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2013

The Authoritative Guide to Global Space Activity


Table of Contents Overview.................................................................................................................................................... 3

2 0 1 3

1.0 | Space Products and Services ................................................................................................ 9 1.0 Introduction.........................................................................................................................10 1.1 How Space Products and Services are Used..................................................................10 1.2 Products and Services About Space................................................................................20 1.3 Emerging Technologies.....................................................................................................21 1.4 How Space Agencies Facilitate Technology Transfer..................................................21 2.0 | The Space Economy.................................................................................................................25 2.0 Introduction.........................................................................................................................26 2.1 Commercial Infrastructure and Support Industries...................................................27 2.2 Commercial Space Products and Services....................................................................31 2.3 Government Space Budgets..............................................................................................37 2.4 Summary of Data................................................................................................................56 2.5 Space Investment Outlook................................................................................................59 2.6 Space Foundation Indexes Overview.............................................................................61

Copyright © 2013 Space Foundation All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For more information, please contact: Space Foundation 4425 Arrowswest Drive Colorado Springs, CO 80907 » 1133 20th Street NW, Suite 425 Washington, DC 20036 » www.SpaceFoundation.org All images used in this publication are property of their respective owners. ISBN-13: 978-0-9789993-6-0 ISBN-10: 0-9789993-6-3

3.0 | Space Infrastructure..............................................................................................................67 3.0 Introduction.........................................................................................................................68 3.1 Launch Vehicles...................................................................................................................68 3.2 Space Stations.......................................................................................................................80 3.3 Satellites.................................................................................................................................81 3.4 Other Spacecraft, Rovers, and Landers..........................................................................93 3.5 Ground Facilities.................................................................................................................96 3.6 Technology Development...............................................................................................100 4.0 | Workforce and Education....................................................................................................103 4.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................................104 4.1 U.S. Space Workforce.......................................................................................................104 4.2 European Space Workforce.............................................................................................112 4.3 Japanese Space Workforce...............................................................................................113 4.4 Other Space Employment...............................................................................................114 4.5 U.S. Space-Related Education Trends...........................................................................115 4.6 Global Space-Related Education Trends......................................................................119 5.0 | Perspective..............................................................................................................................121 5.0 Introduction.......................................................................................................................122 5.1 Space Policy: Common Topics and Different Approaches......................................122 5.2 Space as a Tool of International Trade and Development........................................129 5.3 Building Space Infrastructure and Achieving Mission Objectives Within Reduced Budgets................................................................................................135 5.4 Spaceports as an Economic Engine...............................................................................141 5.5 Conclusion..........................................................................................................................145 Endnotes.....................................................................................................................................................148 Index of Exhibits.......................................................................................................................................156 Acronym List.............................................................................................................................................158 Certified Space Products........................................................................................................................159 Authors and Contributors......................................................................................................................160 www.TheSpaceReport.org


OVERVIEW 2 0 1 3

NASA’s Curiosity rover used the Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI) to capture 55 high-resolution images that were then stitched together to create a self-portrait of the rover. The mosaic shows the rover at “Rocknest,” the location in Gale Crater where the mission’s first scoop sampling took place. Four scoop scars can be seen in the soil in front of the rover. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science Systems


Overview

Introduction |

Investment in space activities generates a wide variety of returns. Individuals, companies, and governments continue to commit time and money each year to the goals of developing new space capabilities and reaping the rewards of existing ones. Much of the space activity in 2012 was centered on preparations for new programs and endeavors, as countries laid out their plans for the future. The United States continued to adjust to a post-Space Shuttle era in which it now relies solely on Russia for crew transportation to orbit, while taking steps to rebuild its own human spaceflight capacity. Nations such as Russia, Brazil, and India set forth bold plans for increased investment in the coming years, with new launch vehicles, satellite systems, and exploration missions in the works. China made steady progress in its human spaceflight program, Japan examined options for greater participation in the global commercial launch market, and Europe brought a new launch vehicle into operation. The commercial space industry maintained a healthy growth rate, far outpacing increases in government spending. Wealthy individuals and private equity firms are demonstrating their interest in the space sector by investing in existing companies and starting new ones. Commercial interests are likely to play an even more significant role in the space industry in the coming years if government austerity measures reduce the amount of funding available for national and multinational programs. In addition to the known benefits of space activity, this wave of commercial activity has the potential to generate unexpected returns that reward early-stage participants.

