TRAVEL OVERSEAS The harpy eagle is one of Guyana’s top sightings, but seeing this magnificent bird is not normally as easy as it was for us.
EXPEDITION GUYANA is a five-part series due to be broadcast soon. Check Radio Times for details.
Most of Guyana’s interior is covered by tropical jungle – called ‘broccoli forest’ because from the air its texture resembles broccoli florettes. It is heartening to see how much jungle there is.
The forever forest
Flip De Nooyer/Foto Natura/FLPA
One of the few remaining unexplored frontiers of tourism, Guyana is South America’s biggest little secret. Sophie Stafford saw this pint-sized paradise of pristine rainforest through the eyes of the native Amerindians. FROM THE SUMMIT of Turtle Mountain, the emerald forest below stretched continuously in all directions to the hazy mountain ranges on the horizon, its dense green surface split only by the lazy curves of the Essequibo River. The view was breathtaking, not least because it had taken me two hours to climb the steep, winding path to the 300-metre peak, up rocky steps made slippery by lush mosses. Of course, I blamed the 30˚C heat and forest humidity for my discomfort, not the fact that I didn’t get round to renewing my gym membership this year. The 84
red faces of my travelling companions confirmed that, apparently, neither did they! LITTLE GARDEN OF EDEN In November, I was invited to explore Guyana, one of South America’s smallest and least known countries, a pocket-sized paradise squashed between Venezuela, Suriname and Brazil. Guyana is one of those places that few people have heard of, and as a result it receives only about 2,000 tourists a year. This is probably why 85 per cent of its land mass is still covered by pristine
tropical rainforest – one of the last four surviving in the world (the others being the Congo, New Guinea and Amazonia). Iwokrama Forest covers a million acres, yet forms just a small part of this wilderness. It sits on one of the oldest exposed rock surfaces in the world and has a timeless, almost prehistoric feel. More than 1,000 species of tree crowd shoulder to shoulder here, their dense canopy allowing a gentle light to filter down to the forest floor. In the stillness, the flight of a blue morpho butterfly is a dazzling flash of azure, while the
silence is broken only by the zingy, electric wolf-whistles of the screaming piha, an otherwise dowdy brown bird. The forest is the heart and home of nine native Amerindian tribes – the Arawak, Macushi, Arikuna, Carib, Wai-Wai, Akawayo, Warau, Wapishana and Patamona. “When I was a child, my father told me
The one million acre Iwokrama Forest has a timeless, almost prehistoric feel. ‘the forest is your supermarket,’” explained Ron Allicock, our Macushi guide, a slim, studiouslooking young man with small, round glasses and a knack for storytelling. ”Everything you need – clothes, food, medicine – is here.” Ron knows the trees that provide cures for everything from constipation to childbirth, which fruits are edible, which lianas make the strongest ropes and April 2008
which palm fronds knit together to make a waterproof shelter. For years, the forest also provided Ron’s father with a livelihood, harvesting the sap of the purple heart – or balata – tree, whose natural latex was once used to cover golfballs, among other things. Though it has since been replaced by synthetic products, many of the tallest trees at Iwokrama still bear the healing scars of parallel diagonal slash marks high up on their trunks. PARADISE PLUNDERED But the forest’s bounty was also harvested ruthlessly. Guyana was once one of the main exporters of wild birds, reptiles and fish for the pet trade. Archer, the Amerindian guide at the Iwokrama Canopy Walkway, would catch macaws by waiting in a fruit tree for the birds to come and feed, or mimicking the cries of a distressed juvenile to attract anxious parents, and then lassoing them with a noose. He sold the birds into a life of captivity April 2008
for 4,000 Guyanese dollars (£15). Today, the trade in wildlife is regulated by CITES, so Guyana’s animal population is finding new ways to earn its keep. “When the Government first told us we had to protect our forest, I couldn’t understand why,” said Ron. “I believed that all countries had the same resources. It was only when I travelled that I realised it’s not the same everywhere – you have only concrete jungles. This is why Guyana is so special.” But it took the arrival of the first tourists in the 1990s to make Ron truly appreciate the wild riches of his home. When he introduced foreigners to the forest, he was astonished by their reactions. ”They were amazed and awed by the colourful birds I
Giant anteaters can be seen near Karanambu.
took for granted,” he said. As they gawped at the wildlife, he gawped at them. Their delight made him interested in learning more about the species he saw every day.
