonal cells which cover the triangular structural grid. When retracted, these cells disappear into the structure’s profile. 01


01.2. Case Studies

19

Fig. 1.07 Hexagonal shading cell detail for Chuck Hoberman’s Audiencia Provincial, Madrid [Ref. Illustrative:1.07] Fig. 1.08 Shading scheme for the central atrium in Chuck Hoberman’s Audiencia Provincial, Madrid [Ref. Illustrative:1.08] Fig. 1.09 Central atrium in Chuck Hoberman’s Audiencia Provincial, Madrid [Ref. Illustrative:1.09]

Fig. 1.10

Fig. 1.10 Close-up façade system of Jean Nouvel’s Institut du Monde Arabe [Ref. Illustrative:1.10]

Jean Nouvel_Institut du Monde Arabe Facing a large public square that opens out toward the Île de la Cité and Notre Dame, Jean Nouvel installed a responsive facade on the Arab World Institute building in Paris. The glass storefront is equipped with metallic screen. This geometrical pattern opens and closes and is controlled by 240 motors. This screen act as brise soleil to control light entering the building and creates shadows in the interior space. This facade is responding to the solar value and readjust its opening on an hourly basis. This type of system regulates solar gain through the use of screens; a commonly used in Islamic Architecture. This building envelops a museum, library, auditorium, restaurant, and offices. 02 01 02

http://www.hoberman.com

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arab_ World_Institute


20

01. DOMAIN

Wire Temperature: 70o

Wire Temperature: 90o

Fig. 1.11

Fig. 1.12

Andrew Payne_SMA Panel System For his research, Andrew Payne developed a system that uses shape memory alloy for a facade system. The intention was to design a heat sensitive facade that is energy independent. This was done though the use of custom calibrated SMA (Shape Memory Alloy) wires. SMA perform as both sensors and actuators. It expands in room temperature and shrinks when it is heated. The sensitivity and expansion can be calibrated through multiple use and letting it memorize the transformation. This material property is called the hysteresis. Due to this characteristic, SMA is its own processing device. Heat can be generated from electric current. Any type of censors can be connected to a processor which will then send electric current to activate SMA wires. On and off switch can also replace censors.03


01.2. Case Studies

0’00”

21

0’00”

Fig. 1.11 Panel’s performance under different temperatures. Andrew Payne’s SMA Panel System [Ref. Illustrative:1.11] Fig. 1.12 Andrew Payne’s SMA Panel System installation [Ref. Illustrative:1.12]

0’18”

0’18”

Fig. 1.13

Fig. 1.13 Achim Menges and Steffen Reichert’s Responsive Surface Structure. Initial and final stages’ images [Ref. Illustrative:1.13]

Achim Menges_Responsive Surface Structure This research is to explore the possibility of changing the dimension of wood by responding to the relative humidity in the environment. The aim is to develop surface that adapt and change its porosity to allow cross veltilation without the need to use mechanical control devices. Full scale protoype was constructed and tested for its performity. The resposive result varies overtime from component to component across the surface. 04

03

http://fab.cba.mit.edu/classes/ MIT/863.10/people/andy.payne/Asst9. html 04

http://www.achimmenges. net/?p=4411


01

&

Evaluation Conclusion

22 01. DOMAIN


01.3. Evaluation and Conclusion

23

Evaluation And Conclusion From the case studies, we learned that time scale is an important factor for the different responsive types. Environmental response has to response and adapt quickly as the environment changes. On the other side, programmatic adaptability does not need to response as aggresively and due to its scale, this system might need more time to respond. Heatherwick’s Bridge perform and changed its function in two minutes. A canopy shelter using Achim Menges’ system will need to perform faster when it rains otherwise it will defeat the purpose of having a shelter. In Paris, Jean Nouvel’s facade has not been functioning as it was designed to. Heatherwick’s bridge is still performing its transformation every Friday during lunchtime. A system that response more regularly should have simpler mechanism.

In a material system; such as Achim Menges’ surface structure and Andrew Payne’s SMA panels, the system responses differently overtime. A complex mechanism like Jean Nouvel’s facade also fails in time. What would then be an effective and efficient way of developing a responsive system?


Methods 24

02


25

02. METHODS 02.1. INTRODUCTION 02.2. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 02.2.1. FOLDING 02.2.2. OPEN-SOURCE ROBOTIC 02.2.3. HYBRID SYSTEM

02.3. CONCLUSION AND PROPOSED METHODS


26

02. METHODS

“The relation between the external forces and their kinematic variables is popularly known as kinetics. (…) We examine the external mechanical agencies that cause the motion.(…)The motion of a rigid body consists of rigid translations as well as rotations. Each of these kinematic variables will now have to be related to their respective kinetic variables. The kinetic quantities associated with translations are forces and the kinetic quantities associated with rotations are moments or torques.”

Rao, Lakshminarasimhan, Sethuraman & Sivakumar, Engineering Mechanics: Statics and Dynamics (2003), p. 175


02.1. Introduction

27

Introduction There are two branches in physics that will be explored separately in this early stage. Kinematic is a branch that studies different movement of body parts in relationship to its joints without considering the external forces that are needed to activate the movement. Kinetic is a wider branch in a sense that this branch is concerned with not only the motion of bodies but also the forces needed to cause motion. In the case of architecture, kinetic can become very complicated. Computerized software and hardware will then need to be synchronized to achieve this goal. This synchronisation will result in a system commonly known as the robotic system.


28

02. METHODS

“Tristan D’Estree Sterk, The Office for Robotic Architectural Media & Bureau for responsive architecture is a small technology officeinterested inrethinking the art of construction alongside the emergence of responsive systems. Our work focuses upon the use of structural shape change and its role in altering the way that buildings use energy.” http://www.orambra.com/

Fig. 2.01

Methods and Techniques There are different methods and techniques to develop responsive architecture. According to Nicholas Negroponte; “responsive architecture is the natural product of the integration of computing power into built spaces and structures, and that better performing, more rational buildings are the result. Negroponte also extends this mixture to include the concepts of recognition, intention, contextual variation, and meaning into computing and its successful (ubiquitous) integration into architecture.” 05

Folding As a generative process, folding architecture is an experimental system. The relationship between each crease, fold, score, and cut give an infinite possibilities for form and function. Origami is the traditional Japanese form of paper art. This basic system is only using mountain folds (fold up) and valley folds (fold down). When origami changes to a larger scale, folding is no longer applicable. We then use rigid sheets and hinges. In this case, it is not required for the structure to start as a flat surface. This branch of origami is called “rigid origami”. Above (fig 2.01) is an example of such project by Sabin+Jones Labstudio named “Deployability”.

Open-Source Software And Hardware Robotic system is one that combines computational data acquisition and mechanical system. The objective for using this system is to use


02.2. Methods and Techniques

29

Fig. 2.01 Sabin+Jones, Labstudio’s “Deployability”. [Ref. Illustrative:2.01] Fig. 2.02 Tristan D’Estree Sterk’s Tensegrity [Ref. Illustrative: 2.02]

Fig. 2.02

hardware such as sensors that read different environmental conditions such as; humidity level, temperature level, sun exposure, movement/ torque sensor, pressure sensor, flex sensor, etc. These accurate readings will be the parameters for actuating certain mechanics in the kinetic system. Software and micro chip serve as the bridge that connects these two end parts of the robotic system. In order to develop robotic systems more economical and reachable to the general community, we apply open source software and hardware such as; Grasshopper, Kangaroo, Geometry Gym, Karamba, Arduino, Firefly, etc. Open-source software/hardware is “liberally licensed to grant the right of users to use, study, change, and improve its design through the availability of its source code. This approach has gained both momentum and acceptance as the potential benefits have been increasingly recognized by both individuals and corporations.” 02

Fig. 2.03

Actuated

Fig. 2.03 Jordi Truco’s PARA-site [Ref. Illustrative: 2.03]

Hybrid System A Hybrid system is the integration of two or more different systems which otherwise have not been previously used within a single system. In his book PARA-Site (fig 2.03), Jordi Truco explains the collective use of material intelligence, digital tectonics, and reading the environment. In the rest state, the material has no structural capacity, however, when in a pretension form through geometric formation the material works as a structural membrane supporting its own weight. Pretensioning the material changes its property and helps to store some energy which can later be used in correlation with various mechanical actuators. As a result, the exchange communication between the material, sensors, and actuators creates a dynamic hybrid system with emergence behaviour.

05

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsive_architecture 06

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opensource_hardware


30

02. METHODS

Fig. 2.04

Fig. 2.05

Fig. 2.04 System Closed [Ref. Illustrative:2.04]

Fig. 2.06

Fig. 2.05 System Deployed [Ref. Illustrative: 2.05] Fig. 2.06 Opportunity for Environmental Responsive Sub-System [Ref. Illustrative: 2.06] Fig. 2.07 Sub-System Deployment [Ref. Illustrative: 2.07]

Fig. 2.07

Evaluation And Proposed Method

Proposed Methods

The System Branching

02

This diagram explains the methods and techniques that will be applied though out in order to achieve a “Responsive Kinetic System�. As previously noted, there are two different categories that will be examined. First, a Structural Responsive System capable of shape change in response to various functional needs. Second, an Environmental Responsive System that transforms based on several environmental conditions. These two categories are studied simultaneously on separate explorations. Eventually, these two systems will merge as collective behaviour; performing and complimenting each other as one compound system. Here are the definition of each branch in the system:

System Core

Structural System: the primary system in which performance is based on the structural integrity as a whole.

Program Adaptive: transformation taking place due to the change in functions. Envelope System: a secondary system capable of surface change. Climate Responsive: surface transformation interacting to the environment.

Elements within the System

System: groups of interacting cells working together to perform a certain task. Component: different element units gives this cell a certain behaviour. Element: given number of units that define a cell component. Connection Types: hardware types joining one element to the next and responding to kinetic behaviour. Scale: different scale explorations to better understand forces required to activate the system. System Deployment: deploying the system with respect to structural integrity and different programmatic functions.


02.3. Conclusion and Proposed Methods

31

SYSTEM

PROGRAM ADAPTIVE

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE

CONNECTION TYPE

COMPONENT

Group of interacting cells working to perform a certain task

PROGRAM

Different element units gives this cell a certain behaviour

COMPONENT DEPLOYMENT immediate local reaction

KINETIC APPLICATION

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

GRASSHOPPER + KANGAROO

GECO

ARDUINO

KARAMBA

ECOTEC

SENSORS

Data Processing (the use of open source software/hardware):

Grasshopper: graphical algorithm for generative modelling. Firefly: toolset dedicated to bridging the gap between Grasshopper to Arduino, micro-controller. It also allows for data flow from digital to physical environments close to real-time. Geometry Gym: bridging Grasshopper to Oasys GSA; a structural engineering analysis software.

Karamba: finite element analysis module within Grasshopper and fully parametrizable. Ecotect: a software enabling the rendering and simulation of a building’s performance within the context of its environment. Geco: bridging Grasshopper to Ecotect. Arduino: open source hardware platform allowing the creation of interactive systems. Sensors: hardware that read environmental conditions and translate t data to engage actuators. Some smart materials have the properties to function as both sensors and actuators. Environmental Input: environmental factors; such as wind, heat, humidity, and temperature data that can be collected and used as an input for data processing.

DATA PROCESSING

FIREFLY

Component Deployment: activating component elements in respect to environmental changes. Programs: different programmatic functions are to be the based on the design making decisions for both system and component deployment. Kinetic Application: applying different actuator types to activate the system. Environmental Data: Inputs for a Responsive System. For instance, letting light in when it becomes too dark, closing or opening fenestration systems when it is too hot, or when it is too humid.

ELEMENT Given number of units that define a component

SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT controlled pace global reaction

DESIGN DECISIONS

ENVIRONMENTAL INPUTS

CONNECTION TYPE

ELEMENTS WITHIN THE SYSTEM

SYSTEM

ENVELOPE SYSTEM

SYSTEM CORE

SCALE

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM


Explorations 32

03


33

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS 03.1. KINEMATIC: space and volume 03.1.1. Origami Patterns

03.2. KINETIC: surface control

03.2.1. Global Control 03.2.2. Local Control 03.2.3. Assembly And Scale Change 03.2.4. Actuator Types

03.3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE 03.3.1. Environmental Readings 03.3.2. Responsive Types

03.4. EVALUATION AND CONCLUSION


34

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Preliminary Explorations

Fig. 3.01

Fig. 3.02

03.1. KINEMATIC: space and volume 36

03.1.1. Origami Patterns

36

03.2. KINETIC: surface control

42

03.2.1. Global Control

42

03.2.2. Local Control

44

03.2.3. Assembly And Scale Change

46

Comparison of different origami patterns

Mechanism exploration to achieved global transformation

Actuators exploration to achieved local control

Fabricating the pattern with rigid material and different joints

Fig. 3.03

03.3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE

58

60

03.3.1.

Environmental Readings

Environmental responses through sensors and microchip

Fig. 3.04

03.3.2.

Responsive Types

Different options for environmental responses

62

Introduction The objective of this chapter is to explore methods and techniques that we have mentioned in the previous chapters in respect to the domain and the abstract of the research. Kinematic systems will be explored through the means of origami; the Japanese art of paper folding. This is explored with the intention of achieving different ways of deploying a system through origami patterns. As a kinetic exploration, control behaviour is explored. Global control triggers movement as a whole while local control triggers components within a system that can be controlled independently to each other. Environmental response is the robotic study where data from the physical environment is read, transferred to a digital model, processed, and transferred back again to the physical environment.


03. Introduction

35

SYSTEM

ENVELOPE SYSTEM

PROGRAM ADAPTIVE

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE

COMPONENT

Group of interacting cells working to perform a certain task.

CONNECTION TYPE

Different element units gives this cell a certain behaviour

ELEMENT Given number of units that define a component

SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT controlled pace global reaction

COMPONENT DEPLOYMENT immediate local reaction

KINETIC APPLICATION

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

GRASSHOPPER + KANGAROO

GECO

ARDUINO

KARAMBA

ECOTEC

DATA PROCESSING

FIREFLY

SENSORS

System Core

Data Processing (the use of open source software/hardware):

Structural System: the primary system in which perform based on the structural integrity of a whole. Program Adaptive: transformation in which happens due to the change in functions.

Grasshopper: graphical algorithm for generative modelling. Firefly: toolset dedicated to bridging the gap between Grasshopper to Arduino, micro-controller. It also allow data flow from digital to physical world in almost real-time. Geometry Gym: bridging between grasshopper to Oasys GSA, a structural engineering design and analysis software. Karamba: finite element analysis module within Grasshopper and fully parametrizable. Arduino: open source electronic prototyping platform allowing to create interactive electronic object. Sensors: hardwares that read environmental condition and translate that to data to activate actuators. Some smart materials has the properties to function as both sensors and actuators.

Elements within the System System: groups of interacting cells working together to perform a certain task. System Deployment: deploying the system in respect to structural integrity and in response to different functions. Kinetic Application: applying different actuators to activate he system.

ELEMENTS WITHIN THE SYSTEM

CONNECTION TYPE

SYSTEM CORE

SYSTEM

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

Fig. 3.01 System Closed [Ref. Illustrative:3.01] Fig. 3.02 System Deployed [Ref. Illustrative: 3.02] Fig. 3.03 Opportunity for Environmental Responsive Sub-System [Ref. Illustrative: 3.03] Fig. 3.04 Sub-System Deployment [Ref. Illustrative: 3.04]


36

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

L L’

#

Variables

Pattern 1. Grid V’s

L

x6

L

L’

L’

#

#

≠ ≠

L

x6

Fig. 3.05

Pattern 3. V’s variations

Fig. 3.06

L

L’

Pattern 2. Multiple V’s

L’

#

#

≠ ≠

L

≠ ≠

x10

L’

# Fig. 3.07 ≠ ≠

Fig. 3.05 - Fig. 3.08 Patterns 1-4. V-patterns [Ref. Illustratives: 3.05 to 3.08] Fig. 3.09 - Fig. 3.10 Patterns 5-6. Modular patterns [Ref. Illustratives: 3.09 to 3.10]

KINEMATIC: space and volume Origami

V-patterns

To explore the folding technique, we began with origami, the Japanese art of folding paper. Different cuts and folds from different patterns allow for various types of deployability. As explored, different patterns result in different forms, volumes, and directionality. Twelve patterns are then analysed based on each of their expansion ratio, control points, number of joints, expansion directions, volume created, and repetition/ modulation of the patterns.

V patterns are one of the most simple folding techniques. The simplicity of this pattern can be seen from two characteristics. The first characteristic is the number of folding lines intersecting each other. The second characteristic is the symmetrical repetition of ridges and valleys folding from intersection points to adjacent points.

Three patterns are chosen from twelve explorations. These are then narrowed down to two patterns and tested with rigid origami techniques where rigid planar sheets are used in combination with joint systems.

In the V patterns, we can see that all intersection points have four lines that are coming in/out from these points and all of these lines are repeating themselves with the exception of Pattern 3. Pattern 4 (fig. 3.08) is very time consuming because there are parts that needs to be glued together on its faces. These parts are coded with a gray shade. As a result, these type of patterns are very linear and only result in


03.1 KINEMATIC: Space & Volume

37

L L’

Pattern 4. V pleats

#

Variables ≠

L

x7

L

L’

L’

# Fig. 3.08

Pattern 5. Modular pleats

#

≠ ≠

L

x2

L

L’

L’

# Fig. 3.09

Pattern 6. Modular pleats_square

#

≠ ≠

L

x5

L’

L L

L’

L L’ L’

# Fig. 3.10 ≠ ≠

L

surface expansion. This means that in fully closed position, it can be compacted to almost a line. And when it is fully open, it forms a surface not a volume. When it is forced to create a volume, each surface panels begin to twist and deform (fig. 3.06). V patterns have a high ratio of expansion and expand in correspondence to both x and y axis.

Modular patterns Knowing the strategy within simple patterns, we now move onto more complex patterns. Modular patterns are usually asymmetrical; however, the patterns consist of smaller modular components that can be repeated on the surface.

Unlike V Patterns, Modular patterns can be deployed to form different volumes while remaining as a surface when retracted. Due to its triangularity, twisting and deformation is not visible at this scale. Modular patterns have a smaller ratio of expansion in the X and Y axis, however, they make up for it due to their greater volumetric expansion. From experimenting with the paper model, it seems that these patterns have the potential to control expansion independently from each other’s axis.

Key

L L’

# # # ≠ ≠

L L’ Expansion Ratio

X&Y axes ≠ independence

Control Points

Volume Created

L’

# # #

≠ ≠ of Number Joints ≠ ≠ ≠

Mountain

Modulation of Pattern Valley


38

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

L L’

#

Variables

Pattern 7. Modular pleats_triangle

L

x2

L

L’

L’

#

#

x4

Pattern 9. Complex Surfaces

Fig. 3.12

L

L’

Fig. 3.11

L

Pattern 8. Modular pleats_triangle variations

L’

#

#

≠ ≠

L

≠ ≠

x10

L’

# Fig. 3.13 ≠ ≠

Fig. 3.11 - Fig. 3.12 Patterns 7-8. Modular patterns [Ref. Illustratives:3.11 to 3.12] Fig. 3.13 - Fig. 3.16 Patterns 9-12. Complex Surfaces [Ref. Illustratives:3.13 to 3.16]


03.1 KINEMATIC: Space & Volume

39

L L’

#

Pattern 10. Complex Surfaces ≠

L

x5

L

L’

L’

# Fig. 3.14

Pattern 11. Complex Surfaces

#

≠ ≠

L

x4

L

L’

L’

# Fig. 3.15

Pattern 12. Complex Surfaces

#

≠ ≠

L

x1,5

L’

L L

L’

L L’ L’

# Fig. 3.16 ≠ ≠

Complex Patterns The third type of patterns are the complex patterns which can be considered as difficult patterns when folding due to the variety of repetition from ridges and valleys from one point its immediate neighbour. Once folded, the transformation of the surface is more difficult to control and to predict. After exploring different patterns in this category, Pattern 9 (fig. 3.13) becomes the most interesting due to the intricacy of the surface and the volume that it creates. Starting by holding the two sides, we can expand the surface by pulling it apart and at the same time create surface curvature on the other two sides.

Key ≠

L

L L’

# # # ≠ ≠

L L’ Expansion Ratio

X&Y axes ≠ independence

Control Points

Volume Created

L’

# # #

≠ ≠ of Number Joints ≠ ≠ ≠

Mountain

Modulation of Pattern Valley


Evaluation Selection

&

40

03.1

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Evaluation & Selection From all of these pattern explorations, we selected three patterns for further investigation. These patterns are 1 (fig 3.17), 6 (fig 3.19), and 7 (fig 3.21). Using the concept of rigid origami, paper folding is replaced by rigid surface panels and joints for greater force resistance and structural integrity. To test this, larger scale models are required.

PATTERN 1 This pattern was chosen due to its simplicity and modularity, all parts were constructed out of the same geometry elements. Less number of lines in each intersection also means that it requires less joints for assembly. Based on the paper model studies, we confirm the pattern’s expansion ratio, directions, and controllability from assembling MDF prototypes. Positive aspects: Easy and quick assembly line and great expansion ratio. Negative aspects: The relation between the X-Y axes limits the possibilities in the control of the surface as the growth in one side means the growth in the other one.