1.0 | Space Products and Services

Space technology is used every day to make life better. Individuals are using satellite positioning technology to add a layer of information over the physical world, taking advantage of smartphone applications that display location-specific video at tourist sites in India, or goggles that provide navigation and tracking information as the wearer skis down a mountain. The U.S. government relies on data from Earth observation satellites to forecast and respond to weather events, such as the wildfires in Colorado in the summer of 2012, and Superstorm Sandy, which pummeled the east coast of the United States in October. Elsewhere in the world, Earth observation programs are being used to improve irrigation practices in South Africa and to monitor potential human rights violations in war-torn areas such as Syria and Sudan.

Aspen Aerogels has successfully commercialized aerogels for industrial, construction, and consumer applications. The tubing bundle on the left, wrapped in flexible aerogel, met the same performance requirements but is both 30% lighter and 33% smaller than the tubing bundle on the right, wrapped with traditional insulation material. Credit: Dekoron Unitherm

Many industries continue to benefit from the ability of space assets to provide communications and to broadcast content on a global scale. These services are proving essential in rural areas and in countries that are rebuilding their infrastructure, such as Iraq and Afghanistan. Some industries leverage spinoff technologies that were developed for space but are applicable to other fields. When Volkswagen conducts crash tests on its cars, one of the tools it uses is a flexible sensor originally developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure pressure on the wing 4

The Space Report 2013


Overview EXHIBIT 1. Global Space Activity, 2012

of a space plane. Small companies also benefit from spinoffs, as happened in 2012 when a new startup company, Ministry of Supply, received support through crowd-funding website Kickstarter to begin production of clothing that uses textile technology developed by NASA for spacesuits.

Commercial Space Products and Services

$30.53 B (10%) $47.91 B (16%)

Commercial Infrastructure and Support Industries $115.97 B (38%)

U.S. Government Space Budgets Non-U.S. Government

Space Budgets The identification and promotion of spinoff $109.90 B (36%) technologies is an effort undertaken by multiple space agencies. NASA, ESA, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) all have offices dedicated to Total: $304.31 Billion © Space Foundation promoting the use of space technology in other fields. The 2012 edition of NASA’s annual Spinoff report estimates that spinoffs have saved at least 444,000 lives and resulted in the creation of 14,000 jobs, in addition to generating revenue and reducing costs. These results are from a sample of fewer than 200 technologies out of the thousands that have been created over the years.

The Space Foundation recognizes world-changing spinoffs in its Space Technology Hall of Fame. The two technologies inducted in 2012 were FireWatch, which uses spacecraft sensor technology to detect wildfires in their early stages, and flexible aerogels, which were developed to insulate spacecraft and are now used in a variety of industrial applications. The Space Foundation also maintains a Space Certification program that enables companies to market their products to the public on the basis of their connection to space.

2.0 | The Space Economy

The global space economy grew by nearly 7% in 2012, reaching a new record of $304.31 billion. As in previous years, the vast majority of this growth was in the commercial sector, which now constitutes nearly three-quarters of the space economy, with government spending making up the rest. EXHIBIT 2. Space Foundation Index vs. Other Market Indexes 160 150

Index Value (6/30/05 = Base 100)

140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70

Space Foundation Index NASDAQ Composite S&P 500

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The Authoritative Guide to Global Space Activity

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Overview Commercial space products and services such as broadcasting, communications, and Earth observation made up the largest portion of the space economy, growing by 6.5% in 2012. Commercial infrastructure and support industries, which constitute a slightly smaller proportion of the total, grew at a faster rate of 11% during the year. Overall government investment in space barely grew during 2012, increasing by slightly more than 1% from 2011 levels. This growth was unevenly distributed—some countries decreased their budgets as projects ended and others increased their budgets and announced new initiatives for the years ahead. The U.S. space budget remains the largest single segment of global government spending, although it grew by only 1.4% in 2012. By contrast, several smaller programs received sizable increases—budgets grew by 27% in Brazil, 30% in Russia, and 51% in India. Other countries, such as Canada and Italy, decreased their levels of investment in space during the year. Within the space industry, mergers and acquisitions remained a useful tool for companies to position themselves for anticipated changes in government spending. The volume of such transactions in 2012 decreased by 9% from 2011, and valuations were generally lower. At the same time, publicly traded companies on the U.S. stock markets experienced a healthy increase in share prices, leading the Space Foundation Indexes to gains of 14% to 30% for the year, as compared to 16% for the NASDAQ and 13% for the S&P 500.

