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S O FA W E S T: S A N TA F E 2 O O 9

2009


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SCULPTURE OBJECTS & FUNCTIONAL ART

Sculpture Objects & Functional Art Fair

June 11-14, 2009 Santa Fe Convention Center

SOFA WEST: Santa Fe is produced by The Art Fair Company, Inc.

front cover: Dale Chihuly Tabac Basket Set with Drawing Shards and Oxblood Body Wraps (08.434.b4), 2008 glass 11 x 26 x 24 represented by Holsten Galleries photo: Scott Mitchell Leen

All dimensions in the catalog are in inches (h x w x d) unless otherwise noted


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SCULPTURE OBJECTS & FUNCTIONAL ART

SOFA WEST: Santa Fe 2009 Produced by The Art Fair Company, Inc. 4401 North Ravenswood, Suite 301 Chicago, IL 60640 voice 773.506.8860 fax 773.345.0774 www.sofaexpo.com

Management Michael Franks President, The Art Fair Company, Inc. Mark Lyman, Founder/Director, SOFA Vice President, The Art Fair Company, Inc. Anne Meszko Julie Oimoen Kate Jordan Greg Worthington Barbara Smythe-Jones Patrick Seda Bridget Trost Michael Macigewski Aaron Anderson Ginger Piotter Erinn M. Cox Heidi Hribernik Stephanie Hatzivassiliou


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Conte 4


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SCULPTURE OBJECTS & FUNCTIONAL ART

6 Acknowledgements 12 Lectures Series 16 Essays 18 Dark Light: Christine Nofchissey McHorse Garth Clark 24 William Morris: The Early Artifacts Linda Tesner 30 Preston Singletary: Navigating Culture and Glass Melissa G. Post

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36 Hot Trends in Native Southwestern Weaving Ann Lane Hedlund 42 Silvia Levenson: Through the Kiln Darkly and Jessica Loughlin: Seeing Farther Richard Speer 46 Howard Smith Tim Steffa 50 Blurring the Lines: Contemporary Native American Art and SOFA Benjamin Rose with contributions by Leroy Garcia 56 Exhibitor Information 126 Partners 156 Index of Exhibitors 160 Index of Artists

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Welcome to SOFA WEST: Santa Fe!

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Looking to ‘head west’ with SOFA, we were immediately drawn to Santa Fe—an international artistic dynamo and luxury destination renowned for its surrounding natural beauty and small town feel, where resident artists, writers, actors, creatives and visitors alike, share a love of the arts and culture. Bound together by its strong creative fabric, made all the more vibrant because of its cultural ties to the contemporary Native American art community, Santa Fe is a mecca that draws the adventurous and the contemplative—a perfect setting and mindset for the staging of the intimate SOFA fair we had in mind, with a focus on quality. One visit to Santa Fe and it was, as they say, “love at first sight.” We were completely wowed by its premier museums and cultural icons like the Santa Fe Opera, its distinctive architectural style, shopping, hotels and restaurants (did I mention 300 days of sunshine and the gorgeous Sangre de Cristo and Jemez Mountains?). After a warm welcome by Tom Aageson, Director of the Museum of New Mexico Foundation, we knew we had the perfect Opening Night partner in the prestigious New Mexico Museum of Art, whose inaugural Design Collection will benefit from SOFA WEST’s preview. Special thanks to co-chairs Ms. Betty Gold and Ms. Patty Terrell for their dedicated, hard work to insure a delightful evening. The excitement promises to last well into the weekend with many patrons attending wonderful benefit perks such as exclusive collector homes and curator-led museum tours. One walk through the handsome, new state-of-theart (and totally green!) Santa Fe Convention Center with Executive Director Keith Toler, and we knew SOFA had found its Western home. It had the perfect scale and warm Pueblo Revival ambiance for the ‘boutique’ SOFA we had in mind. We thank him and the Santa Fe Convention and Visitors Bureau for all their keen efforts to make SOFA WEST: Santa Fe a reality. There are many people along the trail who deserve heartfelt thanks. In particular, Jane Sauer of Jane Sauer Gallery, Santa Fe and Betsy Ehrenberg,

President, Glass Alliance—New Mexico for their inspired idea to bring SOFA to Santa Fe and their helpful introduction to all the key players. We are also grateful to the Santa Fe Gallery Association, Santa Fe Opera, and many other area arts organizations that have helped us connect SOFA’s out-oftown collectors to the thriving local arts scene. Speaking of collectors, we are always impressed with their desire to broaden their collecting focus and willingness to learn about new cultural traditions and the art forms informed by them. We are delighted to present educational programming in the Lecture Series focusing on contemporary Native American artists, who, weaving tradition and innovation, are assuming their rightful place in an increasingly pluralistic art world. SOFA WEST: Santa Fe is the second fair produced by our newly formed The Art Fair Company, helmed by myself and my good friend and partner, Michael Franks, Chief Operating Officer of dmg world media, who shares my passion for the quality artworks presented at SOFA fairs. And quality is the key word for the gallery offerings at SOFA WEST—we believe it is one of our strongest fairs in recent years with a very fine line-up of exceptional dealers, who have pulled out all the stops by bringing their top artists in major presentations. To see SOFA WEST come to fruition in Santa Fe with such willing and qualified partners, such topnotch galleries presenting virtuoso artworks to a broadened Western audience, in such a knock-out venue, surrounded by unparalleled natural beauty, is truly a dream come true. We look forward to becoming a mainstay of Santa Fe’s cultural calendar and an annual kick-off to its summer arts season, a much-anticipated gathering of collectors and arts aficionados who share with creative Santa Feans the joy of discovering the best of the new in sculpture, objects and functional art. ENJOY! Mark Lyman, Founder/Director of SOFA Vice-President, The Art Fair Company, Inc. Anne Meszko, Director of Advertising and Programming


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We would like to thank the following individuals and organizations:

Participating galleries, artists, speakers and organizations Tom Aageson Tony Abeyta Laura Addison Paul Allingham Phyllis Archuleta Clementine Bailey Leo Bailey Thomas Samuel Bailey JoAnn and Bob Balzer Marsha Bol Ellen Bradbury Brian Buckman

Anne and Lenny Dowhie Tadeas Dzikovsky Kathy Eagen Betsy Erhenberg D. Scott Evans Jane Evans Sean Fermoyle Jette Franks Leroy Garcia Tammy Garcia

Candice Jernigan

Lorraine Rotunno

Howard Jones

Santa Fe Gallery Association

Pamela Kelly Cris Levy Steve Lewis Linda Lofstrom Ellie Lyman Nate Lyman Sue Magnuson Jeanne Malkin Charlie Miner

Georgia O’Keefe Museum

Ann Nathan

Gloria F. Ross Tapestry Center

Carmella Padilla

John Olsen

Betty Gold

Burns Patterson

Trudi Greenway

Denise Phetteplace

Teri Greeves

Karl Piotter

Steve and Roddie Harris

Valerie Pistole

Christina Hartley

Melissa G. Post

Ann Lane Hedlund

Reliable Transport

Nathaniel Hesse

RISD

Michael Hribernik

Bruce Robbins

Design 360

Scott Jacobson

Dr. Tim Rodgers

Floyd Dillman

Mary Jebsen

Winn Burke Jane and Bill Buchsbaum Steve Cantrell Teri Carr Garth Clark Keith Couser Christina Dallorso Bush

Joseph Ponegalek

Santa Fe Opera Jane Sauer Ann Scheflen Miroslava Sedova Preston Singletary SITE Santa Fe Lotus Stack Peter Stoessel TAI Gallery Lino Tagliapietra Linda Tesner Patty Terrell Mark Tiarks Keith Toler Barbara Ventrello Christy Walker Sue Walker Bob and Carol Warren Rebecca Wurzberger Alice Zrebiec Toots Zynsky

photo: David Barnes


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Greetings, On behalf of the New Mexico Museum of Art, I would like to welcome SOFA WEST: Santa Fe to New Mexico. We are honored to be included in this event. We welcome the professionalism that you encourage and the high quality of the galleries that participate in the fair. We are fortunate that you have chosen Santa Fe and look forward to the art, demonstrations and other programs that will enhance our understanding of contemporary art and design. Welcome! Sincerely,

Mary Jebsen Acting Director New Mexico Museum of Art

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Dear Visitors and Collectors: On behalf of the Museum of New Mexico Foundation, I am delighted to welcome SOFA WEST: Santa Fe, with its top international galleries, acclaimed educational programming and strong community of collectors to Santa Fe—a city that holds creativity, design, and appreciation for the arts in high esteem. Indeed, UNESCO has named Santa Fe its first Creative City in the United States in the fields of design and folk art, an international honor that places us among the world’s premier arts-and-culture destinations. The staging of SOFA WEST: Santa Fe, the newest edition of the world’s foremost fairs of contemporary decorative arts and design, in our elegant new Pueblo Revival-style Santa Fe Community Convention Center will bring a prestigious new partner in the arts to historic downtown Santa Fe. SOFA WEST’s arrival comes at an auspicious time in our community’s cultural history. In May 2009, as the city launches its 400th-anniversary commemoration of the founding of Santa Fe, we will open the doors to the much-anticipated, 96,000-square-foot New Mexico History Museum. Less than a month later, on Wednesday, June 10, SOFA will honor another downtown cultural gem, the New Mexico Museum of Art (NMMoA) by partnering with it for SOFA WEST’s Opening Night Preview, which will benefit the Museum’s new Design Collection. Featuring historic and contemporary New Mexican design objects dating from 1880 to today, the NMMoA collection will highlight the critical role that design has played in the history of New Mexico. Our mission at the Museum of New Mexico Foundation is to provide financial support and foster creative initiatives to benefit and promote excellence at our affiliated museums—the New Mexico Museum of Art, New Mexico History Museum/Palace of the Governors, Museum of International Folk Art and Museum of Indian Arts and Culture. SOFA WEST’s art fair and special events in Santa Fe will not only benefit our museums, but our entire community. Our city is honored to host SOFA WEST: Santa Fe. We wish its participating galleries, collectors and arts-interested visitors a rich cultural experience in our historic and dynamic city. Best wishes,

Tom Aageson Executive Director, Museum of New Mexico Foundation

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As Mayor and on behalf of the City of Santa Fe, it is my pleasure to welcome everyone attending the first Sculpture Objects & Functional Art Fair: SOFA WEST: Santa Fe 2009, at Santa Fe Community Convention Center downtown Santa Fe. The premiere of SOFA in Santa Fe will bring together the works of nearly 400 artists from 35 international galleries and dealers, featuring a wide variety of artistic styles and media from glass, ceramics and wood to metal and fiber. Santa Fe is renowned as the first city in the United States to be designated a UNESCO Creative City, and has a long and vibrant artistic tradition. We are very proud to host the first SOFA WEST: Santa Fe. I praise the participating galleries and artists represented here for their talent and hard work, as well as The Art Fair Company for bridging the worlds of contemporary, decorative and fine art. May you all have an enjoyable and memorable exposition! Sincerely,

David Coss Mayor

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State of Mexico Office of the Governor Bill Richardson Governor

As Governor of our beautiful state of New Mexico, it is my pleasure to welcome the 400 artists and 35 national, international galleries and dealers to the first Sculpture Objects Functional Art Fair: SOFA WEST: Santa Fe 2009! New Mexico has a lot to offer, and we hope that while you are here, you will take the time to enjoy the area’s world-renowned art galleries, museums, and cultural attractions. In selecting the capital city, Santa Fe for your exposition; you will enjoy stunning sunsets and diverse cultural heritage and friendly people. Be sure to sample some of New Mexico’s famous chile, so that when you leave you will be able to answer the official State Question: Red or Green? Best wishes for your stay in the Land of Enchantment. With warmest regards,

Bill Richardson Governor of New Mexico

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Lectures Series

ctures


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Lecture Series Thursday, Friday and Saturday in the O’Keeffe Room. Admission to the Lecture Series is included with general admission.

Thursday, June 11

Preview: Preston Singletary: Echoes, Fire, and Shadows Singletary straddles two cultures, melding his Tlingit ancestry with the dynamism of the Studio Glass Movement. Join Museum of Glass Curator Melissa G. Post and artist Preston Singletary for a preview of this artist’s nationally touring mid-career survey. Singletary is represented by Blue Rain Gallery, Santa Fe

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Alquimia: The Magical Art of Olga de Amaral For over four decades, Colombian artist Olga de Amaral has been exploring the chimerical potential of fiber. Discover her sources of inspiration, techniques, and major works, past to present. Dr. Alice Zrebiec, curatorial consultant. de Amaral is represented by Bellas Artes, Santa Fe

William Morris: The Early Artifact Installations An illustrated discussion of William Morris’ earliest installations, including Artifact Series #3 (Hunter), which involve complex assemblages of glass skeletons. Linda Tesner, director and curator, The Ronna and Eric Hoffman Gallery of Contemporary Art, Lewis & Clark College, Portland, OR. Morris is represented by Litvak Gallery, Tel Aviv


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Friday, June 12

Free Spirit An examination of three New Mexican native artists, Christine McHorse, Virgil Ortiz and Diego Romero, whose works are crossing over into mainstream art. Presented by gallerist and scholar Garth Clark, CLARK+DELVECCHIO, Santa Fe

Hot Trends in Native Southwestern Weaving Tradition and innovation are firmly interlaced by contemporary Navajo and Pueblo weavers in the Southwest. From individual styles to collaborative new media, their artwork is visually exciting and technically challenging. Dr. Ann Lane Hedlund, PhD, director, Gloria F. Ross Tapestry Center, Tucson, AZ

My Work, Through the Eyes of Different Cultures Italian Maestro Lino Tagliapietra discusses his ideas, inspirations and the influences from cultures such as the Natives of America and Africa, the Aborigines in Australia and the Maori in New Zealand. Tagliapietra is represented by Holsten Galleries, Stockbridge, MA

Saturday, June 13

Design West Santa Fe’s location at the crossroads of history and culture forged a unique design aesthetic, identifiable in contemporary decorative arts and design. This lecture is illustrated with examples from the collections of the NM Museum of Indian Arts & Culture and the Museum of International Folk Art. Pamela Kelly, director of licensing, Museum of New Mexico Foundation.

A Remarkable Flowering – Tapestry in Australia Tapestry was virtually unknown in Australia until 1976 when the Victorian Tapestry Workshop began operating. Vibrant tapestries from over 300 artists, including Aboriginal artists, illustrate the Workshop’s remarkable success. Dr. Sue Walker, founding director emerita, Victoria Tapestry Workshop, Melbourne, Australia

Toots Zynsky: Open Doors Artist Toots Zynsky discusses her work and the major influences and opportunities contributing to the development of her unique aesthetic. Zynsky is represented by Elliott Brown Gallery, Seattle

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Essays Dark Light: Christine Nofchissey McHorse Garth Clark William Morris: The Early Artifacts Linda Tesner Preston Singletary: Navigating Culture and Glass Melissa G. Post Hot Trends in Native Southwestern Weaving Ann Lane Hedlund

Silvia Levenson: Through the Kiln Darkly and Jessica Loughlin: Seeing Farther Richard Speer Howard Smith Tim Steffa Blurring the Lines: Contemporary Native American Art and SOFA Benjamin Rose with contributions by Leroy Garcia

Essays 17


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Dark Light: Christine Nofchissey McHorse By Garth Clark

A.

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C.

D.

B.

One of the curiosities in American mainstream contemporary ceramics of the last half century is that one could spend those fifty years within this movement and never encounter an Indian potter, even though these artisans represent the longest continuous pottery movement in the country going back some 1,800 years. From time to time native pottery emerges in the Anglo world as an inspirational or stylistic source. But exhibitions have not mixed the two until recently. In part this was because contemporary ceramists saw this work as being traditional and not modern. This was partly true; the bulk of Indian pottery production is touristic ware. But over the years artists have emerged from this ancient practice. Jody Follwell was a groundbreaker, taking up a series of political and social causes in her work from Iran-gate to sexual dysfunction on the pueblos. (Her daughter, Susan, has continued this role as social critic.)

A.

C.

Christine McHorse

Christine McHorse

Linkeage, 2005

Thricefold, 2006

micaceous clay

micaceous clay

12.5 inches high

12.5 inches high

B.

D.

Christine McHorse

Christine McHorse

Untitled, 2006

Untitled, 2006

micaceous clay

micaceous clay

16.5 inches high

18.5 inches high

Later came the amazing Virgil Ortiz who blended fashion, biker art, sexual provocation and tattoos into Cochiti traditional ware. From the same pueblo, Virgil Ortiz, a student of both Ralph Bacerra and Adrian Saxe, brought his love of comic books, blended it with the genius of Mimbres pictorialism from a thousand years ago, and added stylistic elements of early Greek pottery to create one of the most engaging ongoing series of bowls. Slowly their work is crossing over into the larger ceramics world, as it should have many years ago.

Christine McHorse is another of these artists and interestingly, as her work has changed radically over the years from superbly articulated traditionalism to exceptional and innovative vessel form and sculptures, her market is expanding more rapidly in the contemporary art field than in the Indian market. It is not that her work is not Indian, it is, but it has a core of universality that has brought her attention not just from America but from Europe as well. She is now at work on a body of works that will tour to museums here and abroad with a launch date scheduled for 2010. McHorse’s parents, Mark and Ethel Yazzie Nofchissey, came from the last generation to take part in the Assimilation Program. This was the Federal project designed to take the Indian out of the Indian, destroying everything that was different about Native culture, language, art, customs and religion in order to produce a faux Anglo. Men were forced at gunpoint to have their hair cut short so they could not sport their traditional style, gathering the hair into two buns. Children were removed from their homes and family, by force if they or their parents resisted, and taken to boarding schools. These were often abusive, over-crowded and unsanitary facilities where they were schooled in Anglo ways and taught to see their own culture as a stain that needed to be erased. No doubt the promoters of this system would have claimed McHorse’s parents as a success story. They only returned to the Navajo reservation in their latter years and while fluent in Navajo, did not speak it at home.

All photography by Peter Van der Kruis

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McHorse, the fifth of their nine children, was born in 1948 in Morenci, in Greenlee County, southeastern Arizona, where her father, worked as a “cat skinner” (the name given to Caterpillar bulldozer operators) at the Phelps Dodge Morenci Copper Mine. The Mine is still operating and with corporate sleight of hand makes the claim on its website that this is “where humanity and nature stand side by side offering some of the world’s most spectacular sights,” an interesting way to describe huge open pit mines that scar the landscape. Nofchissey was a sophisticated man with a wideranging hunger for intellectual stimulation, fascinated by Rosicrucian literature and Zen philosophy. McHorse grew up in “an environment of creative ideas with incredible mentoring. We were encouraged to exercise our minds and to invent without fear.” Ethel, her mother, was a busy self-assured woman who taught her children the importance of perseverance and balance. The family motto was “boredom should not exist.” Today McHorse proudly introduces herself according to Navajo protocol as taught by her brother, “I am Christine McHorse, Dine potter and silversmith born to the To dich II nii (the Bitter Tower Clan) born for the Kiyaa aanii (the Towering House Clan.)” It was as a teenager, through her grandmother Zonilth Bahe, that she slowly began to come to terms with her Navajo roots. McHorse spent many summers with her, herding sheep, and soaking in Navajo lore. Her grandmother lived in Fluted Rock at Cross Canyon in Arizona, an area lush with ferns, wild flowers, herbs and sweet spring water. A strong, talented woman, Bahe would card, spin, dye and weave wool, slaughter, dress and cook lamb, and was a skilled horsewoman who would drive her sheep over tough terrain each year to the winter camp located eighteen miles away. McHorse’s memory of this proud, petite guide to Navajo life, is warm and touching, “As we snuggled in our covers before daybreak, there she was, dressed and moving around in the dark, quietly adding wood to the potbelly stove that warmed her Hogan. I loved to see her beautiful face in the firelight. Later I’d watch as she and my step-grandfather, Paul Woody, took their turn gently combing the others waist-long hair to fashion the traditional knot.” Then she would rouse McHorse and pack a lunch of fry bread, peanut butter and Navajo tea and send her off with the sheep.

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McHorse attended the public school in Clifton, a town a few miles from Morenci. Most Indian workers from the mine lived in a tent city at Morenci but her parents decided instead to buy a house in nearby Clifton. “This was an early example for me that one does not have to take the obvious path,” McHorse recounts with pride. The school was racially mixed—white, black and brown—but McHorse's siblings, and the children of her father’s niece, were the only Indians. In 1963, her sisters convinced McHorse’s parents to allow fourteen-year old McHorse (just entering 10th grade) to let her join the Institute of American Indian Arts (IAIA) in Santa Fe, a high school of the arts with an option of two years of postgraduate study. McHorse was overwhelmed by Santa Fe and the IAIA. Amongst other challenges it was her first contact with other tribes. There were eighty or so tribes and pueblos represented at the school at that time. She had set her heart on glassblowing but the year she arrived it was discontinued, much to her disappointment. She then studied with Ralph Pardington (ceramics), Charles Lolama (jewelry), Allan Houser (foundry arts) and Fritz Scholder (design), trying her hand at all of these disciplines and even attempted painting, “but it didn’t take.” McHorse then focused on jewelry. She graduated in 1966 and stayed on for two more years of post-graduate studies. The school was controversial. Many Indians thought it would destroy Native arts but it had the opposite effect. However, McHorse and others remember it as a refuge more than a school. “We were all seeking to escape something in our lives (in my case it was the mining town mentality) and the IAIA seemed to be the best escape route.” There she met her future husband, Joel P. McHorse, a Taos Indian, and fellow art student training to be a silversmith. The first time she saw him, McHorse remembers thinking, “the woman who bears his children is going to be lucky,” and then with a wink she added, “And I was correct.” His name, Indian as it sounds to some, is actually Irish and his father, Mace McHorse, was a Texan. His mother died early, his father was rarely around and so Joel was raised by his grandmother, Lena Archuleta. She was a potter and the proprietor of a small curio shop on the Taos Pueblo. After the IAIA, Joel McHorse volunteered to serve as medic in Vietnam. Even though he was unequivocally anti-war he felt impelled to serve as a healer when friends and family began to die in the conflict.