03.1.2. KINEMATIC: Space & Volume_Evaluation

41

Pattern 1. Grid V’s

(a)

Pattern 6. Modular_square

(b)

Fig. 3.17

(c) Fig. 3.18

Fig. 3.17 Selected pattern 1. Grid V’s, paper [Ref. Illustrative: 3.17] Fig. 3.18 Pattern 1, MDF model. (a) flat pattern, (b) partially open, (c) closed pattern [Ref. Illustrative: 3.18] Fig. 3.19 Selected pattern 6, paper. Modular pleats _ squares [Ref. Illustrative: 3.19]

(a)

Pattern 7. Modular_triangle

(b)

Fig. 3.19

(c) Fig. 3.20

Fig. 3.20 Pattern 6, MDF model. (a) open pattern, (b) partially open, (c) closed pattern [Ref. Illustrative: 3.20] Fig. 3.21 Selected pattern 7, paper. Modular pleats _ triangles [Ref. Illustrative: 3.20]

(a) Fig. 3.21

PATTERN 6 This pattern was chosen due to its expendability, control points, modularity, and the ability to create volume. From our previous hypothesis, it is important to check the expansion depending on X axis and Y axis. Because this surface transforms from a surface to a volume, we can conclude that it exhibits high potential to generate architectural spaces. Positive aspects: Independent control on each direction resulting in more form possibilities. Negative aspects: To control local displacement, 4 actuators per component are needed. Non-triangulated elements increase the possibility of non-planar elements.

(b)

(c) Fig. 3.22

PATTERN 7 Pattern 6 and pattern 7 share the same characteristics. However, this pattern is made completely out of triangulated element pieces. Positive aspects: Triangulated element provide structural integrity assuring that all elements are planar. 3 actuators are needed per component. Negative aspects: Due to their triangulation, actuators move simultaneously resulting in a global control. Global control only results in dome-like structure.

Fig. 3.22 Pattern 7, MDF model. (a) open pattern, (b) partially open, (c) closed pattern [Ref. Illustrative: 3.22]


42

Fig. 3.23 Diagrams of surface along rails, Configuration 1. (a) plan when surface is deployed (b) plan when surface is closed [Ref. Illustrative:3.23] Fig. 3.24 Model of surface along rails, Configuration 1. (a) plan when surface is deployed (b) front elevation [Ref. Illustrative:3.24] Fig. 3.25 Diagrams of surface along rails, Configuration 2. (a) plan when surface is deployed (b) plan when surface is closed [Ref. Illustrative:3.25]

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

(a)

(a)

(a)

(b)

(b)

(b)

Fig. 3.23

Fig. 3.25

Fig. 3.27

Fig. 3.26 Model of surface along rails, Configuration 2. (a) plan when surface is deployed (b) front elevation [Ref. Illustrative:3.26]

(a)

(a)

(a)

Fig. 3.27 Diagrams of surface along rails, Configuration 3. (a) plan when surface is deployed (b) plan when surface is closed [Ref. Illustrative:3.27] Fig. 3.28 Model of surface along rails, Configuration 3. (a) plan when surface is deployed (b) front elevation [Ref. Illustrative:3.28]

Fig. 3.24

(b)

KINETIC: actuators and control In a kinetic system, there are two main ways of controlling motion; one being local control and another one being global control. In global control, movement or displacement is defined by a single processor. As a result, several configurations and movements may be achieved. For instance, if an element is designed to move along the X, Y, and Z axis, it is more likely to do so within same formation every time it is activated. Therefore, the sequence of motion would not be adaptable to other sequences under different conditions. On the contrary, systems with local control are most likely to have multiple processors and actuators. This means that each processor acts as a parameter that is uniquely designed and engineered to respond to one particular condition. When assembled together, different parameters will behave as one collective behaviour. This characteristic makes a system versatile and able to adapt to several different conditions.

Fig. 3.26

(b)

Fig. 3.28

Global control - railing system One of the ways in which we address global control is by deploying a foldable surface by means of a railing system. In this case, we investigate 3 different configuration types (see fig. 3.24, 3.26, and 3.28). Here, it is imperative to address the fact that we must understand the behaviour of such foldable surface/pattern in order to design any railing system. In other words, the railing system is an output derived from the behaviour in which a pattern folds and unfolds. In addition, the purpose of these exercises is to demonstrate that different volumes can be achieved from a single pattern type. This is accomplished by controlling the percentage of aperture from one fold to the next. In this fashion, three successful configurations were achieved by running parallel rails along the longer edges of the surface. In turn, being able to achieve large surface areas.

(b)


03.2 KINETIC: Surface Control

43

INPUT

MECHANISM

1 action

OUTPUT 2 effects

rota tion

translation

GEAR SYSTEM GEAR 3

GEAR 4

TRANSLATION + ROTATION on

translati

GEAR 2

TRANSLATION

tion

transla

GEAR 1

Fig. 3.29

Fig. 3.30 Fig. 3.29 Strategic diagram. From 1 input (action) into 2 outputs (effects) [Ref. Illustrative:3.29] Fig. 3.30 Gear system experiment for global control [Ref. Illustrative:3.30]

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e) Fig. 3.31

Global control - gear system A gear system was also explored in order to achieve global control over the deployment of a folding surface (see fig. 3.29). A gear system is simply defined by translation and rotation. It is composed of a single arm which allows for 90 degrees of rotation and also attached to a flange which allows for translation along the x-axis. The structure supporting the gear system is composed by two flanges parallel to each other and a rail type at the ground. In this fashion, we are able to achieve global control and maximum volume deployment by stretching and rotating any foldable surface; on one end being fixed to a flange and on the other to a kinetic system. Both of these models (the railing and gear systems) successfully enable global control not only allowing maximum volume deployment, but

also allow different configuration types from a single folding pattern/ surface. However, they do not allow for multiple configurations outside their own boundaries. In addition, this type of global control focuses on its own structural frame, and not on the folding pattern itself. Even though a successful system, we will move forward aiming to control deployment types from within folding surfaces. In this case, we are aiming to focus on controlling a foldable surface from a local level point of view.

Fig. 3.31 Different volumetric configurations by global control (a) -135o, (b) -90o (c) 0o (d) +90o (e) +135o [Ref. Illustrative:3.31]


44

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

open actuator semi-open actuator closed actuator (a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

Fig. 3.33 9 different component geometries obtained by the combination of 3 stages in the actuators: open, semi-open and closed [Ref. Illustrative:3.33]

closed

Fig. 3.32 The variation in the pattern come as a result of the combination of the local movement in each component. (a) all components are equally activated, (b) gradient in one direction, (c) gradient in 2 directions, (d) all the components are equally closed [Ref. Illustrative:3.32]

vertical actuators

open

Fig. 3.32

closed

horizontal actuators

open (a)

(b)

Fig. 3.33

(c) Fig. 3.34

Fig. 3.34 In a larger scale, different patterns generated by the local control of the components [Ref. Illustrative:3.34] Fig. 3.35 Sections of the surface when activated in 3 different ways. Curvature change [Ref. Illustrative:3.34]

Fig. 3.35

KINETIC: surface control Local control

Local control - digital exploration

Through digital and physical model explorations, we prove that pattern 06 (see fig. 3.19 page 41) becomes the most successful for independent control. Diagrams on the left hand side show how this pattern can be expanded on certain areas which become independent from their neighbouring areas within the surface. Diagrams on the right hand side show how the surface behaves three-dimensionally.

In order to gain local control, we begin by testing a foldable surface in terms of its components (see fig. 3.33). At first, these components are studied as a two-dimensional surface which begins to change shape, not only from its components but also from its own boundaries (see. fig. 3.32 and 3.34). This shape change is possible by controlling the aperture percentage from one component to the next. In return, being able to expand or contract the surface in some areas more than others. However, it is important to make note that there is always a sequence or a pattern that follows depending on which component becomes actuated before the others, and also depending on the location of this component within the surface area. In other words, there is a relationship between expanding or contracting depending on the aperture sequence from one component to the next.


03.2 KINETIC: Surface Control

45

Actuation control exploration

(a)

(b)

(c) Fig. 3.36

Fig. 3.34 Sections of the surface when activated in 3 different ways. Curvature change [Ref. Illustrative:3.34] (a)

(b)

(c) Fig. 3.37

Fig. 3.36 Pattern 6 (page 41). Curvature achieved by the activation of horizontal actuators. (a) front elevation, (b) side elevation, (c) plan view [Ref. Illustrative:3.36] Fig. 3.37 Pattern 6 (page 41). Curvature achieved by the activation of vertical actuators. (a) front elevation, (b) side elevation, (c) plan view [Ref. Illustrative:3.37]

(a)

(b)

(c) Fig. 3.38

Local control - digital exploration

Local control - physical model

Furthermore, the same pattern is briefly studied along a cross section (see. fig 3.35). From this exercise, we are able to examine different curvature types depending on the degree of aperture from each component. This enables us to begin generating volume and enveloping spaces as needed by controlling local movement within the respective components.

In parallel to digital explorations, we built a prototype from MDF panels. This model consists of two components originated from the same pattern examined in the previous digital exercise (see fig. 3.36, 3.37, 3.38). Each component is a combination of eight triangular pieces and one square geometry. Every element is attached by brass hinges which allowing every pair of elements to rotate selectively, and enabling a slight curvature form one component to the next. In essence, it allows us to enclose space depending on the number of components populating a surface. After digital and physical model explorations, we consider these exercises as a success in terms of being able to not only control local movement from a component scale, but also in terms of being able to create volume and enclose space.

Fig. 3.38 Pattern 6 (page 41). Curvature achieved by the activation of both horizontal + Vertical actuators. (a) all open, front elevation, (b) all closed, front elevation, (c) all closed, plan view [Ref. Illustrative:3.38]


46

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

(a)

x 18

(b)

18 clusters of 2 units

(c)

36 units

9 clusters of 4 units

(e)

x9

(d)

(f)

Fig. 3.39

Fig. 3.39 Assembly line of pattern 01. Material: MDF 3mm Joints: Reinforced tape 20mm (a) 36 identic units, (b) taped in pairs with reinforced tape, (c) 18 pairs of units, (d) taped in 9 clusters of mirrored pairs with reinforced tape, (e) 9 clusters of 4 units, (f) final resulting pattern. Dimensions of the flat surface: 90cm x 100cm [Ref. Illustrative: 3.39] Fig. 3.40 Actuation direction of the different clusters of units [Ref. Illustrative: 3.40]

x 18

x9 Fig. 3.40

Assembly and scale change Proceeding from successful digital and physical model exercises, our goal here is to explore three different fabrication and assembly techniques. These are tested using a rigid origami method. Origami can be considered rigid origami when it utilizes rigid surfaces along side with joints. No folding is involved within this technique. Even though, we are now capable of local control, our next experiment activates a pattern from a global scale. However, our aim is to test an assembly method, which joins component elements through a taping technique.


03.2 KINETIC: Surface Control

47

Stage 1: Flat

Stage 2: Folded

Fig. 3.41

Fig. 3.42

Fig. 3.41 Stage 1. Pattern is completely flat on the ground. To start activating it, the mountains (red lines) have to be pushed up simultaneously. Thick red arrows show big amount of force required to start activating the surface [Ref. Illustrative: 3.41]

(a)

(e)

(b)

(f)

(c)

(g)

(d)

(h) Fig. 3.43

MDF pattern 01 The first study model is assembled from a strategy where all elements share the same geometry. In turn, due to the simplicity of the pattern, the assembly process becomes simple and time efficient. 3mm MDF is used for the rigid surface panels, and 20mm reinforce tape is used as a joint type connecting one piece to the next. Once this pattern was assembled, one of the most important factors learned was the amount of force required to activate it. For instance, when the pattern was laying flat on the ground, it became almost impossible to fold up. Each element along the surface edges required an equal amount of force in order to engage it as a kinetic surface. Therefore, becoming even more difficult when being handled by only 3 people not being able to exert an even amount of force through out the surface.

However, just past the initial kinetic mode, there was a quantifiable decrease in the amount of force required for the surface pattern to keep on contracting. This displacement occurs along the z-axis and x-axis simultaneously (see. fig 3.41 and 3.43). From this exercise, we can conclude that once the surface becomes kinetic, it must never come back to “0� curvature and it must remain at number greater than zero in order to minimize the amount of force required for actuation.

Fig. 3.42 Stage 2. Instant after stage 1 when all the mountains are slightly pushed up. Thinner red arrows sow less amount of force required [Ref. Illustrative: 3.42] Fig. 3.43 Operation sequence_pattern 01. X and Y axes are dependent as we can see in the pictures; (a) initial flat stage: width: 90cm x length: 100cm, (b) 80cm x 98cm, (c) 70cm x 95,7cm, (d) 60cm x 93,5cm, (e) 50cm x 91,40cm, (f) 40cm x 89,25, (g) 30cm x 87cm, (20cm x 85cm [Ref. Illustrative: 3.43]


48

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Fig. 3.45 Actuation direction of the different clusters of units [Ref. Illustrative: 3.45]

18 square units

18 square units

+

+

+

144 triangular units

(a)

Fig. 3.44 Assembly line of pattern 06. Material: MDF 3mm Joints: Reinforced tape 20mm (a) 18 squared units + 144 triangular units, (b) taping triangles in pairs to form 72 squares, (c) 18 squared units + 72 pairs of triangular units, (d) taping the pairs of triangles mirrored with the tape on the other side of the surface to get 36 clusters of 4 triangular units, (e) 18 squared units + 36 clusters of 4 triangular units, (f) taping these 36 clusters mirrored and with the tape on the same side of the surface resulting in 16 squares of 8 triangular units. The final surface when flat is 150cm x 150cm [Ref. Illustrative: 3.44]

18 square units

(b)

x 72

72 clusters of 2 units

(c)

(d)

x 18

36 clusters of 4 units

(e)

x 36

x 16

(f)

x 16

Fig. 3.44

x4 Fig. 3.45

Assembly and scale change In order to ease the assembly process, we join component elements by taping them together. In this case, we utilize a 20mm reinforced tape. The tape is in turn replacing a rotational movement that otherwise would be possible by a hinging system.

Then, a component takes the shape of a square, and it is taped along its centre from two edges perpendicular to each other (see fig. 3.44 f). Then, the component is flipped and the remaining pieces are taped in a similar fashion.

However, what becomes important is the sequence in which these pieces are group together to ease the assembly process. Each component is divided into 8 triangular pieces (see fig. 3.45). In this case, they are grouped into components and assembled as such.

Each pair of elements (see fig. 3.45) is able to rotate 180 degrees. Four pair of elements make up a component (see fig. 3.45). This component type is then made up of four ridges and four valleys in the shape of triangles. As a component these triangular pairs are capable of expanding and contracting independently from its neighboured pairs. The rotational freedom from one element pair allows for local control within a component. Therefore, gaining local control over an entire surface area.


03.2 KINETIC: Surface Control

49

Stage 1: Flat

Stage 2: Folded

Fig. 3.46

Fig. 3.47

Fig. 3.46 Stage 1. Pattern is completely flat on the ground. To start activating it, the mountains (red lines) have to be pushed up simultaneously. Thick red arrows show big amount of force required to start activating the surface [Ref. Illustrative: 3.46] Fig. 3.47 Stage 2. Instant after stage 1 when all the mountains are slightly pushed up. Thinner red arrows sow less amount of force required [Ref. Illustrative: 3.47]

(a)

(b) Fig. 3.48

MDF pattern 06

Based on our exercises thus far, we apply our most successful pattern design into the making of this prototype (see fig. 3.19 page 41). Therefore, once again, allowing us to gain local control over a single surface.

It is also important to note, that as in the previous study model, this prototype must never be set flat. In return,this will decrease the amount of force required needed in order to engage its kinetic phase.

In contrast to the previous model, this prototype requires only one more geometrical element type than its successor. However, it still remains fairly simple with only two different geometrical shapes; one square and one triangle. Here, the same materials are also used; a 3mm MDF as the rigid surface and a 20mm reinforce tape as the joint.

Although, it works fairly well under tensile forces, it fails rather quickly under compression and torsion. Therefore, it is important to note that this technique is only applied for study models; these can only be kept for a short period of time.

As simple as this component is in its geometrical shape, and as easy it is to assemble, it only has one disadvantage. This disadvantage comes in terms of fabrication time. Due to the great number of elements that make up a single component which in turn must be multiplied in order to populate a surface, then, fabrication time becomes very consuming. (see fig. 3.44)

Fig. 3.48 Images of the surface. (a) image during the difficult process of folding the surface starting from flat where most of the joinst failed (b) surface fully folded [Ref. Illustrative: 3.48]


50

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Fig. 3.50 Actuation direction of the different clusters of units [Ref. Illustrative: 3.50]

18 square units

18 square units

+

+

+

144 triangular units

(a)

Fig. 3.49 Assembly line of pattern 06. Material: MDF 3mm Joints: Brass Hinges. 15mm (a) 18 squared units + 144 triangular units, (b) hinging triangles in pairs to form 72 squares, (c) 18 squared units + 72 pairs of triangular units, (d) hinging the pairs of triangles mirrored with the hinges on the other side of the surface to get 36 clusters of 4 triangular units, (e) 18 squared units + 36 clusters of 4 triangular units, (f) hinging these 36 clusters mirrored and with the hinges on the same side of the surface resulting in 16 squares of 8 triangular units. The final surface when flat is 110cm x 120cm [Ref. Illustrative: 3.49]

18 square units

(b)

x 72

72 clusters of 2 units

(c)

(d)

x 18

36 clusters of 4 units

(e)

x 36

(f)

x 16

x 16

Fig. 3.49

x4 Fig. 3.50

Assembly and scale change

Assembly and scale change

The geometry of this component is identical to the preceding prototype (see Fig. 3.50). In terms of its kinetic properties, it also behaves the same. However, in terms of assemblage, it is slightly different. In this case, we replace the reinforced tape, by brass hinges in order to resist a compression force when joining one element to the next (see Fig. 3.49).

The final shape achieved is a dome like structure. In order to accomplish this shape, its components must be activated in sequence; either from the centre down to is edges or from the edges up to the centre. However, the most efficient way, is to actuate the components starting from the centre down to the edges.

In addition, the global geometry achieved in this model (see Fig. 3.53) is more complex than the one of its predecessor (see Fig. 3.48a). In this prototype, we are able to design space and form. Although, it does not have an Architectural application, what qualifies this prototype as a success lies in that we are able to control shape change at a local level. Another factor that makes this component a success is that we are able to achieve a variety of form and space from two basic geometrical shapes (a square and a triangle).

Fabrication time: 3 hrs. (laser cutting) 9 hrs. (hinging elements together) Total fabrication time: 12 hrs. Assembly line: For number of elements, cluster and components (see Fig. 3.49a through 3.49f)


03.2 KINETIC: Surface Control

51

Stage 1: Folded

Stage 2: Unfolded

Fig. 3.51

Fig. 3.52

Fig. 3.51 Stage 1. Pattern is completely folded. [Ref. Illustrative: 3.51]

(a)

(e)

(b)

(f)

(c)

(g)

(d)

Fig. 3.52 Stage 2. Pattern is being activated by unfolding its components one by one and locking them in to their position [Ref. Illustrative: 3.52]

(h)

Fig. 3.53 Images of sequence of the activation of the surface. (a) only one component is activated, (b) three components are activated, (c) four components are activated, (d) five components are activated, (e) six components are activated, (f) eight components are activated, (g) ten components are activated, (h) all components are activated [Ref. Illustrative: 3.53]

Fig. 3.53

MDF pattern 06 + brass hinges In this model, we briefly look at the mechanical elements which actuate every component. In this case, we are able to open and close every component to its desired aperture state by using MDF beam like elements that otherwise would be replaced by linear actuators. The components that make up a system constantly adapt to displacement forces in order to avoid failure in terms of torsion, tension and compression. These actuators will be addressed in depth in page 52. The materials used in this model are; a 3mm MDF as surface panels and brass hinges as the hardware connecting one element to the next. surface: 1,10cm x 1,20cm time: 12 hour (faster assembly process due to previous experience)


52

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Actuator Types There are two common actuator types that have been widely developed by mechanical engineers, space engineers, architects, installation artists and toy designers. The product of such actuators varies from small product design such as mechanical toys and medical equipment, to medium size designs for canopies and facades. Actuators have also been applied to larger scale structures such as stadium roofs, movable bridges and outer space machinery. Based on our investigation, we classify actuators into two major categories; Mechanical actuators and Phase Changing Actuators. Moreover, depending on their performative need; these are capable to withstand forces under tension, compression, or a combination of both. Through out the fabrication from physical prototype, and the study of their kinetic behaviour, we are able to recognize the forces required in terms of structural integrity. In this case, we are aiming to introduce linear actuators not only for kinematic behaviour, but also as structural

components. Therefore, for the purpose of these exercises, we will rely on actuators resisting both tension and compression forces. In turn maintaining continuous equilibrium within the system. In respect to kinetic behaviour, every component in the system is equipped with two pairs of actuators. One pair running along the x-axis (horizontal displacement) and a second pair running along the y-axis (vertical displacement). Both acting under tension and compression. Their application pushes the component apart for surface expansion and also pulls the component closer to itself for surface compression. In this chapter, we study Mechanical Linear Actuators and Phase Changing Actuators.