3.0 | Space Infrastructure

The infrastructure that supports space activity includes a variety of elements such as launch vehicles, space stations, satellites, rovers, landers, and ground facilities. Russia, China, the United States, and Europe conducted the majority of launch activity in 2012. The global total of 78 orbital launch attempts in 2012 was down 7% from 84 in 2011, but it was in line with the average for the previous five years. North Korea attempted two launches in 2012, the second of which became the country’s first launch to reach orbit. ESA conducted the first launch of its new Vega rocket in February 2012, providing the space agency with a small-payload launch capability in addition to the larger Ariane 5 and Soyuz vehicles. Human orbital launch system development continued in the United States as NASA divided $1.1 billion among three companies working to develop the next generation of space launch systems capable of transporting astronauts into space A test version of NASA’s Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) awaits environmental testing at a facility within the next five years. Work also continued in Colorado. The MPCV will be subjected to a variety of tests to confirm its ability to safely fly astronauts through the harsh environments associated with deep space exploration missions. Credit: Lockheed Martin on NASA’s Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, a system capable of carrying astronauts to the Moon and other destinations beyond Earth’s orbit. Closer to home, the International Space Station (ISS) continues to be supported by a multinational fleet of spacecraft. In 2012, private firm SpaceX delivered cargo to the ISS via its newly developed Dragon capsule, the first time that a non-government spacecraft had fulfilled such a role. China also reached a new milestone in its space program in 2012 as a crew docked with and boarded Tiangong-1, an experimental orbital laboratory module launched in 2011. Further missions are planned in the coming years that are expected to lead to a permanently crewed station. In 2012, 119 satellites were placed into orbit on behalf of 24 countries and international organizations. This brings the estimated total of active satellites to 1,050 as of the end of 2012, an increase of 6% from 994 at the end of 2011. 6

The Space Report 2013


Overview Satellite communications capacity has increased significantly over the past five years due to the growth of demand for high-definition television and broadband internet connections. Satellites were also launched to enhance coverage for remote sensing, Earth observation, and positioning, navigation, and timing. Ground facilities are an integral part of space infrastructure, providing launch support, satellite control and telemetry, and scientific data processing. Major orbital launch sites are under construction in Russia and China, while several existing U.S. facilities operated by NASA and the U.S. Air Force are being refurbished and modified for use by companies developing commercial vehicles for cargo and crew transportation. In the astronomy community, newer and more powerful observatories are under construction to enable a better understanding of the universe. In 2012, the organizers of the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) decided to site the component facilities for the telescope in both South Africa and Australia, a process that is expected to stimulate the science and technology sectors in both countries. Comprising thousands of individual dishes, the SKA will be the largest and most sensitive radio telescope in the world when it is complete.

4.0 | Workforce and Education

The global space workforce numbers in the hundreds of thousands. These highly skilled workers are responsible for building and maintaining space infrastructure and developing new technologies and capabilities. In the United States, the size of the space workforce decreased by 4% from 2010 to 2011 (the most recent full-year data available from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). This was the largest single-year decline in the previous decade The LARES laser relativity satellite from Italy’s space agency, ASI, is prepared for launch at Europe’s and it continued a five-year downward trend that began in spaceport in French Guiana. LARES was launched along with several cubesats aboard the maiden 2006. The end of the Space Shuttle Program in 2011 was flight of the new Vega launcher. Credit: ESA/CNES/Arianespace/Optique video du CSG/L. Mira a large factor, causing the loss of more than 7,000 jobs in Florida alone. For those remaining in the space workforce, the news is somewhat better: U.S. space industry salaries have continued to grow, with the average space salary remaining more than double the average salary for the private sector as a whole. On the government side, NASA is facing challenges related to an aging workforce, with only 15% of its civil servants under 35 years old and more than 26% over 54. NASA employees eligible for retirement constituted 16% of the agency’s workforce as of the beginning of fiscal year 2013. The agency is taking steps to address this issue by making a concerted effort to hire recent graduates, but there are still challenges to overcome in ensuring that knowledge and expertise is documented and passed down before experienced employees retire. The size of the space workforce is increasing elsewhere in the world, in some cases recovering from previous downturns. European workforce has grown by 20% since 2006, returning to levels seen at the beginning of the decade. Japan’s space industry reached its highest level in the past 10 years, growing by more than 7% in 2011 alone. By contrast, the number of people working at JAXA has declined steadily over the past decade, dropping by more than 13% from 2003 to 2012. The global space industry relies on a steady supply of graduates trained in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Governments understand that a quality STEM education is essential for success in a high-tech economy, and they periodically assess the skill levels of students to determine the efficacy of educational programs. In the United States, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics scores have The Authoritative Guide to Global Space Activity