Because Guyana was slow to recognise its natural assets, it still has virtually intact virgin rainforest. “I never believed I could be paid for taking people into the forest until the tourists came.” It is probably because Guyana was slow to recognise its natural assets, and their potential as a tourist attraction, that it still has virtually intact
virgin rainforest and healthy populations of species that are endangered (and hard to see) elsewhere. Guyana boasts the largest and most powerful eagle in the Americas – the harpy; the biggest cat in the New World – the jaguar; the world’s largest otter – the giant; as well as the biggest freshwater fish on Earth – the three-metre long, prehistoriclooking arapaima. This is all very well, but are these charismatic yet seriously elusive species any easier to see in Guyana? Well, from my experience, they are. On a short boat trip up the Essequibo River, both guides and guests alike were astonished to spot a male harpy eagle sitting in a lichen-festooned tree overhanging the water. Though young and so still quite small, he managed to look suitably disdainful as he flew off to a less public perch upriver, a massive iguana dangling from his strong talons. Then, when our boat carried its star-struck occupants into dock at BBC Wildlife
Both photos by Pete Oxford/naturepl.com
JUNGLE EXPLORATION GUYANA
READ ON Birds of Venezuela by S Hilty (Princeton, £39.99, code W0408/14). Guyana by K Smock (Bradt, £14.99, code W0408/15). Order on p77, quoting relevant code.
Georgetown, Guyana’s capital, comprises mainly wooden colonial buildings on tree-lined streets interlaced with canals. These are protected by sluices, built to drain a city that lies several metres below high tide. A sea wall helps to prevent flooding.
Kaieteur Falls With a sheer drop of 225m and a height of 250m, Kaieteur is the world’s tallest single-drop waterfall. It is also Guyana’s only national park, covering 224m2.
GUYANA Kaieteur Falls
Karanambu This Amerindian-style guest lodge on the Rupununi River is home to Diane McTurk, who is well known for rehabilitating orphaned giant otters. www.karanambu.com
Resting on a giant Amazonian lily, this baby black caiman doesn’t look like a member of the world’s largest caiman species, but it will do when it grows up.
Iwokrama International Centre manages the nearly 1 million acre Iwokrama Forest to show how tropical jungles can be conserved and used sustainably. Highlights include the canopy walkway. www.iwokrama.org/home.htm
i qu se Es
WHAT TO TAKE Guyana is hot and humid, with an average temperature of 27.5˚C, so take light, cool, casual clothing, a lightweight waterproof and sun protection. Carry plenty of bottled water. Flights into the interior have a baggage allowance of less than 10kg (20lbs) per person for both checked-in and hand luggage, so travel light. Most beds have mosquito nets, and from September to April, biting bugs aren’t a problem, but you will still need insect repellent, which also deters ticks. Don’t forget to enquire about anti-malarials.
T HE NAV I GATO R
LOCATION On the north-east shoulder of South America, bordering Suriname in the east, Venezuela in the west, Brazil in the south and south-west and the Atlantic Ocean in the north-east. WHEN TO GO Best time to visit is between September and April.
Left to right: Sylvain Cordier; Sophie Stafford; davidplummerimages.co.uk; Michael & Patricia Fogden/FLPA; Sophie Stafford
TOP S P E C I E S TO SE E
GIANT RIVER OTTER
ID The largest otter species,
ID The biggest eagle in the
ID The largest cat in the
ID A large butterfly with
ID Also known as Victoria
up to 1.8m long with dense, water-repellent fur and pale throat patch. Large webbed feet. Hunts fish and crabs in packs. WHERE Guyana, French Guiana and Suriname are among the last strongholds for this endangered species. Look for day-resting sites and holts on the banks of the Rupununi River and in oxbow lakes. You may meet orphans at Karanambu Ranch. WHEN Active year round during daylight.
Americas; dark grey with ash grey head, white belly and a crest of long feathers. Females up to twice as large as males, with 200cm wingspan. WHERE Occasionally seen crossing rivers or high in trees at Iwokrama, where it hunts mammals such as monkeys and sloths. Also from Iwokrama Canopy Walkway and in the Kanuku Mountains in the south-west. WHEN All year round.
New World, the jaguar is short and stocky; each individual has different rosettes on its coat; males larger than females and can reach 1.8m long; adept at climbing and swimming. WHERE Throughout the forest, where the population is increasing, in the Kanuku Mountains and along the Rewa River. WHEN Most often seen at dawn and dusk – the road to the Iwokrama Research Centre is a hotspot.
wings up to 20cm wide, brilliant blue edged with black; brown underside has eyespots as predator defence. In flight, flashes brown to blue, seemingly disappearing and reappearing. WHERE Near streams and in clearings throughout Guyana’s forests. Iwokrama is currently constructing a butterfly farm. WHEN Any time of year, though more common during wetter months.
Amazonica; large leaves up to 2.5m in diameter, green with maroon undersides, protected from nibbling fish by 2.5cm spines. Flowers bloom at dusk and close about 9am; white the first night they open, turning pink the second night and dying the third night. Pollinated by beetles. WHERE On oxbows and bayous throughout Guyana, especially on the Rupununi. STATUS Blooms all year round.