03.2 KINETIC: Surface Control

53


54

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Turnbuckles 38BC-TS-5811 Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

2500 2500 2500 2500 manual manual 171-235 -

38BC-RS-5811 Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

2500 2500 2500 2500 manual manual 171-235 -

Fig. 3.54

Fig. 3.55

Fig. 3.56

Fig. 3.57

Pneumatic Cylinders DSNU/20 DSNU 20-25

Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

300 300 300 300 5,5 4,5 1-500 -

DSNUP, ISO 6431 Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

7363 7363 7363 7363 7,4 6,8 10-2000 -

Mechanical Actuators

Fig. 3.54 Jaw toggle & Swage 38BC-TS-5811_ Blair Corporation [Ref. Illustrative:3.54] Fig. 3.55 Rod & Swage 38BC-RS-5811_Blair Corporation [Ref. Illustrative:3.55] Fig. 3.56 Standard cylinder DSNU 20-25_FESTO [Ref. Illustrative:3.56] Fig. 3.57 Standard cylinder DSNUP ISO 6431_ FESTO [Ref. Illustrative:3.57]

In this category, we study different mechanical actuators such as; turn buckles, pneumatic cylinders, pneumatic air muscles and electric linear actuators. The specifications for each actuator type provide us with information regarding the push/pull power, speed, and distance range for each type. According to our previous physical experiments, we can conclude that all actuators need to resist both tensile and compressive forces. Referring to the appropriate specifications from each actuator, we are able to conclude that the least desirable type is the pneumatic air muscle (see Fig. 3.60 - 3.61) as it only works either on tension or compression, but never under both forces simultaneously. Turnbuckles (see Fig. 3.54 - 3.55) need to be activated manually and

their length can be adjusted accordingly. However, this type of actuator works under both compression and tension. Pneumatic cylinders (see Fig 3.56 - 3.57) are activated by allowing pressurized air to one of the chambers in order to extend or compress their length. In addition, electric liner actuators (see Fig. 3.58 - 3.59) are essentially motors that rotate on a threaded rod that allows itself to slide in and out; extending and reducing its length. Both of these type are capable of working under compression and tension.


03.2 KINETIC: Surface Control

55

Electric Linear Actuators LA28 Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

3500 2000 3500 2000 6,7 4,7 100-400 50

LA30

Fig. 3.58

Fig. 3.59

Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

6000 3000 6000 3000 8,7 5,5 100-400 50

Pneumatic Muscle Actuators Ø 20 mm

Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

300 300 4,2 3,0 150-210 -

Ø 30 mm

Fig. 3.60

Fig. 3.61

Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

1000 1000 4,5 4,0 210-300 -

Fig. 3.58 LA28 Electric Linear Actuator_LINAK Group [Ref. Illustrative:3.58] Fig. 3.59 LA30 Electric Linear Actuator_LINAK Group [Ref. Illustrative:3.59] Fig. 3.60 Relaxed pneumatic air muscle_ Shadow Robot Company [Ref. Illustrative:3.60] Fig. 3.61 Activated pneumatic air muscle_Shadow Robot Company [Ref. Illustrative:3.61]


56

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Memory alloy wire Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Stroke range (%): Steps (mm): Starting temperature (°): Max. opening temperature (°):

40 4 70 90

Fig. 3.62

Fig. 3.63

In this chapter, we will define three types of Phase Changing Actuators from the Smart Material’s category. The first one is a Memory Alloy Wire, the second one is a Hydro-gel, and the third one is a wax actuator.

This alloy type can be calibrated to respond to various temperatures as per application, and it has the ability of shape change up to 4 percent of its length.

Actuators Phase Changing Actuators

Memory Alloy wires become kinetic in response to heat and electricity (see Fig. 3.62). They will either respond by expanding or contracting. However, what makes them unique is their ability for memory shape change. In this fashion, Memory Alloys come in two categories: a) 1 - way alloy. b) 2 - way alloy. One way alloys expand and contract responding to heat or electricity.

Two way alloys, display exactly the same characteristics as One way alloys, however, they exhibit one extra property in terms of kinetic behaviour. Two way alloys can be calibrated not only to expand and contract in response to environmental inputs, but can also be calibrated to remember a secondary shape. (see Fig. 3.62) In general, memory alloys only work under tension. They are capable of pulling, however, when it comes to pushing, they will return to their original shape, but they will never exert any force during the process. In this case, a primary system must be integrated. This can become an issue, under systems responding to lateral forces such as wind or


03.2 KINETIC: Surface Control

57

Wax linear actuators Giga vent Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm): Starting temperature (°): Max. opening temperature (°):

500 500 0-300 17-25 30-32

Optivent Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm): Starting temperature (°): Max. opening temperature (°):

Fig. 3.64

200 200 0-450 17-25 30-32

Fig. 3.65

Polymer gel Ø 20 mm

Thrust max. push (N): Self lock max. push (N): Thrust max. pull (N): Self lock max. pull (N): Typical speed no load (mm/s): Typical speed max. load (mm/s): Stroke range (mm): Steps (mm):

300 300 4,2 3,0 150-210 -

Fig. 3.66

earthquakes. Never the less, memory alloys are 100% energy efficient, they can be engineered or calibrated to respond to various temperature inputs, and they have had great success within small architectural building types. The second category of Smart Materials comes in the form of a powder. In this case, this material responds to water (see Fig. 3.66). Once this material interacts with water, its volume increases; therefore exerting a pushing force. This powder based material, however, it requires a unique casing type that would move simultaneously to the expansion rate of the powder. Then, the geometry of the casing becomes the output for displacement. The third category defines a wax actuator material (see Fig. 3.65) responding to heat. This type has been widely used in green houses.

Just like the hydro-gel, this wax actuator requires a casing which commonly comes in the form of hydraulics. Phase Changing Actuators are extremely promising due to the interaction of their natural properties in respect to the environment. In other words, they do not need an external power source to engage or interact with the natural environment. These materials are also known as,smart materials. Some of which can even be engineered or calibrated in order to respond to unique environmental inputs. However, Smart Materials are still in their early stages of development, and at this point, they are mostly applied to small scale designs. In architectural terms, this design type mainly comes as a secondary system within a building design. These may be building facades, roof canopies or art installations.

Fig. 3.62 Memory Alloy wire [Ref. Illustrative:4.62] Fig. 3.63 Alloy Muscle prototype [Ref. Illustrative:3.63] Fig. 3.64 Giga vent_ J. Orbesen Teknik ApS [Ref. Illustrative:3.64] Fig. 3.65 Optivent_J. Orbesen Teknik ApS [Ref. Illustrative:3.65] Fig. 3.66 Sequence of the reaction of the polymer gel with water [Ref. Illustrative:3.66]


58

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Preliminary Explorations

Fig. 3.01

Fig. 3.02

03.1. KINEMATIC: space and volume 36

Comparison of different origami patterns

36

03.2. KINETIC: surface control

42

03.2.1. Global Control

42

03.2.2. Local Control

44

03.2.3. Assembly And Scale Change

46

Fig. 3.01 System Closed [Ref. Illustrative:3.01]

03.1.1. ORIGAMI PATTERNS

Mechanism exploration to achieved global transformation

Actuators exploration to achieved local control

Fabricating the pattern with rigid material and different joints

Fig. 3.03

Fig. 3.02 System Deployed [Ref. Illustrative: 3.02] Fig. 3.03 Opportunity for Environmental Responsive Sub-System [Ref. Illustrative: 3.03]

03.3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE

58

60

03.3.1.

Environmental Readings

Environmental responses through sensors and microchip

Fig. 3.04 Sub-System Deployment [Ref. Illustrative: 3.04]

Fig. 3.04

03.3.2.

Responsive Types

Different options for environmental responses

62


03.3 Environmental Response

59

SYSTEM

ENVELOPE SYSTEM

PROGRAM ADAPTIVE

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE

COMPONENT

Group of interacting cells working to perform a certain task.

CONNECTION TYPE

Different element units gives this cell a certain behaviour

Given number of units that define a component

SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT controlled pace global reaction

COMPONENT DEPLOYMENT immediate local reaction

KINETIC APPLICATION

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

GRASSHOPPER + KANGAROO

GECO

ARDUINO

KARAMBA

ECOTEC

SENSORS

Envelope System: system in which perform as a secondary to the structural system. Climate Responsive: transformation in which happens due to the change of climate/environment.

Elements within the System Component: different element units gives this cell a certain behaviour. Element: given number of units that define a cell component. Connection Types: different connection types for different systems that will have different material resistances. Component Deployment: deploying parts of the component in respect to climate and environmental changes. Kinetic Application: applying different actuators to activate he system.

Environmental Data: environmental data that can be considered and used as an input to transform the system. Let light in when it is too dark, close the openings when it is too hot, or create ventilation when it is too humid.

Data Processing (the use of open source software/hardware): Grasshopper: graphical algorithm for generative modelling. Firefly: toolset dedicated to bridging the gap between Grasshopper to Arduino, micro-controller. It also allow data flow from digital to physical world in almost real-time. Ecotect: a software that is able to render and simulate a building’s performance within the context of its environment. Geco: bridging between Grasshopper to Ecotect. Arduino: open source electronic prototyping platform allowing to create interactive electronic object. Sensors: hardwares that read environmental condition and translate that to data to activate actuators. Some smart materials has the properties to function as both sensors and actuators.

DATA PROCESSING

FIREFLY

System Core

ELEMENT

ELEMENTS WITHIN THE SYSTEM

CONNECTION TYPE

SYSTEM CORE

SYSTEM

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM


60

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Rhino Preview

Firefly/Grasshopper

Arduino Board

Light Sensor

LED

Servo

Component Fig. 3.71

Environmental readings To start with environmental exploration, we looked up different ways of readings and translating environment data. For this exploration, we make use of various tools and open source software/hardware. These tools include light sensors, red LED’s, servo motors, and Arduino microprocessors in combination with open-source software such as; Firefly and Grasshopper. We then devised a kinematic prototype capable of transformation. To activate this, data input needs to be translated to data output that will then be fed as an input for the hardware system. This is a linear process. The first step is for light sensor to read the light value in the environment (average light sensor give values between 0-1023). This value needs to be then converted to a value from 0-255 for LED value or 0-180 for the angular value of a common servo. Once this data is converted in the software, it is transferred to the hardware via Arduino microprocessor. Arduino converts a set of translated data to a set of different electrical currents that then activate the hardware.


03.3 Environmental Response

61

STIMULI

01. LIGHT SENSOR Detects light changes

EFFECT

02. ARDUINO BOARD Collects data

03. FIREFLY/GRASSHOPPER Translates data into a set of instructions

04. ARDUINO BOARD Translates instruction to electrical current

05a. SERVO Activates physical prototype based on the input current 05b. GH MODEL Activates the digital prototype

Fig. 3.72

Fig. 3.71 Devices used to read environmental data and make the Responsive Component react accordingly [Ref. Illustrative: 3.71] Fig. 3.72 Sequence diagram [Ref. Illustrative: 3.72]

(a)

(b)

(c)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(d)

(h) Fig. 3.73

In this case, we set the a range and a parameter for the servo to activate as a light value reaching a particular limit. This system must be re-calibrated when it is moved from one place to another in order to improve the reading from the existing light condition. At the end of the servo, a kinematic component is installed, which under the bright light, the component will stay open on a triangular shape. Then, as the light value decreases, the component begins to close up forming a pyramid-like geometry that adjusts itself depending on the amount of light received. It is also capable of moving midway based on the light reading and the angular limits that is assign to the servo. The speed of the opening and closing process can be adjusted. Time delays can also be programmed into the microprocessor. The process can also be reversed as the component closes responding to a higher value of light.

Data from Firefly and Grasshopper, can also be linked to Rhino3D . Furthermore, based on the complexity of the data processing, we can see the physical simulation via digital representation close to real time. This also means that data processors can process and are capable of controlling data at any location, while hardware devices are being assembled and located somewhere else. The same digital algorithm and data processing can also be reused on systems distributed around the globe.

Fig. 3.73 Images of the physical/digital experiment. The prototype responds to changes in the environmental conditions that are collected by the light resistor emulating the performance of a sunflower. With light the prototype opens to collect it and when dark it closes. (a) with the light on, the prototype is open, (b) prototype is closing with the absence of light. At the same time, red LED light is lit up, (c) closed prototype, (d) prototype starting to open when light is turned back on, (e to h) the prototype continues interacting with the changes of light not only by opening and closing its flaps completely when the light is on or off but also partially by adjusting the degree of the opening when the amount of light varies [Ref. Illustrative: 3.73]


62

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

01 Folds Opening

Fig. 3.74

02 Shutters Opening

Fig. 3.75

Fig. 3.76

03 Rotating Opening

Fig. 3.77

0o

30o

60o

90o

0% opening

11% opening

46% opening

92% opening

0o

30o

60o

90o

0% opening

39% opening

79% opening

92% opening

0o

30o

60o

90o

0% opening

46% opening

83% opening

97.5% opening

0o

30o

60o

90o

0% opening

17% opening

63% opening

100% opening

Responsive types Knowing the limits and different applications of Arduino, we continue to explore different possibilities for digital prototype that would respond to several environmental conditions by changing surface porosity. Eight of these different mechanical systems are designed based on the actuation of simple motors. Rotational movement from a motor can be translated to push, pull, and rotate. Different experimentations are carried out by using rigid and flexible elements. As it is a secondary unit that depends on the main structural performative system (origami), it is required for this unit to be adjustable and adaptable to its primary system. Therefore, several properties need to be adjusted such as; the overall geometry, movement range and mechanical complexity.


03.3 Environmental Response

63

0o

30o

60o

90o

0% opening

12% opening

24% opening

31% opening

0o

30o

60o

90o

0% opening

29% opening

63% opening

78% opening

0o

30o

60o

90o

04 Aperture Opening

Fig. 3.78

05 Membrane Opening

Fig. 3.79

Fig. 3.74 Responsive type: Folds Opening [Ref. Illustrative: 3.74] Fig. 3.75 Responsive type: Shutters Opening [Ref. Illustrative: 3.75] Fig. 3.76 Responsive type: Shutters Opening [Ref. Illustrative: 3.76] Fig. 3.77 Responsive type: Rotating Opening [Ref. Illustrative: 3.77

0% opening

13% opening

24% opening

28% opening

0o

30o

60o

90o

Fig. 3.80

Fig. 3.78 Responsive type: Aperture Opening [Ref. Illustrative: 3.78] Fig. 3.79 Responsive type: Membrane Opening type one [Ref. Illustrative: 3.79] Fig. 3.80 Responsive type: Membrane Opening type two [Ref. Illustrative: 3.80]

0% opening

52% opening

96% opening

These are unique unit types showing different opening configurations. The first three units (fig. 3.57, 3.58, 3.59) are using simple mechanisms like conventional widow shutters. This units require more space outside its bounding box (imaginary minimum box that is enclosed the overall object) for the range of its movement. Unit 4 has a simple division of the overall square shape. Division lines can be pulled from each corner to the centre. This can be translated to division of any irregular shape. Actuating these panels is as simple as rotating a single side attached to a frame of each triangular element in the unit. Unit 5 (fig. 3.61) is more successful in terms of the space it requires for

112% opening

Fig. 3.81

movement. All elements rotate on its own axis, therefore, there is no extra space is needed other than its own bounding box. Unit 6 (fig. 3.62), 7 (fig. 3.63), and 8 (fig. 3.64) are developed using flexible membrane like elements. This membrane also has a stretch factor that allows it to return to its original form and shape. This asks for precision in measuring and calibrating the stretch factor and the force power from the mechanical actuator/motor. In conclusion, due to the evaluation mentioned above, we choose unit 4 (fig. 3.60) for further development in terms of adaptability. This unit will be discussed in Chapter 4.

Fig. 3.81 Responsive type: Membrane Opening type three [Ref. Illustrative: 3.81]


Evaluation Conclusion

&

64

03

03. PRELIMINARY EXPLORATIONS

Evaluation and Conclusion We would like to end this chapter by summarizing and concluding our learnings for further research development (chapter 5). After experimenting different patterns in different scales and materials, we chose pattern 6 (fig 3.10) due to its simplicity, modularity, and different spatial and volumetric possibilities. For further physical model explorations, we continue to make use of MDF panels and brass hinges due to their performative value. Different physical models and assembling processes made us realize the need to break down the system into components in order to design several configurations. At the same time we learned that different parameters will increase the adaptability factor within the system.


03.4 Evaluation & Conclusion

The intention of increasing the versatility of the system drove us to test different parameters in within a digital algorithm. Parameters that will be explored are extrusion heights, component divisions of the overall surface, different actuator locations, and different anchor points. By comparing global and local control, we see more opportunities within local control providing different spatial and volumetric configurations. However, to control patterns at a local level, we see the need to work with actuator types capable of resisting tensile and compressive forces. Arduino performs well in reading and translating data sets. This microprocessor can be very useful when calibrating and synchronizing multiple hardware systems; such as sensors and actuators. In addition to Arduino, we will explore additional open source software/hardware

65

in order to bridge multiple software; such as Rhino3D, Grasshopper, Karamba, Geco, GSA, Geometry Gym, etc.


Research Development 66

04


67

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT 04.1. DIGITAL ALGORITHM

04.1.1. GRASSHOPPER EXPERIMENTATION 04.1.2. COMPONENT BREAKDOWN 04.1.3. DESIGN PARAMETERS 04.1.3.1. Surface Boundaries 04.1.3.2. Surface Divisions 04.1.3.3. Surface Extrusion 04.1.3.4. Actuators Placement 04.1.3.5. Actuators Distribution 04.1.3.6. Anchor Points 04.1.3.7. Material Resistance

04.2. DIGITAL AND PHYSICAL COMPARISON 04.3. ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE 04.3.1. UNIT ADAPTABILITY 04.3.2. DATA PROCESSING


68

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT


04. Introduction

69

SYSTEM

ENVELOPE SYSTEM

PROGRAM ADAPTIVE

CLIMATE RESPONSIVE

COMPONENT

Group of interacting cells working to perform a certain task.

CONNECTION TYPE

Different element units gives this cell a certain behaviour

ELEMENT Given number of units that define a component

SYSTEM DEPLOYMENT controlled pace global reaction

COMPONENT DEPLOYMENT immediate local reaction

KINETIC APPLICATION

ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

GRASSHOPPER + KANGAROO

GECO

ARDUINO

KARAMBA

ECOTEC

SENSORS

Introduction Continuing from our preliminary explorations in Chapter 3; in retrospect to the system method diagram, we focus on three points for these explorations. The study of digital algorithm is to answer the questions; how to fold and control the volume in Grasshopper, what are the different parameters that increases the system’s adaptability, and how accurate is the system when tested in the physical world. Once the primary and the structural system is defined digitally, we will re-visit the secondary branch into the system responding to environmental factors; a well defined environmental responsive unit needs to be further developed to adapt to the primary system. For experimental purposes, we apply Ecotect to retrieve environmental data and translate the data in Grasshopper so that it is usable to be integrated back into the system. Geco will be needed to bridge the two different software; Grasshopper and Ecotect.

DATA PROCESSING

FIREFLY

ELEMENTS WITHIN THE SYSTEM

CONNECTION TYPE

SYSTEM CORE

SYSTEM

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM


70

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

(a)

(b)

(a)

(b)

Top Actuators Bottom Actuators

Digital algorithm Before we began developing a digital algorithm, we recall the rigid origami model explored in the previous chapter. Due to inertia, it was difficult to fold the pattern when it was at “0� curvature (flat). Once folding takes place, it was much easier to continue the folding to a complete closed position. And from the assembly process, it was noted that breaking down the system through the repetition of its component resulting into the possibility for surface growth. For digital algorithm, the following computer aided programs were utilized; Rhinoceros, Grasshopper, kangaroo, and Karamba. Rhinoceros is the main software platform utilized, which within its own interface, it enables other software types such as Grasshopper; a plug-in for parametric versatility, Kangaroo; as a physics engine, and Karamba for structural analysis. These different plug-ins were imperative into the digital algorithm design.

Flat and pre-folded exploration In this study, the pattern is drawn in Rhino3D and activated with Kangaroo in Grasshopper. In order for this simulation to run, some parts of the system are set as meshes and curves. In Kangaroo, curves are divided in two different categories. One set of curves are to remain and maintain their length. The other set of curves change the dimension of their length based on demand. This set behaves as linear actuators. Proceeding from the last physical experimentation, we began our studies by testing two different techniques. The first technique is a flat and unfolded pattern (fig. 4.01), and the second technique begins once the pattern is fully closed (fig. 4.02). In both techniques, two types of actuators are being used. When the pattern is fully closed, the surface has a thickness and begins to show volume. With this volume generated, we apply actuators at the top and bottom layers of this surface volume (fig. 4.02a). Relating back to its own pattern, the same actuator types are


04.1. Digital Algorithm

71

(c)

(d) Fig. 4.01

Fig. 4.01 Grasshopper simulation starting from flat surface [Ref. Illustrative:4.01] (c)

(d) Fig. 4.02

applied to the flat surface (fig. 4.01a). The diagrams on far left (a) show the starting position for two different techniques. As the diagrams continue to sequence (b), the top actuator is activated. Actuators keep on expanding into diagram (c). In the last sequence (d), the bottom actuators are activated. From this, we can see clearly that the pre-folded pattern allows for better control in comparison to the flat/un-folded pattern. After several tries, technique 1 (fig. 4.01) gives different results for every iteration. On the other hand, technique 2 (fig. 4.02) proves to be more stable due to constant results in every iteration. From both digital and physical exploration, we can now conclude that pre-folded surfaces result into better controlled systems.