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Overview shown improvement over the past several decades in all age groups tested, most significantly at younger ages. At the university level, the number of STEM bachelor’s and doctoral degrees awarded by U.S. institutions has increased since 2000, but the rate of growth in several other countries has been significantly higher. China, in particular, has both the fastest growth rate and the highest absolute number of STEM bachelor’s degrees. As the importance of STEM becomes ever more significant, it is likely that countries will continue to make major investments in technical education and training.

5.0 | Perspective

Across the globe, governments continued to publish documents relating to space policies, strategies, and plans. Policy documents released in 2012 shared a number of common themes, including international cooperation, coordination between civil and military space activities, and the identification of a unifying national space strategy. For instance, the 2012 French Space Strategy emphasizes development of dual-use space programs and applications to serve both defense and civil users. In Japan, recent legislation has removed previous limitations on defense-related space efforts, opening the door to a stronger defense role in JAXA programs.

Avanti’s HYLAS 2 satellite provides data and video services to Northern and Southern Africa, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East. The spacecraft is also equipped with a steerable spot beam, operating in the Ka-band, which can provide coverage anywhere on Earth visible to the satellite. Credit: Orbital Sciences

Governments are increasingly recognizing the utility of space as a tool for international trade and development. Advanced spacefaring countries reap political and economic benefits from their existing space capabilities through partnerships with emerging nations that are seeking societal and development benefits. These partnerships can involve any combination of financial assistance, infrastructure development, and training programs. Much of the attention is focused on Africa, where demand for fixed satellite services is forecast to grow at 11% or greater each year from 2013 through 2017.

Economic conditions in some countries with developed space programs have led to budget restrictions, making it more challenging to develop and maintain space infrastructure. Space leaders are adopting different methods to overcome this challenge, such as improving mission cost management, engaging in more international partnerships, examining options for alternative platforms and flight formations, and making use of commercial markets and practices. Some of these plans rely on established approaches such as sharing satellite-based meteorological data among weather agencies, while others are yet to be proven, such as using commercial suborbital spacecraft to carry passengers and cargo into space for brief test flights. In several countries, spaceports are being developed to support suborbital flights and new orbital launch vehicles. Multiple U.S. states have proposed or are building spaceport facilities in anticipation of market growth in the commercial spaceflight sector. Several states have also passed legislation to address liability concerns that could potentially affect spacecraft operators and suppliers. These actions are being undertaken with the expectation that regions with active spaceports will experience on a local level the benefits that society as a whole has received from investments in space: a high-tech industry that attracts innovators in other fields, new jobs with above-average salaries, and an inspirational effect that encourages children to pursue careers in STEM so that they are open to a wide range of future possibilities.

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The Space Report 2013


Index of Exhibits

Overview 5 5

EXHIBIT 1. Global Space Activity, 2012 EXHIBIT 2. Space Foundation Index vs. Other Market Indexes

1.0 | Space Products and Services 10 11 12-13 22 22 23 24

EXHIBIT 1a. Topics Covered in Space Products and Services EXHIBIT 1b. Selected NASA, ESA, and JAXA Spinoffs, 2012 EXHIBIT 1c. Overview of Space Activity, 2012 EXHIBIT 1d. NASA Spinoffs Reported in 2012 EXHIBIT 1e. Selected Indicators for NASA Technology Transfer Activities, 2003–2012 EXHIBIT 1f. Research and Development at Select U.S. Government Agencies, 2005–2009 Averages EXHIBIT 1g. JAXA Spinoffs, 2004–2010

2.0 | The Space Economy

26 26 26 27 27 27 29 30 30 31 31 35 36 37 38 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 45 47 48 50 51 52 55 57 58 60 61 62 62 63 64 65