E.

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In 1969, he returned briefly on compassionate leave to marry Christine and when he finished his tour of duty eighteen months later, he came home to his first son, Joel Jr. A second boy, Jonathan, followed soon thereafter. McHorse, a first generation potter, began an informal apprenticeship with Archuleta while Joel was in the army. Until then she had worked as a jeweler. Archuleta dutifully introduced McHorse to “shiny earth” or micaceous pottery, a specialty of the Taos potters, and those of the Picuris, Nambe and Teseque pueblos, all nestled in the foothills and passes of the Santo Christo mountains. They had been making micaceous pottery since 1300 from clay naturally rich in mica particles. After coiling, burnishing and firing, the flecks of mica on the surface create a glittering skin on which light dances back and forth. Taos is close to one of few locations around the world where primary deposits of this naturally occurring clay can be found.

F.

G.

E.

G.

Christine McHorse

Christine McHorse

Untitled, 2006

Untitled, 2006

micaceous clay

micaceous clay

17.5 inches high

17.5 inches high

F. Christine McHorse Untitled, 2006

This unique clay allows for strong, thin walled forms with a high thermal shock threshold. This enabled Native potters to make flame-proof wares seven hundred years ago, an “innovation” that only arrived among Anglo potters in the twentieth century. Yet, despite its many attractive qualities, micaceous pottery was the poor stepchild of Revival pottery for years, overlooked and undervalued by both museums and collectors. The reason was that these pots were largely undecorated and used only for cooking. By the 1970s the market grudgingly began to pay greater attention to this class of vessels and surprisingly, they began to sell well. Yet, it was not until 1992 that the first “shiny earth” pot reached the finals for Best of Show at the Indian Market. The sixty-nine year old Archuleta was patient and carefully taught McHorse how to gather the clay, prepare the paste (the correct mixture of clay and temper), coil, burnish and fire her vessels. When Archuleta realized just how talented McHorse was, their relationship deepened and she became the young Navajo’s vocal admirer, praising her daughterin-law’s skills at every opportunity. At first McHorse’s pots reflected traditional shapes of the local cooking vessels but as a Navajo, McHorse was not under any pressure to make the traditional vessels of the Taos pottery. What evolved was a mixture of Taos, Navajo and contemporary influences. Once she had acquired a good grasp of ceramic technique, McHorse gave up jewelry and was ready to commit herself to mud and fire.

In examining her work it is clear that the jeweler was not left behind in the transition. McHorse’s pots reveal a distinct relationship to metal in their sharpness of line, thin edges and a precisionist’s sense of form related more to Native metalwork than Indian pots. The shimmering mica adds a metallic sheen that enhanced this relationship to her first craft. This bridge between metal and clay is not an unusual one in ceramic history. Ever since the Iron Age there has been a strong symbiotic relationship between ceramic and metal vessels across the world, the one informing the other. Then McHorse began to make pots in the relatively new Navajo style. Navajo were not known for pottery but for their brilliant weaving and metalwork. Still, she was irritated by the Indian community’s reference to Dine’ (Navajo) vessels by the derogatory term of “mud pots.” McHorse became “so fired up” that she set out to make fine collectible pots using the traditional elements, the applied rope of clay placed around the neck of the pot known as “the way out” and the melted pinjon pitch which was the Navajo way of waterproofing. McHorse still makes these wares but it is the more commercial component of her output. But as McHorse worked she found herself being driven more by the character and the possibilities of the clay, than by any external or cultural influence. The exquisite undecorated organic shapes that now define her oeuvre were “found” in this clay’s unique ability to allow for complex structure. Yet they are reductive in spirit; beautiful but tough, highly evolved, often elaborate multi-volume shapes but realized with a pure minimalism. The surface shimmer has a natural glamour, which she enhances by drawing on the surface with strands of applied mica. Yet she knows only too well that this must be done with restraint as it is easy to overplay the mica-laden surface and create a gaudy bauble. If one encountered McHorse’s pots in a non-Native setting, one wouldn’t necessarily identify them as Indian, unlike the other four artists, all of whom use native culture as subject matter. This does not make McHorse’s greater or lesser, simply unusual in a field where the ethnic content is so ubiquitous. They suggest a modernist chain of evolution from Brancusi through Hepworth, to Noguchi. While these artists, of whom she was well aware, may not have been her actual muses (she claims nature as her core influence), her path is certainly parallel to these artist. This minimalism is also mirrored in her personal presence; handsome, clear, forthright, exhibiting nothing that is extraneous.

micaceous clay 15.75 inches high

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McHorse’s art is all about form. The surfaces, while distinct and beautiful, are much the same for all of her work and one’s eye does not first get caught up with painting or carved relief decoration, the major selling points in Native pottery. Occasionally some surface decoration will appear but mostly the dynamics are shape, mass, volume and line and McHorse’s play with these elements, particularly when applied to the vessel, is impressive in its sophistication. One of her signature vessels has holes cut into overlapping rims, striking in itself, but once one gets past this stylish device, one realizes that the form comprises three pots, seamlessly melded into one, about as virtuoso a play on the vessel as one can encounter. The same is true of the stack of three pots. This is not comprised of three pots made separately and joined together, but was coiled in one continuous process. This idea of continuous forms of multiple volumes is also extended to her four gourd pots, conjoined into one sculptural statement. In essence they are two Siamese-twin bottle shapes, joined at the mouth and interlocked. Their volumes are open to each other but not to the world. The tour de force amongst her forms is a large vessel with a curlicue that grows out of the shoulder of the pot, bypasses the mouth and rotates gently above the main form. The strength of the clay enables that curlicue, growing ever smaller, to remain hollow down to the last quarter inch. This may not seem important but one can “feel” the pots inner architecture, its lightness, plasticity and containment of space, all of which are important elements in its commanding presence. The artists vision is clearly defined in this pot; simplicity, purity, strength. Less is more, that mantra from early modernist architecture, is her guide. McHorse is seeking to touch the universal, something beyond her, her tribe and her clan. As a result she often differs with other Native potters, particularly on the subject of protecting their pottery tradition. At the Micaceous Pottery Artists Convocation that took place at the Indian Arts Research Center, Santa Fe in 1994, McHorse rejected the notion that pottery should be protected from Anglo invasion or even from intra-tribal poaching of pueblo styles. “I wouldn’t want anyone to place restrictions on me,” she commented, “so I wouldn’t want to place restrictions on anyone else. I draw my inspiration from the whole world.” However, when it comes to Native sources of clay, she is more conservative. She does not mind competing with Anglo artists who use Indian work as their influence. But she does resent their poaching of Indian clay. There have been some ugly incidents in recent years. On one occasion when all the residents of Santa Clara were celebrating their Feast Day, an Anglo outsider took

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advantage and raided their clay pits. Recently a ceramic supply company took away an entire truckload of micaceous clay, an act that sickened McHorse. McHorse takes only a couple of barrels of clay every two to three years, uses it as though it is a precious material (which it is, as the clay deposits are limited and may soon be exhausted), saving and reusing every scrap of clay. This is not an act of tidiness or economy but respect for the shimmering mud that has been the source spring of her art. McHorse, despite her left of centre views about artistic freedom, has still been successful and is highly regarded by her peers. She won Best of Division at the Indian Market in 1994, cementing her stature as one of the leading native potters. Then she won the Challenge Award for cutting edge work and followed it up with the prize for best sculpture that she won by entering a pot. That award that had never been won by a potter before and usually went to male sculptors. She was stunned, and “it took a while for it to sink in…Ceramics doesn’t quite have the weight of bronze and stone.” But it was a fitting tribute for an artist who does not acknowledge boundary lines between pottery and sculpture. McHorse acknowledges that each is a distinct principal three-dimensional art form but contends, “when an artist creates both, the line between form and function is almost indistinguishable.”

H.

Looking back McHorse feels that clay was in her destiny from the outset.The San Francisco River ran south out of the canyon past her house. “Once a year” McHorse remembers, “the muffled song of the water changed overnight to a deafening roar as the spring rains brought swollen muddy waters and we’d stand alongside our neighbors, as close to the river as we dared, as it demonstrated its awesome power. Wet, cold and shivering, we’d watch the bobbing logs and spinning driftwood race by. We stared as the banks plunged into turbulence. I distinctly remember the damp earth smell as the river changed its course again and again. It was the smell of clay.”

Garth Clark is a dealer, and award-winning writer. His anthology Shards: Garth Clark on Ceramics won the prestigious Mather Award for art criticism from the College Art Association. He has just completed his fiftieth book, Lucio Fontana Ceramics and is at work on Homage to R. Mutt: Critical Writings on Marcel Duchamp’s Fountain from 1917 to 2010. Published in conjunction with CLARK+DELVECCHIO’s exhibition at SOFA WEST: Santa Fe.

H.

I.

Christine McHorse

Christine McHorse

Untitled, 2006

Sciurius Nightmare, 2005

micaceous clay

micaceous clay

16.5 inches high

11.5 inches high J. Christine McHorse Pirouette, 2004 micaceous clay 18.5 inches high


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J.

I.

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William Morris: The Early Artifacts By Linda Tesner

A.

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B.

Cycles of nature, human impulses, and transcendence are central themes that William Morris explored in his seminal early body of work, the Artifact Series from 1988–89. Examples such as Artifact Series (Himself to Himself), Artifact Series #3 (Hunter), Artifact Series #6 (First Fruit), Artifact Series #11 (Man and Beast), and Artifact Series #14 (Offering) are ambitious stagings of glass bones, arranged to evoke the haunting discoveries of archaeological digs.

Already engaged by prehistoric imagery, Morris took a dramatic departure from the vessel and began to experiment with the Standing Stones (1980s). He had been inspired by the archaeological sites of the Orkney archipelago in northern Scotland, where Neolithic megaliths preserve the imprint and mystery of human culture. Morris was intrigued by the impulses and sheer strength that would have enabled early humans to erect such monuments. Through experimentation and technical ingenuity, the artist would gather and successively layer larger and larger quantities of glass. Eventually, with forty to sixty pounds of molten glass on the end of the blowpipe, Morris would lower the enormous bubble into a wooden mold and blow it to expand the glass into the textures of the wood. The wood grain gave the glass form a skin that resembles the texture of stone, while the layers of glass created depth and heft. Amid fire and smoke from the burning mold emerged luminous glass sculptures, elegant and attenuated monoliths that seem to glow from within.

The Artifacts evolved out of even earlier works, made while Morris was in his early thirties and first emerging as a glass artist in his own right after several years as head gaffer for Dale Chihuly. His Stone Vessels of 1984–86 are traditional forms, flattened to present a surface for petroglyph-like drawings made from shards of grey glass. The bodies of these works have the dappled variation of rock, while the bold graphics— often resembling paw or claw prints, or simple geometric shapes such as notches, rings, spirals, and zigzags—suggest the raw gestures one would expect to see in primitive cave paintings. Later Petroglyph Vessels featured even more ambitious and resolved drawings, made by Morris associate Jon Ormbreck in glass powder, of prehistoric motifs such as fighting elk, primitive horses, and humans engaged in what appear to be hunting rituals. The drawings are reminiscent of images in the caves at Lascaux, France.

From prehistoric imagery and sculptural concepts, it is not surprising that Morris began to consider the portentous possibilities of creating tableaux, nearly theatrical arrangements with inherent narrative context. Early assemblages were compositions of individual bones, horns, and rudimentary wheels, arranged in still lifes as if the objects were the contents of some sacred vessel that had just spilled open. In 1988, with Artifact Series (Himself to Himself), in the Litvak Gallery Collection, the assemblage becomes truly a nature morte, a pile of animal bones, an undisturbed echo of the animal’s flesh and blood. Himself to Himself is crafted of amber glass, but with a milky, iridescent layering that makes the bones appear both unearthly and hyperreal. Much has been said of Morris’ love of nature and, more specifically, his near-compulsion to experience the outdoors as directly as possible. Morris has loved to hunt since his youth; hunting provides him an intense relationship to nature, further heightened now that he hunts only with a bow and arrow. Fellow hunters will recognize in Himself to Himself the ghostly sheen of exposed cartilage drying in the sun, a conceit that plants these bones firmly in both prehistory and the present.

C. A.

B.

C.

William Morris

William Morris

William Morris

Artifact Series #3 (Hunter), 1988

Artifact Series

Standing Stone, 1989

hand-blown and formed glass

(Himself to Himself), 1988

hand-blown and formed glass

10 x 48 x 122

hand-blown and formed glass

48 x 13 x 13

courtesy of Litvak Gallery

16 x 36 x 36

courtesy of Litvak Gallery

Collection

courtesy of Litvak Gallery

Collection

photo: Robert Vinnedge

Collection

photo: Robert Vinnedge

photo: Robert Vinnedge

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E.

D.

Artifact Series #3 (Hunter), also in the Litvak Gallery Collection, is an even spookier arrangement of a full humanoid skeleton in crystal-clear glass. The skeletal frame is huge—over ten feet in length—the scale of the mythological yeti or the Pleistocene cave bear. The hands are enormous, the skull relatively small; some of the bones are missing, as if these remains had been scavenged by animals. Within the abdomen is a gilded spear point, cradled by the figure’s left hand. One can visualize a person moments before death, having just received a mortal blow, clenching his stomach as he falls; now the bones lie in an eerie reverberation of his last breath of life. Regarding Hunter, Morris says that he does not want to be too specific about the scenario that led to the hunter’s demise, preferring to leave it open for the viewer to interpret. The artist poses that the wound could have been inflicted by another tribesman—or it could be self-inflicted, or even, fantastically, inflicted by another animal (yeti/human?). For Morris, the inherent qualities of glass lend themselves to the theme of artifacts, since actual archaeological artifacts share with glass a sense of timelessness, as well as the paradoxical quality of being both fragile and enduring (consider, for example, Roman glass artifacts, some of which have remained intact since well before the Common Era). The pure, crystalline nature of Hunter, says Morris, “contributes to the idea that the philosophy of hunting…will always be with man. He almost doesn’t have any choice about the issue. I think that man was born to hunt and dies with that

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certain fervor of an idea of a quest, whether it be animal or material or spiritual.” 1 Thus, Morris posits that “hunting” may be a universal experience, even for humans who never venture out into the woods. Perhaps the enterprise of human life is genetically coded to seek something—it could be the primal search for food, the acquisition of money, or spiritual enlightenment; in this sense, all humans may be hunters at heart. Artifact Series #6 (First Fruit), in the Litvak Gallery Collection, is a more enigmatic arrangement than Hunter. Here, two partial human skeletons reach out toward one another. The skeleton on the left is a glossy black, with undertones of metallic green; the skeleton on the right is white, with unnerving red eye sockets and hints of bloody marrow. Morris’ mastery in the hot shop is evident, as the white bones have been built up of layers and layers of white, deep red, and clear glass to mimic striations found in real bone. This engineered collagenous matrix imparts the sense that one is looking at genuine human remains, while the black skeleton is otherworldly and metaphoric. In conceiving First Fruit, Morris was thinking about the origins of humankind and asking, if one could unearth evidence of Adam and Eve, what sort of burial mound would one encounter? While Morris prefers not to think of his first humans as named, he does contemplate the creation story as an archetypal theme. He suggests that the paradigm of biting into the fruit of knowledge is synonymous with quest, the human drive to look outside of oneself for something—and that humans have the equal and opposite inclination

to involve and even inculpate others into this compulsion. In this artist’s version of the creation story, Adam may have been the instigator, with Eve making the desperate and possibly even reluctant offer of forbidden fruit in collusion.2 In First Fruit, the extended arm of the black skeleton reaches up and nearly brushes the mouth of the white skeleton; one can imagine a proffered apple that has decayed along with the flesh of these two figures. The scenario of Artifact #11 (Man and Beast), again in the Litvak Gallery Collection, pits the skeleton of a beast—perhaps a cave bear, which in fact was hunted by Stone Age humans—directly next to a fallen human. The beast’s frame is crafted from white, variegated bones similar to those of the white skeleton in First Fruit; the human remains are, as in Hunter, icy and clear. Like Hunter, this human skeleton is larger than life-size, nearly nine feet long, even though the body appears to have its legs contracted up to the chest. Again, the installation provokes narrative, but the story is indecipherable based on these fragile remains. A crystal spear point is nestled in the creature’s belly. Did the man set out to hunt the beast, but instead get killed by it? Did the beast mortally attack the man unawares, then die as the man defended himself? Or perhaps the two deaths were unrelated, but the beast fed upon the man’s body and somehow died nearby? Morris contends that humankind’s relationship to Nature, always under scrutiny, remains complex and even unknowable.


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D. William Morris Artifact Series #6 (First Fruit), 1988 hand-blown and formed glass 12 x 84 x 48 courtesy of Litvak Gallery Collection photo: Robert Vinnedge E. William Morris Artifact Series #11 (Man and Beast), 1988 hand-blown and formed glass 18 x 108 x 60 courtesy Litvak Gallery Collection photo: Robert Vinnedge F. William Morris

F.

Artifact Series #14 (Offering) detail, 1989 hand-blown and formed glass 96 x 120 x 120 Prescott Collection of Pilchuck Glass at U.S. Bank Centre, Seattle courtesy of William Morris Studio photo: Robert Vinnedge

Perhaps the most elaborate of these Artifact installations is Artifact Series #14 (Offering), now included in the Prescott Collection of Pilchuck Glass at U.S. Bank Centre in Seattle. This ensemble is eight by ten by ten feet, the largest of these early Artifact works. Here an amber human skeleton is cradled within an enormous blanched rib cage of white bones, maybe those of a mastodon? It looks almost as if the human were swallowed whole and remained intact within the belly of the beast, a sort of Jonah-and-thewhale image. Swirling like constellations within the golden cranium are rudimentary line drawings: spirals, glyphs of a deer and a bird, maplike schematics. These glass cane drawings were made by Flora C. Mace, close friend of Morris and fellow pioneer of the studio glass movement. That these symbols remain trapped in the skull, like insects entombed in amber, asserts that some of the most ethereal of human experiences— memories, thoughts, emotions—may linger after death. The human skeleton clutches a knobbed red vessel, and a smaller duplicate vessel is nearby. These bowls or basket-shapes imply that some sort of ritual was a part of this human’s life, something perhaps as elemental as gathering food or as ceremonial as making an offering.

How did Morris become so fascinated with bones— human and animal, prehistoric or present-day? The nascence of this series began when Morris was still an art student at California State University in Chico, where he drew renderings of human and animal bones on black paper. His early interests turned to the vessel as he studied briefly in the ceramics department, and then launched headlong into studio glass. But it was after several years of working in the hot shop, with increasing technical skill and brute strength, that Morris turned to forming glass into sculptural shapes and returned to a theme that had long piqued his interest. Morris came from a family with a clinical predilection for anatomy. His father was a physician (he observed wryly that Morris’ bone sculptures were not anatomically correct). His mother was a nurse and his sister is a nurse; one brother is a doctor, another a biochemist. Bones, and the structure of a being, could not have been far from the artist’s frame of reference. More importantly, though, growing up in Carmel, California, Morris spent an enormous amount of time outdoors, hiking, rock climbing, and camping— eventually spending as much time in nature, alone, as he possibly could. He has memories of happening upon burial sites and archaeological sites, experiences that were heightened for him by solitude. The sensation of encountering geologic time through the remnants of human and animal life is recreated in Morris’ Artifact installations.

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H.

G.

I.

William Morris

Nancy Graves (1939-1995)

Cache, 1993

Pleistocene Skeleton, 1970

hand-blown and formed

steel, wax, marble dust, and acrylic

glass, metal, wood

84 x 120 x 36

60 x 72 x 432

Collection Smithsonian American

The George R. Stroemple

Art Museum, Washington, D.C.

Collection, Portland, OR

Art Š Nancy Graves Foundation/

photo: Robert Vinnedge

Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY photo courtesy Ameringer-Yohe

H.

Fine Art, New York, NY

William Morris

G.