Fig. 4.02 Grasshopper simulation starting from folded surface [Ref. Illustrative:4.02]


72

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) Fig. 4.03

Fig. 4.04

Fig. 4.05

Component Breakdown The Grasshopper experimentation lead us to the hypothesis that the development of this system must begin from a pre-folded surface or closed position. Keeping this in mind, it is only reasonable to breakdown this pattern into smaller additive components to generate a surface. This component is assembled from different elements. Breaking the pattern down into components will help us to organize the assembly process when it comes to production and fabrication time. Using the same pattern, we break it down into two different component types; for component 1 (see fig. 4.05) and for component 2 (see fig. 4.08). The diagrams above, (see fig. 4.03 and fig. 4.06), show different sequences for the behaviour of each component type once actuators are engaged. Both component types can now be repeated as two dimensional arrays


04.1. Digital Algorithm

73

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) Fig. 4.06

Fig. 4.03 Option 1 for component within the surface. (a) Actuators 100% closed, (b) Actuators 35% open, (c) Actuators 65% open, (d) Actuators 100% open [Ref. Illustrative: 4.03] Fig. 4.04 Exploded perspective of the component (option 1) and its elements [Ref. Illustrative: 4.04] Fig. 4.05 Location of the component within the surface (option 1) [Ref. Illustrative: 4.05] Fig. 4.06 Option 2 for component within the surface. (a) Actuators 100% closed, (b) Actuators 35% open, (c) Actuators 65% open, (d) Actuators 100% open [Ref. Illustrative: 4.06]

Top Actuators Bottom Actuators

Fig. 4.07

Fig. 4.08

Fig. 4.07 Exploded perspective of the component (option 2) and its elements [Ref. Illustrative: 4.07] Fig. 4.08 Location of the component within the surface (option 2) [Ref. Illustrative: 4.08]

to create surfaces. However, when it is applied digitally, component 2 (see Fig. 4.07) proves to be more efficient and practical due to its symmetrical property. Both component types will be tested in the physical world to measure the efficiency in assembly time and effort. In the mean time, we will continue using component 2 for further advancement in the digital algorithm.


74

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT


04.1. Digital Algorithm

75

Design Parameters When defining the component types, there are different parameters that can be considered to make the system adaptable to different spatial conditions. Some of these parameters are boundary lines, surface divisions, extrusion heights, anchor points, and different locations for actuators. Different parameters are meant to add more control to the system. For instance; different anchor points can be adjusted to fit the site conditions while surface divisions can be increased or decreased to generate smoother surface curvatures. Extrusion heights can increase structural stability if longer spans were needed. In this section, seven different parameters will be further discussed.


76

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Parameter 1. Case 1 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 2,5 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 8 / 5 / 1 / 1

(b)

(c)

Actuators: 15 / 8 / 1 / 1

(d)

Parameter 1. Case 2 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines non-orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 4 / 2,5 / 1 / 1

(b)

Actuators: 8 / 5 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 15 / 8 / 1 / 1

(d)

Boundaries

*1 Activating the surface means to change the length of the actuator inside the grasshopper using kangaroo plug-in. *2 UV value is a two dimensional coordinate set on a surface.

Having developed a successful component, we are now able to distribute it onto any surface responding to the particulars of most any architectural design. This surface is defined by four lines that make up a closed surface. Since the base component has four boundary lines, it is important to also use four boundary lines for the new surface application. This is the only restriction within the system. Once the component is changed to a triangular, hexagonal or octagonal shape, the application surface must be changed to the same number of lines. If this restriction is satisfied, we are then able to distribute the component onto any surface. The first experiment (case 1) evolves by utilizing the geometry of a square. The component is now able to be populated and activated* as desired*1. With a square boundary and equal divisions of UV*2 values, all components which make up the surface are identical (see case 1d).


04.1. Digital Algorithm

77 Parameter 1. Case 3

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 2,5 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 8 / 5 / 1 / 1

(b)

(c)

Actuators: 15 / 8 / 1 / 1

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines non-orthogonal non-planar (double curved) 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Parameter 1. Case 4

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 2,5 / 1 / 1

(b)

In Case 2, we test a non-orthogonal boundary. Two adjacent points are distorted and moved closer to create a triangular like surface (but still consist of four boundary lines). In turn, once actuators are activated, the surface performs as desired. However, since the surface has more than two boundary lengths, the components are not identical from each other (see case 2d). This means that each of the panels are distinct from each other; therefore, assembly time will increase. Moving on to the third experiment (case 3), a square boundary is drawn; however, two of the cross opposite points are lifted in the z direction. Then, the surface output becomes a doubly curved surface. Keep in mind that the boundary lines still remain straight lines. Once activated, the surface still perform as expected.

Actuators: 8 / 5 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 15 / 8 / 1 / 1

(d)

Further experimentations from different boundary types make us aware of one more restriction. In case 4, the surface is defined by three straight lines and one curved line. Once the surface is divided into smaller UV values, it automatically converts the curved lines into smaller straight lines based on the number of UV values. These smaller straight lines convert the number of the boundary lines to more than four lines (which is the required number of boundary lines). Once activated, the system is still able to perform. However, when the actuator increases its length, the lines brake and the system fails (case 4d).

01. Boundaries: 3 Straight lines 1 Curved line non-orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000


78

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Parameter 2. Case 1 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 3x3 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

Parameter 2. Case 2 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 6x6 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

(b)

Surface Divisions Once a surface is generated, the next parameter is to give the surface a UV*1 value. This UV value outputs a number of divisions and the scale of the component . A uniform value is set as a default height. In this case, a value of 20 units is assigned to the height. The combination of UV values and default heights create small individual boxes onto the surface. A bounding box is then created around the original component. With a Box Morph*2, the bounding box (including the original component) is then stretched to fit these small division boxes. This is the process that it takes for the component to populate any surface. *1 UV value is a two dimensional coordinate set on a surface. *2 Box Morph is a Grasshopper tool

Four tests are explored using different UV values, however, with the same expansion rate of its actuators. Actuators are activated at 1x, 4x, 8x, and 10x. These numbers are the multiplication length of the


04.1. Digital Algorithm

79 Parameter 2. Case 3

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(b)

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 9x3 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Parameter 2. Case 4

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

actuators that increase their length by 1, 4, 8, and 10 times the original length. Dividing the surface into different UV values will result in different geometry configurations once the system is activated. When UV values increases; the components become smaller along with the respective actuators. This means that the multiplication length can not be as large as larger components (smaller UV value). In cases 1 and 2, the surface is divided into equal values of U and V. Comparing the two cases, we see that larger UV values correspond to more curvature and smoother dome-like geometries. At the same time, larger UV values result in more usable spaces inside the system’s structure. Larger UV values means more actuators needed. However, smaller divisions may result in smaller distributed loads due to smaller

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

elements. On cases 3 and 4, we see that larger UV values start to collide with each other (case 3c, 3d, 4c and 4d). One hypothesis is that the expanded length of the actuators can not be longer than the extrusion of the surface. This theory will be kept in mind and be constantly reevaluated during further parameter exploration.

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 3x9 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000


80

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Parameter 3. Case 1 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

Parameter 3. Case 2 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 10 unit Point 2: 10 unit Point 3: 30 unit Point 4: 30 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

(b)

Surface Extrusion In regards to the parameter for Surface Division, a default height of 20 units is set for all surfaces. In this parameter study, we attempt to control the heights of all four corner points on each surface. This is to test the system’s performance when each points have different extrusion heights. To achieved this, there are two options of extruding points. The first option is to extrude the points along the z-axis. The second option is to average the vectors of each point’s normal and extrude points along the average vector. Four different extrusions are being tested using z axis as the direction of the extrusion. The first test (case 1) is extruding all four points uniformly like it was done in the previous parameter. Case 2 is done by extruding two adjacent points with a value of 10 units


04.1. Digital Algorithm

81 Parameter 3. Case 3

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(b)

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 10 unit Point 2: 40 unit Point 3: 10 unit Point 4: 40 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

(d)

Parameter 3. Case 4

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

and the two opposing points with 30 units. Up to step c, the system remains true to its logic. However, the system begins to break along the two lower extrusions in step d. This justifies that the previous theory is still valid. The expanded actuators on the lower edge are larger than the extrusion; therefore the system fails. Case 3 is tested by extruding two diagonal points with a value of 10 units, while the other two points are extruded with a value of 40 units. Case 4 is the last test and each one of the points are extruded by different values ( 10, 20, 30, and 40 unit). Both of these models are successful prototypes. From the previous parameter exploration, we know that smaller components result in smoother surface curvature. From this parameter experimentation, we can also conclude that smaller/lower extrusion

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

heights can also result in more surface curvature (refer to cases 1 and 3). Case 1 shows an even distribution of surface curvature while, case 3 shows an uneven distribution of surface curvature.

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 10 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 30 unit Point 4: 40 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000


82

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Parameter 4. Case 1 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 1 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 8 / 1 / 1 / 1

(b)

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 1 / 1 / 1

(d)

Parameter 4. Case 2 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 1 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

Actuators: 1 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 1 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

Actuators Placement In order for the system to transform and adapt to new shapes and form, actuators need to be added. The number of different actuators types gives different control of the system’s form. As it is shown in fig 4.02, two sets of different actuators are placed into a system component. One set of actuators are located on the upper layer of the surface volume and another set is located on the lower layer of the surface volume. Each set of actuators is composed of two different actuator types; horizontal (TH – top horizontal and BH – bottom horizontal) and vertical (TV – top vertical and BV – bottom vertical). Two actuators sets will form the surface in the positive and negative direction of curvature. For a simple four sided surface, TH will generate a tunnel like structure along the y-axis (case 1). Activating TV will generate the same structure, but in the perpendicular direction (case 2).


04.1. Digital Algorithm

83 Parameter 4. Case 3

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(b)

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Parameter 4. Case 4

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1,25 / 1,25

(b)

When both TH and TV are activated, the surface will transform to a dome-like form (case 3). To increase surface area, all four actuators can be activated proportionally. Case 4 shows how the square meter of the surface increased from step a to step c. The number of expansion represents the multiplicity of the original actuators length. In case 4d, BH has the value of 2x, in this case, this means that 2x BH is larger than 10xTV; therefore surfaces curve in the negative direction (bowl like form). Because one actuator is completely independent from the others, the combination of different values in four actuators makes it possible to obtain multiple transformations from a single surface.

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1,5 / 1,5

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 2 / 2

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000


84

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Parameter 5. Case 1 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

Parameter 5. Case 2 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True False True False 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

(b)

Actuators Distribution In order to avoid redundancy, energy waste, and production spending; we strategically remove actuators depending on their kinetic behaviour. These will be replaced by springs. Due to its stored potential energy, we expect that springs will aid to initiate the movement from adjacent actuators. However, in these four cases; springs have not yet been implemented. The distribution of these actuators can be controlled by setting up pattern toggles which can be set to true/false. Then, different patterns are generated by changing the division number and four toggle combinations. Case 1 pertains to the distribution and engagement of actuators on all components.


04.1. Digital Algorithm

85 Parameter 5. Case 3

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: False False True False 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Parameter 5. Case 4

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

Case 2 utilizes the following pattern combinations: true/false/true/false. It is the closest combination to achieve the similar shape and volume as the original true/true/true/true combination. If we pay close attention to case 2d, the end corner starts to close-in on itself. This happens because of the lack of actuators in this corner. Special restriction might need to be applied for edges and corner conditions. Once the number of removed actuators is greater than the placed actuators, the system does not work properly as it collides onto itself as in cases 3 and 4. Spring replacement may be the solution to this problem. This will need to be tested on further explorations.

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True False False False 06. Anchor Points: 1 corner point 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000


86

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Parameter 6. Case 1 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: Along one side 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1,5 / 1,5

(d)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1,5 / 1,5

(d)

Parameter 6. Case 2 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 2 opposing sides 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

(b)

Anchor Points In correlation with actuators, anchor points also put restriction in the system’s transformation. In a given generic surface, four cases are executed with different fix or anchor points. Case 1 utilizes points along one side of the surface volume for anchor points. Case 2 utilizes all points along two opposing sides of the surface volume for anchor points. It is shown here that the result is a tunnel like shape. Case 3 utilizes all points along two perpendicular sides of the surface volume for anchor points.


04.1. Digital Algorithm

87 Parameter 6. Case 3

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(b)

(c)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1,5 / 1,5

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: 2 perpendicular sides 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Parameter 6. Case 4

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(b)

Case 4 utilizes all points along a diagonal centre of the surface volume for anchor points. Zooming in on the component, actuators are located at corners of each squared element. Due to their location, once the geometry becomes kinetic, it takes forces from all corners. These forces make the geometry to twist and rotate. In turn, causing the system to collide into itself (case 4c and 4d). This concludes that the placement of anchor points is important to allow for a certain degree of rotational displacement. In addition to the previously mentioned parameters, anchor points also have the role of forming different surfaces as shown in cases 1, 2, 3, and 4. When edges are not restricted to anchor points, the surface curves up in the negative direction (case 4).

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1,5 / 1,5

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: Along the diagonal 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000


88

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Parameter 7. Case 1 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: Along one side 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 1000

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(b)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(c)

(d)

Parameter 7. Case 2 01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: Along one side 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 1000 Actuator: 100

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(a)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(b)

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

Material Resistance There is a set value that regulates resistance within the system. This value is a range from 0 to 1000. A value within this range is assign to components and actuators. In addition, different resistance values will result in different deformation of the component elements. Higher component resistance means stronger or thicker material, while higher actuator resistance means stronger and more powerful actuators. Each triangle in the above diagrams represents one element in the system for each respective sequence process. As in previous exercises, four test cases are executed. Case 1 and 4 are tested with an equal value of component’s and actuator’s resistance. These result in slight material deformations. Once a components’ resistance value is set to smaller values than ac-


04.1. Digital Algorithm

89 Parameter 7. Case 3

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(a)

(b)

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: Along one side 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 100 Actuator: 1000

Parameter 7. Case 4

Actuators: 1 / 1 / 1 / 1

Actuators: 4 / 4 / 1 / 1

(a)

(b)

tuators’ resistance, the material will deform exponentially and the system will fail (case 3). In order to achieve the least material deformation, a component’s resistance must be greater than the actuators’ resistance. This is shown in case 2. However, in digital models the activation of the system becomes considerably slow due to the low value actuator resistance vs. the high value of material resistance. This logic can be applied to physical models by controlling the power and speed within actuators in response to material weight.

Actuators: 8 / 8 / 1 / 1

(c)

Actuators: 10 / 10 / 1 / 1

(d)

01. Boundaries: 4 Straight lines Orthogonal Coplanar 02. Divisions: 5x5 03. Extrusion: Point 1: 20 unit Point 2: 20 unit Point 3: 20 unit Point 4: 20 unit 04. Activated Actuators: A/B/C/D Upper: Horizontal: A Vertical: B Lower: Horizontal: C Vertical: D 05. Pattern Locator: True True True True 06. Anchor Points: Along one side 07. System Resistance [0-1000]: Component: 100 Actuator: 100


90

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Digital and Physical Comparison Fig. 4.09 Configuration 01. Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.09] Fig. 4.10 Configuration 02. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 9,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.10] Fig. 4.11 Configuration 03. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:4.11] Fig. 4.12 Configuration 04. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.12] Fig. 4.13 Configuration 05. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 9,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.13]

We concluded the last origami experimentation with the production of prototypes through a folding pattern technique. The materials used in this model are; 3mm MDF panels, and reinforced tape as a method for joining one element to the next. To continue this exploration, a more advanced prototype version was developed. Once again, utilizing 3mm MDF panels, however, hinges are now introduced as joints, and MDF beam like elements are also introduce to simulate the kinetic movement of linear actuators. One set of actuators is set at the upper part of each component. These are horizontal and vertical actuators whose length can be adjusted to create different shell forms.

In this chapter, we introduce a catalogue of ten different configurations (see Fig. 4.09 - 4.19). These have been generated digitally, however, have also been tested through physical models (see Pg. 28 - 37). Each configuration depends on an “x� number of kinetic components. In turn, generating shape change depending on the aperture percentage from one component to the next. Also, shape change depends on the sequence in which these components begin to open. This action is then controlled by linear actuators located at the top of each component. The sequence in which these actuators are engaged becomes a critical factor for shape change. The following configurations apply 4 sequence types for engagement: 1. Displacement along y-axis 2. Displacement along x-axis and y-axis 3. Radial Displacement along x-axis 4. Radial Displacement from a centre point

(see Pg. 92) (see Pg. 94) (see Pg. 96) (see Pg. 98)


04.2. Digital and Physical Comparison

Configuration 01

91

Configuration 02

Fig. 4.09

Configuration 06

Fig. 4.10

Configuration 07

Fig. 4.14

Configuration 04

Configuration 03

Fig. 4.11

Configuration 08

Fig. 4.15

In this chapter, we have selected four configuration types, however, the rest of them have been attached to the appendix for further information. In this case, the selection process constituted of two factors: a) Aperture percentage. b) Spatial / Volume condition. In terms of aperture percentage, we have selected the configurations which allow the most displacement along the x-axis and y-axis. In addition, these are the configurations which allow the most flexible sequence actuation between components; therefore, resulting in an interactive system. In terms of Spatial and Volume conditions, we not only study the displacement along the x and y axis, but also along the z-axis. This last parameter is measured in terms of maximizing volume and area; de-

Configuration 05

Fig. 4.12

Configuration 09

Fig. 4.16

Fig. 4.13

Configuration 10

Fig. 4.17

Fig. 4.18

pending on the type of space needed and on the sequence in which actuators are being engaged.

Fig. 4.14 Configuration 06. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:4.14]

The configurations that will be reviewed in this chapter are the following: 01, 05, 06 and 08 (marked in red. The rest of the configurations that were tested can be seen in Appendix 01).

Fig. 4.15 Configuration 07. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.15] Fig. 4.16 Configuration 08. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:4.16] Fig. 4.17 Configuration 09. Actuators length (cm); gradient 01 [Ref. Illustrative:4.17] Fig. 4.18 Configuration 10. Actuators length (cm); gradient 02 [Ref. Illustrative:4.18]


92

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

2.46

7.8

Configuration 02 9.07

°21

°8

3.03 Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5 5.33

3.33

Actuators length: 2.5 0.72 x 9.5

Open Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 9.5

5.363R

4.76R

1.96

4.76R

4.263R

9.07

7.8

8.11

8.35

8.35

5.47

8.57

7.47

2.9

7.1 8.5

9.46R 1.553R

9.46R

(a)

(a)

9.07

5.33

Direction of opening

1.42 2.33

3.03 °8

64.2

°21 8.5

4.76

8.7 12°

30.3

33.3 27.0

33.5

R67.4

69.1

R67.4

(b)

(b) 8.7

2.5 cm Actuators 9.5 cm Actuators

2.5 cm Actuators Fig. 4.19

Fig. 4.20 11.8

74.5

Configuration 029.2

75.8

74.7

This experiment directly links, compares and contrasts the results from the digital model to the results from the physical model. We analyse 5.8 results in terms of fabrication, actuator sequence engagement, kinetic behaviour, and shape change. In terms of fabrication, we are able to accurately extract two-dimenR64.9 sional elements directly from the three-dimensional model (see fig. 4.19-a), which enable the assembly for the physical prototypes. This is due to the simple geometry of the component; a combination of 8 triangular pieces and a single24.1 square, however, simple the component, it is extremely flexible and it allows for an array of configuration types. As a 30.3 result, the accuracy between digital and physical models is nearly iden12° tical. However, it is relevant to note that minor discrepancies between 5.8 the two models are due to human error and due to the fact that within the digital model, we fail to take in consideration the hardware material 67.4

thickness that joins one element 1.7 to the next. In this case, brass hinges (see fig. 4.22-c). Also, there is the absence of material thickness in the digital model, which must be taken into account before building assembly. Otherwise, there are discrepancies that may increase exR64.9 ponentially when it comes to the rotational motion of paired elements within every component. Once the model has been assembled (see fig. 4.22-a), we are able to study the sequence between actuators (see fig. 4.20-b) that in turn 33.5 generate volume. In this prototype, the actuators are engaged along the y-axis.33.2 Although, they must always be engaged in sequence, this is not to say that this sequence has to take place in a predetermined or8° der. However, the order of sequence in which these actuators become engaged is crucial in order to minimize the force required for kinetic movement between components. In this fashion, actuator types may


12° 12°

8° 8°

8.7 8.7

30.3 30.3 33.5 33.5

33.3 33.3

04.2. Digital and Physical Comparison

93

27.0 27.0

Digital Model

Physical Model R67.4 R67.4

69.1 69.1 74.5

R67.4 R67.4

9.2

5.8

R64.9

act.3

8.7 8.7

33.5

R67.4

24.1

11.8 11.8

9.2 9.2

74.7 74.7 30.3

75.8

30.3

1.7 1.7

5.8

act.1

12°

5.8 5.8

act.2

75.8 75.8

12°

R64.9 R64.9

(a)

(a)

64.9 64.9

64.2

69.1

Fig. 4.19 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:4.19]

33.5 33.5

24.1 24.1 33.2 33.2

30.3 30.3 8°

8° 8°

12° 12°

8.7

5.8 5.8

(b) 33.3

33.2

67.4 67.4

(b)

8.7

11.8

1.7

R64.9

R67.4

27.0

33.5

Fig. 4.21 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:4.21]

74.7

(c)

(c)

Fig. 4.21

be purchased and calibrated according to how much force they are required to exert and withstand. Another factor studied from comparing the digital and physical models is their kinetic behaviour. The main difference between them is in relation to anchoring points within the digital model which in the physical world; they play the role of a foundation type. In turn, these anchor points become static in the digital model, while in the physical prototype, we allow their displacement to allow interaction depending on the forces exerted at the time of kinetic movement between components. This freedom slightly increases the overall curvature in the geometry. On the contrary, their volume is nearly identical. In addition, the lack of gravity and self weight within the digital model also makes a difference. However, this is a structural issue analysed more in detail in chapter 5.