ACCOMMODATION Simple, comfortable lodges, ranches, rainforest resorts and camps, with just a few rooms. Hot water is rare (but you’ll be so hot you won’t want it), and air-con even rarer, though some lodges have fans. There are few roads and the major
highways are the rivers. Expect to eat baked fish or chicken with rice and salad, and lots of fresh fruit. Be prepared to pay Western prices for rooms etc. You can’t buy Guyanese dollars in the UK, but most Georgetown hotels offer exchange services.
GETTING THERE Sophie travelled with Cox & Kings, which offers luxury tours, adventure, exploration and tailor-made itineraries. For details % 0207 873 5000; www.coxandkings.co.uk Cox & Kings uses Wilderness Explorers, a nature and adventure travel company in Georgetown run by Tony Thorne. email@example.com; www. wilderness-explorers.com Flights from Gatwick to Bridgetown, Barbados, take eight hours with BA. It’s another two hours to Georgetown with Liat. Liat is notorious for losing luggage, so you may wish to fly to Trinidad or Barbados with BA and then onto Georgetown with Caribbean Star. The return flights emitted 4,900kg of CO2 and cost €114 to offset. www.atmosfair.de
GUYANA Our exclusive guide helps you to explore the green heart of Guyana and discover its wildlife riches.
ESS ENT I A L I N FOR M AT IO N
the Iwokrama Field Station, we were greeted by ‘Sankar’, the resident black caiman. That night, having seen two of Guyana’s finest in one afternoon, we were optimistic about our chances of spotting a jaguar. Iwokrama is rapidly gaining an international reputation for its healthy jaguar population, and these beautiful cats are regularly spotted on the old red cattle road from the lodge. LIVING WITH JAGUARS As night fell, we stood on the dusty road, peering hopefully into the thick forest, while Ron described his first encounter with a jaguar. “When I was nine or ten, my friend and I were out shooting fish with arrows when we saw a jaguar slinking towards us. He licked his whiskers and I knew we were in trouble. We only had nine arrows left, so my friend – the best shot – fired first. He was shaking so much, they all flew wide. With our last arrow, I hit the cat in the neck! The jaguar was not hurt but he was extremely annoyed – he whirled and slunk off into the forest. We knew better than to relax and, sure enough, as we April 2008
crept down the path home, we spotted him lying on a branch, waiting to ambush us. Two days later, our best racing donkey was eaten by a jaguar.” Sadly, it seemed our luck had run out – we did not see the jaguar that night, though a couple of tourists who came down the road shortly afterwards claimed to have seen a big male cross the road. My optimism only slightly dented, I set my sights on seeing a giant river otter. Two hours up the beautiful Rupununi River took us to Karanambu Ranch, home of Diane McTurk, famous for rehabilitating orphaned giants back into the wild. In a room decorated with tribal war clubs that had, in years gone by, welcomed David Attenborough and Gerald Durrell, Diane sipped rum punch and explained that she acquired her first orphan in 1985. ‘Frankincense’ was raised as a pet – he slept in a hammock and learned to fish in a bowl scooped out of the riverbank and filled with small fish. On his first visit to the river, he was severely hydrophobic until he realised he could swim. Since Franki, Diane has returned more than 40 otters to the wild. The kits are slowly
introduced to neighbouring families of wild otters in the hope that they will attract suitors and one day leave of their own accord with a new pack. Diane took us to see a family of giant otters living in a pond gilded with enormous Amazonian lilypads. We had just arrived when we heard a horse-like snorting.
The giant otter family glared at us, snorting and rearing out of the water, displaying their throat patches. Raising my binoculars, I counted three, no, wait... six smooth brown heads swimming towards us. Pausing a safe distance from the bank, the family glared at us, snorting and rearing out of the water, displaying their creamy throat patches. There were nine adults – a male, his females and their young – and they clearly objected to our presence. After a few minutes, we left them in peace and headed home thrilled. So, the verdict? Well, three out of four top species isn’t bad at all –
especially for such a small country. But will Guyana’s pristine forests and astonishing biodiversity still be unspoilt in 20 years time? I hope so. PROTECTED FOR THE PLANET A few months ago, Guyana’s President offered to preserve most of his country’s rainforest – an area the size of Britain – as a carbonoffset zone to assist the world’s battle against climate change. And though some people are sceptical, his good intentions are, in any case, enforced by the lack of infrastructure to support largescale logging, gold and diamondmining operations. So, even if his resolution does waiver, hopefully the natural impediments to destruction will save Guyana’s green heart. And with hardly any roads and no beach resorts, I am optimistic that Guyana will remain one of the few wildernesses unspoilt by mass tourism, providing homes and jobs for Amerindians and a safe haven for some truly remarkable wildlife. Editor Sophie Stafford found Guyana a really eco-friendly experience, from its forest cottages to the welcoming locals.