Cache detail, 1993

J.

hand-blown and formed

Hyungkoo Lee (b.1969)

glass, metal, wood

Lepus Animatus (Bugs Bunny),

60 x 72 x 432

2005-2006

The George R. Stroemple

resin, aluminum sticks, stainless

Collection, Portland, OR

steel wires, springs, oil paint

photo: Robert Vinnedge

111 x 60 x 70 cm courtesy Arario Gallery, New York, NY photo: Cathy Carver

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Where do Morris’ early skeletal installations, the earliest artifacts of the Artifacts, exist in the context of contemporary art? Few other artists of the late 20th century explored paleontological themes to convey modern ideas. Nancy Graves’ Pleistocene Skeleton (1970), a trompe l’oeil recreation of Pleistocene camel bones carved out of marble dust and wax and arranged to simulate a natural history museum exhibit, may seem to be the most likely antecedent for Morris’ bone arrangements, but Graves’ installation did not venture to express any sort of universal human experience. When Robert Morris (no relation), Robert Arneson, and Andy Warhol appropriated the human skeleton, it was to interject sociopolitical commentary into their work.

I.

Of course, following Himself to Himself, Hunter, First Fruit, Man and Beast, and Offering came further Artifacts, celebrated works for which Morris became best known: the Suspended Artifacts, Shards, Tooth forms, Pouches, and eventually his Canopic Jars. Here Morris begins to use scavo as a predominant surface treatment of his artifacts: dusting the skin of his sculptural components with glass powder to roughen the surface of the glass, essentially obviating its intrinsic sheen—thus eliminating the very glassiness of glass. The prehistoric drawings became even more elaborate; tools, implements, weapons, and other forms of faux artifacts became simulacra for the human presence of actual bones. Morris’ penchant for juxtaposing objects in concert with one another had its genesis in the mise-en-scenes of the early Artifacts. Ultimately, his spectacular 36-foot Cache (1993), a monumental installation of elephant tusks, human skulls, bones, and lashings, included in the George R. Stroemple Collection, became the most important masterwork of this artist’s career. Cache creates a vision of what could be a depository of confiscated contraband— tusk ivory, protected cultural artifacts, illegally excavated human remains. The subject of this ambitious work is somber; the sheer scale makes it heartbreaking. Recalling Morris’ earlier works, Cache keeps one foot in prehistory by mimicking an archaeological burial mound while simultaneously riveting the viewer to the present by invoking illicit black market loot.

Now, twenty years after Morris made his early bone installations, it is difficult to remember how original the artist’s archaeological imaginings were when he first exhibited them. In the present day, the human skeleton and skull are so ingrained as icons of pop culture that this imagery is common in art of the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Jenny Holzer’s Lustmord Table (1994—just one year after Morris made Cache) and Tony Matelli’s arranged skull compositions and überrealistic sculptures of chimpanzees engaged in social upheaval seem like kindred spirits to Morris’ archaeological installations. Damien Hirst’s For the Love of God (2007), a platinum cast of a human skull encrusted with 8,601 flawless diamonds, or Hyungkoo Lee’s campy skeletonsculptures of American cartoon figures (Wile E. Coyote, Bugs Bunny, and others) in his Homo Animatus series may appear to be the most contrived and improbable uses of skulls and skeletons in contemporary art. But Holzer, Matelli, Hirst, Lee, and many others typically employ this imagery in the context of social criticism, whereas Morris, whose work is at root apolitical, refrains from casting social judgment.

J.

Art historian Patterson Sims suggested once to Morris that the Artifact Series may be a series of self-portraits, a notion that Morris himself does not deny.3 These installations probe existential themes, of a human’s position in nature and of one’s relationship with oneself.

Linda Tesner, director, The Ronna and Eric Hoffman Gallery of Contemporary Art, Lewis & Clark College, Portland, OR Published in conjunction with Litvak Gallery’s exhibition at SOFA WEST: Santa Fe. 1 Taped commentary by William Morris, circa 1991, transcribed by Kate Bonansinga, former curator of the George R. Stroemple Collection.

2

Ibid.

3

Ibid.

In recounting the narratives underlying these early Artifact works, Morris cautions his viewers that he does not want to lead them to any particular conclusion. He says that he himself tends to read more into the installations after they are made and arranged than when he was making them; his artwork begins with gut-level inclinations that parallel the unconscious urges addressed by the finished works. This subjective element of Morris’ early Artifacts invites the viewer’s speculation and, finally, the viewer’s own interpretation.

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Preston Singletary: Navigating Culture and Glass By Melissa G. Post

A.

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Preston Singletary represents the new generation of Studio Glass artists, strongly rooted in his culture yet eagerly assimilating contemporary influences. For twenty-two years, he has pursued, in earnest, the art of glass, creating a distinctive body of work that honors the traditions of his Tlingit forebears, the techniques of European glass masters, and the aesthetics of contemporary art. To do so, he has embraced cross-cultural collaborations and commissions, discovering further ways of enriching his artistic expression. His maternal grandparents were Tlingit, a Native American group in southeastern Alaska. Tlingit people traditionally used organic materials including wood, cedar bark, and spruce root in the creation of utilitarian and symbolic objects such as totem poles, baskets, and rain hats. Singletary uses glass to capture the essence of Tlingit forms, designs, and narratives, infusing this contemporary sculptural medium with new meaning.1

B.

What I’m trying to do in my own way is represent my culture. It’s sort of a reclamation process of taking charge of what it is that our people do and declaring who we are— contemporary people as opposed to an anthropological study. It’s asserting my own style . . . my own vision to work in the way that I feel is comfortable. —Preston Singletary

A. Preston Singletary (American, born 1963) Wolf Hat, 1989 blown and sandcarved glass 7 x 16 collection of James Sherman B. Preston Singletary and Dante Marioni, c. 1986

Singletary’s journey as an artist and an individual has been perpetuated by successive encounters with influential people, interspersed with periods of deep introspection and cultural inquiry. In the process, he has been both a humble recipient of knowledge and a powerful disseminator of it. This essay, composed in conjunction with his mid-career survey Preston Singletary: Echoes, Fire, and Shadows on view July 11, 2009 through September 19, 2010 at the Museum of Glass, Tacoma, WA, illuminates Singletary’s artistic evolution and his vibrant contributions to the Studio Glass movement and the Tlingit culture.

Early Years: 1963–1974 Preston Lawrence Singletary was born in San Francisco, California in 1963 and moved with his parents to the Wallingford neighborhood of Seattle several weeks later. Among the gifts that Singletary’s parents passed down to him were a love for art and music, a profound respect for the natural world, and the confidence to achieve his dreams. His mother, Jean, created bead and fiber art and conducted macramé workshops. His father, Preston, a talented illustrator, enjoyed poetry, painting, soapstone carving, and fly-fishing. Together, Singletary’s parents often sang and played blues in their home, inspired by the soulful strains of Lead Belly (Huddie William Ledbetter, 1888–1949). At age eleven, Singletary began playing the piano, subsequently learning guitar and bass. He formed a band three years later, the first of many collaborations that would shape his life. Throughout this early period,

Singletary was raised with stories about his Tlingit heritage from his great-grandmother, Susie Johnson Bartlett.2 Growing up in this household infused with music, art, and culture proved profoundly inspiring to this man and his work.

Glass: 1977–1988 At age fifteen, Singletary met Dante Marioni, son of pioneering Studio Glass artist Paul Marioni. Their friendship had a lasting influence on Singletary’s life, and they remain close friends to this day. It was Marioni who introduced Singletary to the glass world and the original Glass Eye Studio, widely known for its decorative glass, in Seattle’s famed Pike Place Market (fig. B). As their friendship evolved, so too did Singletary’s interest and involvement with the glass community. In 1982, following four years of study at Lincoln High School, he became a night watchman at the Glass Eye Studio. His responsibilities included cleaning the studio and filling the furnaces with raw glass. This overnight shift provided Singletary the means to pursue his music. It was, perhaps, during those hours that the hum of the furnace penetrated his psyche. Just three months after starting the job, he moved to the day shift, taking on the greater responsibilities of mixing chemicals and welding. Several months later, he was invited to blow glass. From 1982 to 1984, Singletary learned and developed the fundamental skills necessary to blow glass, creating popular paperweights and ornaments that incorporated ash from the 1980 eruption of Mount Saint Helens. It was at the Glass Eye Studio that Singletary met Italian maestro Lino Tagliapietra. Tagliapietra’s 1983 workshop forever altered the way Singletary perceived and approached glass. Rather than pursuing an academic art education, Singletary opted to train with the finest Studio Glass artists, enriching his understanding of the world through self-study, travel, and teaching. Through these formative experiences and with considerable encouragement from his colleagues, Singletary developed his glassblowing proficiency. In 1984, two encounters proved pivotal in shaping Singletary’s artistic evolution. He enrolled in his first glass class at Pilchuck Glass School, where he met Sonja Blomdahl. Working with Blomdahl, Singletary learned the art of incalmo, a demanding technique in which two molten glass bubbles of precisely the same diameter are conjoined and then shaped into a vessel. Evidence of Singletary’s work with Blomdahl would resurface nearly a decade later in The Genies series.

All photos by Russell Johnson except where noted

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At Pilchuck, Singletary also met sculptor and self-trained Studio Glass artist Anthony (Tony) Jojola, a member of the Isleta Pueblo Indian group in New Mexico. 3 Jojola was a particularly influential figure for Singletary, encouraging him to research his family background and make pieces that related to his cultural heritage. This was the genesis of Singletary’s investigations into his Tlingit traditions, and his relationship with the Native American community and Pilchuck Glass School.

Prompted by these mentors and fellow artists, Singletary embarked upon a period of intensive self-study, which continues to this day. Curious by nature, he allowed his evolving awareness of Jungian dream analysis, Surrealism, and Primitivism to shape his studies. He found Primitivism and the spare modern forms it spawned particularly fascinating, and began incorporating them into his design work. An extension of these interests manifests later, specifically in his amulets, defined by their biomorphic forms. Singletary’s subsequent studies introduced him to other leading figures in the contemporary glass world. For a fifteen-year period (1984–99), he trained with Italian maestros Checco Ongaro, Pino Signoretto, and Lino Tagliapietra, and emerging American glass masters Dan Dailey, Benjamin Moore, and Richard Royal. 4 These collective experiences furnished Singletary with vast artistic and technical knowledge, a foundation upon which he eventually established his distinctive style. Throughout this period, Singletary forged numerous lasting friendships. Ultimately, Pilchuck—both the place and the people—would transform him.

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Following two years of production work at the Glass Eye Studio, Singletary joined Moore’s team and worked in varying capacities between 1985 and 1999. Moore, like Dale Chihuly, had trained as a glass artist and designer at the Rhode Island School of Design (RISD), and like Dan Dailey, had also received a Fulbright Fellowship to work in Venice. He imparted his interest in Venetian glass to those he mentored.5 In Moore’s Seattle studio, Singletary and Marioni trained with Moore, Royal, and Tagliapietra, developing and refining their Venetian glassblowing techniques.6 Moore’s team worked on large-scale architectural and design projects. Singletary recalled, “After I landed the job with Benjamin Moore, the whole world just opened up. There I was, exposed to various artists and sensibilities.” Moore recounted that, “Within a very short period of time, I came to realize [Singletary] had wonderful hands. [He was] multi-talented.”7 Singletary learned how to control the material C. with precision and finesse, gradually developing his own artistic voice and cultivating the seeds of his personal artistic ethos. Throughout this period of artistic development, Singletary straddled two worlds—contemporary design and Tlingit iconography—producing several distinctive bodies of work. While the contemporary series reflects his European training and his emergent design sensibility, his work with Tlingit designs represents his own cultural inquiry. The Scribble Vases (fig. E) comprise voluptuous vessels executed in transparent gem tones and embellished with fine black trails. Reminiscent of the Chinese-inspired vases of Italian glass designer Carlo Scarpa (1906–1978) and the drip paintings of Jackson Pollock (1912–1956), these works embody Singletary’s nascent interests in classicism and Expressionism.8 A few years later, he would reference these influences in his Prestonuzzi series.

1989: A Pivotal Year In the interim, Singletary experienced the first of two defining moments that would forever alter his aesthetic course. In the summer of 1989, he

found himself again at Pilchuck Glass School. During this time, he was endeavoring to transfer Tlingit patterns directly from books onto glass. Singletary learned that his moiety (one of two basic complementary tribal subdivisions) is Eagle and his family house group is Kaagwaantaan. His clan’s symbols are the killer whale, brown bear, eagle, and wolf. In essence, his group owns these symbols and the rights to create and display them “to illustrate where they come from.” 9 At Pilchuck, Singletary also met wood and neon artist David Svenson. Svenson’s own portfolio was brimming with Tlingit designs. He had lived in Alaska for ten years, learned the carving tradition, and was adopted into a Tlingit family. Following extended conversations, Svenson introduced Singletary to Northwest Coast woodcarving and culture. Hearing about Svenson’s life in Alaska and seeing his photographs, including an image of Chief Klart-Reech’s House (also known as the Whale House) at Klukwan, fueled Singletary’s desire for cultural immersion (fig. C). The interior of the Whale House, with its elaborate rainwall screen mounted between two immense house posts, and clan treasures arranged in a potlatch presentation, would prove influential in his subsequent work, such as Housefront Screen (fig. D). Svenson, like Jojola, encouraged Singletary to continue his investigations, developing his work based on Tlingit designs. That year, Singletary decided to devote himself to “developing the process of integrating Northwest Coast designs in glass.” 10 The process was neither straightforward nor immediate. It unfolded organically over the ensuing decade. Subsequently, Singletary embarked upon a period of intensive research of Tlingit iconography as well as various forms of technical execution. His interest in the distinctive ovoid and U- and Lshaped patterns known as formline led to more formal studies. From these studies, Singletary would expand upon the notion of Native Alaskan art, creating in glass revered objects in the Tlingit culture. Singletary’s endeavors to create “a hallmark of traditional Northwest Coast art” resulted in his first signature form, a Tlingit crest hat. In 1989, he presented Wolf Hat to his Aunt Theresa Sherman (fig. A). 11 Traditional Tlingit crest hats are emblematic of an individual’s tribal status. They were woven from spruce roots and then painted with the anthropomorphic designs unique to that individual’s clan. Singletary created his oversized, monochromatic glass hat using a technique called “sandcarving.” The form was


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D. C. Interior of Chief Klart-Reech’s House, Chilkat, Alaska, 1895. Eleven men and youth on platform in the Whale House, with two bentwood boxes, woodworm dish rainwall screen, and houseposts of “Raven” and “The Girl and the Woodworm” in background. Alaska State Library, Winter & Pond Photograph Collection P87-0010 D. Preston Singletary Housefront Screen, 2002 sandcarved and enamel painted kiln-cast glass, steel frame 26 x 31 x 6 collection of Ann Morrison and Steve Pitchersky E. Preston Singletary Scribble Vases, 1985 blown glass and applied decoration 20 x 12; 21 x 15; 23 x 13

E.

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F.

F. Preston Singletary Shadow Catcher, 2002 blown and sandcarved glass 6 x 17 collection of M.J. Murdock Charitable Trust, Vancouver, WA G. Preston Singletary Prestonuzzi Vases, 1995 blown glass, applied lip wraps, and handles 7 x 9; 19 x 8 diameter H. Preston Singletary The Genies, 1996 blown incalmo glass 13 x 10; 17 x 7; 23 x 5

G.

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blown, masked with tape, and, finally, sandblasted. The taped areas remained raised and transparent; the sandblasted areas recessed and translucent. What began as a singular silhouette of a wolf, one of Singletary’s own clan crests, evolved into a series of bears, frogs, and killer whales, each one more elaborate than the previous. Over time, Singletary’s Tlingit-inspired designs became distributive or wholly abstract, as seen in Shadow Catcher (fig. F).

1990s: Influences and Design At Singletary’s first exhibition of Tlingit work in 1991, his Aunt Theresa’s constructive criticism would forever alter his work and its visual impact. “Honey,” she whispered, “you’re missing the boat! Now go over and aim that spotlight directly over that hat.” He did and the room full of spectators released an audible “Ahhhhh.” Inverting the form and bathing it in light produced dramatic shadows, animating the glass and enriching the iconography and the viewer’s experience. Singletary had transformed this otherwise symbolic and decorative headpiece into a visually arresting entity. This form would become iconic within his work. From 1991 to 1996, Singletary experimented with new techniques, creating the Prestonuzzi series, inspired by American artists Dante Marioni and Richard Marquis, and Italian Napoleone Martinuzzi (1892–1977), a designer for Venini (fig. G). In these pieces, Singletary combines Martinuzzi’s monochromatic Art Deco forms, Marioni’s vivid color and stylized auricular handles, and Marquis’s unique method of titling his work.12 Masterfully rendered, these works illustrate Singletary’s growing design sensibility, a progression that would be amplified in his subsequent series, The Genies (1995–97). As Singletary became more proficient as a glassblower, new opportunities presented themselves. In 1993, one decade after their first meeting, Singletary and Marioni accompanied Tagliapietra to Europe, assisting with a series of workshops and demonstrations at Sweden’s Kosta Boda glassworks as well at the Iittala and Nuutajärvi glass factories in Finland. In Sweden, Singletary met a young designer, Åsa Sandlund, who worked at Åfors, a division of Kosta Boda. Singletary returned to Sweden in December 1993 to serve as a gaffer for graduate students at the prestigious Konstfack University College of Arts, Crafts, and Design and the University of Helsinki in Finland. While there, he assisted Sandlund in creating sandblasted glass plates for her thesis exhibition, and she,

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in turn, introduced him to modern Scandinavian design and the design process itself. Singletary considers this his first artistic collaboration, the stimulus behind his long-standing interest in modern design. The two fell in love, returned to the United States and married in 1995. He continued working at Moore’s studio; she began a marketing career at Nordstrom, Inc. Singletary has three children: Sienna, Orlo, and Lydia. Following his travels, Singletary initiated a new series, The Genies, in which he merged crosscultural influences to exert a definitive style. While the restrained forms recall the works of modern Swedish ceramist Stig Lindberg (1916– 1982), the bold Italian technique of incalmo and effortless color sensibilities reflect his training with Blomdahl and Marioni (fig. H). These tabletop trios illustrate an artist clearly in command of a formal vocabulary, reveling in form, surface, and the nuances of overlay. With The Genies, Singletary presented a distinctly modern impression. The very attributes that defined his eclectic, European-inspired vessel series, however, posed inherent challenges to the artist. He experienced the difficulty of carving out a niche—a personal artistic identity—making vessel forms. Alternating between European- and Tlingit-inspired designs for several years, Singletary found himself at a crossroads once again. He was simultaneously looking toward his wife and her family, admiring their sense of community and culture, while seeking a more personal expression. The desire to discover his own voice prevailed, urging him to pursue sculpture and broaden his aesthetic inquiry. Singletary reaffirmed his commitment to developing his own style—rooted in Tlingit heritage.

Melissa G. Post, curator, Museum of Glass, Tacoma, WA Editor’s Note: The remainder of this essay, written by Melissa G. Post covers Singletary’s career following his pivotal decision to focus on the aesthetics of his Tlingit heritage. The transition to Tlingit iconography, significant commissions, inspiring collaborations, the importance of music (Singletary is a founding member of the rather remarkable Little Big Band) and new directions complete the written documentation of this mid-career survey. Additional essays by Walter C. Porter, a Tlingit storyteller, and Stephen Clay Brown, a noted scholar, lend unique perspectives on the artist and his work. The essays are included in the complete, full-color catalog of the exhibition, Preston Singletary: Echoes, Fire, and Shadows, which will be available July 2009 from the Museum of Glass. (To order online, visit www.museumofglassstore.org) 1 This essay is based on a series of interviews with Preston Singletary, conducted between April and September 2008.

Southeastern Alaska is a territory that includes a vast archipelago and mainland, from its southernmost point

in Ketchikan to its northernmost around Yakutat. As a matrilineal society, the Tlingit pass down their heritage through the mother. 2 Susie Johnson Bartlett gave Singletary a Tlingit name, Cochane, which translates literally as “Sound of the Rattling Chains.” She passed away at age 102, when Singletary was 17 years old. Singletary’s paternal grandparents and great-grandparents are of mixed European descent; his maternal great-grandparents, George and Susie Johnson Bartlett, were full-blooded Tlingit Indians. George was killed in a logging accident while their daughter Lillian was still a young child. Susie later remarried Dionesio Gubatayo. Together, the family moved to Seattle in 1919. When Lillian grew up, she, too, married a Filipino man, John Abada. Their daughter, Jean Abada, met and married Preston Singletary, giving birth to two children, Preston Lawrence (1963) (named after his Uncle Lawrence, Aunt Theresa’s husband) and Rachel (1971). 3 Preston Singletary, “Indian-uity, Glass Symbols of Cultural Knowledge,” The Glass Art Society Journal (2003): 42. Jojola began working with glass in 1974. Three years later, he founded the Taos Glass Arts and Education program with the technical and financial support of Dale Chihuly. Singletary noted that Jojola’s initial glass explorations were “viewed with suspicion.”

During this same period, Singletary worked as a gaffer, or assistant, to many of these same artists as well as Dale Chihuly, Fritz Dreisbach, Stanislav Libensky, ´ Marvin Lipofsky, Timo Sarpaneva, and Ann Wåhlstrom.