Fig. 4.20 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 9,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:4.20]

Fig. 4.22

Configuration 02 (2,5x9,5)

DIGITAL

Length (cm)

75,8

82

Width (cm)

69,1

71,5

Height (interior) (cm)

11,8

17

Height (exterior) (cm)

33,5

31,5

Volume (dm3) 2

Area (cm ) Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

136,9 5237,78 67,4

PHYSICAL

Fig. 4.22 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:4.22]


94

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Configuration 03 9.07

Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5

Actuators length: 2.5 x 12.0

Open Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 12.0

5.363R

4.263R

9.07

8.35

8.35

1.553R

(a)

(a)

9.07

Direction of opening 63.3

20°

12°

33.4

13.9

38.4

65.2

(b)

(b) 2.5 cm Actuators 12.0 cm Actuators

13.9

2.5 cm Actuators Fig. 4.23

Fig. 4.24

R60.5 17.2

R60.5

78.7 Configuration 03

78.7

78.1

12.1

Previously, in configuration 02 (see page 93), we analysed the results R62.6 from the digital and physical models in terms of fabrication, actuator 8.4 sequence engagement, kinetic behaviour, and shape change. However, since the analysis of this configuration in terms of fabrication is nearly identical to the previous one, we will omit to a certain extent to address the discrepancies of this issue between the two model types; digital and physical. However, we will focus on this model’s actuator sequence type, in relation to kinetic behaviour and shape change. In this case, the most radical difference takes place in the sequence in which actuators are engaged (see fig 4.24b). In turn, having a direct relationship to shape change. Here, the overall displacement of the fi33.4 nal shape change occurs along the x-axis and y-axis. In comparison to the previous configuration, the actuator length in this model is greater. 20° Therefore, they require a greater force as8.1they are engaged into a ki64.6

netic mode. This means that the stress distribution along the entire R62.6 structure becomes greater, the torque between components increases, 3.2 and when it comes to shape change, these forces become apparent as each component begins to twist and rotate influencing the final shape change. Then, in terms of shape change, the main difference between digital and physical models is due the lack of anchoring points (foundation) in the physical model. 38.1

By observing this shape change, we are able to conclude that depending on the 38.4starting point of the sequence between actuators, there is a domino effect that begins to elevate one component higher from the next as stress increases and actuators are being engaged into se12° quence. (see fig. 4.26c). However, this action allows us to understand 3.2


33.4

38.4

04.2. Digital and Physical Comparison 78.7

65.2

95

R60.5

12.1

R62.6 8.4

act.3

13.9

R60.5 17.2

5 78.7

78.1 33.4

78.7

33.4

8.1

1

act.2

R62.6

6

3.2

act.1

20°

20°

(a)

(a)

63.3

65.2 38.1

33.4

13.9

8.1

12°

20°

Fig. 4.23 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:4.23]

12°

12°

38.4

(b)

38.4

38.4

3.2

(b)

64.6

Fig. 4.24 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x12,0. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:4.24]

38.1

Fig. 4.25 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:4.25]

13.9

R60.5

17.2

R62.6 3.2 78.1

(c)

(c)

Fig. 4.25

the distribution of stress, not only along the entire structure but also per component. Since the difference of forces between these components is much greater than in the previous configuration; their interaction can be mapped as a structural behaviour study and we can begin to calibrate each component in greater detail. This structural behaviour would cover the forces exerted from one actuator to the next, however, at this point, this information would have to be developed in the near future, as we will keep on focusing on kinetic behaviour and shape change.

Fig. 4.26

Configuration 03 (2,5x12,0)

DIGITAL

PHYSICAL

Length (cm)

78,8

87

Width (cm)

65,2

69

Height (interior) (cm)

17,2

20

38,1

38

Height (exterior) (cm) 3

Volume (dm )

143,2

Area (cm2)

5137,76

Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

60,5

Fig. 4.26 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:4.26]


96

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Configuration 06 9.07

Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5

Actuators length: 9.5 x 12.0

Open Stage Actuators length: 9.5 x 12.0

5.363R

4.263R

9.07

8.35

8.35

1.553R

(a)

(a)

9.07

Direction of opening 92.2

R65.6

12.9

R71.8

4.6

41.2

41.2

96.3

(b)

(b)

Fig. 4.27

R61.4

Configuration 06 10.2 77.5

9.5 cm Actuators 12.0 cm Actuators

4.6 R61.4

2.5 cm Actuators

Fig. 4.28

10.1

79.4

82.0 R61.9

As in the previous model, here, we will only focus on kinetic behaviour R61.9 based on the sequence in which actuators are being engaged, and on 4.7 the importance of anchor points (foundation) in terms of shape change. This model utilizes a different actuation type than the two previous experiments. Thus far, we have only engaged one type of actuator, and so far their displacement orientation has been restricted along the y-axis. However, every component has been equipped with two pairs of actuators. One pair capable of displacement along the x-axis (horizontal), and a second pair capable of displacement along the y-axis (vertical). This experiment results in the activation of vertical and horizontal linear actuators (see fig 4.28b). Their displacement occurs along 12.9 a horizonR71.8 R65.6 4.7 tal axis which results into a radial shape change. This shape change generates a dome like structure, which tends to maximize its volume in 95.9

both x and y axis. Out of its two predecessors, and in terms of shape change, this physical model is the one that comes the closest to its digital version. In this instance, we can conclude that this similarity is mainly due to the even distribution or sequence in which actuators are being engaged. Then, in contrast two the two previous models; here, all component elements become anchored to the ground.


77.5 R61.4

10.2

R61.9

4.7

2

04.2. Digital and Physical Comparison

97

41.2 41.2

41.2

96.3 96.3

act.3 4.6 4.6 R61.4 R61.4

82.0

10.1 10.1

act.1

79.4 79.4

82.0 82.0 R61.9 R61.9

act.2 R65.6

(a)

(a) 92.2

12.9

96.3

R71.8 4.6

Fig. 4.27 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:4.27]

4.7 4.7

12.9 12.9

R65.6 R65.6

R71.8 R71.8

(b) (b)

95.9 95.9

Fig. 4.28 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 12,0. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:4.28]

41.2

4.6 R61.4

10.1

R61.9

Fig. 4.29 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:4.29]

79.4

(c)

(c)

Fig. 4.29

Fig. 4.30

Configuration 06 (9,5x12,0)

DIGITAL

PHYSICAL

Length (cm)

96,3

104

Width (cm)

82

68

Height (interior) (cm)

12,9

17

41,2

31

Height (exterior) (cm) 3

Volume (dm )

177,4

Area (cm2)

7896,6

Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

71,5

Fig. 4.30 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:4.30]


98

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

5.79

Configuration 10 9.07

Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5

Open Stage Actuators length: gradient 02

6.6

3.41

Actuators length: gradient 02 5.363R

9.49

4.263R

9.07

0.101R

6.6

1.21 8.38

8.35

0.18

8.35

0.6

8.08

7.3

1.4 3.56R

1.553R

(a)

(a)

1.11

9.07

7.3

Direction of opening

7.101

70.9

R363.5 24.1

(b) R362.4

Configuration 10

53.8

70.9

(b) 24.5

2.5 cm Actuators

2.5 cm Actuators 4.5 cm Actuators 9.5 cm Actuators 12.0 cm Actuators

Fig. 4.31

Fig. 4.32

53.8

53.9

This particular model undergoes the most significant shape change. In this case, all actuators are set to different lengths. Therefore, being the prototype with the largest floor area and volume. The final geometry still is a dome like structure, however, its deployment pattern differs from all previous models in that it radiates out from a central point (see fig. 4.32b). Otherwise, we are able to conclude that all characteristics from configuration 06 (see page 96) apply to this model. This is also an influential example of local control. Here, we are able R355.1 to manipulate the system locally in both digital and physical models. This manipulation is possible through a gradient value from a series of actuator’s expansions. 70.9

R403.9


80.8 12.1

99

6.6

3.7

04.2. Digital and Physical Comparison 94.9 94.9

act.2

act.7

act.1

act.4

R101.0 R101.0

81.0

act.8

act.3 act.5

act.11

81.0 81.0

83.8 83.8

act.6

act.12 6.6

3.7

act.10

act.9

6.0 6.0

4.1 4.1 R65.3 R65.3

(a)

97.5

14.3

94.9

11.1

(a)

Fig. 4.31 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:4.31]

11.1 11.1

3.7 3.7

(b)

(b)

101.7 101.7

Fig. 4.32 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: gradient. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:4.32]

83.8

R101.0

6.0

4.1

R65.3

Fig. 4.33 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:4.33]

(c)

(c)

Fig. 4.33

Fig. 4.34

Configuration 10 (gradient 02)

DIGITAL

PHYSICAL

Length (cm)

94,9

90

Width (cm)

81

78,5

Height (interior) (cm)

11,1

15

Height (exterior) (cm)

32,7

30

3

Volume (dm ) 2

164,5

Area (cm )

7686,9

Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

65,3

Fig. 4.34 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:4.34]


100

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Opening direction

Configuration 01

Configuration 05

Configuration 08

Configuration 09

Configuration 10

Configuration 03

Configuration 07

Configuration 06

70.9

R363.5

Configuration 02

Configuration 04 24.1

R362.4

70.9

53.8

24.5

53.8

53.9

R403.9

92.2

R355.1

90.6

92.1 R55.8

10.9 R69.3

70.9

15.6

15.3

R65.6

R58.3

12.9

20.0

R69.7 48.1

41.2

96.3 94.6

42.4

42.4

14.8

37.5

41.7

93.7

10.9

47.8

23°

23°

R61.4 35°

35°

Evaluation Conclusion

&

48.8

04.2

47.8

8.919°

50.1

Evaluation and Conclusion

82.0 10.2

51.7

12°

77.5

19° 19.2 48.1

R61.9 4.7

47.1

12°

12.7

12.7

The material covered in this chapter addressed kinetic behaviour in relation to linear actuators, shape change, and volume change. In addition, we addressed the interaction from the digital model into the fabrication and assembly of four physical prototypes. 41.7

17.6

R69.7 6.6

R69.3

12.7

In respect to kinetic behaviour, shape change took place through linear actuators and volume change depended on the length engaged by each actuator. From the previous explorations, we are able to conclude that the sequence in which actuators are activated is imperative to the final shape change. Four sequence types were explored in this chapter. The first two sequences produced rectangular like geometries, and their actuators were deployed along the x-axis and y-axis. It is also important to recall that every component within each configuration is equipped this 2 pairs of actuators. The fist pair running along the x-axis 94.0

and the second pair running along the y-axis. In this case, it is important to note that in configurations 02 and 03 (see images above), only one pair of actuators was activated; these being deployed along the y-axis. In contrast, the following two configurations generated a dome like geometry. In configuration 06, actuators were deployed along the x-axis. In turn, geometrical deployment taking shape as a radial pattern. Furthermore, In configuration 10, both horizontal and vertical actuators were engaged and also resulting in a radial pattern. 48.1

26.4 R55.8

19.2

R58.3 8.9

94.6

In terms of the interaction between the digital model and physical prototypes, we can conclude that we are successfully able to make the transition between the computer model to the fabrication of the system. However, we must note that prior to the assembly process, small modifications must be taken into account due to the lack of material thickness within the digital model and due to the fact that hardware joins

4.7

R65.6

12.9

95.9

R


04.2. Digital and Physical Comparison_Evaluation

Configuration 01

101

Configuration 05

7,7%

23,0% Fig. 4.35

Configuration 03

27,5%

Configuration 08

23,9% Fig. 4.36

Configuration 04

Fig. 4.40

30,3%

Configuration 09

23,1% Fig. 4.37

Configuration 02

Fig. 4.41

such as, brass hinges are not considered into the digital model. Also, in the digital model, we are able to simulate a foundation type (anchor points) for every prototype. However, we are not able to simulate gravity, nor material weight. Therefore, encountering minor discrepancies between the digital model and physical prototypes. In respect to anchor points, we built every physical prototype without a foundation type. Therefore, allowing all components to freely interact with one another. The lack of anchor points however, allows us to address stress distribution along each configuration. In turn, being able to calibrate each actuator depending on the forces exerted needed for shape change.

24,7%

Configuration 10

22,7% Fig. 4.38

Configuration 07

Fig. 4.42

31,4%

Fig. 4.39

Configuration 06

Fig. 4.43

24,0%

Fig. 4.44

Fig. 4.35 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 01. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.35]

Fig. 4.40 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 02. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 9,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.40]

Fig. 4.36 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 05. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 9,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.36]

Fig. 4.41 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 04. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.41]

Fig. 4.37 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 08. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:4.37]

Fig. 4.42 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 03. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:4.42]

Fig. 4.38 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 09. Actuators length (cm); gradient 01 [Ref. Illustrative:4.38]

Fig. 4.43 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 07. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:4.43]

Fig. 4.39 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 10. Actuators length (cm); gradient 02 [Ref. Illustrative:4.39]

Fig. 4.44 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 06. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:4.44]


102

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT


04.3. Environmental Response

103

Environmental Response From all the different parameters explored above, we understand that the secondary environmental responsive system will need to be parametrically adjusted to the primary system. Based on preliminary explorations, we choose unit 4 (fig 3.60) to be further explored and fitted to the primary system. Different parameters will be set for the unit 04 along with various environmental inputs to test the system.


104

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Fig. 4.45 Responsive Component. Control of different parameters: (a) 01. Frame x side: 150 mm 02. Frame y side: 150 mm 03. Frame thickness: 3 mm 04. Diagonal thickness: 0 mm 05. Frame width: 10 mm 06. Diagonal width: 0 mm (b) 01. Frame x side: 150 mm 02. Frame y side: 150 mm 03. Frame thickness: 6 mm 04. Diagonal thickness: 0 mm 05. Frame width: 10 mm 06. Diagonal width: 0 mm

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(c) 01. Frame x side: 150 mm 02. Frame y side: 150 mm 03. Frame thickness: 6 mm 04. Diagonal thickness: 0 mm 05. Frame width: 20 mm 06. Diagonal width: 0 mm (d) 01. Frame x side: 150 mm 02. Frame y side: 150 mm 03. Frame thickness: 6 mm 04. Diagonal thickness: 6 mm 05. Frame width: 12 mm 06. Diagonal width: 12 mm (e) 01. Frame x side: 150 mm 02. Frame y side: 150 mm 03. Frame thickness: 6 mm 04. Diagonal thickness: 1 mm 05. Frame width: 12 mm 06. Diagonal width: 12 mm (f) 01. Frame x side: 150 mm 02. Frame y side: 150 mm 03. Frame thickness: 3 mm 04. Diagonal thickness: 15 mm 05. Frame width: 12 mm 06. Diagonal width: 12 mm [Ref. Illustrative: 4.45] Fig. 4.46 Responsive Component adopting different shapes by changing the 4 corners that delimit its boundary [Ref. Illustrative: 3.46]

(e)

(f) Fig. 4.45

Responsive Component Variables Continuing with Responsive Types (chapter 03.3.2.), we further developed a Responsive unit number 04 (Rotating Opening fig. 3.77 page 62) to increase its versatility in adapting to the primary system. Utilizing grasshopper, we add different parameters to the unit shown above in order to be able to control all the different elements that make up the component. This enable us to change the frame thickness, diagonal thickness, frame width, and diagonal width. This variation will help stabilize and increase the component stiffness for the primary system according to the results in the test of the Parameter 7 (System Resistance. page 88). On the right hand side, the unit is tested to fit different geometries with different boundary conditions. This is important to ensure that the Responsive Component is able to perform correctly even when the boundaries are not orthogonal. As we could see in pages 76-77 de-


04.3. Environmental Response

105

Fig. 4.46

pending on the boundaries and divisions of the pattern, we will have surfaces composed by identical elements, or on the contrary, surfaces with an infinite variety of elements. The tests in fig. 4.46 show the versatility of the Responsive Component and its shape adaptation to any different boundary condition performing successfully by opening and closing its flaps for light and wind control. Even when the boundary is defined by a triangular surface (where one of the corner points is eliminated) the algorithm is able to reshape this component and define the new geometries for its fabrication.


106

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig. 4.39

Fig. 4.49

Fig. 4.50 Wh/m2 1100+ 1100+ 920 830 740 650 560 470 380 290 200 Fig. 4.47 Conceptual diagrams. Differentiation throughout the surface as a response to environmental changes. (a) All the Responsive Components are closed, (b) Gradient 1, (2) Gradient 2 [Ref. Illustrative: 4.47] Fig. 4.48 Solar Analysis on the location of the Responsive Components of the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. Plan view [Ref. Illustrative: 4.48] Fig. 4.49 Solar Analysis on the location of the Responsive Components of the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. West elevation [Ref. Illustrative: 4.49] Fig. 4.50 Solar Analysis on the location of the Responsive Components of the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. South elevation [Ref. Illustrative: 4.50]

N

Fig. 4.48

Data Processing This environmental responsive unit can now be added to the primary system. Through the application of Ecotect Analysis, we can digitally study the weather pattern and sun path. In this exploration, we test the system in a tropical environment such as India. Sun values are taken between 14.00 to 18.00. Linking this back to grasshopper, these values can be translated to rotational angles between 0-90 degree (the angle of the openings). Each panel will reacting to different environmental inputs based on form and North orientation. This results in different opening angles for each panel. Extracting from what we learned in the first light sensor prototype (page 60), the system can be relocated and Ecotect will simulate the sun path and UV values for any given country. The opening gradation will then need to be re-calibrated according to the new environmental data.


04.3. Environmental Response

107

Fig. 4.52

Fig. 4.51 Components response to the Solar Analysis on the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. Plan view [Ref. Illustrative: 4.51] Fig. 4.52 Components response to the Solar Analysis on the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. West elevation [Ref. Illustrative: 4.52]

Fig. 4.51

Fig. 4.53

Fig. 4.53 Components response to the Solar Analysis on the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. South elevation [Ref. Illustrative: 4.53]


Evaluation Conclusions

&

108

04

04. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

Evaluation and Conclusion In this chapter, we have examined a component distribution type and several parameter inputs into the design for an algorithm resulting into a parametric system; capable of shape change, responding to various programmatic functions, and adapting to several climatic conditions. Using a defined digital algorithm and understanding its specific restrictions; a component can be populated to different surface types capable of adapting to different programmatic functions. As previously investigated, a system digitally designed will face several challenges such as; fabrication, assembly and structural inputs once it is built into the physical environment. Different aspects play the role of additional parameters into the algorithm design. In addition, an environmental responsive system has now been integrated as part of the


04. Evaluation and Conclusion

primary system as a factor for generating space. (see pg. 106 - 107) The goal for the following chapter is to investigate the system as whole. Here, a specific programmatic function will be applied in relation to kinematic behaviour. Furthermore, the proposed design will be evaluated structurally in regards to different materials and their respective properties. Chapter 5 will also cover power source in terms of kinetic behaviour, as well as assembly techniques of different elements.

109


Design Development 110

05


111

05. DESIGN APPLICATION 05.1. DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS 05.2. BRIDGE APPLICATION 05.2.1. POWER SOURCE 05.2.2. MATERIAL ANALYSIS 05.2.3. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS 05.2.4. FOUNDATION 05.2.5. FABRICATION & ASSEMBLY


112

05. DESIGN APPLICATION

Different applications Using the digital parameters defined in pages 75-85, and their specific limitations, a component can be aggregated to different types of surfaces with different functions and be transformed to serve different set of functions. As previously investigated, a system that can be done digitally will find different challenges and might perform differently when it is being realized in the physical world. Different aspect such as fabrication, assembly and structural integrity can be a limitation. Three different simple, yet specific design applications are tested with the system to validate its adaptability. Each will specifically serve one purpose and try to solve a single technical problem. Functional change will be developed with more investigation and tests in this chapter while other aspecst like porosity and volume change can be seen in Appendix 02.