EXHIBIT 2a. Topics Covered in The Space Economy EXHIBIT 2b. The Global Space Economy EXHIBIT 2c. Global Space Activity, 2012 EXHIBIT 2d. Revenues for Space Infrastructure, 2012 EXHIBIT 2e. Orbital Launch Attempts, 2012 EXHIBIT 2f. Satellite Manufacturing Revenue Estimates, 2012 EXHIBIT 2g. Commercial Crew Integrated Capability Awards EXHIBIT 2h. NASA Flight Opportunities Program Participants EXHIBIT 2i. Space Insurance Industry Estimates, 1995–2012 EXHIBIT 2j. Revenues for Commercial Space Products and Services, 2012 EXHIBIT 2k. North American Direct-to-Home Television Revenue, 2012 EXHIBIT 2l. Earth Observation Revenue Estimates EXHIBIT 2m. European Satellite Navigation Competition Special Award Winners, 2012 EXHIBIT 2n. Government Space Budgets, 2012 EXHIBIT 2o. Government Space Budget Growth, 2012 EXHIBIT 2p. U.S. Government Agency Space Budgets, 2012 EXHIBIT 2q. NASA Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Request EXHIBIT 2r. Funding Changes in Major U.S. Military Space Programs, 2012 EXHIBIT 2s. Level of Investment Necessary to Fully Execute Brazil’s PNAE through 2020 EXHIBIT 2t. Canadian Space Agency Planned FY 2012–FY 2014 Spending by Program Activity EXHIBIT 2u. Space Spending as a Percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), Selected Countries EXHIBIT 2v. Member States’ Contributions to the European Space Agency, 2012 EXHIBIT 2w. European Space Agency Budget by Program, 2012 EXHIBIT 2x. Comparison of ESA Contributions vs. National-only Expenditures, 2012 EXHIBIT 2y. EUMETSAT Budget by Program, 2012 EXHIBIT 2z. French Space Spending by Program Area, 2012 EXHIBIT 2aa. Selected UK Future Investment in ESA Programs and Expected Outcomes EXHIBIT 2bb. Indian Space Budgets EXHIBIT 2cc. Japanese Space Spending by Agency, FY 2012–FY 2013 EXHIBIT 2dd. Space Budgets of Selected Emerging Countries, 2012 EXHIBIT 2ee. Global Space Activity Revenues and Budgets, 2012 EXHIBIT 2ff. Space-Related Transactions in 2012, Chronological Order EXHIBIT 2gg. Space Foundation Index vs. Other Market Indexes EXHIBIT 2hh. Space Foundation Indexes vs. Other Market Indexes EXHIBIT 2ii. Space Foundation Indexes Performance vs. Other Market Indexes, 2012 EXHIBIT 2jj. Space Foundation Index Returns vs. Benchmarks EXHIBIT 2kk. Space Foundation Services Index Returns vs. Benchmarks EXHIBIT 2ll. Space Foundation Infrastructure Index Returns vs. Benchmarks EXHIBIT 2mm. Composition of the Space Foundation Indexes for 2013

3.0 | Space Infrastructure 68 69 69 71 73 74 74

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EXHIBIT 3a. Topics Covered in Space Infrastructure EXHIBIT 3b. Geosynchronous (GSO) and Non-geosynchronous Orbit (NGSO) Historical Commercial Launches and Launch Forecast, 2012 EXHIBIT 3c. Commercial Satellite and Launch Forecasts, 2013–2021 EXHIBIT 3d. Milestones in Chinese Human Spaceflight EXHIBIT 3e. U.S. Orbital Launches, 2012 EXHIBIT 3f. Russian Orbital Launches, 2012 EXHIBIT 3g. Predicted Angara Performance


Index of Exhibits

75 76 78 81 82 82 83 83 85 87 91

EXHIBIT 3h. Chinese Orbital Launches, 2012 EXHIBIT 3i. Other Orbital Launches, 2012 EXHIBIT 3j. Number of Launches Attempted and Payload Mass Intended for Orbit by Country, 2007–2012 EXHIBIT 3k. Satellites Successfully Launched by Mission Type, 2012 EXHIBIT 3l. Applications of Satellite Systems EXHIBIT 3m. Commonly Used Satellite Communications Frequency Bands EXHIBIT 3n. GEO Commercial Communications Satellite Capacity Launched, 2008–2012 EXHIBIT 3o. Top 25 Fixed Satellite Services Operators by Revenue, 2011 EXHIBIT 3p. Mobile Satellite Services Operators, 2012 EXHIBIT 3q. Positioning, Navigation, and Timing Systems, 2012 EXHIBIT 3r. The Planned Series of Sentinel Satellites

4.0 | Workforce and Education 104 104 105 106 106 107 107 108 108 109 109 110 111 112 112 112 113 113 113 113 114 114 114 115 115 116 116 117 117 118 118 119 119 120