4

As the educational coordinator and a faculty member at Pilchuck Glass School (1974–1987) and a designer at Venini (1978, 1979), Moore was also responsible for bringing Tagliapietra to the United States for his premiere visit in 1979.

5

6 Collaborating with Dante Marioni, Singletary produced a limited edition of forty whimsical, yet technically masterful Alligator Goblets. Both Singletary and Marioni remain especially indebted to Tagliapietra. 7 In addition to the encouragement and inspiration he received from his mentors, Singletary was awarded several study grants and scholarships from organizations such as the Institute of Alaska Native Arts (1985), the Jon and Mary Shirley Foundation/Pratt Fine Arts Center (1996), and the Washington Mutual Foundation/ Pilchuck Glass School (1995 and 1999). This support assisted him in continuing his artistic endeavors. In turn, he would go on to give back to the community, sharing his knowledge and skills by teaching at schools throughout the world. 8 In his first international exhibition, at the International Glass Trade Show in Japan, Singletary exhibited vibrant versions of these vases in red, yellow, and orange.

Craft in America, A Journey to the Artists, Origins and Techniques of American Craft. Video clip.

9

10 Preston Singletary, “From the Fire Pit of the Canoe People,” Fusing Traditions: Transformations in Glass by Native American Artists, ed. Carolyn Kastner, 18.

Eventually, Sherman gave the hat to her son, Jamie. During this period, Singletary also gifted a Sun Mask Vase to his sister, Rachel. These two works remain in his family.

11

Lino Tagliapietra combined Marquis’s surname with that of Carlo Scarpa to create the title of the series, Marquiscarpa. In this case, Singletary formed the title Prestonuzzi by merging his name and that of Napoleone Martinuzzi.

12

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Hot Trends in Native Southwestern Weaving By Ann Lane Hedlund

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For centuries, Navajo weavers have used tapestry weave to create their innovative handwoven work.1 This versatile weaving technique is also used in European wall hangings of the Medieval and Renaissance periods and in vintage Chinese silk k’ossu garments. For these and other decorative fabrics worldwide, tapestry was independently invented because of its beauty, flexibility, and utility. More than any other textile technique, tapestry weave is associated with fine art and expressive imagery. It was and continues to be an ideal medium for Navajo and other Native American weavers. Today, a revival in contemporary tapestry weaving is evident among European and American handweavers and is also recurring among Pueblo, Navajo and Hispanic weavers in the American Southwest. These artists are combining traditional techniques and materials with updated modern imagery. The rising popularity of tapestry among collectors opens up new directions for all weavers.

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color contrasts. They incorporated their own humor and vitality, often with clever visual puns and allusions. From their beginnings, Navajo blankets were widely appreciated—and they were traded with other Indian tribes well before nineteenth century commerce arrived. Today there are weavers who come from a long line of talented artisans. Weaving runs through the woman’s lineage in Navajo families—passed from grandmothers to mothers to daughters to granddaughters. In addition, male weavers have been active since at least the 1880s, and presently their numbers appear to be increasing. Ruth Teller’s and Margeret Yazzie’s family from Two Grey Hills, New Mexico, counts at least seven generations of weavers in their maternal bloodline, including at least one man. In many families, if someone wants to learn and doesn’t have a close relative, help is usually found from sisters, aunts, clan relations, in-laws, and even community classes.

By the end of the nineteenth century, Navajo weavers had shifted from making utilitarian blankets to floor rugs for an outside market. Beginning in the early twentieth century, regional rug styles with community names like Ganado, Two Grey Hills, and Wide Ruins developed around trading posts where weavers often sold their rugs for cash and or exchanged them for household goods. By the 1960s, a huge arts and crafts boom brought worldwide attention to Southwest weavers. These artisans continued to improve their techniques, to incorporate new materials, and to elaborate their patterns. They excelled in using tapestry weave for expressive designs—both geometric and representational. They also found new markets in art galleries, craft stores, and museum shops beyond the Navajo Nation’s boundaries.

Navajo spiritual teachings emphasize weaving and all other creative activities as dynamic and ever-evolving. Being “traditional” to Navajos doesn’t necessarily mean staying in one place. Among Navajo philosophers and weavers, tradition includes acts of improvisation and options to follow paths of personal inclination. Many aesthetic decisions are left to each individual person. Native American artists, however, must often counteract the general and recurring assumption that to be traditional is to be unchanging in one’s artistic approach. Unlike contemporary artists in mainstream Euro-American society, where artists are known for breaking molds and innovation is considered quintessential, Pueblo and Navajo Indian weavers tend to be viewed as conservative. Dealers and collectors often encourage them to replicate the ways of their past. Navajo weavers have indeed been producing handwoven garments, blankets and rugs in new patterns since at least the 1600s. Through the study of historic Navajo textiles, we know that Navajo weavers of the past were resourceful in their material and design choices. They were easily influenced by outsiders, yet firm in honoring an eclectic heritage. They acquired weaving tools from neighboring Pueblo Indians (who had been weaving since prehistoric times), sheep’s wool from the Spaniards, indigo dyes from the Mexicans, and design ideas from all these plus incoming American settlers. Throughout, Navajo weavers maintained their own identity and “kept their backbones straight.” They imbued their woven work with a unique sense of symmetry and strong

B. A.

B.

D.Y. Begay

Larry Yazzie

Nightway detail, 2009

Blue Canyon, 1994

collection of the artist

62 x 36 private collection

All photography by Ann Lane Hedlund; all textiles are wool tapestry weave unless otherwise noted.

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C. TahNiBaa Naat’aanii with Twin Warriors’ Journey to the Sun, 2009 Heard Museum Indian Market, Phoenix D. Roy Kady, with suite of handspun, woven and felted horsegear, 2008 Heard Museum Indian Market, Phoenix E. Melissa Cody with untitled tapestry, 2009 Heard Museum Indian Market, Phoenix

D.

C.

The twenty-first century now reflects new trends in Native woven designs 1. A rising emphasis on individual styles and artistic identity is visible. Modern Navajo and Pueblo weavers draw from personal inspiration and experiences, not just from family-, community-, and trader-based sources. Local landscapes, faraway travel, up-to-the-minute movies and music, and contemporary artworks in non-woven media all spur on new weaving. For example, Scottsdale weaver D.Y. Begay, originally from Salina Springs, Arizona, has developed a highly individual style. Using her strong sense of place in the Southwest, broad banded mesas with asymmetrical interruptions and subtle color gradations emerge in her tapestries. Another weaver, Michael Teller Ornelas from Tucson, now studies computer science at University of Arizona. He incorporates broad concepts from Japanese animé and computer-driven imagery into his precisely woven, stair-stepped tapestries. Mary Duwyenie, a Hopi weaver and painter from a family of distinctive artists (including Preston Duwyenie, the glass artist), trained in the arts program at Arizona State University in Tempe. She has created large woven wall hangings with patterns abstracted from traditional Hopi pottery and textile designs. Some weavers give formal titles to their rugs and wall hangings, where previously even the weaver’s name would have remained anonymous. Titles like

Blue Canyon by Larry Yazzie and My Maine Rug by Kalley Keams Lucero invoke their travels near and far. Other titles such as The Navajo Universe by Sarah Paul Begay, In the Path of the Four Seasons by Lillie Taylor, and Dawn Meets Dusk by Gloria Jean Begay contain esoteric or idiosyncratic messages. Navajo artist and civil engineer Morris Muskett’s Ravenstail Weaving and D.Y. Begay’s Cheyenne Style and Dakota Style each reflect inspirations from tribal communities outside of the Southwest.

Mondrian-like boxes or with the improbable colors of an Arizona sunset or a Coney Island Ferris wheel. Looking back at the earlier tradition of handmade horse gear, weaver Roy Cady of Teec Nos Pos, New Mexico, made a set of items with his family’s homegrown Churro sheep’s wool. He created a handwoven twill saddle blanket, a handfelted plaid-patterned saddle pad, a hand-woven saddle cinch on metal d-rings, and a handbraided halter and lead. In 2008 he showed this prizewinning suite at the Heard Museum’s annual Indian Market & Fair in Phoenix.

2. The distinctive use of earlier classic blanket designs serves as stimulus for new imagery. Native weavers look back at older textiles but, like improvisational jazz musicians, they riff on these designs—creating new from old, finding impulsive rhythms where no ancestor ever rocked. Motifs from banded chief’s blankets appear as enlarged abstractions in the modern work of D.Y. Begay. Sarape and poncho designs shrink into precious miniature tapestries when painstakingly woven by Tucson master weaver Barbara Teller Ornelas. Original motifs based on early basketry now pixillate with computer game nuances in a recent handwoven diptych by Sierra Ornelas, now living in Washington, DC. Weaver Marilou Schultz of Mesa, Arizona, has custom-dyed and woven a commissioned work using a collector’s abstract computer chip diagram. Eye dazzlers from the nineteenth century reappear on the looms of Santa Fe weaver Melissa Cody and her mother Lola Cody, with serrate diamonds enclosed in

E.

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F. Marilou Schultz with prizewining tapestry, 2008, Heard Museum Indian Market, Phoenix G. D.Y. Begay with prizewinning tapestry, 2008, Heard Museum Indian Market, Phoenix

G.

H. Marilou Schultz with custom dyed yarn and photos of Silicon Chip, 2009, Heard Museum Indian Market, Phoenix

H.

F.

3. More weavers articulate the stories and narratives behind their work. In 2001 the School of American Research in Santa Fe hosted a week-long convocation of Navajo weavers. Titled Gifts of Spiderwoman: Myth and Reality Regarding Spirituality in Navajo Weaving, the seminar addressed the roles of power and religious meaning in Navajo historic and contemporary weaving. Organized by the Indian Arts Research Center and facilitated by Navajo weaver Kalley Keams Lucero, participants included Irene Clark, Mae Clark, Glenabah Hardy, TahNibaa Naat’aanii, Barbara Teller Ornelas, Marilou Schultz, Clara Sherman, Angie Silentman, Brenda Spencer, Janet Tsinnie, and Anthony Tallboy. Integral to the participants’ discussions was the strong contention that meaning and symbolism in Navajo weaving is highly personal. Although guided by traditional spiritual teachings, the significance depends on individual artists’ intentions and interpretations. Another important message concerns the depth and purposefulness of process (as opposed to design or product) in the spirituality of weaving. Where earlier geometric patterns were accorded minimal verbal descriptions by twentieth century weavers, now some are integrating charged tribal symbols into their rugs and developing highly

personal accounts of their tapestry patterns. TahNiBaa Naataanii of Table Mesa, New Mexico, records the stories that she has embedded into her woven tapestries and preserves them in notebooks that stay with each purchased artwork. Both Twin Warriors’ Journey to the Sun and Spider Woman’s Stories relate to traditional Navajo origin legends, but each is TahNiBaa’s unique expression requiring her individual translation. Weavers today seek out their own families’ stories, read published accounts of Navajo origins, and visit museum exhibitions to learn more. Some weavers document the processes and meaning of their work through poetry as well as prose. Sarah Paul Begay of Indian Wells, Arizona, is one who writes in verse. She also has dedicated one large wall hanging to her father, a traditional healer who is depicted looking out of her pictorial panels. Dog-eared and homely family photo albums are transformed into polished portfolios that chronicle career paths as well as interpret the visual artworks. In her 20s, Melissa Cody has a lengthy resume and uses a professional format from her art school training. The Teller family has self-published a multi-generational account of their extended family’s woven work.

New approaches emerge from weaver’s lifestyles and their modern arts careers 4. Weavers are marketing their own work or seeking professional representation Marketing practices among weavers have changed dramatically since the 1960s. Weavers today may elect to sell their rugs and tapestries far from the local trading post, traveling many miles to get the best price for their work at a museum shop or art gallery. Some weavers establish strong relationships with a single gallery or dealer, rather than “shopping around” their rugs. Increasing numbers work directly with private collectors, either through regional arts fairs (Santa Fe Indian Market and other museum-sponsored events in the Southwest and beyond) or through their own websites and mailing lists. These approaches reflect not only design trends or technical changes in weaving, but also represent a shift in approaches to living (and to making a living) as this and the next sections demonstrate. Such emerging and influential developments don’t affect everyone. It should be emphasized that there are still many Navajo weavers living on the Navajo Nation who produce regional style rugs at home much as previous generations did. These weavers rely on modest income from their more quotidian products, and may indeed struggle to support families with their weaving. Market expansion is very important for these individuals, as for any proficient artist.

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5. More Native American weavers could benefit from professional art training Most Navajo and Pueblo weavers remain self-trained or educated within their family and community circles. Formal art and weaving programs at the university level have only just begun to influence emerging Native American artists. Those who have taken coursework, degrees or internships now show at local and national levels. The Institute of American Indian Art in Santa Fe offers studio art courses and Museum Studies classes that have influenced several young weavers. A few others have enrolled in programs in fine arts, media arts, computer science, and related fields at universities in Arizona, New Mexico and Colorado. Seldom have southwestern Native weavers trained at other well-known arts schools, but hopefully that is to come.

I.

Formal internships for Native American students and artists are offered at major museums. These have included the National Museum of the American Indian and other branches of the Smithsonian, the Eiteljorg Museum in Indianapolis, and many museums in the Southwest (including Arizona State Museum, Heard Museum, Museum of Northern Arizona, School of American Research, and Museum of Indian Arts & Culture and other branches of the Museums of New Mexico). These intensive and practical experiences can help to launch professional arts careers. Continuing support for these programs is much needed. 6. Museum consultations and exhibition curation provide perspective Increasingly, museums have asked Native weavers to curate or co-curate exhibitions, using their own perspectives as cultural specialists and artists. Few museums, however, have permanently hired staff members from the ranks of Native weavers. One exception is the Museum of Indian Arts and Culture in Santa Fe, where Navajo weaver and fiber artist Joyce Begay-Foss is Director of Education. For her institution, she has organized numerous exhibitions, symposia and public programs about Navajo weaving.

J.

40

I.

J.

Ramona Sakiestewa

Ramona Sakiestewa

Copper Screen, 2004

Copper Screen detail, 2004

fabricated metals

fabricated metals

National Museum of the American

National Museum of the American

Indian, Washington, DC

Indian, Washington, DC

resulting in the 1996 exhibition and publication, Woven by the Grandmothers. In 1994, the Museum of Northern Arizona in Flagstaff hosted Hanoolchaadí: Historic Textiles Selected by Four Navajo Weavers, with Grace Henderson Nez plus her daughter and two granddaughters. In 2004-2005, Barbara, Sierra and Michael Ornelas served as co-curators at Arizona State Museum in Tucson to create 19th Century Blankets/20th Century Rugs/21st Century Views. And in 2006, D.Y. Begay held the position of “community curator” for the Kennedy Museum of Art in Athens, Ohio, in a project called Weaving is Life. The last two exhibits have online presentations continuing after the physical displays were completed. Other intriguing exhibitions and programs are sure to expand upon these collaborative approaches. 7. Architectural commissions and new media— trends of the future? A final noteworthy trend is that of entire installations in new media, which are designed and directed by Native American weavers. Ramona Sakiestewa is a well-known weaver and design specialist of Hopi Indian heritage. In her well-established Santa Fe studio, she has produced several series of handwoven tapestries that alternate between reflections of her Native American ancestry and an abiding interest in modernism, ultimately addressing “the dynamics of time and space.” For more than a decade now, she has also worked with nationally known architects to create significant features in glass, metal and stone. Her work includes installations at the Tempe Center for the Performing Arts in Arizona, the American West Heritage Center in Utah, the Chickasaw Cultural Center in Oklahoma, Marriott Hotels in California and Washington, DC, and the National Museum of the American Indian (NMAI) on the Smithsonian’s Mall in Washington, DC. At NMAI where she consulted extensively from 1994 to 2005, she provided designs for a dramatic theater curtain, a pair of imposing entry doors, and an elevator interior. Perhaps most importantly, her monumental Copper Screen is a brilliant fabricated metal sculpture surrounding the Museum’s main entry plaza.

A few noteworthy exhibitions have included Navajo weavers as content specialists and guest curators. In 1990 the National Museum of the American Indian began holding lengthy in-house and on-site meetings with weavers and scholars, A.


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In spring 2007, Navajo artist D.Y. Begay was commissioned by the Heard Museum to create an external wall piece for its building in downtown Phoenix, Arizona. The result—Begay’s first public installation—is Floating Weft Mosaic, modeled after an original Navajo textile that was vegetaldyed and handwoven by D.Y. Begay. As principal artist, Begay selected Nina Solomon, a Phoenix mosaic artist to produce hundreds of ceramic tiles that compose her design. Involving almost 3,000 hours of labor by thirty-five people, including members of the Museum’s volunteer Guild, the entire piece was completed in nine months. Its final installation was celebrated in February 2008. As Begay observed, the very earth colors and pigments that inspire her weaving are also those used in the glazes of this piece, “capturing,” she says, “the beauty and palette of the landscape.”

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For active Native weavers in the American Southwest, the future holds a wealth of opportunity for individual artworks and for creative collaborations. If their warp (the foundation strings on the loom) represents tradition, then surely the weft (those colorful yarns that interlace with the warps) must be innovation, and clearly the two are inextricably interwoven. The possibilities, indeed, are as endless as art itself.

K.

Dr. Ann Lane Hedlund directs the non-profit Gloria F. Ross Center for Tapestry Studies, based in Tucson, Arizona. A cultural anthropologist specializing in ethnic craft organization, she is also curator and professor of anthropology in the Arizona State Museum at the University of Arizona. Published in conjunction with the SOFA WEST: Santa Fe lecture Hot Trends in Native Southwestern Weaving. Tapestry is technically defined as a plain weave fabric in which the weft yarns cover and entirely hide the foundation warp yarns, and in which imagery (abstract or representational) is created by differently colored wefts appearing only where patterning is needed.

1

While all of these major trends have roots during the previous century, they’ve become full-blown in today’s globalized and interconnected world. Native American weavers are increasingly plugged into the Internet, in contact with each other and other artists through professional workshops and symposia, and seeking new forms of representation and sales through urban galleries and art expos. Since 1992, far-flung art museums—the Smithsonian’s Renwick Gallery in Washington, DC, Denver Art Museum in Colorado, Joslyn Art Museum in Nebraska, Kennedy Museum of Art in Ohio, Wheelwright Museum in Santa Fe, and Mesa Art Center in Arizona—have featured creative new work by Navajo weavers. In 1995 Irene Clark of Crystal, New Mexico, was honored by the national Women’s Caucus for the Arts: “as a master weaver, innovator, designer, teacher, for using time-honored traditional techniques to create visual and technical tours de force in tapestry. Her work is a testament to her commitment to long-held Navajo beliefs, as well as her approach to artistic exploration that reveals a melding of traditional and contemporary.” In 2005 the National Endowment for the Arts bestowed its highest award of a National Heritage Fellowship on a Navajo weaver for the first time: Grace Henderson Nez (1913-2006) of Ganado, Arizona received this award at the Library of Congress, with her daughter Mary Lee Henderson Begay, granddaughter Gloria Jean Begay, and great-granddaughter Aaliyah by her side. And it was about time, given the centuries of innovation already reflected in Navajo weaving!

2 In southwestern gallery parlance, “tapestry” has taken on new meaning to refer to super-finely spun and woven work. “Tapestry,” in this sense, now refers to handwoven fabrics in tapestry weave with more than 90 wefts per inch.

BIBLIOGRAPHY Bonar, Eulalie, editor 1996 Woven by the Grandmothers: NineteenthCentury Navajo Textiles from the National Museum of the American Indian. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Hedlund, Ann Lane 2004 Navajo Weaving in the Late Twentieth Century: Kin, Community, and Collectors. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZ. 1992 Reflections of the Weaver’s World: The Gloria F. Ross Collection of Contemporary Navajo Weaving. Denver Art Museum, Denver, CO. McLerran, Jennifer 2006 Weaving is Life: Navajo Weavings from the Edwin L. & Ruth E. Kennedy Southwest Native American Collection. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA. Two Bears, Davina L. 1995 “Hanoolchaadí: Historic Textiles Selected by Four Navajo Weavers.” Native Peoples 8(3):62-68.

L. K.

L.

D.Y. Begay and Nina Solomon

D.Y. Begay and Nina Solomon

Weft Float Mosaic, 2008

Weft Float Mosaic detail, 2008

ceramic tile

ceramic tile

Heard Museum, Phoenix, AZ

Heard Museum, Phoenix, AZ

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Silvia Levenson: Through the Kiln Darkly and Jessica Loughlin: Seeing Farther By Richard Speer

A.