05.1. Different Applications

Application 01 Functional Change application focuses on the adaptation of two specific functions. In the starting position, the structure performs as a conventional pedestrian bridge connecting Point A to Point B. When the top actuators are activated, this linear bridge curves upwards and allows different kind of activities under the structure (more explanation in the following pages). In this specific case, the pedestrian bridge is placed over a canal which will then let any means of water transportation to go under and across the bridge. Application 02 (Appendix 02) Porosity Performance application is for a canopy that changes its form and surface porosity based on the climatic condition. The system is suspended with cables from nearby structures. The location where cables are attached to the system becomes the anchor points. Suspended anchor points provide more flexibility for the transformation of the surface.

113

For this application , bottom actuators (both BH and BV as seen in Appendix 02) will reshape the surface to create shade and shelter. At the same time, different actuators are needed to open and close centre apertures to create different porosity for better air flow. Application 03 (Appendix 02) The Volume Change application number three is a cantilevered canopy for a cafe or other functional purposes. Using a weight sensor on the ground platform, we can estimate the number of people under the shade. As this number increases and reaches a given limit, the surface expands its geometry and allows more people to have activities under the shade. For this configuration, all four actuators need to be activated. When it is fully extended, the two corners of the canopy touch the ground for additional support while one side remain attach to the wall. For more stability, the side that is attached to the wall is extruded higher than the side that touch the ground.


114

05. DESIGN APPLICATION

bascule bridge bascule bridge

Bascule bridge

bascule bridge bascule bridge

Retractable bridge

retractable bridge retractable bridge

retractable bridge retractable bridge

folding bridge folding bridge

curlig bridge curlig bridge

Folding bridge

folding bridge folding bridge

Rolling bascule bridge

rolling bascule bridge rolling bascule bridge

Curling bridge

curlig bridge curlig bridge

Submersible bridge

submersible bridge submersible bridge

Bridge Application

There are several types of movable bridges. Some interesting examples are the bascule bridge, the folding bridge, the curling bridge, the vertical-lift bridge, the table bridge, the retractable bridge, the rolling bascule bridge, the submersiblesubmersible bridge, the tilt bridge, and the swing bascule bridge bridge bridge, as shown on fig. 5.01.

rolling rolling bascule bridge

ver ver

submersible bridge

The curling and rolling bridge designed by Heatherwick Studio, in London, uses hydraulic cylinders that can be expanded in order to change its railing geometry hence curling the bridge letting a boat pass by. Using a similar concept, we propose a new type of movable bridge; The Expandable Bridge. The bridge expands on one side and forces the geometry to curve upwards thus generating sufficient space for a boat to pass.

ver ver


ge ge

ge

vertical lift bridge 05.2. Bridgevertical Application lift bridge

vertical lift bridge vertical lift bridge Tilt bridge

tilt bridge tilt bridge

table bridge table bridge

115

table bridge table bridge Swing bridge

swing bridge swing bridge

Fig. 5.01 Different solutions for movable bridges [Ref. Illustrative:5.01] Vertical lift bridge

tilt bridgelift bridge vertical tilt bridgelift bridge vertical

Table bridge

swing bridge table bridge swing bridge table bridge

In order for the system to perform as needed, the type of actuators and the power source are an important aspect. Our proposal uses only one actuator type; the Top Vertical actuator, as seen in page 82. During the development of the system, several sources of energy such as sun, wind, and water where evaluated.

tilt bridge

swing bridge

Fig. 5.02 Proposed application for a movable bridge [Ref. Illustrative:5.02]

EXPANDABLE BRIDGE Fig. 5.01

Fig. 5.02


116

05. DESIGN APPLICATION

Power Source Water weight

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d) Fig. 5.06

Power Source In order to make the system more efficient, a natural source of energy is used and converted to power the actuators that activate the bridge. Since the bridge is above water, water becomes the constant energy source in comparison to sun and wind. In the cases of water locks, water is moved constantly as it is being used to transport boats from a higher level to a lower level and vice versa. This potential energy can be used to generate usable power such as electricity and pressure. To generate enough electric power, water needs to flow at a constant rate. The electric power that is generated needs to be stored into a battery system so it can be used at any time. Our system needs a direct use and conversion of the potential energy stored in the water, therefore, this idea is quickly put aside. The second idea is to use the volume of the water as weight to counteract and lift the structure. Window hinges are used as actuators between the components in the direction of the span. Conventional win-


05.2. Bridge Application

117

Power Source Pneumatic Air Bags

(a)

Air bags Fig. 5.06 Bridge actuator using window hinge. (a) actuator closed, (b) weight of the water pulls down actuators to open, (c) actuators stay open, (d) actuators close after boat passes by. [Ref. Illustrative:5.06]

Pipes

Fig. 5.07 Bridge actuator using air bags. (a) closed stage, (b) as water raises, air is pumped to the air bags. [Ref. Illustrative:5.07]

Floater

Canister

(b)

Fig. 5.08 Pneumatic bag actuator [Ref. Illustrative:5.08]

Fig. 5.07

Fig. 5.08

dow hinge has three pivot points. As two points on the wall side are getting closer, the third point on the window side is getting farther away hence creating a wider opening. The weight of the water will pull these two points closer to each other while pushing the third point farther away to expand the gap between the component and the bridge upward. (fig. 5.03)

In all three different power generator types, time scale is an important aspect for the system. The bridge has to be fully curved up before the locks are filled and lower back down as water is released from the lock to let pedestrian walk across. Keeping this in mind, pneumatic air bags are the most adequate solution for the system. Bags will be filled when water lock is filled and emptied out as the lock releases water.

The third idea is to create pressure pumps with the rising and lowering of the water level. To do this, airtight pipes or canister are installed in the lock. The bottom side is capped with a floater that pushes air up and down according to water level. The top of the canister is connected to air hoses/pipes that will transfer the pressurized air to airbags in between the components in the direction of the span. (fig. 5.04) Presto lift, a company that specializes in pumps, has a product that uses pneumatic air bags as actuators to tilt table tops for heavy duty lifting. (fig. 5.07)


118

05. DESIGN APPLICATION

Position 1. Closed Mode

0’00’’ Fig. 5.03

Bridge Sequence This bridge application is specially oriented to medium size locks in a urban area where the spam required is not too big due to the structural limitations that the system still might have. As the time that the average locks we have been looking at in London take to be filled up is around 3 and 5 minutes, the system would take the same time to expand simultaneously with the water and provide enough height for the boat. Fig. 5.03 shows Position 1 (closed mode). The water level is low and the boat needs to use the lock to go up. There is no need of more height for the boat when the water level is in this stage so the bridge is horizontal and people can walk from one side of the lock to the other.


05.2. Bridge Application

119

During the process

Position 2. Open Mode

1’30’’

3’00’’

Fig. 5.04

Fig. 5.05

Fig. 5.04 represents a stage in between position 1 and position 2. The lock is being filled up with water and the bridge starts expanding. Consequently the bridge is not walkable any more until it goes back to position 1. Finally in fig. 5.05 the level of the water is in the maximum height and the boat has reached to its destination. The bridge is fully open and the boat can cross underneath it.

Fig. 5.03 Position 1. Time: 0’00’’ [Ref. Illustrative:5.03] Fig. 5.04 The structure is being activated to adopt position 2. Time: 1’30’’ [Ref. Illustrative:5.04] Fig. 5.05 Position 2 Time: 3’00’’ [Ref. Illustrative:5.05]


120

05. DESIGN APPLICATION Position 1. Longitudinal Elevation

Position 1. Transversal Elevation 0.50

0.55

0.50

0.55

0.50

0.90 1.70 1.05 1.80

Position 1. Plan 2.50

2.50

7.80

5.90

7.80

5.90

0.85

Fig. 5.39

Bridge Specification

0.85

The bridge is made with 24 equal components of 90 cm by 85 cm. This was made so in order to ensure sufficient area for people to step on each component comfortable but yet small enough so that it can reach the required curvature. Because of the fact that the only direction of expansion needed for the bridge is the perpendicular to its span, only vertical top actuators are activated (see fig. 5.39). Horizontal Top actuators and Horizontal + Vertical Bottom actuators are not needed and therefore their joints are not hinges but static connections.

0.50

1.05 1.80 0.50

1.05


05.2. Bridge Application

121

0.55

Position 2. 1.10 Transversal Elevation

Position 2. Longitudinal Elevation

0.55

0.55

0.85

1.10

1.10

1.65

Position 2. Plan

Fig. 5.39 Bridge dimensions in Position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.39] Fig. 5.40 Bridge dimensions in Position 2. Actuators location [Ref. Illustrative:5.40]

Used Actuators

Fig. 5.39

0.55

0.85

1.10

0.90

1.65 0.55

1.70

0.85

1.10

0.90 1.70

1.65


122

05. DESIGN APPLICATION MATERIAL INVESTIGATION Steel, Aluminium, Wood

Displacement in Steel “0” curvature MEMBER TYPE

Max. Displacement

MEMBER DEPTH

Component

10cm

Top Actuator

10cm

Bottom Actuator

10cm

6

sp m. an

F1 = Gravity

. m 5 1. dth i

Fig. 5.11

Deformation under gravity

w

Fig. 5.09

Displacement in Steel “max” curvature

structural member depth (cm)

MEMBER TYPE

20

10

steel

0.072071

aluminum

MEMBER DEPTH

Component

10cm

Top Actuator

10cm

Bottom Actuator

10cm

wood

0.074367

Max. Displacement

F1 = Gravity

0.109991

max. displacement (m) Fig. 5.10

Deformation under gravity

Fig. 5.12

Material Analysis Karamba is a finite element analysis module within Grasshopper and fully parametrizable. “Karamba is a work in progress. Although being tested thoroughly it probably contains errors – therefore no guarantee can be given that Karamba computes correct results. Use of Karamba is entirely at your own risk. Please read the licence agreement that comes with Karamba in case of further questions.” In regards to structural performance, we have broken down our investigation into two main categories. The first category compares steel, aluminium and wood, and the second category singles out the most efficient material for further study. The following studies make use of Karamba. This tool becomes essential as it allows for a constant study of structural performance throughout the design evolution. In this case, the bridge design is analysed at


05.2. Bridge Application

123

Displacement in Aluminum “0” curvature MEMBER TYPE

Max. Displacement

MEMBER DEPTH

Component

10cm

Top Actuator

10cm

Bottom Actuator

10cm

Displacement in Wood “0” curvature MEMBER TYPE

Max. Displacement

MEMBER DEPTH

Component

10cm

Top Actuator

10cm

Bottom Actuator

10cm

F1 = Gravity

F1 = Gravity

Fig. 5.09 Geometry of the bridge [Ref. Illustrative:5.09] Fig. 5.13

Deformation under gravity

Displacement in Aluminium “max” curvature MEMBER TYPE

Max. Displacement

MEMBER DEPTH

Fig. 5.15

Deformation under gravity

Displacement in Wood “max” curvature MEMBER TYPE

MEMBER DEPTH

Component

10cm

Component

10cm

Top Actuator

10cm

Top Actuator

10cm

Bottom Actuator

10cm

Bottom Actuator

10cm

F1 = Gravity

Max. Displacement

Fig. 5.10 Maximum displacements of the strcture for different materials [Ref. Illustrative:5.10] Fig. 5.11 Displacement of the structure in Steel_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.11] Fig. 5.12 Displacement of the structure in Steel_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.12] Fig. 5.13 Displacement of the structure in Aluminum_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.13]

F1 = Gravity

Fig. 5.14 Displacement of the structure in Wood_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.14] Fig. 5.15 Displacement of the structure in Aluminum_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.15]

Deformation under gravity

Fig. 5.14

two stages; first as a pedestrian bridge at “0” curvature and second, as it becomes kinetic at its “maximum” curvature which allows passage to the boats in the canal. Thus far, our investigation only covers structural integrity under gravity loads. However, we are able to analyse structural displacement in order to compare and contrast 3 main materials based on their profile depth. In this instance, we are testing steel (fig 5.14), aluminium (5.16), and wood (fig 5.18). Effectively, the structure of the proposed bridge is divided into 2 groups. The primary structure constituting of a truss system, and the secondary structure divided into two sets of linear actuators; one at the bottom of the truss frame and another one located at the top of truss respectively (see fig. 5.57 pg 154). Then, the goal in this exercise is to analyse all structural components

Deformation under gravity

Fig. 5.16

Fig. 5.16 Displacement of the structure in Wood_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.16]

with respect to material depth (height) and material thickness. In this case, identical material properties have been applied to the truss system (primary structure) and both sets of linear actuators (secondary structure). Three different materials (steel, aluminium, wood) are tested and evaluated against each other. For these tests, the inputs taken into consideration are gravity and the material’s self weight. Under these loads, we considered the Material Displacement as the main method for evaluation. Simply, we compare and contrast the results between steel, aluminium and wood, and proceed with the material displaying the least Material Displacement. In this case, we will proceed our investigation with Steel. Results for Steel (see Fig. 5.11, 5.12). Results for Aluminium (see Fig. 5.13, 5.14). Results for Wood (see Fig. 5.15, 5.16).

07

karamba_manual_0.9.06.pdf (http:// twl.uni-ak.ac.at/karamba/)


124

05. DESIGN APPLICATION STRUCTURAL PERFORMANCE INVESTIGATION Steel

Displacement in “0” curvature

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE A (see Fig. 5.18)

Top Actuator

F1 = Gravity

Primary Frame

Bottom Actuator Fig. 5.19

Deformation under gravity

Fig. 5.17

Displacement in “max” curvature

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE A (see Fig. 5.18)

F1 = Gravity

STRUCTURAL COMPONENT DEPTH BY TYPE Type A

Type B

Type C

Type D

Type E

Primary Frame (depth)

10cm.

10cm.

10cm.

10cm.

10cm.

Top Actuator (depth)

10cm.

8cm.

5cm.

8cm.

5cm.

Bottom Actuator (depth)

10cm.

8cm.

8cm.

5cm.

5cm.

Fig. 5.18

Deformation under gravity

Fig. 5.20

Structural Analysis It is imperative to mention that the structural studies carried out in these exercises entail a none kinetic structure. Further analysis is required to test the properties from Air Bag Actuators in relation to the proposed kinematic structure. (see Pg. 117. fig 5.08) Continuing from the previous structural analysis, we move forward with the application of steel as the main structural material. However, the goal in this exercise is to break down all structural components (see Fig. 5.17), and analyse their interaction with respect to the structural design as a whole. Simultaneously, this analysis is carried out in relation to different material depths (height) and material thickness for each component within the structural frame. In other words, the aim is to generate an adequate combination of structural elements exhibiting different characteristics depending on the forces exerted from one element to the next.


05.2. Bridge Application

125

Displacement in “0” curvature

Displacement in “0” curvature Structural Component TYPE C (see Fig. 5.18)

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE B (see Fig. 5.18)

Max. Displacement

Fig. 5.17 Identification of the members within the system [Ref. Illustrative:5.17]

F1 = Gravity

F1 = Gravity

Fig. 5.18 Structural component types for the different tests [Ref. Illustrative:5.18]

Fig. 5.21

Deformation under gravity

Displacement in “max” curvature

Displacement in “max” curvature

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE B (see Fig. 5.18)

Fig. 5.23

Deformation under gravity

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE C (see Fig. 5.18)

Fig. 5.19 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type A_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.19] Fig. 5.20 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type A_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.20] Fig. 5.21 Displacement of the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type B_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.21] Fig. 5.22 Displacement of the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type C_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.22]

F1 = Gravity

F1 = Gravity

Fig. 5.23 Displacement of the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type B_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.23]

Deformation under gravity

Fig. 5.22

After several iterations (see Fig. 5.18), the best combination found was when lower and bottom actuator share the same material properties. For further exploration, Galapagos; an evolutionary computing software may be used as a solver to finding different thickness combination of members to get the smallest displacement in relation to the total weight of the structure.

Deformation under gravity

Fig. 5.24

Fig. 5.24 Displacement of the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type C_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.24]


126

05. DESIGN APPLICATION Displacement in “0” curvature

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE D (see Fig. 5.18)

Displacement in “0” curvature

F1 = Gravity

F1 = Gravity

Fig. 5.25

Deformation under gravity

Displacement in “max” curvature

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE D (see Fig. 5.18)

Fig. 5.27

Deformation under gravity

Displacement in “max” curvature

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE E (see Fig. 5.18)

F1 = Gravity

F1 = Gravity

Deformation under gravity

Max. Displacement

Structural Component TYPE E (see Fig. 5.18)

Fig. 5.26

Deformation under gravity

Fig. 5.28


05.2. Bridge Application

127

.104166 .104166

type E

.096695 .096695

type D

.086424 .086424

type C

.078627 .78627 .072071 .072071

structural member depth by Type

max. displacement (m.)

Max. displacement at “0” curvature

type B type A

Type E Type D Type C Type B Type A

.072071

4 6m. m.

span (m) span

Fig. 5.25 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type D_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.25]

.078627

.086424

.096695

.104166

max. displacement (m.)

Fig. 5.29

Fig. 5.26 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type E_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.26] Fig. 5.31

.241619 .104166

type E

.225224 .096695

type D

.222358 .086424

type C

.208262 .78627

type B

.195124 .072071

type A

structural member depth by Type

max. displacement (m.)

Max. displacement at “0” curvature

span (m) span

Fig. 5.28 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type E_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.28]

Type E

Fig. 5.29 Compariton of max. displacement among types A to E_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.29]

Type D Type C

Fig. 5.30 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type C_position 1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.30]

Type B

Fig. 5.31 Compariton of max. displacement among types A to E_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.31]

Type A

.195124

4 6m. m.

Fig. 5.30

The graphs shown above compare and contrast max. displacement with respect the span and structural member depth within the bridge design.

Fig. 5.27 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type D_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.27]

.208262

.222358

.225224

max. displacement (m.)

.241619 Fig. 5.32

Fig. 5.32 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type C_position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.32]


128

05. DESIGN APPLICATION Component / Element Degrees Of Freedom (DOF)

COMPONENT DOF TYPES At hinges = XR

Z

At ground = ZT

ROTATION AXIS: ZR

X Axis = XR

X

Y Axis = YR

PLAN VIEW

XR

Z Axis = ZR steel plate anchor bolts concrete pedestal steel clip

YR

X PROFILE VIEW

Y

At Joint DOF = YR

Z

steel rod onto hinge steel clip

TRANSLATION AXIS:

concrete pedestal

X Axis = XT

anchor bolts

Y Axis = YT

steel plate

ZT

Z Axis = ZT

X XT

FRONT VIEW

YT

steel rod onto hinge steel clip

X

concrete pedestal anchor bolts

Y

steel plate Fig. 5.33

Fig. 5.34

Foundation In mechanics, Kinematics and Degrees of Freedom complement each other. On one hand, Kinematics refers to the study of motion over time, and on the other, Degrees of Freedom (DOF) refer to the application of a coordinate system (x,y,z) not only to describe motion, but also for the production of and understanding of movable machines. Degrees of Freedom are then divided into two categories, “Rotation and Translation�, each one of them corresponding to their own axis and subdivided into 3 movement types. In our case, we utilize this concept in order to understand and catalogue the various types of geometry displacement within the proposed kinetic system, mainly for the design of hinges and joint types depending on different location or position of the anchor points on the system. Points on the lower corners need different degrees of freedom than the top corner.


05.2. Bridge Application

129

Element Pair DOF Types

SINGLE ELEMENT DOF TYPES

At hinges = XR

At hinges = XR

At ground = ZT

At ground = ZT

PLAN VIEW

PLAN VIEW

conc. pedestal steel plate

steel clip steel plate

steel tube

joint to pivot gusset plate anchor bolts

PROFILE VIEW

At Joint DOF = XR

steel clip joint to pivot

PROFILE VIEW

At Joint DOF = XR

At Joint DOF = XR steel clip

steel clip joint to pivot

joint to pivot at steel tube

gusset plate

conc. pedestal

steel plate anchor bolts FRONT VIEW

FRONT VIEW

Fig. 5.33 Rotation and translation axes for the Degrees of Freedom (DOF) [Ref. Illustrative:5.33]

At Joint DOF = XR steel clip joint to pivot

steel clip

gusset plate

joint to pivot at steel tube

steel plate

conc. pedestal

anchor bolts Fig. 5.35

With this technique, we have broken down a single component into 3 combination types. The first one refers to the component itself, while the other two types correspond to the coupling of two elements hinged together, and one last type corresponding to a single element. The component type is the most versatile unit, allowing for both translation and rotation axis. It is simply divided into 4 elements hinged together capable of rotating at an “x,y,z-axis�. However, enabling a total displacement of 6 degrees of freedom due to the joint at ground level, allowing for a translation movement in the z-axis, and also due to linear actuators at each pair of elements allowing for translation at x-y axis. The second type corresponds to two elements hinged together allowing 4 degrees of freedom. One degree of rotation in the Y-axis, and another rotational degree of freedom in the X-axis, which as a result of coupling the two, we gain two new degrees of freedom as a translation movement in X and Y axis.

Fig. 5.36

The last type degree of freedom is simply a single element hinged at the ground allowing translation in the X-axis.