EXHIBIT 4a. Topics Covered in Workforce and Education EXHIBIT 4b. Space Workforce Trends in the United States, Europe, and Japan EXHIBIT 4c. Number of U.S. Space Employees at Selected Companies, 2012 EXHIBIT 4d. U.S. Space Industry Employment by Sector, 2001, 2006, 2010, and 2011 EXHIBIT 4e. U.S. Space Industry Core Employment, 2001–2012 EXHIBIT 4f. U.S. Space Industry Workforce and U.S. Total Workforce, 2001–2012 EXHIBIT 4g. Space Industry Salaries and Real Salary Growth by Sector, 2006–2011 EXHIBIT 4h. Top Five States by Space Industry Average Annual Salary, 2011 EXHIBIT 4i. U.S. Military Space Workforce, 2011 EXHIBIT 4j. NASA Civil Servant Workforce by Center, FY 2003–2013 EXHIBIT 4k. NASA Civil Servant Workforce Demographics, Start of FY 2013 EXHIBIT 4l. NASA Civil Servant Workforce Age Profiles Over Time EXHIBIT 4m. U.S. Space-Related Occupations and Projected Growth Rates EXHIBIT 4n. European Space Industry Employment, 2001–2011 EXHIBIT 4o. European Space Industry Employment by Sector, 2006–2011 EXHIBIT 4p. European Space Industry Employment by Country, 2006–2011 EXHIBIT 4q. European Space Workforce Demographics, 2011 EXHIBIT 4r. ESA Workforce Demographics, 2011 EXHIBIT 4s. Japanese Space Industry Employment, 2001–2011 EXHIBIT 4t. Japanese Space Industry Employment by Sector, 2007–2011 EXHIBIT 4u. JAXA Workforce, 2003–2012 EXHIBIT 4v. JAXA Space Workforce Demographics, 2011 EXHIBIT 4w. Global Space Agency Employment, 2012 EXHIBIT 4x. Number of R&D Personnel in Selected Regions or Countries, 1995–2009 EXHIBIT 4y. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Mathematics Scores, 1978–2008 EXHIBIT 4z. Average Mathematics and Science Credits Earned by U.S. High School Graduates, 1990–2009 EXHIBIT 4aa. U.S. Science and Engineering Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Doctoral Degrees, 2000–2009 EXHIBIT 4bb. U.S. Science and Engineering Degrees Earned by U.S. Citizens and Temporary Residents, 2009 EXHIBIT 4cc. U.S. Aerospace Engineering Bachelor’s, Master’s, and Doctoral Degrees, 2000–2009 EXHIBIT 4dd. U.S. Aerospace Engineering Degrees Earned by U.S. Citizens and Temporary Residents, 2009 EXHIBIT 4ee. Non-U.S. Undergraduate Student Enrollment in S&E Fields at U.S. Universities, November 2010 EXHIBIT 4ff. Percentage of 15-Year-Olds Planning a Science-Related Career EXHIBIT 4gg. STEM First-Degree Graduates by Country, 2000–2008 EXHIBIT 4hh. STEM Doctoral Graduates by Country, 2000–2008

5.0 | Perspective 122 122 123 125 129 129 132 134 135 135 136 141 142

EXHIBIT 5a. Topics Covered in Perspective EXHIBIT 5b. Topics Related to Space Policies EXHIBIT 5c. Selected Major National Space Policy Documents, 2011–2013 EXHIBIT 5d. Canadian Space Industry Export Revenue by Region, 2007–2010 EXHIBIT 5e. Topics Related to International Trade and Development EXHIBIT 5f. Origin of Current and Planned African-owned Telecommunications Satellites EXHIBIT 5g. Countries With Organizations Participating in the Square Kilometer Array, by Potential Role EXHIBIT 5h. Missions Supported by Export Credit Agencies, 2009–2012 EXHIBIT 5i. Topics Related to Building Space Infrastructure and Achieving Mission Objectives Within Reduced Budgets EXHIBIT 5j. NASA/NOAA Earth Observation Instruments Deployed or Planned and Funded, 2000–2020 EXHIBIT 5k. U.S. Earth Observation International Partnership Missions EXHIBIT 5l. Topics Related to Spaceports as an Economic Engine EXHIBIT 5m. Spaceports in Development or Operation, 2012

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The Space Report 2013 Overview