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The popular conception of the “Italian glass artist” is apt to summon visions of the broadshouldered Veneziano, all blowpipe and bulging biceps, spinning out some souvenir chalice or sea horse to the applause of rapt turisti. It is all the more unexpected, therefore, that one of the premier glass artists working in Italy today is not a man, but a woman; not Venetian, but Argentinian-born from Russian-Jewish stock; and, perhaps most surprisingly, not a blower of goblets, but a kilncaster who uses (gasp) American-made glass to create socio-politically complex, autobiographically revealing sculptures and installations. As it turns out, everything about the artist Silvia Levenson is counterintuitive, most of all her work itself, whose cool, ironical detachment belies origins in a life filled with political upheaval, activism, flight, and aesthetic flowering. Levenson, who now lives in the north of Italy, was born in Buenos Aires. During her teens in the 1970s, she began making art and became politically active against the oppressive regime of military dictator Jorge Rafael Videla. Under Videla’s so-called Guerra Sucia (“Dirty War”), tens of thousands of Argentineans were kidnapped and killed for alleged dissent and Communist sympathies. During the purging, Levenson’s sister was briefly imprisoned, and several of her other family members were persecuted to varying degrees, including two of her cousins and her uncle, who was a newspaper publisher. During these uncertain times she joined grassroots efforts by the Trotskyist Party, which opposed Videla, and began visiting factories to speak with workers and unionists in a bid to end government oppression and break down barriers between social classes. In this whirl of activism, at age 16, Levenson married, eventually mothering two children. Being a wife and mother did not stop her from earning a graphic design degree at Martin Garcia College and landing a job as a designer. Her political activities, however, continued to arouse suspicion from the government, and following a close call in 1978, during which regime A.

B.

Silvia Levenson

Silvia Levenson in the studio

The Pursuit of Happiness, 2009

photo: M. del Commune

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operatives staked out her house, she and her family went into hiding for nearly three years. In 1981, they were able to flee Argentina for Italy, where Levenson’s husband had family, and she eventually attained dual Argentine-Italian citizenship. In her new life in Milan, she worked as a graphic designer but also drew and painted. It was not until 1987 that she showed her artwork publicly, in a group show in Milan. Fortuitously, a fellow artist in that show had recently returned from a glass workshop in Switzerland and lent Levenson a book on glass fusing. Later that year, she traveled to New York and took in an exhibition by Swedish glass artist Bertil Vallien, whom she greatly admired. Soon afterwards she rented a studio close to her home and began working in glass, in a style she now characterizes as “painterly but a little bit decorative—although in the moment, I thought they were masterpieces!” A 1992 meeting in Germany with Bullseye Gallery’s Lani McGregor led to her traveling to Portland, Oregon, to work with Bullseye glass, a material she uses exclusively to this day. The confluence of working with Bullseye materials and returning to Buenos Aires in 1993 to visit family members, ultimately steered her work away from the decorative and toward more conceptual and autobiographical realms. In particular, a series of long talks with her uncle refocused her thoughts on the perils that had led her to flee her homeland more than a decade before. With these memories reawakened, she flew back to Italy and began incorporating a more political bent into her art. In 1994, when she mounted her first solo gallery show, the reception to the work was immediate and favorable. Many viewers, familiar with glass only through the Muranese blowing tradition, had never seen kilncast work before. More than a few of them asked Levenson if she had invented the technique. Looking back, the artist says she believes she happened into her art career at an opportune time, when the art and craft worlds were conspicuously straddling a divide between materiality and conceptualism. At the time she was—as she continues to be—interested in exploring themes for one- to two-year periods, developing her ideas exhaustively, then moving on to new, but related, topics. Throughout her explorations she has remained fascinated by the ambiguity of glass: its familiarity among the accoutrements of daily life—mirrors, windows, spectacles, stemware—and simultaneously its sharpness and ability to harm. With an irony that manages to feel more empathetic than smug, she has built a style around an uncanny ability to suggest the danger in beautiful things

and the beauty in dangerous things. Certain representational objects have lent themselves well to this stratagem and become repeating motifs. In Levenson’s hands, weapons such as hand grenades, pistols, and knives are defused, unloaded, dulled, and grouped in seemingly benign shadowbox displays, their sinister qualities muted by matte surfaces and pretty pastels. With its quartet of pink grenades in a Depression Glass-style fruit bowl, the piece Something Wrong, in the collection of the New Mexico Museum of Art, illustrates the artist’s knack for counterposing banality and treacherousness. She deploys other objects, such as perfume bottles, makeup containers, children’s toys, dresses, and furniture, to cast a skeptical eye on phenomena including romantic love, domestic life, self-help books, and antidepressant drugs. Of this latter, Levenson believes that societies around the world have come to expect “a cosmetic of happiness, where we all have to look beautiful and happy and young... We have become allergic to pain and suffering. The tendency is to think, ‘I don’t like my nose; I will change it.’ ‘I feel bad because I lost somebody I love; I will take a Prozac.’ We believe that happiness is something we can put into our bodies, instead of something that happens when we really find ourselves.” A restless intellect, she has in recent years added digital video to her repertoire of media. In short films such as Everything is Okay, she sets up scenarios of immaculate homely bliss, only to pull the rug out from under her players as they grapple with life’s chaos via the crutches of alcohol, pharmaceuticals, and New-Age meditation. “My experience as a small girl,” she remembers, “was that my father and mother loved my sister and myself, but I never felt protected by them. So my life was about the lack of protection.” In her art, then, the family unit’s inability to offer failsafe shelter lies at the root of a mistrust of power structures and social institutions. Fair is foul, and foul just might be fair, her work hints. Stasis, equipoise, and even beauty are suspect, for they may harbor seeds of corruption. These cautions notwithstanding, Levenson still clings to the utopianism of her revolutionary past: “In the 1970s, the young people in Argentina had the expectation that we would change the country—not in the future but right away, tomorrow morning! You can almost touch this feeling in all the people in my generation, even all these years after.” This feeling, she concludes, “modified completely my vision of life and the way I do my art, because it made me realize, no matter what happens, I am a survivor.”

kilncast glass, metal 17.75 x 13.75 x 4.375 installed photo: Endos.it

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As biographer Laurie Lisle has noted, painter Georgia O’Keeffe found deep resonance in the wilds of northern New Mexico because there, in the dry, sage-scented air, she could “see farther.” Lisle’s observation pertains both literally—to the crystalline visibility extending to distant mesas and mountains—and symbolically—to the region’s near-mystical atmospherics and topography, which helped O’Keeffe tap into the farthest reaches of her creative psyche. On the surface, the connection between the late American painter and the contemporary Australian glass artist Jessica Loughlin may not be apparent, yet both women share a preoccupation with landscape as a vehicle to conjure mindscape. In Loughlin’s elegant works— which arts writers most often contextualize in the lineage of minimalism—the artist explores the misty, tremulous lines between earthiness and conceptualism, direct perception and inference. In certain respects, Loughlin is a sensualist who wants to be an ascetic. Perhaps it is the other way around. In either permutation, it is the tensions between those polarities that have come to define and distinguish her work. Born in Melbourne in 1975, Loughlin has always been intensely focused and ambitious. Beginning at the rosy age of six, she studied Sumi-e and suibokuga painting under Richard Liddicut, and gleaned from those process-intensive disciplines an appreciation for the infinitudes of gray that follow from the mixings of inks with water. “I believe that my palette,” she says today, “came directly from that early formal training.” The rigor imparted by that exposure to Chinese and Japanese painting stayed with her through her young womanhood, through her studies at the prestigious Glass Workshop at Australian National University, and into her many series in the decade-plus since her graduation. The gradations between states of being—white to black, liquid to gas, recumbent to upright—combine with a

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longstanding fascination with landscape to form the core of the artist’s approach. Traveling through and flying over the deserts and sprawling plains of Australia has heightened her awareness of the natural world and the structures humankind imposes upon it. Make no mistake, though: By temperament and orientation, she is no hippiedippy Earth Mother intent on becoming “one with the land.” Rather, is keenly focused on her—and our—separation from the land. Indeed, separation and distance from primary experience are intrinsic to her viewpoint. So are the properties of the glorious Australian continent itself: not only “its vast space and sense of distance,” she clarifies, “but also its inherent sense of quiet and stillness, unlike any other country.” Loughlin communicates this stillness through timeless forms, most consistently the rectangle and the horizon line, “which is the farthest distance we see on earth.” While she has worked in many formats, including vertical, square, and round, her études on horizontality and symmetry are the pieces for which she is perhaps best known. She makes a point to stress that the forms she uses to portray quietude and serenity “are not dynamic shapes that have energy to them; rather, they are as unassuming as possible.” This reductivism, which attains near-hermetic austerity, is evident in the luminous sculpture, Through Distance #1, which is being acquired by the New Mexico Museum of Art. The piece reminds the viewer of vistas beheld and emotions experienced that can be recalled but never fully reconstituted. Today, living in Adelaide, South Australia, an arid region adjacent to salt lakes and desert, Loughlin is enveloped within a landscape that is eerily worn down by primeval torrents and currents that have long since ceased to flow. It is, as Loughlin puts it, a land “shaped by the memory of water.” In the absence of surging tides and downpours, then, in the absence, too, of volcanic and tectonic activity, there is a kind of ancient deadness here, which speaks of stasis, inertia, and the wisdom of things that do not move. As profoundly as this artist responds to the immensity and isolation surrounding Adelaide, she gravitated to the city because of the vitality of its local culture: wine-makers, filmmakers, music-makers, university students—not to mention the bustling glass studio known as the Jam Factory. Loughlin herself founded a communal studio, Gate 8, where she thrives on dialogue with fellow artists—surprising, perhaps, for a person so dedicated to the portrayal of stillness. In her

studio she incorporates a sense of play into her practice: building models, mixing incongruous materials, conducting myriad tests and experiments with materials, some of which yield exquisite results and others which, she allows, “are pretty ugly!” These experiments allow her to build up a library of techniques and ideas to mine in the future. In the time- and labor-intensive works she creates at Gate 8, there is a Zen quality aimed at evoking a sense of psychic space, calm, and contemplation in the viewer. She draws inspiration from the constructs of minimalism, most notably the late Agnes Martin, but also from artists, photographers, and architects as disparate as Roni Horne, Andreas Gursky, Howard Taylor, Rover Thomas, Tadao Ando, and Peter Zumthor. Despite their rich interior bubblescapes and immaculate surfaces, Loughlin’s kilncast, fused, coldworked, and cut planes exude an overarching sense of emanation, recalling Mark Rothko both in fuzzy rectilinearity and the suggestion of vaporous, expansive, everlasting space. The ideations Jessica Loughlin so fluently coaxes, grinds, polishes, and sheerly wills out of her chosen material are testaments to its malleability and her vision. “Focus is important to my practice,” she says, “to achieve a deep understanding of the subtleties that I’m looking to exploit. I get quite excited about pushing the material of glass, and yet always am mindful to balance that control with letting the material have its own life.”

A contributing critic to ARTnews and contributing editor at Art Ltd., Richard Speer is the author of Matt Lamb: The Art of Success (John Wiley & Sons) and is visual arts critic at Willamette Week, the Pulitzer Prizewinning alternative weekly in Portland, Oregon. He has written about cultural matters for Newsweek, Salon, The Los Angeles Times, and Opera News. Published in conjunction with Bullseye Gallery’s exhibition at SOFA WEST: Santa Fe.

C.

D.

Jessica Loughlin at work

Jessica Loughlin

in the studio

Through Distance #1, 2006

photo: M. Schmitt

cast, kilnformed and cut glass 16.25 x 19.125 x 1.875 inches photo: G. Hancock All images courtesy of Bullseye Gallery

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Howard Smith By Tim Steffa

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A. Howard Smith U Spiral, 2002 welded iron, 25.5 x 29 B. Howard in the sculpture park, 2002 photo: Gary Wornell

B.

Howard Smith’s work emanates exuberance. The vibrancy it conveys comes in part from a personal conviction that good cheer is, despite the odds, the only reasonable option. It also springs from the blood: he is New Jersey-born of an African heritage that has resolutely transmuted violent deracination into a joyful noise. And it stems as well from the abiding pleasure he takes in the ably hand-wrought object. The artisanal was a principal reason he was drawn to his adopted country, Finland, where he has lived for most of going on half a century. His first stay was in the very early 60s, when the signature Finnish design aesthetic of less as more was winning wide acclaim. He found that this immaculate minimalism had its wellspring in a venerable Finnish tradition of competent craft, a remarkably widespread capacity to improvise, with an economy of effort, from whatever materials were at hand. It was a mode of operation already inherent in his own work; and much of his subsequent career has served to gently contest the disjunction, prevalent in art establishment circles, between art and craft, between head and hand.

He works largely in artisan materials, those from which humans and other animals shape their dwelt environment - wood, pigment, clay, fibre, paper - and over the years has used them all in creating textiles, tableware, and decor objects for such preeminent Finnish firms as Iittala, Artek, Arabia, Wärtsilä and Hackman. He finds paper particularly congenial and returns to it tirelessly, sculpting, cutting, texturing and colouring it to produce a body of work singular in its imaginative scope, technical virtuosity and sheer volume. He also delights in metamorphosing the castoff - the tatty garment, the rusted machine part, the scrap of cardboard, the used broom. A few deft changes recycle the workaday as whimsy. His assemblies of found scrap metal are often so buoyant they seem about to dance. The intrinsic visual and tactile qualities of these objets trouvés are often burnished by human use, an attribute he cherishes and preserves by working around it. His collages and appliqués are an exercise in experimental archeology. His treatment of durable surfaces with sgraffito, scumble and impasto imparts patina. His fascination with the past is reflected too in frequent allusions - to hieroglyphs, calligraphy, illuminations and drôleries. Much of his work suggests history dexterously augmented with a fresh stratum.

The layer he adds is one of generous optimism: bold gestures in line, plane and mass, rich energetic colors, contrapuntal contrasts in material, form and context. But it is a generosity disciplined by an infallible sense of proportion and equilibrium. Each work pleases as an artifact of poised order. Now past eighty, Howard Smith continues to live and work in Finland, in a rebuilt apple barn overlooking the 17th-century ironworks village of Fiskars, namesake of the ergonomic scissors and now a remarkable artisans’ collective. The house, its furnishings and the surrounding sculpture park constitute a consummate Gesamtkunstwerk that may be considered in itself a signal achievement. The Finnish state recently awarded him a lifetime annuity in recognition of his work, an acknowledgment of Howard Smith as a national treasure.

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Howard Smith was born 1928 in Moorestown, New Jersey where he spent his schooling years. In 1949 he joined the army, was promoted sergeant in 1950 and posted to Japan and Korea. He was later posted to West Germany before being honourably discharged from the army in 1958. He began art studies at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia in 1960, of which he became a fellow in 1962. He made his first trip to Finland in the same year as a member of the Young America Presents group and remained there, working supported by an art oriented advertising agency. He had his first private exhibition in Helsinki 1963, produced many interior designs, as well as spending a short time as an assistant to Kaj Franck at the Institute of Applied Arts in Helsinki. He exhibited widely in Finland in the 1960’s and early 1970’s as well as completing a number of large commissions for murals and colour schemes. He became well known to large audience with his interior textiles for Vallila Interiors. In 1976 he moved back to the United States, to California, where he stayed until 1984. On his return to Finland he became a visiting artist at the Arabia ceramics factory in Helsinki, and designed for them from 1986-1995. In 1988 he and ceramic artist Erna Aaltonen formed the Arteos Studio, a collaborative ceramic/art project. They moved to Fiskars near Helsinki in 1996, where they continue to live today.

Tim Steffa has translated Finnish literature and written about Finnish cultural issues for nearly thirty years. His book on Finnish trench art, published in 1981, was a pioneer study of the subject; and his several essays on Howard Smith's work span more than two decades. This essay was originally published in the catalogue of Howard Smith’s exhibition at Galerie Besson, March 2009. Reprinted here in conjunction with Galerie Besson’s exhibition at SOFA WEST: Santa Fe. Howard Smith has exhibited widely in Finland and America, has lectured in numerous universities and received the Finnish state life time award. A full curriculum vitae is available on our website at www.galeriebesson.co.uk/smith2009.html or in the recently published biography, Howard Smith, written by Jussi Suomala and published by Like.

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D.

F.

C.

E.

Mexi, 2002

Glyph, 1995

welded iron, 25 x 13.5

welded iron, 8.5 inches high

D.

F.

Axel, 2004

Skizzi

welded iron, 11.75 x 10

wood, 18 inches diameter

E. All photos by Winfrid Zabowski unless otherwise noted

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Blurring the Lines: Contemporary Native American Art and SOFA By Benjamin Rose with contributions by Leroy Garcia

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A.

B.

C.

Les Namingha

Tammy Garcia

Tammy Garcia

clockwise from left:

Untitled, 2005

Untitled, 2007

Remix, First World, Solo

natural clay

cast lead crystal

2008

12.25 x 9.5 x 4.25

35.25 x 10 x 10

acrylic on clay

photo: Pat Pollard

photo: Wendy McEarhern

various sizes

B.

Today’s Native American Artist Allow us to introduce the new Native American artist: a contemporary figure not limited but emboldened by the “Native American” tag, seamlessly utilizing traditional and European techniques, working fluidly across a broad range of media and, at the highest levels, displayed alongside contemporary masters. Last summer’s brilliantly curated and focused show at the New Mexico Museum of Art, Flux: Reflections on Contemporary Glass, presented just this program. International icons of the medium including Dale Chihuly, Lino Tagliapietra, William Morris and Bertil Vallien were exhibited alongside works by Native American visionaries Preston Singletary and Tammy Garcia. Incorporating Singletary’s Northwest Tlinget imagery and Garcia’s formal acuity and Anasaziinfluenced Pueblo motifs, these works held their own amongst the most virtuoso expressions of Venetian masters, top studio glassblowers and the iconic minimalist glass cubes of Taos resident, Larry Bell—all the while remaining firmly and distinctly “Native.” Now represented at the Smithsonian’s National Museum of the American Indian, the Wheelwright Museum of the American Indian in Santa Fe and the Heard Museum in Phoenix, artists such as Garcia and Singletary are no longer relegated solely to Native American institutions or markets. Their accomplishments and driving innovations deservedly place them in the very best public and private collections of contemporary art.

There is no better proof of this than the Blue Rain Gallery’s successful exhibitions in the last four SOFA fairs in the tough New York and Chicago art markets. The gallery, one of the premier contemporary Native American venues, brought a core stable of artists that displayed extremely well in the context of SOFA’s overarching theme of elevating international expressions of functional art, traditional materials, design and sculpture. Tammy Garcia’s work, deeply rooted in the ceramic traditions of Santa Clara Pueblo, further pushed the boundaries of traditional Pueblo pottery in terms of scale, carving, design and execution. Her scope has exploded to include designs in bronze as well as cast and blown glass. In recent years, her groundbreaking collaborations with master glass artist, Preston Singletary, have produced very strong works, introducing Garcia’s fusion of Anasazi, Mimbres, Sikyatki and modern design elements to the translucent medium of glass. Preston Singletary, a leading figure in the Native glass movement, trained at the famous Pilchuck School and worked as an assistant to Benjamin Moore. His ever-evolving expressions of Northwest Coast imagery and mythology in the non-traditional medium of glass are unparalleled. His elegant forms, sand-carved, formline design work, and sculptural interpretations of sacred Tlinget objects —executed in a choreography of the opaque and translucent potentialities of glass—place him at the forefront of his field.

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D.

Other important contemporary Native American artists include potter Richard Zane Smith, a seminal figure in innovative ceramics, whose sculptural forms of corrugated clay and geometrical designs can take on the variegated textures of fiber; Les Namingha, whose ceramic vessels incorporate juxtapositions of traditional designs with unexpected graphic elements and abstract expressionist influences; and Tony Abeyta, whose flawlessly painterly constructions integrate such disparate materials as sand, powdered metals and found objects, drawing upon a wealth of spiritual imagery. Indeed, we have reached a unique moment in history where top Native American artists refuse to be subject to outdated notions of Indian art. Instead, they stand fearless in their artistic explorations, employing all the tools at their command—from the deeply rooted codes and structures of their various traditions, to the wealth of materials and concepts belonging to contemporary art. They honor their culture, oral traditions, symbols and imagery passed down to them, while adopting new materials and navigating the complex cultural landscape of the present through original artistic expressions. They steep this contemporary moment in a wellspring of ritual and culture. Their finest work has universal appeal, conveying shared human experience while retaining the historical and cultural contexts that ground them.

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This new figure of the Native American artist has moved far beyond a self-conscious renewal of traditional forms to a broader expression, embracing modernity with all its complex cultural forces that shape life and art. But none of this would be possible without a confluence of historical forces that played out in twentieth-century Europe and America. It was the pioneering efforts of Native American artists who, against the resistant forces of traditionalists within their own communities and expectations of an oppressive dominant culture, that courageously set a new course for Native American artists. Similarly, without Western art’s constant redefinition of visual space, its embrace of new concepts and materials, the uprooting of its own deeply entrenched set of rules for art-makers—it’s often overlooked and vital dialogue with indigenous cultures as it sought out new paradigms and sources of foundation—our introduction of the contemporary Native American artist would not be possible. And lastly, without the redefinition of international arts and crafts movements which ultimately won the battle to share the prestige and vaunted stage of top art markets, collectors, institutions and critical acclaim, again, this introduction of our powerful new Native American artist would not be possible.

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F.

The Influences D. Preston Singletary Balance of Power, 2007 blown and sand-carved glass 18 x 25 x 5 photo: Russell Johnson E. Tammy Garcia Thunderbird, 2004 bronze 23 x 24 x 8.5 photo: Pat Pollard F. Preston Singletary

From the beginning of colonial America through to the modern day, a complex interplay of artistic exchange informed both European and Native American art. The path for this present renaissance of contemporary Native American art was paved by the courageous pioneers of Indian art of the twentieth-century. Maria Martinez is widely celebrated as the single most important role-player in the revival of pottery making in the Southwest. Maria and her husband Julian, both of San Ildefonso Pueblo just outside of Santa Fe, instigated major innovations in what was quickly becoming a dying art.