Fig. 5.34 Anchor Points. TYPE A [Ref. Illustrative:5.34] Fig. 5.35 Anchor Points. TYPE B [Ref. Illustrative:5.35] Fig. 5.36 Anchor Points. TYPE C [Ref. Illustrative:5.36]


130

05. DESIGN APPLICATION


05.2. Bridge Application

131

Bridge Foundation Degrees Of Freedom (DOF)

PROFILE VIEW

Linear Actuator in compression & tension Mechanical Arm DOF = XR

DOF = YT

Linear Actuator DOF = YT

Truss Joint DOF = YT Truss Member

Gusset Plate DOF = XR Anchor Bolts

Truss Joint DOF = XR

Steel Plate NOTE: mechanical arm at foundation responding to linear actuators at bridge

Fig. 5.37 (a)

PLAN VIEW

Mechanical Arm DOF = XR

Fig. 5.37

FRONT VIEW

Profile View

Anchor Bolts

Mechanical Arm DOF = XR

Anchor Bolts

Steel Plate

Linear Actuator DOF = YT

Steel Plate

Gusset Plate

Linear Actuator DOF = YT

Gusset Plate

Front View

Fig. 5.37 (b)

Foundation All points of foundation are diagrammed with six degree of freedom. These are three degree of rotations and three degree of translations; each to the x, y, and z axis. Different foundation types will be needed based on different location or position of the points on the system. Points on the lower corners of the system might need different degrees of freedom than the top corners or the middle sections of the system.

Fig. 5.37 (c)

Fig. 5.37 Truss Diagram [Ref. Illustrative:5.37] Fig. 5.38 Detail of plates for the foundation of the bridge. (a) Profile view, (b) Plan view, (c) Front view [Ref. Illustrative:5.38]


132

05. DESIGN APPLICATION

T1. Step 1

T1. Step 2

T1. Step 3

T1. Step 4

T1. Step 5

T1. Step 6

T1. Step 7

T1. Step 8

Fig. 5.41

Fabrication and Assembly Based on the digital exploration, we realized that assembly process can be simplified by breaking the system down into repetitions of the same component. Five elements made up a component. These unique elements are planar and no special chamfer or bevel edges are needed. Parts fabrication is a simple and straight forward process while assembly is very labour intensive. Each element parts are connected to one and another by hinges. In a place like California, fabrication process can be relatively cheap and fast due to the advance technologies such as digital fabrication. However, in a small village in India, fabrication process might be more expensive in relation to construction process due to less expensive labour. In the process of making 1:5 scale model, we test two assembly techniques. Both techniques can be managed with its own pros and cons. T1:


05.2. Bridge Application

133

T2. Step 1

T2. Step 2

T2. Step 3

T2. Step 4

T2. Step 5

T2. Step 6

T2. Step 7

T2. Step 8

Fig. 5.41 Assembly process as defined in T1 [Ref. Illustrative:5.41]

Fig. 5.42

With this assembly process, parts can be pre-assembled to step 5 for flat packaging. Parts from step 4 and step 5 are the only parts that need to be transported to the site for final assembly. With the 1:5 scale model, this arrangement create difficult to reach spaces and angles for the final assembly. Depending on the access to the site and the ease of cargo transportation, this assembly process requires larger dimension for the flat pack of step 5. T2: With this assembly process, parts can be pre-assembled to step 4 for flat packaging. Parts from step 1 and step 4 are the only parts that need to be transported to the site for final assembly. With the 1:5 scale model, it is easier to construct the final assembly. Depending on the access to the site and the ease of cargo transportation, this assembly process requires smaller dimension for the flat pack of step 4. Constructing a 1:5 scale model on a desk is a challenge; however, constructing the final assembly of a bridge on site is a different process that needs to be studied with further research.

Fig. 5.42 Assembly process as defined in T2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.42]


134

05. DESIGN APPLICATION

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

(i)

Fig. 5.43


05.2. Bridge Application

135

Fig. 5.43 Physical model. Sequence of different captures of the transition between position 1 and position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:5.43] Fig. 5.44 Physical model [Ref. Illustrative:5.44]

Fig. 5.44


Conclusions

136

06

Evaluation & Conclusion Looking back at the original objectives of this research we can see that there were three main points that have been targeted and achieved successfully. 1.- A single structure that has the capability to adapt its volume and functions has been developed. The three different applications show, that the system is able to to be used for different functional purposes. The system is functionally adaptable, able to increase its volume and area and it is structurally stable. (Design Development, chapter 05.1) 2.- Furthermore, it is a system that has the capability to adjust its surface porosity in order to achieve different spatial qualities in response to various environmental conditions. This was digitally explored by using Ecotect, Geco and Arduino. This software package allows for environmental data gathering providing solar values for each element and processing instructions as a kinetic response for surface change. (Preliminary Explorations, chapter 03.3 and Research Development, chapter 04.3.4.1) 3.- Finally, we have developed a component based system utilizing a minimum number of elements for populating a surface. However, the

number of unique elements depends on the design application and complexity of any specific project. For instance, the generic surfaces tested during Research Development (chapter 04.2) require only 2 different geometry types. On the contrary, the number of elements needed for each component into the bridge design are 5 unique elements (chapter 05.2.5). In essence, orthogonal surfaces within our system allow for only a few number of unique elements as an advantage into fabrication and assembly time. Starting from basic origami patterns, and the study of their geometrical principles, we are able to develop an algorithm with seven different parameters that allows a component based system to adapt to various programmatic functions and to respond to various environmental conditions. (Research Development, chapter 04.1) With the previously defined parameters, the system becomes an adaptable and responsive space frame structure. Once components are distributed on a surface, their interaction is a collective behaviour acting as a single entity, which is able to to exhibit both isotropic and anisotropic properties.


137

Further Exploration Despite these successful explorations, we think that there are certain aspects within the system that still need further exploration. The difference between local and global transformation is an issue that we have discussed in chapter 03.2, chapter 04.2 and also briefly in chapter 04.3.3.5. This can be explored more in depth and precision into design proposals at larger scales. If local transformation can be achieved, how many different configurations can a structure have? And how many functions can this geometry host? How does this affect the actuators? The differentiation and combination of local and global movement goes along side with the different function and the duration of the movement. Transformation due to function changes can happen in a longer period of time while transformation due to environmental changes needs to respond immediately. Further investigation is needed with respect to structural integrity; this may be accomplished by testing multiple structural algorithms such as; Strand 7, GSA or ANSYS.

Another aspect to be studied is the direct equation that relates the material stiffness with the system resistance (Parameter 7, chapter 04.1). Until now we have been able to determine the structural requirements for every element within the system and we have proven that we can visualise the deformation that every element undergoes during the opening-closing process. Simultaneously we have developed the element in a way in which we can increase or decrease the material thickness according to the structural requirements of the element itself (page 104). From now on we need to find the link between the material stiffness and the system resistance value (explained in page 88) to redistribute the amount of material in the element therefore optimizing its structural performance. Simple planar cuts reduce the fabrication time and cost but increases the assembly cost due to the labour intensive of installing hinges. Different fabrication techniques should be explored to reduce labour time in assembly. Can joints and hinges be integrated to the design of the elements?


Appendix 138

07


139

07. APPENDIX

07.1. APPENDIX 01. Digital and Physical Comparison _ Other Configurations

07.2. APPENDIX 02.

Different Applications _ Other Applications


140

07. APPENDIX

Appendix 01 Fig. 7.01 Configuration 01. Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:7.01] Fig. 7.02 Configuration 02. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 9,5 [Ref. Illustrative:7.02] Fig. 7.03 Configuration 03. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:7.03] Fig. 7.04 Configuration 04. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:7.04] Fig. 7.05 Configuration 05. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 9,5 [Ref. Illustrative:7.05]

Digital and Physical Comparison In Appendix 01 we will include the totality of the tests and different configurations that were done for the Research Development (chapter 4) in terms of Digital and Physical behaviour comparison. Note that not only the examples explained in Chapter 4 (Configurations 2, 3, 6 and 10) are the ones that influenced the conclusions of the chapter (pages 108 -109) but also the ones included in this Appendix 01.


07.1. APPENDIX 01. Digital and Physical Comparison_Other Configurations

Configuration 01

Configuration 02

Fig. 7.01

Configuration 06

Configuration 04

Configuration 03

Fig. 7.02

Configuration 07

Fig. 7.06

141

Fig. 7.03

Configuration 08

Fig. 7.07

Configuration 05

Fig. 7.04

Configuration 09

Fig. 7.08

Fig. 7.05

Configuration 10

Fig. 7.09

Fig. 7.10

Fig. 7.06 Configuration 06. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:7.06] Fig. 7.07 Configuration 07. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 2,5 [Ref. Illustrative:7.07] Fig. 7.08 Configuration 08. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 12,0 [Ref. Illustrative:7.08] Fig. 7.09 Configuration 09. Actuators length (cm); gradient 01 [Ref. Illustrative:7.09] Fig. 7.10 Configuration 10. Actuators length (cm); gradient 02 [Ref. Illustrative:7.10]


142

07. APPENDIX

Configuration 04 9.07

Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5

Actuators length: 9.5 x 2.5

Open Stage Actuators length: 9.5 x 2.5

5.363R

4.263R

9.07

8.35

8.35

1.553R

(a)

(a)

9.07

Direction of opening 92.1

10.9

15.6

R69.3

R69.7

(b)

37.5 10.9

2.5 cm Actuators

(b) 2.5 41.7cm Actuators 9.5 cm Actuators

93.7

Fig. 7.11

Configuration 04

Fig. 7.12

23째

23째

47.8 links, compares and contrasts This experiment directly 50.1 the results from the digital model to the results from the physical model. We analyse results in terms of fabrication, actuator sequence engagement, kinetic behaviour, and shape change.

In terms of fabrication, we are able to accurately extract two-dimensional elements directly from12째 the three-dimensional model, which en12.7 able the assembly for the physical prototype. This is due to the simple geometry of the component; a combination of 8 triangular pieces and a single square, however, simple the component, it is extremely flexible and it allows for an array of configuration types. As a result, the accuracy between digital and physical models is nearly identical. However, it is relevant to note that minor discrepancies between the two models are due to human error and due to the fact that within the digital model, we fail to take in consideration the hardware material thickness that

joins one element to the next. In this case, brass hinges. Also, there is the absence of material thickness in the digital model, which must be taken into account before building assembly. Otherwise, there are discrepancies that may increase exponentially when it comes to the rotational motion of paired elements within every component. Once the model has been assembled, we are able to study 12째 the sequence between actuators that in turn generate volume. In this12.7 prototype, the actuators are engaged along the y-axis. Although, there must always be engaged in sequence, this is not to say that this sequence has to take place in a predetermined order. However, the order of sequence in which these actuators become engaged is crucial in order to minimize the force required for kinetic movement between components. In this fashion, actuator types may be purchased and calibrated according to how much force they are required to exert and withstand. 41.7

17.6

R69.7 6.6

R69.3

12.7

51.7


47.8

143

93.7

10.9

23°

12°

12.7

37.5

41.7

37.5 23°

50.1 50.1

51.7 R69.3

R69.7

10.9

6.6

°

07.1. APPENDIX 01. Digital and Physical Comparison_Other Configurations

12° 12.7

(a)

(a) 92.1

15.6

93.7

17.6

41.7 R69.3

17.6

R69.7

R69.3

Fig. 7.11 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:7.11]

12.7

12.7

R69.7

6.6

94.0

(b) (b)

41.7

Fig. 7.12 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:7.12]

41.7

Fig. 7.13 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.13]

23°

12.7

12° 51.7

(c)

(c) Fig. 7.13

Another factor studied from comparing the digital and physical models is their kinetic behaviour. The main difference between them is in relation to anchoring points within the digital model which in the physical world; they play the role of a foundation type. In turn, these anchor points become static in the digital model, while in the physical prototype, we allow their displacement to allow interaction depending on the forces exerted at the time of kinetic movement between component. This freedom slightly increases the overall curvature in the geometry. On the contrary, their volume is nearly identical. In addition, the lack of gravity and self weight within the digital model also makes a difference.

Fig. 7.14

Conf. 04 (9,5x2,5)

DIGITAL

PHYSICAL

Length (cm)

93,7

82

Width (cm)

50,1

71,5

Height (interior) (cm)

17,6

17

Height (exterior) (cm)

41,7

31,5

Volume (dm3)

137,9

2

Area (cm )

4694,37

Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

69,7

Fig. 7.14 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.14]


144

07. APPENDIX

Configuration 05 9.07

Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5

Actuators length: 9.5 x 9.5

Open Stage Actuators length: 9.5 x 9.5

5.363R

4.263R

9.07

8.35

8.35

1.553R

(a)

(a)

9.07

Direction of opening

70.9

R363.5 24.1

(b)

R362.4

2.5 cm Actuators Fig. 7.15

(b)

9.5 cm Actuators

70.9

24.5

Fig. 7.16

Configuration 05 This particular configuration undergoes the most homogeneous space change. In this case, all actuators are set to equal lengths. Therefore, being the prototype with the largest floor area and volume. The final 53.8 53.8 geometry still is a dome like structure, however, its deployment pattern differs from all previous models in that it radiates out from a central point. Otherwise, we are able to conclude that all characteristics from previous configurations apply to this one.

53.9

R403.9

R355.1

70.9


145

77.1

07.1. APPENDIX 01. Digital and Physical Comparison_Other Configurations 95.9 R67.1

7.8

3.0

R69.3

1

39.0

95.9

39.0

R67.1

.1

R67.1 39.0 5.7 5.7

16.2

78.5

78.5

76.2

R69.7

78.5

76.2

R69.3 R69.3

(a) (a) 96.5

11.4

95.9

3 39.0 39.0

Fig. 7.15 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:7.15]

39.0 R69.7

39.0

R69.7

R65.4

12.4 3.0

R69.7

R65.4

R65.4

12.4

3.0

(b)

96.4

(b)

39.0

96.4

Fig. 7.16 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 9,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:7.16]

39.0

Fig. 7.17 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.17]

R67.1

5.7

R69.3 76.2

(c)

(c)

Fig. 7.17

Fig. 7.18

Configuration 05 (9,5x9,5)

DIGITAL

PHYSICAL

Length (cm)

95,9

95

Width (cm)

78,5

78

Height (interior) (cm)

12,4

14

Height (exterior) (cm)

39

30

Volume (dm3)

161,4

2

Area (cm ) Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

7528,15 65,4

Fig. 7.18 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.18]


146

07. APPENDIX

Configuration 07 9.07

Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5

Actuators length: 12.0 x 2.5

Open Stage Actuators length: 12.0 x 2.5

5.363R

4.263R

9.07

42.4 14.8

8.35

8.35

47.8

35°

8.919°

48.1

1.553R

(a)

(a)

9.07

Direction of opening 90.6

R55.8

R58.3

15.3

20.0

48.1

(b)

42.4

2.5 cm Actuators

14.8

(b)

94.6

42.4

2.5 cm Actuators 12.5 cm Actuators

Fig. 7.19

Fig. 7.20

47.8in configuration 02 (see page 93), we analysed the results Previously, 35° from the digital and physical models in terms of fabrication, actuator sequence engagement, kinetic behaviour, and shape change. However, since the analysis of this configuration in terms of fabrication is nearly 8.919° identical to the previous one, we will omit to a certain extent to address the discrepancies of this issue between the two model types; digital and physical. However,we will focus on this model’s actuator sequence type, in relation to kinetic behaviour and shape change.

netic mode. This means that the stress distribution along the entire 35° increases, structure becomes greater, the torque between components and when it comes to shape change, these forces become apparent as each component begins to twist and rotate influencing the final shape 48.8 change.

Configuration 07

In this case, the most radical difference takes place in the sequence 48.1 in which actuators are engaged. In turn, having a direct relationship to shape change. In this case, the overall displacement of the final shape change occurs along the x-axis and y-axis. In comparison to the previous configuration, the actuator length in this model is greater. Therefore, they require a greater force as they are engaged into a ki-

Then, in terms of shape change, the main difference between digital and physical models is due the lack of anchoring points19° (foundation) in the physical model. 19.2

By observing this shape change, we are able to conclude that depend47.1 ing on the starting point of the sequence between actuators, there is a domino effect that begins to elevate one component to the next higher from the ground as stress increases as actuators are being engaged in sequence. However, this action allows us to understand the 48.1

26.4 R55.8 R58.3 8.9

19.2


48.1 48.1

47.8

07.1. APPENDIX 01. Digital and Physical Comparison_Other Configurations

94.6 94.6

14.8

35°

8.919°

42.4 42.4

147

48.1

42.4

14.8 4.8

42.4 42.4

35° 35°

R55.8

.919° 19°

48.8 48.8

15.3

R58.3 8.9

19° 19° 19.2 19.2

(a) 48.1 48.1

47.1 47.1

(a) 90.6

20.0

94.6

26.4 R55.8

48.1 48.1

19.2 19.2

R58.3

19.2

26.4 26.4 R55.8 R55.8

Fig. 7.19 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:7.19]

R58.3 R58.3 8.9 8.9

94.6 94.6

(b)

(b)

48.1

48.1 42.4

47.1

Fig. 7.21 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.21]

35°

19°

19.2

(c) 48.8

(c) Fig. 7.21

distribution of stress, not only along the entire structure but also per component. Since the difference of forces between these components is much greater than in the previous configuration; their interaction can be mapped as a structural behaviour study and we can begin to calibrate each component in greater detail. This structural behaviour would cover the forces exerted from one actuator to the next, however, at this point, this information that would have to be developed in the near future, as we will keep on focusing on kinetic behaviour and shape change.

Fig. 7.20 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:7.20]

Fig. 7.22

Configuration 07 (12,0x2,5)

DIGITAL

PHYSICAL

Length (cm)

94,6

72

Width (cm)

80,5

68

Height (interior) (cm)

26,4

31

Height (exterior) (cm)

48,1

45

3

Volume (dm ) 2

160,2

Area (cm )

7615,3

Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

58,3

Fig. 7.22 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.22]


148

07. APPENDIX

Configuration 08 9.07

Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5

Actuators length: 12.0 x 12.0

Open Stage Actuators length: 12.0 x 12.0

5.363R

4.263R

9.07

8.35

8.35

1.553R

(a)

(a)

9.07

Direction of opening

70.9

R363.5 24.1

(b)

(b)

2.5 cm Actuators

R362.4

Fig. 7.23

70.9

12.0 cm Actuators

24.5

Fig. 7.24

Configuration 08 This particular configuration undergoes the most homogeneous space change. In this case, all actuators are set to equal lengths. Therefore, being the prototype with the largest floor area and volume. The final 53.8 53.8 geometry still is a dome like structure, however, its deployment pattern differs from all previous models in that it radiates out from a central point. Otherwise, we are able to conclude that all characteristics from previous configurations apply to this one.

53.9

R403.9

R355.1

70.9


80.1

42.7

07.1. APPENDIX 01. Digital and Physical Comparison_Other Configurations

42.7

R70.5

42.7

149

42.7

R56.0

9.2

100.0

100.0

42.7 R70.5 R70.5 81.9

81.9

78.2

6.7

81.9

78.2

6.7 R56.0 R56.0

0 R59.4

6.0

(a) 94.9

14.4

100.0

15.2

(a)

R59.7

R59.4 3.1

R59.4

15.2 15.2

Fig. 7.23 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:7.23]

R59.7 R59.7

3.1

(b)

99.5

(b)

99.5

Fig. 7.24 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 12,0. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:7.24]

42.7

Fig. 7.25 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.25]

R70.5

6.7

R56.0

78.2

(c)

(c) Fig. 7.25

Fig. 7.26

Configuration 08 (12,0x12,0)

DIGITAL

PHYSICAL

Length (cm)

100

92

Width (cm)

81,9

80

Height (interior) (cm)

15,2

23

Height (exterior) (cm)

42,7

36

Volume (dm3)

182,1

2

Area (cm ) Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

8190 70,5

Fig. 7.26 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.26]


150

07. APPENDIX

7.79

Configuration 09 9.07

3.86R

Actuators length: gradient 01

Closed Stage Actuators length: 2.5 x 2.5

Open Stage Actuators length: gradient 01 6.3

5.363R 5.9 4.6 8.97

8.35

8.97

4.26

4.263R

9.07

1.18R

8.35 3.86R 1.18R

1.553R

(a)

(a)

9.07 1.75R

Direction of opening

6.9 3.2

0.77R

2.99

70.9

R363.5 24.1

(b)

R362.4

2.5 cm Actuators

(b)

2.5 cm Actuators

70.9

9.5 cm Actuators 24.5

12.0 cm Actuators 14.0 cm Actuators

Fig. 7.27

Configuration 09

Fig. 7.28

This particular configuration undergoes the most homogeneous space change. In this case, all actuators are set to equal lengths. Therefore, being the prototype with the largest floor area and volume. The final 53.8 53.8 geometry still is a dome like structure, however, its deployment pattern differs from all previous models in that it radiates out from a central point. Otherwise, we are able to conclude that all characteristics from previous configurations apply to this one.

53.9

R403.9

R355.1

70.9


6

9.5

R81.1

R68.3

R68.3

07.1. APPENDIX 01. Digital and Physical Comparison_Other Configurations

151

97.7

6.4 79.8 R68.3

62.4 62.4

6.4 79.8

62.4 R81.1

97.7

(a)

(a)

R81.1

9.6

R77.0

Fig. 7.27 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location [Ref. Illustrative:7.27]

R57.1

2.3 99.2

R77.0

(b)

(b)

Fig. 7.29 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.29]

R57.1

9.6 2.3

R68.3

6.4

R81.1

99.2

Fig. 7.28 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: gradient 01. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening [Ref. Illustrative:7.28]

79.8

(c)

(c) Fig. 7.29

Fig. 7.30

Configuration 09 (gradient 01)

DIGITAL

PHYSICAL

Length (cm)

97,7

84

Width (cm)

62,4

76

Height (interior) (cm)

9,6

8,5

30,1

23,5

Height (exterior) (cm) 3

Volume (dm )

166,2

Area (cm2)

6096,48

Max. Radius of Curvature (cm)

77

Fig. 7.30 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation [Ref. Illustrative:7.30]


152

05. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT

Appendix 02

Different applications As said before in the introduction of the Design Application (chapter 5, page 112), three different simple yet specific design applications are tested with the system to validate its adaptability. Each of them will specifically serve to one purpose and try to solve a single technical problem. In this Appendix 02 we show two different applications that explore aspects like porosity, environmental response and volume change.


07.2. APPENDIX 02. Different Applications_Other Applications

153


154

05. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Position 1. Closed Mode

0:00

Application 2:

Fig. 7.31

Surface Deformation and Environmental Performance This application is for a canopy that changes its form and surface porosity based on the climatic condition. The system is suspended with cables from nearby structures or other natural elements like trees. The location where cables are attached to the system becomes the anchor points. Suspended anchor points provide more flexibility for the transformation of the surface as the boundaries are not constrained and each component has the freedom to expand in all directions. For this application , bottom actuators (both Bottom horizontal and Bottom Vertical) will reshape the surface to create shade and shelter. At the same time, different actuators located in the planar squared surfaces of the surface open and close centre apertures to create differentiated porosity according to the environmental conditions for a more comfortable space underneath. This Responsive Component was already explained in the Preliminary Explorations (chapter 3, pages 58-


07.2. APPENDIX 02. Different Applications_Other Applications

155

During the process

Position 2. Open Mode

Fig. 7.31 Application 2. Position 1. [Ref. Illustrative: 7.31] Fig. 7.32 Application 2. The canopy is being activated to adopt position 2. [Ref. Illustrative: 7.32]

0:30 Fig. 7.32

63) and in the Research Development (chapter 4, pages 102-107). Fig. 7.31 shows the system completely horizontal as all the actuators that control the surface shape are completely closed and locked. However the Responsive Components (squared surfaces) perform according to the environmental conditions. Fig. 7.32 represents an instant in between the closed position (stage 1) and the open position (stage 2). The bottom actuators are activated and therefore the surface starts curving in a concave shape. The Responsive Components read the new conditions in each surface and readjust their opening degree accordingly to this new position. Finally, in the closed position (stage 2, fig. 7.33) the bottom actuators open completely and the surface reaches its maximum curvature. The Responsive Components continue readjusting their opening to generate the desired conditions underneath.

1:00 Fig. 7.33

Fig. 7.33 Application 2. Stage 2. [Ref. Illustrative:7.33]


156

05. DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Position 1. Closed Mode

0:00

Fig. 7.34

Application 3: Surface change Application number three is a cantilevered canopy for a cafe or other functional purposes that require a different area depending in seasons or people attendance. By using a weight sensor on the ground platform, the number of people under the surface can be estimated. As this number increases and reaches a given limit, the surface expands its geometry and allows more people to have activities under the shade. For this configuration, all four actuators need to be activated simultaneously. When it is fully extended, the two corners of the canopy touch the ground for additional support while one side remain attached to the wall. For more stability, the side that is attached to the wall is extruded higher than the side that touch the ground.


07.2. APPENDIX 02. Different Applications_Other Applications

157

During the process

Position 2. Open Mode

0:45

Fig. 7.34 Application 1. Position 1 [Ref. Illustrative: 7.34]

1:30

Fig. 7.35

Fig. 7.36

Fig. 7.35 Application 1. The canopy is being activated to adopt position 2 [Ref. Illustrative:7.35] Fig. 7.36 Application 1. Stage 2 [Ref. Illustrative:7.36]


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158

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Jackson, Paul. Folding Techniques for Designers: from sheet to form. London: Laurence King Pub., 2011.

Truco, Jordi. PARA-Site:Time Based Formations Through Material Inteligence. Barcelona, Spain: ELISAVA, 2011.

Jansen, Theo, and Johannes Niemeijer. The Great pretender: Works of art by Theo Jansen.. Rotterdam: Uitgeverij 010, 2007.

Vyzoviti, Sophia. Folding architecture: spatial, structural and organizational diagrams. Corte Madera, Calif.: Gingko Press, 2004.

Kronenburg, Robert. Flexible: architecture that responds to change. London: Laurence King, 2007.

Vyzoviti, Sophia. Supersurfaces: folding as a method of generating forms for architecture, products and fashion. Corte Madera, Calif.: Gingko Press, 2006.

LeCuyer, Annette, Stefan Lehnert, Ian Liddell, and Ben Morris. ETFE: Technology and Design. 1. ed. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2008. Lim, Joseph. Bio-structural analogues in architecture. Amsterdam: BIS Publishers, 2009. Lim, Joseph. Eccentric structures in architecture. Amsterdam: BIS Publishers, 2010. Schumacher, Michael, Oliver Schaeffer, and Michael Vogt. Move: architecture in motion : dynamic components and elements. Boston,MA: Birkhaeuser,2010

Articles

Sterk, Tristan. ‘Building Upon Negroponte: A Hybridized Model Of Control Suitable For Responsive Architecture’ eCAADe 21, p.406-414. Austria. 2003. Sterk, Tristan. ‘Shape Control In Responsive Architectural Structures – Current Reasons & Challenges’ 4th World Conference on Structural Control and Monitoring. The School of Interactive Arts & Technology, Simon Fraser University, Canada. 2006. Sterk, Tristan. ‘Using Actuated Tensegrity Structures to Produce A Responsive Architecture’ ACADIA 22: Connecting Crossroads of Digital Discourse, p.8493. The School of The Art Institute of Chicago, USA. 2003.


160

08. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Illustrative references Fig. 1.01 Different plan configurations in Gary Chang’s apartment Retrieved from: http://www.edge.hk.com/en/index.php Fig. 1.02 Sliding walls inside Gary Chang’s apartment Retrieved from: http://www.edge.hk.com/en/index.php Fig. 1.03 Mechanical actuators and railing system on the rooftop of Dominique Perrault’s Olympic Tennis Center_Madrid Retrieved from: Dominique Perrault Architecture España ©Georges Fessy/ DPA ADGAP y los dos esquemas © DPA ADGAP Fig. 1.04 27 Different configurations of the roofs in Dominique Perrault’s Olympic Tennis Center_Madrid Retrieved from: Dominique Perrault Architecture España


161 Fig. 1.05 Heatherwick Studio’ Rolling Bridge operation sequence Retrieved from: http://www.heatherwick.com/ Fig. 1.06 Hans Kupelwieser & Werkraum Wie’s Lakeside Stage operation sequence Retrieved from: http://www.werkraumwien.at/index.php/recent.html Fig. 1.07 Hexagonal shading cell detail for Chuck Hoberman’s Audiencia Provincial, Madrid Retrieved from: http://www.hoberman.com Fig. 1.08 Shading scheme for the central atrium in Chuck Hoberman’s Audiencia Provincial, Madrid Retrieved from: http://www.hoberman.com Fig. 1.09 Central atrium in Chuck Hoberman’s Audiencia Provincial, Madrid Retrieved from: http://www.hoberman.com Fig. 1.10 Close-up façade system of Jean Nouvel’s Institut du Monde Arabe Retrieved from: http://aclearglimmer.wordpress.com20110423arab-world-institute Fig. 1.11 Panel’s reaction under different temperature. Andrew Payne’s SMA Panel System Retrieved from: http://www.arch.columbia.edu/imagegallary/gallery/sfmomagsapp-alumni-reception-alumni-images Fig. 1.12 Andrew Payne’s SMA Panel System Retrieved from: http://dinneratmidnight.wordpress.compage3 Fig. 1.13 Achim Menges and Steffen Reichert’s Responsive Surface Structure Retrieved from: http://www.achimmenges.net/?cat=236 Fig. 2.01 Sabin+Jones, Labstudio’s “Deployability” Retrieved from: http://www.sabin-jones.com/special%20projects_Surface%20 Design.html Fig. 2.02 Tristan D’Estree Sterk’s Actuated Tensegrity Retrieved from: http://www.orambra.com/

Sub-System Deployment Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.01 System Closed Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.02 System Deployed Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.03 Opportunity for Environmental Responsive Sub-System Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.04 Sub-System Deployment Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.05 - Fig. 3.08 Patterns 1-4. V-patterns Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.09 - Fig. 3.10 Patterns 5-6. Modular patterns Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.11 - Fig. 3.12 Patterns 7-8. Modular patterns Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.13 - Fig. 3.16 Patterns 9-12. Complex Surfaces Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.17 Selected pattern 1. Grid V’s Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.18 Pattern 1, model. Note: These pictures and the prototype showed in them have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.19 Selected pattern 6. Modular pleats _ square Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises

Fig. 2.03 Jordi Truco’s PARA-site Retrieved from: http://ma-s-lab.blogspot.com/

Fig. 3.20 Pattern 6, model. Note: These pictures and the prototype showed in them have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises

Fig. 2.04 System Closed Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research

Fig. 3.21 Selected pattern 7. Modular pleats _ triangle Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises

Fig. 2.05 System Deployed Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research

Fig. 3.22 Pattern 7, model. Note: These pictures and the prototype showed in them have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises

Fig. 2.06 Opportunity for Environmental Responsive Sub-System Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 2.07

Fig. 3.23 Diagrams of surface along rails, Configuration 1. Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research


162

08. BIBLIOGRAPHY Fig. 3.24 Model of surface along rails, Configuration 1 Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.25 Diagrams of surface along rails, Configuration 2 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.26 Model of surface along rails, Configuration 2 Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.27 Diagrams of surface along rails, Configuration 3 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.28 Model of surface along rails, Configuration 3 Note: These pictures have been taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.29 Strategic diagram of translation of 1 input (action) into 2 outputs (effects) Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.30 Gear system experiment for global control Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.31 Different volumetric configurations by global control (a) -135o, (b) -90o (c) 0o (d) +90o (e) +135o Note: These pictures and the prototype showed in them have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.32 Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.33 Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.34 Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.35 Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.36 Pattern 6. Actuation of horizontal actuators Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.37 Pattern 6. Actuation of vertical actuators Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.38 Pattern 6. Actuation of both horizontal and vertical actuators Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.39 Assembly line of pattern 01. Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.40 Actuation direction of the different clusters of units Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.41 Stage 1. Pattern is completely flat on the ground. To start activating it, the mountains (red lines) have to be pushed up simultaneously Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.42 Stage 2. Instant after stage 1 when all the mountains are slightly pushed up. Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.43 Operation sequence_pattern 01 Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.44 Assembly line of pattern 06 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.45 Actuation direction of the different clusters of units Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.46 Stage 1. Pattern is completely flat on the ground. To start activating it, the mountains (red lines) have to be pushed up simultaneously Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.47 Stage 2. Instant after stage 1 when all the mountains are slightly pushed up. Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.48 Images of the surface Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.49 Assembly line of pattern 06 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.50 Actuation direction of the different clusters of units Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.51 Stage 1. Pattern is completely folded. Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.52 Stage 2. Pattern is being activated by unfolding its components one by one and locking them in to their position Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 3.53 Images of the sequence of the activation of the surface. (a) only one component is activated, (b) three components are activated, (c) four components are activated, (d) five components are activated, (e) six components are activated, (f) eight components are activated, (g) ten components are activated, (h) all components are activated Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.54 Jaw toggle & Swage 38BC-TS-5811_Blair Corporation Retrieved from: http://www.blairwirerope.com/


163 Fig. 3.55 Rod & Swage 38BC-RS-5811_Blair Corporation Retrieved from: http://www.blairwirerope.com/ Fig. 3.56 Standard cylinder DSNU 20-25_FESTO Retrieved from: http://www.festo.com/net/startpage/

Note: This picture and experiment have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 3.72 Sequence diagram Note: This diagram has specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.57 Standard cylinder DSNUP ISO 6431_FESTO Retrieved from: http://www.festo.com/net/startpage/

Fig. 3.73 Images of the physical/digital experiment Note: This pictures are extracted from the video of the experiment that has specifically been recorded by us during the exploration exercises

Fig. 3.58 LA28 Electric Linear Actuator_LINAK Group Retrieved from: http://www.linak.com/

Fig. 3.74 Responsive type: Folds Opening Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.59 LA30 Electric Linear Actuator_LINAK Group Retrieved from: http://www.linak.com/

Fig. 3.75 Responsive type: Shutters Opening Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.60 Relaxed pneumatic air muscle_ Shadow Robot Company Retrieved from: http://www.shadowrobot.com/

Fig. 3.76 Responsive type: Shutters Opening Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.61 Activated pneumatic air muscle_Shadow Robot Company Retrieved from: http://www.shadowrobot.com/

Fig. 3.77 Responsive type: Rotating Opening Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.62 Memory Alloy wire Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shape-memory_alloy

Fig. 3.78 Responsive type: Aperture Opening Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.63 Alloy Muscle prototype Retrieved from: https://sites.google.com/site/artificialmuscle/ann-try

Fig. 3.79 Responsive type: Membrane Opening type one Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.64 Giga vent_ J. Orbesen Teknik ApS Retrieved from: http://shop.greenhouse-vent-opener.com/shop/frontpage.html

Fig. 3.80 Responsive type: Membrane Opening type two Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.65 Optivent_J. Orbesen Teknik ApS Retrieved from: http://shop.greenhouse-vent-opener.com/shop/frontpage.html

Fig. 3.81 Responsive type: Membrane Opening type three Note: These diagrams have specifically been done by us for this research

Fig. 3.66 Sequence of the reaction of the polymer gel with water Retrieved from: http://www.mindsetsonline.co.uk/product_info.php?cPath= 18_ 177&products_id=1404

Fig. 4.01 Note: These images have been generated by for this research

Fig. 3.67 System Closed Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.68 System Deployed Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.69 Opportunity for Environmental Responsive Sub-System Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.70 Sub-System Deployment Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 3.71 Devices used to read environmental data and actuate in consequence

Fig. 4.02 Note: These images have been generated by for this research Fig. 4.03 Option 1 for component within the surface. (a) Actuators 100% closed, (b) Actuators 35% open, (c) Actuators 65% open, (d) Actuators 100% open Note: These drawings have specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.04 Exploded perspective of the component (option 1) and its elements Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.05 Location of the component within the surface (option 1) Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.06 Option 2 for component within the surface. (a) Actuators 100% closed, (b) Actuators 35% open, (c) Actuators 65% open, (d) Actuators 100% open Note: These drawings have specifically been done by us for this research


164

08. BIBLIOGRAPHY

Fig. 4.07 Exploded perspective of the component (option 2) and its elements Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.08 Location of the component within the surface (option 2) Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.09 Configuration 01. Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.10 Configuration 02. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 9,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.11 Configuration 03. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 12,0 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research] Fig. 4.12 Configuration 04. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 2,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.13 Configuration 05. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 9,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.14 Configuration 06. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 12,0 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.15 Configuration 07. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 2,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.16 Configuration 08. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 12,0 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.17 Configuration 09. Actuators length (cm); gradient 01 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.18 Configuration 10. Actuators length (cm); gradient 02 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 4.19 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.20 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 9,5. (a) perspective, (b) plan view showing actuator’s location and direction of opening Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.21 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.22 Physical model. (a) plan view, (b) front elevation, (c) side elevation

Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 4.23 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.24 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x12,0 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.25 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.26 Physical model Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 4.27 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.28 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 12,0 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.29 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.30 Physical model Note: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 4.31 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.32 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: gradient Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.33 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.34 Physical modelNote: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 4.35 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 01. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.36 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 05. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 9,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.37 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 08. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 12,0 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research


165

Fig. 4.38 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 09. Actuators length (cm); gradient 01 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.39 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 10. Actuators length (cm); gradient 02 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.40 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 02. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 9,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.41 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 04. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.52 Components response to the Solar Analysis on the surface. Grasshopper_ Geco_Ecotect. West elevation Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.53 Components response to the Solar Analysis on the surface. Grasshopper_ Geco_Ecotect. South elevation Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.01 Different solutions for movable bridges Note: These diagrams have been edited by us from the ones retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Movable_bridge Fig. 5.02 Proposed application for a movable bridge Note: This diagram has specifically been done for this research

Fig. 4.42 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 03. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 12,0 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.03 Position 1. Time: 0’00’’ Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research

Fig. 4.43 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 07. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.04 The structure is being activated to adopt position 2. Time: 1’30’’ Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research

Fig. 4.44 % Interior vs Exterior volume in Configuration 06. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 12,0 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.05 Position 2 Time: 3’00’’ Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research

Fig. 4.45 Responsive Component. Control of different parameters: Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.06 Activation of the system with the weight of water by pulling the structure up Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research

Fig. 4.46 Responsive Component adopting different shapes by changing the 4 corners that delimit its boundary. Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.07 Pneumatic bag actuator Retrieved from: http://www.prestolifts.com/

Fig. 4.47 Conceptual diagrams. Differentiation throughout the surface as a response to environmental changes Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research]

Fig. 5.08 Activation of the system by air pumps that inflate air-bag actuators. (a) low water level: closed stage, (b) high water level: Open stage Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research

Fig. 4.48 Solar Analysis on the location of the Responsive Components of the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. Plan view Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.09 Geometry of the bridge Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 4.49 Solar Analysis on the location of the Responsive Components of the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. West elevation Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.50 Solar Analysis on the location of the Responsive Components of the surface. Grasshopper_Geco_Ecotect. South elevation Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 4.51 Components response to the Solar Analysis on the surface. Grasshopper_ Geco_Ecotect. Plan view

Fig. 5.10 Maximum displacements of the strcture for different materials Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.11 Displacement of the structure in Steel_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.12 Displacement of the structure in Steel_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.13


166

08. BIBLIOGRAPHY Displacement of the structure in Aluminum_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.14 Displacement of the structure in Wood_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.15 Displacement of the structure in Aluminum_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.28 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type E_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.29 Compariton of max. displacement among types A to E_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.16 Displacement of the structure in Wood_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.30 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type C_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.17 Identification of the members within the system Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.31 Compariton of max. displacement among types A to E_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.18 Structural component types for the different tests Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.32 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type C_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.19 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type A_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.20 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type A_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.21 Displacement of the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type B_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.22 Displacement of the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type C_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.23 Displacement of the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type B_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.24 Displacement of the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type C_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.25 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type D_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.26 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type E_position 1 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.27 Displacement diagram for the structure in Steel when the depths of the members are as Type D_position 2 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research

Fig. 5.33 Rotation and translation axes for the Degrees of Freedom (DOF) Note: These diagrams have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.34 Anchor Points. TYPE A Note: These diagrams have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.35 Anchor Points. TYPE B Note: These diagrams have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.36 Anchor Points. TYPE C Note: These diagrams have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.37 Diagram Truss Note: These diagrams have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.38 Detail of plates for the foundation of the bridge Note: These diagrams have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.39 Bridge dimensions in Position 1 Note: These diagrams have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.40 Bridge dimensions in Position 2 Note: These diagrams have been produced by us during this research Fig. 5.41 Assembly process as defined in T1 Note: These images have been taken by us Fig. 5.42 Assembly process as defined in T2 Note: These images have been taken by us Fig. 5.43 Physical model. Different captures of the transition between position 1 and position 2


167 Fig. 7.01 Configuration 01. Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.02 Configuration 02. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 9,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.03 Configuration 03. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 12,0 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research] Fig. 7.04 Configuration 04. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 2,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.05 Configuration 05. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 9,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.06 Configuration 06. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 12,0 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.07 Configuration 07. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 2,5 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.08 Configuration 08. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 12,0 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.09 Configuration 09. Actuators length (cm); gradient 01 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.10 Configuration 10. Actuators length (cm); gradient 02 Note: This drawing has specifically been done by us for this research Fig. 7.11 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.12 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.13 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.14 Physical modelNote: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 7.15 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.16 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 9,5 x 9,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.17 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo

Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.18 Physical modelNote: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 7.19 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.20 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.21 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.22 Physical modelNote: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 7.23 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.24 Open Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 12,0 x 12,0 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.25 Simulation with Grasshopper and Kangaroo Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.26 Physical modelNote: These pictures and prototype have specifically been done and taken by us during the exploration exercises Fig. 7.27 Closed Stage. Actuators length (cm); [Horizontal x Vertical]: 2,5 x 2,5 Note: These digital simulations have been produced by us during this research Fig. 7.31 Application 2. Position 1 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 7.32 Application 2. The canopy is being activated to adopt position 2 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 7.33 Application 2. Stage 2 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 7.34 Application 1. Position 1 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 7.35 Application 1. The canopy is being activated to adopt position 2 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research Fig. 7.36 Application 1. Stage 2 Note: These diagrams have specifically been done for this research


DYNAMIC SYSTEMS; responsive, adaptive, kinetic  

Architectural Association Emergent Technologies and Design 2010-2011 M.Sc Dissertation Gabi Ivorra (M.Sc) Cesar Martinez (M.Arch) Sebastian...

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