Raven, 2008 blown and sand-carved glass 21.5 x 6 x 10 photo: Russell Johnson G. Tammy Garcia and Preston Singletary Untitled, 2008 blown and sand-carved glass 20 x 16 photo: Wendy McEarhern

Their explorations were informed by the archaeological work taking place in what now is know as Bandelier National Monument. Through the pottery fragments unearthed on this site, Maria and Julian began to recreate the pottery of their Anasazi ancestry. Their labors led to a perfection of the craft: Maria constructing ceramic forms of immaculate grace and proportion, and Julian, with his traditional yucca brush, decorating them. He drew inspiration from prehistoric Anasazi and Mimbres pottery, as well as the work of his contemporary, the HopiTewa potter Nampeyo. But it was Maria’s forms, unprecedented in their grace, that defined the revitalization of pottery-making.

G.

Her accomplishments in refining and perfecting her craft fueled a revival of the practice as a whole. She inspired and taught her family, friends and peers and in her legendary humble manner, brought a currency of new ideas and cultures as well as a spirit of fearless innovation to the community. Maria and Julian’s most important innovation was black-on-black pottery: highly burnished black design work decorated against a matte black background. It was a simple concept executed to perfection, drawing comparisons to the very best ceramics in the history of art: Chinese, Japanese, Ancient Greek and Egyptian. These vessels, and perhaps more importantly, the spirit of innovation from which sprung, have influenced international potters to the present day. Another legendary figure of the last century was Chiricahua Apache artist Allan Houser. In a working career that spanned over six decades, Houser developed into one of the most revered and important American artists of his time. His legacy is that of the Native artist who would not be limited. His biographical timing placed him squarely in the crosshairs of a cultural war that tried to define Indian art in terms of a hegemonic colonial mandate of “authenticity” and expectation of what “Indian Art” should include. Straying outside these boundaries guaranteed a marginalized place in the eyes of institutions and patrons of the arts.

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H.

Houser came to maturity in a stifling world of oppression and racism, studying in the famous Studio of the Santa Fe Indian School, where the arts curriculum ingrained the dominant culture’s concepts of so-called “traditional Indian painting.” Houser, though forced to conform to the pedagogical framework of the school, never subscribed to this model. Instead, after taking what he could from the program, he set forth upon a career and creative journey that cleared a path for future Native American artists through his lifelong example of unfettered creative pursuit. The scale of Houser’s work ranged from the heroic and monumental to the intimate and diminutive. The scope of his oeuvre is stunning. He created gracefully across genres and periods, in a variety of two and three-dimensional formats, culling influence from classical representationalist Western traditions, contemporary trends in European and American abstraction, as well as his own history and life experience. Houser and Maria Martinez were but two of the artists paving the way for the current renaissance of Native American art. The intrepid creative innovation of fellow artists Fritz Scholder, Bill Reid, R.C. Gorman, Nampeyo, Jaune QuickTo-See Smith and many others can be seen as creating an arc to contemporary Native American artists of today. Without their diligence, struggle, focus and creative will, Native American art would not have the footing it does today. H. Richard Zane Smith

European Modernism, Abstract Expressionism and Primitivism

Untitled, 2008 natural clay 20 x 15

Many of these artists consciously sought and absorbed influences of the major art movements of their time such as European Modernism and Abstract Expressionism. This complex interchange of ideas and influences was essential to both movements.

I. Richard Zane Smith Untitled, 2007 natural clay 8.5 x 12

The fact that many of the movements of modern art were looking to primitivism for a mooring was of great importance. As they sought to slough off the detritus of the accumulated history of western art, they looked to Africa, Japan and Native America for foundation.

J. Allan Houser Migration, 1992 bronze edition of 10 63 x 37 x 32 © Chiinde LLC photo: Peter Vitale

“Primitivism” is a misconceived term broadly applied to the art of Africa, the Pacific Islands and the pre-colonized Americas—as if these

courtesy of Allan Houser Inc.

I.

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unique and disparate cultures were in anyway similar. The term itself is perhaps rooted in racism and colonialism. It can be seen as a fetishized and simplified misappropriation of what Modernist artists saw as Edenic simplicity, sexual freedom, and the antithesis of the industrialized European cities they lived in.

From Craft to Fine Art Historically speaking, Native artists and designers have been fighting a battle on two fronts: the deeply entrenched and misguided expectations of socalled ‘Indian Art,’ as well as equally outmoded conceptions of the inferiority of ‘craft.’

Native American artists embrace a culture of pluralism that allows diverse racial and ethnic groups to coexist, while continuing to practice the customs of their divergent cultures. There are many valid contemporary styles available now to these artists, and they are taking full advantage of them.

But if we allow ourselves for a moment to remove the lens of post-colonial criticism, we can see a little deeper into the matter. In the cultures from which the European and colonial American artists sought inspiration, there were elements of traditional indigenous artistry that brought substance, spirituality and power to the project of Modernism.

The second half of this battle was shared by all practitioners who worked in wood, jewelry, fiber, ceramics, glass, furniture and industrial design. These were seen as inferior to the “fine” arts. It was the constant pushing back against these limitations that finally provided relief from pigeonholing by advocates of “high art.”

This is no longer the time of Peter Voulkos or Jackson Pollock, Maria Martinez or Allan Houser— it is the time of hungry young midcareer artists like Preston Singletary and Tammy Garcia, at the height of their powers, working seamlessly and fearlessly across the boundaries of tradition, craft, fine art and modernity.

Picasso famously left Paris in the early part of his career to return to Spain to study ancient Iberian figures—in essence returning to his own “primitive” roots in the Spanish Pyrenees. When he returned to Paris he was invigorated, and in response to Matisse’s Joy of Life, painted Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, the emblematic hallmark of pre-cubist modern art.

Peter Voulkos’ non-traditional and monumental ceramics and the new glassblowing movement of the 1960s helped pave the way. Artists of the Studio Craft Movement, such as luminary Taos resident Ken Price, were largely responsible for the elevation of craft to the vaunted status of fine art. The movement’s emphasis on process, skill, technical virtuosity and the potentiality of the material pushed it beyond the margins of function.

Jackson Pollock and the Abstract Expressionists found inspiration in Cubist formalism and Surrealist automatism, but also scoured the landscape of Jungian psychoanalysis and primitivism. Pollock in particular sought a mode of expression that was powerfully “American.” Native American art attracted Pollock’s eye by embodying exactly the ideals he was looking for: rougher formal values, primordial “Jungian” symbolism and the very definition of American. So even if the pioneers of modern art were seeing primitivism partially through the blinds of oppression and fetishism, what they had in fact tapped was a wellspring of deeply rooted cultural and artistic practices. If they looked carefully at Native American traditions, they would find pre-historic Anasazi design motifs that employed pure abstractions of elemental forces already in play centuries before the western project of abstraction or psychoanalysis. So, even though flawed by the project of imperialism, in the twentieth century, there was actually a rich artistic dialogue and exchange of ideas and inspirations between artists of different backgrounds, continents, life experiences and artistic goals.

Poet and critic, Benjamin Rose is a staff writer for Blue Rain Gallery and lives in Santa Fe, NM. Published in conjunction with Blue Rain Gallery’s exhibition at SOFA WEST: Santa Fe.

Full Circle So now is the time of maturity and the integration of all these historical forces of the last century. The dialogue between Native American art and modernism has been fruitful and productive. The great movements of modern art, the groundbreaking Native American pioneers, and the elevation of craft to fine art status culminate before our eyes in the Post-Modern landscape that makes this moment possible. The contemporary artist is free to work uncompromised in any media, and we stand at a threshold where the lines are blurred between Native and European, tradition and innovation, primitivism and authenticity, abstraction and representation, craft and fine art. The confluence of all these forces allow our contemporary Native American artist to throw off the shackles of prior expectations and fully embrace the technologies, materials and narratives of modern life, utilizing art as a mediating force in confronting the complex cultural identities of present-day existence.

J.

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Exhibitor Information

xhibitors


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Ron Balser, The Successful engraved granite, 49 x 62 x 24

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Altermann Galleries American painting and sculpture Staff: Richard Altermann; Tony Altermann; James Robinson

225 Canyon Road Santa Fe, NM 87501 voice 505.983.1590 fax 505.989.4390 info@altermann.com altermann.com

Representing: Ron Balser

Ron Balser, Scallop Shell engraved granite, 41 x 66 x 28

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Olga de Amaral, STRATA II, 2007 fiber, gold leaf, acrylic paint, 74 x 58

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Bellas Artes Staff: Bob Kornstein; Charlotte Kornstein

653 Canyon Road Santa Fe, NM 87501 voice 505.983.2745 fax 505.983.1271 bc@bellasartesgallery.com bellasartesgallery.com

Representing: Olga de Amaral Richard DeVore Ruth Duckworth Shihoko Fukumoto Robert Kushner Brad Miller Judy Pfaff

Ruth Duckworth, Untitled #918307, 2007 bronze, 11 x 4 x 3.25

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Sean O’Neill, Messipi, 2009 glass, blown, engraved and slumped, 35.5 x 17.5 x 2.75

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Blue Rain Gallery Staff: Leroy Garcia, owner; Peter Stoessel, executive director; Denise Phetteplace, director

130 Lincoln Avenue Suite D Santa Fe, NM 87501 voice 505.954.9902 fax 505.954.9904 info@blueraingallery.com blueraingallery.com

Representing: Nancy Callan Tammy Garcia Jeremy Lepisto Dante Marioni Shelley Muzylowski Allen Sean O’Neill Preston Singletary

Nancy Callan, Tiger Top, 2009 blown glass, 13 x 18 x 14

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Jessica Loughlin, Evaporate 5, 2009 cast, kilnformed and cut glass, 17.75 x 23.5 x 2.125 photo: G. Hancock

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Bullseye Gallery Contemporary works in Bullseye glass by established and emerging artists Staff: Lani McGregor, director; Jamie Truppi, assistant director; Ryan Watson, events coordinator

300 NW 13th Avenue Portland, OR 97209 voice 503.227.0222 fax 503.227.0008 gallery@bullseyeglass.com bullseyegallery.com

Representing: Heike Brachlow Silvia Levenson Jessica Loughlin

Silvia Levenson, Everyone Has Somebody But Me, 2009 kilncast glass, 8.25 x 13.75 x 2 photo: Endos.it

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Ernst Gamperl, Vessels, 2008 wood, various sizes

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C Gallery Contemporary fine art, glass, sculpture, lighting and furniture Staff: Ursula Gebert, owner; Martine Tremblay; Terrie Pena

708 Canyon Road Santa Fe, NM 87501 voice 505.986.1221 fax 505.986.1661 info@cgallerysantafe.com cgallerysantafe.com

Representing: Ernst Gamperl Chad Manley Lee Silton Pamela Sunday Johnny Swing

Pamela Sunday, Electrum, 2008 stoneware, 20 x 20

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Tim Harding, Kuba #9, 2008 cut silk, 35 x 48

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Cervini Haas Gallery Fine craft in all media Staff: Wendy Haas, director

7007 East Fifth Avenue Scottsdale, AZ 85251 voice 480.429.6116 fax 480.949.6050 gallery@cervinihaas.com cervinihaas.com

Representing: Roger Asay Lanny Bergner Marian Bijlenga Sandra Blain Mark Bressler J. Paul Fennell Tim Harding Tari Kerss Maren Kloppmann Susan Longini Mary Merkel-Hess Farraday Newsome Sarah Obrecht Jeff Reich

Farraday Newsome, Agave Bird (Unseen Drift Series), 2008-09 glazed terra cotta, 33 x 18 x 18

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Fabrizio Tridenti, Deconstructed Brooch, 2008 silver, iron, acrylic, enamel, 3 x 2.5 x 1.75 photo: Fabrizio Tridenti

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Charon Kransen Arts Innovative contemporary jewelry and objects from around the world Staff: Adam Brown; Lisa Granovsky; Charon Kransen

Representing: Efharis Alepedis Ralph Bakker Julia Barello Rike Bartels Roseanne Bartley Nicholas Bastin Carola Bauer Liv Blavarp Julie Blyfield Daniela Boieri Sophie Bouduban Frederic Braham Florian Buddeberg Shannon Carney Anton Cepka Moon Choonsun Annemie De Corte Giovanni Corvaja Simon Cottrell Elinor De Spoelberch Saskia Detering Daniel Di Caprio Babette von Dohnanyi Sina Emrich Maureen Faye-Chauhan Claudia Geese Willemijn de Greef Sophie Hanagarth Mirjam Hiller Marian Hosking

Linda Hughes Meiri Ishida Reiko Ishiyama Andrea Janosik Mette Jensen Meghann Jones Machteld van Joolingen Ike Juenger Junwon Jung Susanne Kaube Martin Kaufmann Ulla Kaufmann Jimin Kim Yael Krakowski Elfrun Lach Gail Leavitt Dongchun Lee Felieke van der Leest Nel Linssen Susanna Loew Sim Luttin Stefano Marchetti Vicki Mason Sharon Massey Leslie Matthews Christine Matthias Rachel McKnight Mascha Moje Evert Nijland Carla Nuis

By Appointment Only 817 West End Avenue, Suite 11C New York, NY 10025 voice 212.627.5073 fax 212.663.9026 charon@charonkransenarts.com charonkransenarts.com

Angela O’Kelly Barbara Paganin Liana Pattihis Natalya Pinchuk Beverley Price Anthony Roussel Jackie Ryan Lucy Sarneel Isabell Schaupp Marjorie Schick Claude Schmitz Frederike Schuerenkaemper Karin Seufert Verena Sieber Fuchs Roos van Soest Elena Spano Barbara Stutman Yuki Sumiya Janna Syvanoja Salima Thakker Terhi Tolvanen Henriette Tomasi Fabrizio Tridenti Catherine Truman Flora Vagi Christel Van Der Laan Lilli Veers Francis Willemstijn Annamaria Zanella

Liana Pattihis, Brooch Coral Red Gold Chain, 2009 18k gold chain, copper, enamel, 2.5 inches diam. photo: Liana Pattihis

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Christine Nofchissey McHorse, Untitled, 2006 micaceous clay, 15.5 x 11 x 11 photo: Peter van der Kruis

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CLARK+DELVECCHIO Modern and contemporary ceramic art Staff: Garth Clark; Mark Del Vecchio; Matt King

223 North Guadalupe, #274 Santa Fe, NM 87501 voice 917.318.0768 mark@garthclark.com garthclark.com

Representing: Arman Rudy Autio Ralph Bacerra Rick Dillingham Keith Haring Georges Jeanclos Jean-Pierre Larocque Michael Lucero Phillip Maberry Christine Nofchissey McHorse James Melchert Ron Nagle Claes Oldenburg Virgil Ortiz John Pagliaro Lucie Rie Diego Romero Adrian Saxe Alev Ebuzziya Siesbye Beth Cavener Stichter Akio Takamori Robert Turner Beatrice Wood

Keith Haring, Untitled, 1989 earthenware, 9.25 x 28.5 x 28.5 photo: Mark Freeman

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Ron Layport, Wolf Chorus, 2009 tulip poplar, pigment, 14.25 x 8.25 photo: Mark May

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del Mano Gallery Contemporary sculpture in wood, fiber, metal, ceramic and glass Staff: Ray Leier; Jan Peters; Kirsten Muenster; Linda Dzhema; Kate Killinger; Amanda Bowen

11981 San Vicente Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90049 voice 310.476.8508 fax 310.471.0897 gallery@delmano.com delmano.com

Representing: Michael Bauermeister Robert Cutler Harvey Fein J. Paul Fennell Ron Fleming William Hunter John Jordan Bud Latven Ron Layport Guy Michaels Matt Moulthrop Philip Moulthrop David Nittmann Michael Peterson Binh Pho Harry Pollitt Jack Slentz JoĂŤl Urruty Jacques Vesery Hans Weissflog Jakob Weissflog Molly Winton

Bud Latven, Tower 8, 2008 bubinga, tiger maple, 30 x 13 photo: Bud Latven

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Jenny Pohlman and Sabrina Knowles, Omniscient Shaman Series blown and sculpted glass, mixed media, 63 x 13 x 8 photo: Russell Johnson

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Duane Reed Gallery Contemporary painting, sculpture, glass and fiber by internationally recognized artists Staff: Duane Reed, Glenn Scrivner, Gaby Naus, Merrill Strauss

4729 McPherson Avenue Saint Louis, MO 63108 voice 314.361.4100 fax 314.361.4102 info@duanereedgallery.com duanereedgallery.com

Representing: Rudy Autio Paul Dresang Michael Janis Kreg Kallenberger Margaret Keelan Sabrina Knowles Danny Perkins Jenny Pohlman Ross Richmond Bonnie Seeman

Margaret Keelan, Girl with Cheshire Cat Toy clay with glazes, 24 x 7 x 7

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Mayme Kratz, Song of Cycle, 2009 resin, book pages, cicada exoskeletons on panel, 8 x 8 x 8

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Elliott Brown Gallery Private dealer, appraiser, consultant in contemporary glass and mixed media Staff: Kate Elliott, director

By Appointment Only P.O. Box 1489 North Bend, WA 98045 voice 206.660.0923 kate@elliottbrowngallery.com elliottbrowngallery.com

Representing: Mayme Kratz Richard Marquis Laura de Santillana Toots Zynsky

Richard Marquis, Western Toy Pistol, 2008 glass, found object, steel, 4 x 9.75 x 3

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Yuri Zatarain, Desnudo (Nude), 2008 oil on cardboard, 71 x 43 x 4

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Emociones Art Gallery Museum-quality painting and sculpture Staff: Ignacio Orozco Espinoza; Ana Isabel Orozco Espinoza; Rodrigo Hernandez Orozco; Ignacio Orozco Hernandez

Matamoros #37 Tlaquepaque, Jalisco C.P. 45500 Mexico voice 52.33.10.77.3488 fax 52.33.38.60.1164 ignacio@emocionesart.com emocionesart.com

Representing: Yuri Zatarain

Yuri Zatarain, Sombra (Shadow), 2009 bronze, 34 x 14 x 32

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Ross Richmond, Spirit Guide #19 blown and sculpted glass, 14.5 x 13 x 11 photo: Rob Vinnedge

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EVOKE Contemporary Contemporary fine art by exceptional emerging and internationally established artists Staff: Kathrine Erickson; Peter Wright; Kim Goldfarb; Elan Varshay; Sofia Kanavle

130 Lincoln Avenue, Suite F Santa Fe, NM 87501 voice 877.995.9902 info@evokecontemporary.com evokecontemporary.com

Representing: Kim Goldfarb Kelly O’Dell Ross Richmond Raven Skyriver Elan Varshay Randy Walker Peter Wright

Randy Walker, Tangerine Maple II blown and sculpted glass, 20.5 x 18 x 13 photo: Rob Vinnedge

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Claudi Casanovas, A端rt No. 3, 2005 aquatint on handmade paper, 46 x 31

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Galerie Besson International contemporary ceramics Staff: Anita Besson; Matthew Hall; Louisa Anderson

15 Royal Arcade 28 Old Bond Street London W1S 4SP United Kingdom voice 44.20.7491.1706 fax 44.20.7495.3203 enquiries@galeriebesson.co.uk galeriebesson.co.uk

Representing: Claudi Casanovas Hans Coper Ruth Duckworth Shoji Hamada Karen Karnes Bernard Leach Gwyn Hanssen Pigott Lucie Rie Howard Smith

Hans Coper, Tall Pot, 1952-53 stoneware, 11.5 inches high photo: Alan Tabor

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Keld Moseholm, Mirroring, 2007 bronze, granite, 40 inches high

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Galleri Udengaard Contemporary sculpture, photo and painting by established and emerging Scandinavian artists Staff: Lotte Udengaard Dahl and Bruno Udengaard Dahl, owners

Vester AllĂŠ 9 Aarhus C 8000 Denmark 45.86.259.594 udengaard@c.dk galleriudengaard.com

Exhibiting: Lars Calmar BjĂśrn Ekegren Maria Engholm Mikael Kihlman Keld Moseholm

Lars Calmar, Nature/Culture, 2009 ceramic, 15 inches high

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Gabriel Shaffer, Plantation Escape Plan, 2008 multi-media painting and collage, 40 x 40

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Gallery NICA Indigenous and contemporary ceramic sculpture of the San Juan de Oriente, Nicaragua pueblo Staff: Paul H. Devoti, director; Claudia C. Devoti, manager

500 Stratford Drive Zebulon, NC 25797 voice 919.264.3741 fax 919.342.5047 nicagallery@yahoo.com gallerynica.com Alcaldia 1/2 Cu. Al Este San Juan de Oriente Nicaragua

Representing: Juan Boza Gregorio Bracamonte Helio Gutierrez Luis Enrique Gutierrez Miguel Maldonado Gabriel Shaffer

Juan Boza, Seven Spirits, 2009 burnished ceramic, organic pigments, volcano sand, 20 x 20 x 16 photo: Roberto Gutierrez

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Howard Ben TrĂŠ, Wrapped Form 21, 2007 cast glass, silver leafing, 24 x 9 x 9

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Habatat Galleries Developing collections with the finest in contemporary glass from around the world Staff: Ferdinand Hampson; Kathy Hampson; Corey Hampson

4400 Fernlee Avenue Royal Oak, MI 48073 voice 248.554.0590 fax 248.554.0594 info@habatat.com habatat.com

Representing: Howard Ben TrĂŠ JosĂŠ Chardiet Daniel Clayman Charlie Miner Davide Salvadore Ann Wolff

Charlie Miner, Basket Frogs, 2008 cast glass, 12 x 21 x 4

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Bertil Vallien, Watchers, 2008 glass, metal, various sizes

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Heller Gallery Exhibiting sculpture using glass as a fine art medium since 1973 Staff: Douglas Heller; Katya Heller; Michael Heller

420 West 14th Street New York, NY 10014 voice 212.414.4014 fax 212.414.2636 info@hellergallery.com hellergallery.com

Representing: Christina Bothwell Nicole Chesney Steffen Dam Robin Grebe Anja Isphording Tobias Møhl Philip Moulthrop Bertil Vallien

Robin Grebe, Avian, 2007 glass, mixed media, 28 x 11 x 6

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Lino Tagliapietra, Tatoosh, 2009 glass, 37.5 x 12 x 9 photo: Russell Johnson

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Holsten Galleries An internationally recognized gallery representing leading contemporary glass artists since 1978 Staff: Kenn Holsten, owner/director; Jim Schantz, art director; Mary Childs, co-director; Stanley Wooley, sales associate

3 Elm Street Stockbridge, MA 01262 voice 413.298.3044 fax 413.298.3275 artglass@holstengalleries.com holstengalleries.com

Representing: Dale Chihuly William Morris Lino Tagliapietra

Dale Chihuly, Tabac Basket Set with Drawing Shards and Oxblood Body Wraps, 2008 glass, 11 x 26 x 24 photo: Scott Mitchell Leen

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Lesley Richmond, Secret Forest, 2009 cotton/silk fabric, heat reactive base, metal, 60 x 32

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Jane Sauer Gallery Innovative work by internationally recognized artists in a variety of media Staff: Jane Sauer, owner/director; Jorden Nye, gallery manager

652 Canyon Road Santa Fe, NM 87501 voice 505.995.8513 fax 505.995.8507 info@jsauergallery.com jsauergallery.com

Representing: Adrian Arleo Giles Bettison Latchezar Boyadjiev Kevin Gordon Jan Hopkins Lissa Hunter Gugger Petter Lesley Richmond Brent Kee Young

Brent Kee Young, Matrix Series: Across a Crowded Room ..., 2009 glass, 39 x 25 x 22 photo: Lumina Studios

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Dan Dailey, Shook from the Individuals Series, 2008 blown glass, sandblasted and acid polished, anodized aluminum, 26 x 12 x 8 photo: Bill Truslow

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Leo Kaplan Modern Representing established artists in contemporary glass sculpture and studio art furniture Staff: Scott Jacobson; Terry Davidson

114 East 57th Street New York, NY 10022 voice 212.872.1616 fax 212.872.1617 lkm@lkmodern.com lkmodern.com

Representing: Dan Dailey Linda MacNeil

Linda MacNeil, Luxuriant Blossom, Floral Necklace, 2007 acid polished glass, transparent laminated mirrored glass, 24k gold-plated brass, pendant: 3 x 2.25 x .5 photo: Bill Truslow

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William Morris, Hunter, 1988 glass, 10 x 48 x 129 photo: Robert Vinnedge

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Litvak Gallery Exclusive projects created by the world’s leading contemporary glass artists Staff: Muly Litvak, founder/director; Orit Ephrat-Moscovitz, director; Orit Topuol, administrative manager

4 Berkovich Street Museum Tower Tel-Aviv 64238 Israel voice 972.3.695.9496 fax 972.3.695.9419 orit@litvak.com litvak.com

Representing: Lucio Bubacco William Morris

Lucio Bubacco, Mythology, 2009 glass photo: Norbert Heyl

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Carolina Rojas, Beso Asi, 2008 bronze, 24 x 14 x 5.75

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Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery Contemporary different art with an emphasis in Latin American expressions Staff: Maria Elena Kravetz, director; Ra煤l Nisman; Mat铆as Alvarez, assistant

San Jer贸nimo 448 C贸rdoba X 5000AGJ Argentina voice 54.351.422.1290 mek@mariaelenakravetzgallery.com mariaelenakravetzgallery.com

Representing: Silvina Bottaro Victor De La Rosa Karina del Savio Matthew Fine Elizabeth Gavotti Sol Halabi Barbara Kobylinska Ana Mazzoni Carolina Rojas Tim Shockley Nancy Ziegler Nodelman

Elizabeth Gavotti, Madonna, 2009 bronze, mixed media, 42 x 4 x 6

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Silvina Bottaro, El Tiki y la Selva, 2009 acrylic on canvas, 32 x 28

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Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

Matthew Fine, Core, 2009 cast glass, granite, 14 x 6 x 6

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Victor De La Rosa, Jump 6, 2008 jacquard woven textile, 56 x 82

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Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

Tim Shockley, Sign O’ The Times Series - Untitled, 2008 lost wax bronze casting with patina, 56 x 20 x 6

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Stig Persson, Five Green Angles #2, 2008 cast glass, 2.5 x 42.5 x 8 photo: Anders Sun Berg

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Micaëla Gallery Contemporary art and sculpture Staff: Micaëla V. Van Zwoll, director

49 Geary Street Suite 234 San Francisco, CA 94108 voice 415.551.8118 fax 415.551.8138 info@micaela.com micaela.com

Representing: Peter Bremers Taliaferro Jones Weston Lambert Stig Persson Thomas Scoon Kristiina Uslar

Peter Bremers, Iceberg & Paraphernalia ‘2005-52, 2008 cast glass, 3 x 21 x 14 photo: Paul Niessen

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Sergey Bunkov, Untitled, 2008 sandblasted glass, 32 x 24 photo: Ran Erde

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Old City Caesarea Gallery Israeli contemporary art Staff: Betty Bronstein, director; Danny Bronstein and Ilana Gal, assistants

Port Caesarea Caesarea 38900 Israel voice 972.626.0198 fax 972.636.0178 art@caesareaart.com caesareaart.com

Representing: Leon Bronstein Sergey Bunkov Leo Ray

Leon Bronstein, Soft Heads, 2008 bronze, patina, 44 x 64 x 12 photo: Amnon Yaniv

111


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Glenn Espig, Bracelet design inspired by the crystal walls of Brazilian tourmaline mines, 2008 18k yellow gold, tourmaline, citrine, .25 x 7.25 x 1 photo: Rodrigo Tagliaro

112


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Oliver & Espig - Architects of Fine Jewelry Museum quality gems from the mines of the world set by award winning jewelers Staff: Marcia Ribeiro; Marilia Ribeiro; Bonnie Zahm; Tielle Larson

1108 State Street Santa Barbara, CA 93101 voice 805.962.8111 fax 805.962.7458 oliverandespig@cox.net oliverandespig.com

Representing: Karen Arthur Ingerid Ekeland Glenn Espig Judith Evans Susan Helmich Konstantino Claudia Kretchmer Steven Kretchmer Nancy Linkin Bernd Munsteiner Tom Munsteiner George Sawyer Robert Wander Phillip Youngman Philip Zahm

Ingerid Ekeland, Brazilian Emerald Ring, 2008 18k yellow gold, platinum, 5.54ct emerald, diamond, 1.25 x 1 x .5 photo: Rodrigo Tagliaro

113


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Dorothy Hafner, Flutter, 2008 multi-layered, fused and kiln-formed glass, 8 x 8 x 2.25 photo: Jordain Sundt

114


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Palette Contemporary Art and Craft Colorful and sleek international contemporary art glass and jewelry Staff: Kurt Nelson; Meg Nelson

7400 Montgomery Boulevard NE Suite 22 Albuquerque, NM 87109 voice 505.855.7777 fax 505.855.7778 palette@qwestoffice.net palettecontemporary.com

Representing: Emma Camden Angela Gerhard Dorothy Hafner Petr Hora Yukako Kojima Tom McGlauchlin Lesley Nolan Frantisek ˇ Vízner

Udo Zembok, Bleu - 1, 2008 multi-layered fused glass, 11.25 x 24.5 x 2 photo: Jordain Sundt

115


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Russ Vogt, Red Reeds, 2009 ceramic, 84 x 24 x 24 photo: Russ Vogt

116


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Sherrie Gallerie Contemporary art, sculpture and jewelry Staff: Sherrie Riley Hawk

694 North High Street Columbus, OH 43215 voice 614.221.8580 fax 614.221.8550 sherrie@sherriegallerie.com sherriegallerie.com

Representing: Joe Bova Chris Gustin Duncan McClellan Sharon Meyer Andy Nasisse Russ Vogt Janis Mars Wunderlich

Sharon Meyer, East Meets West, 2008 carved natural coral, sleeping beauty turquoise, South Sea pearls, serpentine, 18k gold, 44 inch lariat photo: Sharon Meyer

117


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Mimura Chikuho, Light of Tomorrow, 2008 madake bamboo, 10 x 15 x 12 photo: Gary Mankus

118


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TAI Gallery Japanese bamboo artists and photographers, and museum-quality textiles Staff: Robert T. Coffland; Mary Hunt Kahlenberg; Koichiro Okada; Everett Cole; Steve Halvorsen

1601 B Paseo de Peralta Santa Fe, NM 87501 voice 505.984.1387 gallery@textilearts.com taigallery.com

Representing: Abe Motoshi/Kiraku Fujinuma Noboru Fujitsuka Shosei Hatakeyama Seido Hayakawa Shokosai V Hirasawa Noboru Honda Syoryu Honma Hideaki Katsushiro Soho Kawano Shoko Kawashima Shigeo Koide Bunsei Masaru Tatsuki Mimura Chikuho Monden Kogyoku Morigami Jin Nagakura Kenichi Nakatomi Hajime Naoki Honjo Seiju Toda Shono Tokuzo Torii Ippo Ueno Masao Yamaguchi Ryuun Yako Hodo Yoshihiko Ueda Yufu Shohaku

Koide Bunsei, Flower Basket with Arrow Feather Pattern, 2008 madake bamboo, 16 x 9 x 9 photo: Gary Mankus

119


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Kirk H. Slaughter and Elisabett Gudmann, Relic: 2, 2008 bronze with patina, 26 x 12 x 10

120


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ten472 Contemporary Art Contemporary art Staff: Hanne Sorensen; Catherine Conlin; Elisabett Gudmann

10472 Alta Street Grass Valley, CA 95945 voice 707.484.2685 fax 707.484.2685 info@ten472.com ten472.com 1340 Bryant San Francisco, CA 94103 info@ten472.com ten472.com

Representing: Scott Stephen Gruss Elisabett Gudmann Edwin Rivera Kirk H. Slaughter

Elisabett Gudmann and Kirk H. Slaughter, Masquerade: 1, 2009 bronze with patina, 32 x 16 x 8

121


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Sally Rogers, Zephyr, 2009 cast glass, forged and fabricated steel, 27 x 36 x 18

122


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Thomas R. Riley Galleries Museum-quality three dimensional art backed with education and service Staff: Tom Riley; Cindy Riley; Cheri Discenzo

28699 Chagrin Boulevard Cleveland, OH 44122 voice 216.765.1711 fax 216.765.1311 trr@rileygalleries.com rileygalleries.com

Representing: Eoin Breadon Matthew Curtis Donald Derry Carole Freve Judy Geerts Mark Harris Lucy Lyon Janis Miltenberger Milo Mirabelli Nick Mount Jeremy Popelka Doug Randall David Reekie Sally Rogers Stephanie Trenchard Jennifer Violette

Doug Randall, Climate in Flux, 2008 glass, 8.5 x 14 photo: Doug Randall

123


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John Dodd, Vertical Rest, 2008 wenge wood, concrete, 18 x 67 x 22

124


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William Zimmer Gallery Studio furniture and fine objects for the individual and home Staff: William Zimmer; Lynette Zimmer; Barbara Hobbs

Box 263 Mendocino, CA 95460 voice 707.937.5121 fax 707.937.2405 wzg@mcn.org williamzimmergallery.com

Representing: Bennett Bean Garry Knox Bennett Afro Celotto David Crawford Jaclyn Davidson John Dodd David Ebner Rebecca Gouldson Tom Hucker Michael Hurwitz Silas Kopf Tai Lake Sydney Lynch Hiroki Morinoue Brian Newell Elizabeth Rand Cheryl Rydmark James Schriber Karen Shapiro Kent Townsend Jeff Wise Susan Wise

Jeff and Susan Wise, Spatial Container #3, 2008 18k gold wire, carved parrot wing agate, cabochon tourmaline, 2 x 3 x 1 photo: Scott Smith

125


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Partners

artners


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American A merican A Association ssociation Of Of Woodturners Wo o d t u r n e r s

23rd Annuall Symposium osium

Artwork: Linda V A VanGehuchten, anGehuchten, Helga W a Winter, iinterr, A Andy ndy Cole, Grace Parliman

June 26–28, –28, 28, 2009 9 Albuquerque uerque Convention onvention Center • IInternational nternational g gathering athering of of artists artists and and ccollectors ollectors •P Panel anel d discussions, iscussions, d demonstrations, emonstrations, ccritiques ritiques •F Four our sspecial pecial art art exhibits exhibits • IInstant nstant G Gallery: allery: Work Work by by new new and and emerging emerging a artists rtists •E xhibits a nd ttrade rade show show free free and and open open to to tthe he p ublic Exhibits and public

Learn L earn more: more: w www.woodturner.org w w. w o o d t u r n e r. o r g

Visit V isit our gallery y and gift store in St. Paul’ Paul’s historic Landmark Centerr

w www.galleryof ww.galleryof w woodart.org oodart.org

American A mer ic an Association A ss oci at io n of o f Woodturners Wo o d t u r n e r s 222 Landmark rk Center Center,, 75 W West est Fifth fth Street, Saint Paul, Minnesota 55102 I 65 651.484. 51.484. 9094 I www www.woodturner.org .woodturner.org


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20th Century Decorative Arts Monday September 28 Los Angeles

Consignments now invited Inquiries Angela Past +1 323 436 5422 angela.past@bonhams.com Jason Stein +1 323 436 5405 jason.stein@bonhams.com Stephen Rolf Powell (American, born 1951) Manic Cleavage Johnson, 1996 blown murrine glass Sold for $11,590, April 2009

Š 2009, Bonhams & Butterfields Auctioneers Corp. All rights reserved. Bond No. 57bsbes3248

www.bonhams.com/us


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ollectors of ood rt

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GLASS ART SOCIETY

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W H E N

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At SOFA WEST, don’t miss these exciting tapestry-related lectures in the Santa Fe Convention Center: ALICE ZREBIEC on the work of Colombian fiber artist Olga de Amaral (Thursday, June 11, 2:30 pm) LOTUS STACK with a special textile curator’s walkthrough (Friday, June 12, 1:00 pm)

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The Gloria F. Ross Center for Tapestry Studies at Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721-0026 (520) 626-8364 Background: D.Y. Begay, detail from “Nightway,” wool tapestry, 2009


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Between art and craft. With the aim of shedding light on clay as a design medium,

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Contemporary Baskets from the Sara and David Lieberman Collection

April 24 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; September 6, 2009 107 West Palace Avenue, on the Plaza in Santa Fe 505.476.5068 www.NMArtMuseum.org John Garrett, Jester Archivist, 2002, hardware cloth, paper, metal, thread Photo by Bruce Peterson Intertwined: Contemporary Baskets from the Sara and David Lieberman Collection is organized by the Arizona State University Art Museum, Tempe, Arizona and curated by Senior Curator Heather S. Lineberry and Jane Sauer New Mexico Museum of Art funding for this exhibition provided by the Museum of New Mexico Foundation and the Georgia Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Keeffe Museum Endowment Fund


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Visit the newly opened Spiegelberg Shop at the New Mexico History Museum Exclusively carrying works by New Mexico Artists and Artisans Ceramic Charger by Jeff Kuhns

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1.; ;.:6;45. .?9< ;.:6;45. :605.29 ;.:6;45.

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Ro b e r t A s h - Tr u t h

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Group Invitational Show

in conjunction with SOFA West

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THE ma magazine agazine is now in n Los Angeles, D Dallas/Fort W Worth, ort orth, th, as well as Santa anta Fe

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Sculpture Objects & Functional Art Fair November 6-8, 2009 Navy Pier Dan Dailey, represented by Leo Kaplan Modern

Opening Night Thursday, November 5

Special thanks to:


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Index of Exhibitors

xhibitors


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A

C

D

G

Altermann Galleries 225 Canyon Road Santa Fe, NM 87501 505.983.1590 fax 505.989.4390 info@altermann.com altermann.com

C Gallery 708 Canyon Road Santa Fe, NM 87501 505.986.1221 fax 505.986.1661 info@cgallerysantafe.com cgallerysantafe.com

del Mano Gallery 11981 San Vicente Boulevard Los Angeles, CA 90049 310.476.8508 fax 310.471.0897 gallery@delmano.com delmano.com

B

Cervini Haas Gallery 7007 East Fifth Avenue Scottsdale, AZ 85251 480.429.6116 fax 480.949.6050 gallery@cervinihaas.com cervinihaas.com

Duane Reed Gallery 4729 McPherson Avenue St. Louis, MO 63108 314.361.4100 fax 314.361.4102 info@duanereedgallery.com duanereedgallery.com

Galerie Besson 15 Royal Arcade 28 Old Bond Street London W1S 4SP United Kingdom 44.20.7491.1706 fax 44.20.7495.3203 enquiries@galeriebesson.co.uk galeriebesson.co.uk

Bellas Artes 653 Canyon Road Santa Fe, NM 87501 505.983.2745 fax 505.983.1271 bc@bellasartesgallery.com bellasartesgallery.com Blue Rain Gallery 130 Lincoln Avenue Suite D Santa Fe, NM 87501 505.954.9902 fax 505.954.9904 info@blueraingallery.com blueraingallery.com Bullseye Gallery 300 NW 13th Avenue Portland, OR 97209 503.227.0222 fax 503.227.0008 gallery@bullseyeglass.com bullseyegallery.com

Charon Kransen Arts By Appointment Only 817 West End Avenue Suite 11C New York, NY 10025 212.627.5073 fax 212.663.9026 charon@charonkransenarts.com charonkransenarts.com CLARK+DELVECCHIO 223 North Guadalupe, #274 Santa Fe, NM 87501 917.318.0768 mark@garthclark.com garthclark.com

E Elliott Brown Gallery By Appointment Only P.O. Box 1489 North Bend, WA 98045 206.660.0923 kate@elliottbrowngallery.com elliottbrowngallery.com Emociones Art Gallery Matamoros #37 Tlaquepaque, Jalisco C.P. 45500 Mexico 52.33.10.77.3488 fax 52.33.38.60.1164 ignacio@emocionesart.com emocionesart.com EVOKE Contemporary 130 Lincoln Avenue, Suite F Santa Fe, NM 87501 877.995.9902 info@evokecontemporary.com evokecontemporary.com

158

Galleri Undengaard Vester AllĂŠ 9 Aarhus C 8000 Denmark 45.86.259.594 undengaard@c.dk galleriundengaard.com Gallery NICA 500 Stratford Drive Zebulon, NC 25797 919.264.3741 fax 919.342.5047 nicagallery@yahoo.com gallerynica.com Alcaldia 1/2 Cu. Al Este San Juan de Oriente Nicaragua 505.981.0822

H Habatat Galleries 4400 Fernlee Avenue Royal Oak, MI 48073 248.554.0590 fax 248.554.0594 info@habatat.com habatat.com


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Heller Gallery 420 West 14th Street New York, NY 10014 212.414.4014 fax 212.414.2636 info@hellergallery.com hellergallery.com Holsten Galleries 3 Elm Street Stockbridge, MA 01262 413.298.3044 fax 413.298.3275 artglass@holstengalleries.com holstengalleries.com

J Jane Sauer Gallery 652 Canyon Road Santa Fe, NM 87501 505.995.8513 fax 505.995.8507 info@jsauergallery.com jsauergallery.com

L Leo Kaplan Modern 114 East 57th Street New York, NY 10022 212.872.1616 fax 212.872.1617 lkm@lkmodern.com lkmodern.com

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Litvak Gallery 4 Berkovich Street Museum Tower Tel-Aviv 64238 Israel 972.3.695.9496 fax 972.3.695.9419 orit@litvak.com litvak.com

M Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery San Jer贸nimo 448 C贸rdoba X 5000AGJ Argentina 54.351.422.1290 mek@mariaelenakravetz gallery.com mariaelenakravetzgallery.com Mica毛la Gallery 49 Geary Street Suite 234 San Francisco, CA 94108 415.551.8118 fax 415.551.8138 info@micaela.com micaela.com

O Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry 1108 State Street Santa Barbara, CA 93101 805.962.8111 fax 805.962.7458 oliverandespig@cox.net oliverandespig.com

Old City Caesarea Gallery Port Caesarea Caesarea 38900 Israel 972.626.0198 fax 972.636.0178 art@caesareaart.com caesareaart.com

P Palette Contemporary Art and Craft 7400 Montgomery Boulevard NE Suite 22 Albuquerque, NM 87109 505.855.7777 fax 505.855.7778 palette@qwestoffice.net palettecontemporary.com

S Sherrie Gallerie 694 North High Street Columbus, OH 43215 614.221.8580 fax 614.221.8550 sherrie@sherriegallerie.com sherriegallerie.com

T TAI Gallery 1601 B Paseo de Peralta Santa Fe, NM 87501 505.984.1387 gallery@textilearts.com taigallery.com ten472 Contemporary Art 10472 Alta Street Grass Valley, CA 95945 707.484.2685 fax 707.484.2685 info@ten472.com ten472.com 1340 Bryant San Francisco, CA 94103 info@ten472.com ten472.com Thomas R. Riley Galleries 28699 Chagrin Boulevard Cleveland, OH 44122 216.765.1711 fax 216.765.1311 trr@rileygalleries.com rileygalleries.com

W William Zimmer Gallery Box 263 Mendocino, CA 95460 707.937.5121 fax 707.937.2405 wzg@mcn.org williamzimmergallery.com

159


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Index of Artists

Artists


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B a u e r, E l a Charon Kransen Arts

Bracamonte, Gr egorio Gallery NICA

Char diet, José Habatat Galleries

B a u e r m e i s t e r, M i c h a e l del Mano Gallery

B r a c h l o w, H e i k e Bullseye Gallery

C h e n , Yu C h u n Charon Kransen Arts

Abe, Motoshi/Kiraku TAI Gallery

Bean, Bennett William Zimmer Gallery

B r a e u e r, A n t j e Charon Kransen Arts

C h e s n e y, N i c o l e Heller Gallery

Alepedis, Efharis Charon Kransen Arts

B e c k e r, M i c h a e l Charon Kransen Arts

Braham, Fr ederic Charon Kransen Arts

C h i h u l y, D a l e Holsten Galleries

Arleo, Adrian Jane Sauer Gallery

B e n Tr é , H o w a r d Habatat Galleries

Br e a d o n , E o i n Thomas R. Riley Galleries

Choonsun, Moon Charon Kransen Arts

Arman CLARK+DELVECCHIO

Bennett, Garry Knox William Zimmer Gallery

Br e m e r s , P e t e r Micaëla Gallery

Clayman, Daniel Habatat Galleries

A r t h u r, K a r en Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry

B e r g n e r, L a n n y Cervini Haas Gallery

Br e s s l e r, M a r k Cervini Haas Gallery

C o p e r, H a n s Galerie Besson

Bettison, Giles Jane Sauer Gallery

Br o n s t e i n , L e o n Old City Caesarea Gallery

Corvaja, Giovanni Charon Kransen Arts

Bezold, Brigitte Charon Kransen Arts

Bubacco, Lucio Litvak Gallery

Cottr ell, Simon Charon Kransen Arts

Bijlenga, Marian Cervini Haas Gallery

Buddeberg, Florian Charon Kransen Arts

Crawfor d, David William Zimmer Gallery

Blain, Sandra Cervini Haas Gallery

B u n k o v, S e r g e y Old City Caesarea Gallery

Curtis, Matthew Thomas R. Riley Galleries

A s a y, R o g e r Cervini Haas Gallery Autio, Rudy CLARK+DELVECCHIO Duane Reed Gallery

B Bacerra, Ralph CLARK+DELVECCHIO B a k k e r, R a l p h Charon Kransen Arts B a l s e r, R o n Altermann Galleries Bar e l l o , J u l i a Charon Kransen Arts Bartels, Rike Charon Kransen Arts B a r t l e y, R o s e a n n e Charon Kransen Arts Bastin, Nicholas Charon Kransen Arts B a u e r, C a r ola Charon Kransen Arts

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Blavarp, Liv Charon Kransen Arts Blyfield, Julie Charon Kransen Arts Boieri, Daniela Charon Kransen Arts Bothwell, Christina Heller Gallery

C Callan, Nancy Blue Rain Gallery

Bottar o, Silvina Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

Camden, Emma Palette Contemporary Art and Craft

Bouduban, Sophie Charon Kransen Arts

C a r n e y, S h a n n o n Charon Kransen Arts

Bova, Joe Sherrie Gallerie

Casanovas, Claudi Galerie Besson

B o y a d j i e v, L a t c h e z a r Jane Sauer Gallery

Celotto, Afr o William Zimmer Gallery

Boza, Juan Gallery NICA

Cepka, Anton Charon Kransen Arts

C u t l e r, R o b e r t del Mano Gallery

D D a i l e y, D a n Leo Kaplan Modern D a m , S t e f fen Heller Gallery Davidson, Jaclyn William Zimmer Gallery de Amaral, Olga Bellas Artes De Corte, Annemie Charon Kransen Arts De La Rosa, V ictor Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery


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del Savio, Karina Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

F

D e r r y, D o n a l d Thomas R. Riley Galleries

F a y e - C h a u h a n , M a u r een Charon Kransen Arts

Detering, Saskia Charon Kransen Arts

Fein, Harvey del Mano Gallery

D e V or e , R i c h a r d Bellas Artes

Fennell, J. Paul Cervini Haas Gallery del Mano Gallery

De Spoelber ch, Elinor Charon Kransen Arts

Di Caprio, Daniel Charon Kransen Arts Dillingham, Rick CLARK+DELVECCHIO Dodd, John William Zimmer Gallery Dohnanyi, Babette von Charon Kransen Arts Dr e s a n g , P a u l Duane Reed Gallery Duckworth, Ruth Bellas Artes Galerie Besson

E E b n e r, D a v i d William Zimmer Gallery Ekeland, Ingerid Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry Emrich, Sina Charon Kransen Arts Espig, Glenn Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry Evans, Judith Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry

Gerhar d, Angela Palette Contemporary Art and Craft Goldfarb, Kim EVOKE Contemporary Gor d o n , K e v i n Jane Sauer Gallery

Haring, Keith CLARK+DELVECCHIO Harris, Mark Thomas R. Riley Galleries Heindl, Anna Charon Kransen Arts

Gouldson, Rebecca William Zimmer Gallery

Helmich, Susan Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry

Gr e b e , R o b i n Heller Gallery

H i l l e r, M i r j a m Charon Kransen Arts

Fine, Matthew Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

Gr e e f , W i l l e m i j n d e Charon Kransen Arts

Hinz, Leonor e Charon Kransen Arts

Fleming, Ron del Mano Gallery

Gruss, Scott Stephen ten472 Contemporary Art

Hirasawa, Noboru TAI Gallery

Frank, Peter Charon Kransen Arts

Gudmann, Elisabett ten472 Contemporary Art

H o d o , Yako TAI Gallery

Fr e j d , M a r t i n a Charon Kransen Arts

Gustin, Chris Sherrie Gallerie

Honda, Syoryu TAI Gallery

F r ĂŠ v e , C a r ole Thomas R. Riley Galleries

Gutierr ez, Helio Gallery NICA

Honma, Hideaki TAI Gallery

Fujinuma, Noboru TAI Gallery

Gutierr ez, Luis Enrique Gallery NICA

Hopkins, Jan Jane Sauer Gallery

Fujitsuka, Shosei TAI Gallery Fukumoto, Shihoko Bellas Artes

G G a m p e r l , E r nst C Gallery Gar c i a , Ta m m y Blue Rain Gallery Gavotti, Elizabeth Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery Geese, Claudia Charon Kransen Arts

H H a f n e r, D o r o t h y Palette Contemporary Art and Craft Halabi, Sol Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery Hamada, Shoji Galerie Besson Hanagarth, Sophie Charon Kransen Arts Har d i n g , T i m Cervini Haas Gallery

Hora, Petr Palette Contemporary Art and Craft Hosking, Marian Charon Kransen Arts H u c k e r, Tom William Zimmer Gallery Hughes, Linda Charon Kransen Arts H u n t e r, L i s s a Jane Sauer Gallery H u n t e r, W i l l i a m del Mano Gallery Hurwitz, Michael William Zimmer Gallery

163


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K

Knowles, Sabrina Duane Reed Gallery Kobylinska, Barbara Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

Leavitt, Gail Charon Kransen Arts

Ishida, Meiri Charon Kransen Arts

K a l l e n b e r g e r, K r eg Duane Reed Gallery

Lee, Dongchun Charon Kransen Arts

Ishiyama, Reiko Charon Kransen Arts

K a n g , Ye o n m i Charon Kransen Arts

K o j i m a , Yu k a k o Palette Contemporary Art and Craft

Isphor ding, Anja Heller Gallery

K a r n e s , K a r en Galerie Besson

I w a t a , H i r oki Charon Kransen Arts

Kataoka, Masumi Charon Kransen Arts

J Janich, Hilde Charon Kransen Arts Janis, Michael Duane Reed Gallery J a n o s i k , A n d r ea Charon Kransen Arts Jeanclos, Georges CLARK+DELVECCHIO Jensen, Mette Charon Kransen Arts Jones, Meghann Charon Kransen Arts J o n e s , Ta l i a f e r r o Micaëla Gallery Joolingen, Machteld van Charon Kransen Arts Jor d a n , J o h n del Mano Gallery J u e n g e r, I k e Charon Kransen Arts Jung, Junwon Charon Kransen Arts

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Katsushir o, Soho TAI Gallery Kaube, Susanne Charon Kransen Arts Kaufmann, Martin Charon Kransen Arts Kaufmann, Ulla Charon Kransen Arts Kawano, Shoko TAI Gallery K e e l a n , M a r g a r et Duane Reed Gallery K e r s s , Tari Cervini Haas Gallery Kicinski, Jennifer Howar d Charon Kransen Arts K i l k u s , J e r emy Charon Kransen Arts K i m , J e o n g Yoon Charon Kransen Arts Kim, Jimin Charon Kransen Arts Kim, Seung-Hee Charon Kransen Arts Kim, Sun Kyoung Charon Kransen Arts K l o p p m a n n , M a r en Cervini Haas Gallery

Konstantino Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry Kopf, Silas William Zimmer Gallery K r a k o w s k i , Yael Charon Kransen Arts Kratz, Mayme Elliott Brown Gallery Kr e t c h m e r, C l a u d i a Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry Kr e t c h m e r, S t e v e n Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry K u s h n e r, R o b e r t Bellas Artes

L e a c h , B e r nar d Galerie Besson

Leest, Felieke van der Charon Kransen Arts L e p i s t o , J e r emy Blue Rain Gallery Levenson, Silvia Bullseye Gallery Linkin, Nancy Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry Linssen, Nel Charon Kransen Arts L o e w, S u s a n n a Charon Kransen Arts Longini, Susan Cervini Haas Gallery Loughlin, Jessica Bullseye Gallery Lucer o, Michael CLARK+DELVECCHIO

L Lach, Elfrun Charon Kransen Arts

Luttin, Sim Charon Kransen Arts Ly n c h , S y d n e y William Zimmer Gallery Ly o n , L u c y Thomas R. Riley Galleries

L a k e , Tai William Zimmer Gallery Lambert, Weston Micaëla Gallery Lar o c q u e , J e a n - P i e r r e CLARK+DELVECCHIO Latven, Bud del Mano Gallery Layport, Ron del Mano Gallery

M M a b e r r y, P h i l l i p CLARK+DELVECCHIO MacNeil, Linda Leo Kaplan Modern


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Maldonado, Miguel Gallery NICA

Michaels, Guy del Mano Gallery

Maltz, Friederike Charon Kransen Arts

M i l l e r, B r a d Bellas Artes

N

O’Neill, Sean Blue Rain Gallery

M a n l e y, C h a d C Gallery

M i l t e n b e r g e r, J a n i s Thomas R. Riley Galleries

Nagakura, Kenichi TAI Gallery

O s t e r r i e d e r, D a n i e l a Charon Kransen Arts

Mar c h e t t i , S t e f a n o Charon Kransen Arts

Mimura, Chikuho TAI Gallery

Nagle, Ron CLARK+DELVECCHIO

Marioni, Dante Blue Rain Gallery

M i n e r, C h a r l i e Habatat Galleries

Nakatomi, Hajime TAI Gallery

Mar q u i s , R i c h a r d Elliott Brown Gallery

Mirabelli, Milo Thomas R. Riley Galleries

Naoki, Honjo TAI Gallery

M a s a r u , Ta t s u k i TAI Gallery

M ø h l , To b i a s Heller Gallery

Nasisse, Andy Sherrie Gallerie

Mason, V icki Charon Kransen Arts

Moje, Mascha Charon Kransen Arts

Newell, Brian William Zimmer Gallery

M a s s e y , S h a r on Charon Kransen Arts

Monden, Kogyoku TAI Gallery

Newsome, Farraday Cervini Haas Gallery

Matthews, Leslie Charon Kransen Arts

Mor e l , S o n i a Charon Kransen Arts

Nijland, Evert Charon Kransen Arts

Matthias, Christine Charon Kransen Arts

Morigami, Jin TAI Gallery

Nittmann, David del Mano Gallery

Mazzoni, Ana Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

M o r i n o u e , H i r oki William Zimmer Gallery

McClellan, Duncan Sherrie Gallerie

Morris, William Holsten Galleries Litvak Gallery

Nolan, Lesley Palette Contemporary Art and Craft

M c G l a u c h l i n , Tom Palette Contemporary Art and Craft

Moulthr op, Matt del Mano Gallery

McHorse, Christine Nofchissey CLARK+DELVECCHIO

Moulthr op, Philip del Mano Gallery Heller Gallery

McKnight, Rachel Charon Kransen Arts

Mount, Nick Thomas R. Riley Galleries

Melchert, James CLARK+DELVECCHIO

M u n s t e i n e r, B e r nd Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry

Merkel-Hess, Mary Cervini Haas Gallery M e y e r, S h a r on Sherrie Gallerie

M u n s t e i n e r, Tom Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry Muzylowski Allen, Shelley Blue Rain Gallery

Nuis, Carla Charon Kransen Arts

O Obr e c h t , S a r a h Cervini Haas Gallery O’Dell, Kelly EVOKE Contemporary O ’ K e l l y, A n g e l a Charon Kransen Arts Oldenburg, Claes CLARK+DELVECCHIO

Ortiz, V irgil CLARK+DELVECCHIO

P Paganin, Barbara Charon Kransen Arts Pagliar o, John CLARK+DELVECCHIO Pattihis, Liana Charon Kransen Arts Perkins, Danny Duane Reed Gallery Persson, Stig Micaëla Gallery Peterson, Michael del Mano Gallery P e t t e r, G u g g e r Jane Sauer Gallery Pfaf f, Judy Bellas Artes Pho, Binh del Mano Gallery Pigott, Gwyn Hanssen Galerie Besson Pinchuk, Natalya Charon Kransen Arts Pohlman, Jenny Duane Reed Gallery Pollitt, Harry del Mano Gallery P o p e l k a , J e r emy Thomas R. Riley Galleries Price, Beverley Charon Kransen Arts

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R

S

S h o k o s a i V, H a y a k a w a TAI Gallery

T

Rand, Elizabeth William Zimmer Gallery

Salvador e, Davide Habatat Galleries

S i e b e r F u c h s , V er e n a Charon Kransen Arts

Ta g l i a p i e t r a , L i n o Holsten Galleries

Randall, Doug Thomas R. Riley Galleries

Santillana, Laura de Elliott Brown Gallery

Siesbye, Alev Ebüzziya CLARK+DELVECCHIO

Ta k a m o r i , A k i o CLARK+DELVECCHIO

R a y, L e o Old City Caesarea Gallery

Sar n e e l , L u c y Charon Kransen Arts

Silton, Lee C Gallery

T h a k k e r, S a l i m a Charon Kransen Arts

Reekie, David Thomas R. Riley Galleries

S a w y e r, G e o r g e Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry

S i n g l e t a r y, P r e s t o n Blue Rain Gallery

Thompson, Joanne Charon Kransen Arts

S k y r i v e r, R a v e n EVOKE Contemporary

To d a , S e i j u TAI Gallery

S l a u g h t e r, K i r k H . ten472 Contemporary Art

To k u z o , S h o n o TAI Gallery

Slentz, Jack del Mano Gallery

To l v a n e n , Te r h i Charon Kransen Arts

Smith, Howar d Galerie Besson

To m a s i , H e n r i e t t e Charon Kransen Arts

Soest, Roos van Charon Kransen Arts

To r i i , I p p o TAI Gallery

Spano, Elena Charon Kransen Arts

To w n s e n d , K e n t William Zimmer Gallery

S t i c h t e r, B e t h C a v e n e r CLARK+DELVECCHIO

Tre k e l , S i l k e Charon Kransen Arts

Stutman, Barbara Charon Kransen Arts

Tre n c h a r d , S t e p h a n i e Thomas R. Riley Galleries

S u m i y a , Yuki Charon Kransen Arts

Tr i d e n t i , F a b r i z i o Charon Kransen Arts

S u n d a y, P a m e l a C Gallery

Tr u m a n , C a t h e r i n e Charon Kransen Arts

Swing, Johnny C Gallery

Tur ner, R o b e r t CLARK+DELVECCHIO

Reich, Jef f Cervini Haas Gallery Richmond, Lesley Jane Sauer Gallery Richmond, Ross Duane Reed Gallery EVOKE Contemporary Rie, Lucie CLARK+DELVECCHIO Galerie Besson Rivera, Edwin ten472 Contemporary Art

Saxe, Adrian CLARK+DELVECCHIO Schaupp, Isabell Charon Kransen Arts Schick, Marjorie Charon Kransen Arts Schmitz, Claude Charon Kransen Arts S c h r i b e r, J a m e s William Zimmer Gallery

Rogers, Sally Thomas R. Riley Galleries

S c h u e r e n k a e m p e r, Fr e d e r i k e Charon Kransen Arts

Rojas, Car olina Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

Scoon, Thomas Micaëla Gallery

Romer o, Diego CLARK+DELVECCHIO

Seeman, Bonnie Duane Reed Gallery

Roussel, Anthony Charon Kransen Arts

Seido, Hatakeyama TAI Gallery

Ryan, Jackie Charon Kransen Arts

Seufert, Karin Charon Kransen Arts

Rydmark, Cheryl William Zimmer Gallery

S h a f fer, G a b r i e l Gallery NICA S h a p i r o , K a r en William Zimmer Gallery Shigeo, Kawashima TAI Gallery

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S h o c k l e y, T i m Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

Syvanoja, Janna Charon Kransen Arts


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U

W

Y

Ueno, Masao TAI Gallery

Wa g n e r, K a r i n Charon Kransen Arts

Ya m a g u c h i , R y u u n TAI Gallery

U r r u t y, J o ë l del Mano Gallery

Wa l k e r, R a n d y EVOKE Contemporary

Yi , J u n g - G y u Charon Kransen Arts

U s l a r, K r i s t i i n a Micaëla Gallery

Wa l t e r, J u l i a Charon Kransen Arts

Yo s h i h i k o , U e d a TAI Gallery

Wa n d e r, R o b e r t Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry

Yo u n g , B r e n t K e e Jane Sauer Gallery

V Va g i , F l o r a Charon Kransen Arts Va l l i e n , B e r t i l Heller Gallery Va n D e r L a a n , C h r i s t e l Charon Kransen Arts Va r s h a y, E l a n EVOKE Contemporary Ve e r s , L i l l i Charon Kransen Arts Ve r m a n d e r e , P e t e r Charon Kransen Arts Ve s e r y, J a c q u e s del Mano Gallery Vi o l e t t e , J e n n i f e r Thomas R. Riley Galleries V í z n e r, F r a n t í sˇ ek Palette Contemporary Art and Craft Vo g t , R u s s Sherrie Gallerie

Wa t a n u k i , Ya s u n o r i Charon Kransen Arts

Yo u n g m a n , P h i l l i p Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry

We i s s , C a r o l i n e Charon Kransen Arts

Yu f u , S h o h a k u TAI Gallery

We i s s f l o g , H a n s del Mano Gallery We i s s f l o g , J a k o b del Mano Gallery Willemstijn, Francis Charon Kransen Arts

Z

Winton, Molly del Mano Gallery

Zahm, Philip Oliver & Espig Architects of Fine Jewelry

Wise, Jef f William Zimmer Gallery

Zanella, Annamaria Charon Kransen Arts

Wise, Susan William Zimmer Gallery

Z a t a r a i n , Yuri Emociones Art Gallery

Wo l f f , A n n Habatat Galleries

Ziegler Nodelman, Nancy Maria Elena Kravetz Gallery

Wo o , J i n - S o o n Charon Kransen Arts

Z y n s k y, To o t s Elliott Brown Gallery

Wo o d , B e a t r i c e CLARK+DELVECCHIO Wr i g h t , P e t e r EVOKE Contemporary Wu n d e r l i c h , J a n i s M a r s Sherrie Gallerie

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SOFA WEST: Santa Fe 2009 Catalog