Page 1

DEFILED Redesigning the Johannesburg recycling depot, rescuing a city drowning in landfills


A collage representing A City Defiled. As the research report aims to outline, the collage is a summary of the disregard the consumer has for waste and in turn the city of Johannesburg.


DEFILED Redesigning the Johannesburg recycling depot, rescuing a city drowning in landfills

Shannon Richardson

| 704405

This document is submitted in partial fulfilment for the degree: Master of Architecture (Professional) at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2018 Supervised by Brendan Hart


Fig 01

Image of Ponte Tower and the Vodacom tower in the Johannesburg skyline (pikitup Annual Report-2010-2011)


|

i

D E C L A R AT I O N I, Shannon Richardson 704405, am a student registered for the course Master of Architecture (Professional) in the year 2018. I hereby declare the following: I am aware that plagiarism (the use of someone else’s work without permission and/or without acknowledging the original sources) is wrong. I confirm that the work submitted for assessment for the above course is my own unaided work except where I have stated explicitly otherwise. I have followed the required conventions in referencing thoughts, ideas, and visual materials of others. For this purpose, I have referred to the Graduate School of Engineering and the Built Environment style guide. I understand that the University of the Witwatersrand may take disciplinary action against me if there is a belief that this is not my unaided work or that I have failed to acknowledge the source of the ideas or words in my own work.


Fig 02

Aerial of Johannesburg showing how the train tracks divide the city. (emira 2014)


|

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS To the classmates who became friends, and to the friends who became family - Ruan and Emma, thank you for the constant support, inspiration and of course motivation, we finally did it. To my supervisor Brendan Hart, thank you for your guidance, patience and for sharing your time and wisdom with me. To my parents, words cannot describe how much I appreciate the opportunities you have given me. Thank you for being my shoulder to cry on, my pillars of strength and providing those words of encouragement that I so often needed. Thank you for believing in me.


Fig 03

A working landfill in Johannesburg (infrastructure news 2017)


|

iii

CONTENT

|

COMMENCEMENTS

|

THEORY

|

SITE AND CONTEXT

|

INTERVENTION

|

VIABILITY

|

REFERENCES


Chapter

| COMMENCEMENTS

Page 12

|

Prologue

Page 14

|

Abstract

Page 15

|

Acronyms + Glossary

Page 17

|

Introduction

Chapter

| THEORY

Page 22

|

History

Page 30

|

Waste Management and Recycling

Page 50

|

The Informal Recycler

Page 66

|

Gentrification

Page 72

|

Space and Place

Page 78

|

Time for a change

Page 106

|

Conclusion

Chapter Page 110

|

Site

Page 120

|

History

Page 126

|

Analysis

| SITE

AND CONTEXT


Chapter Page 148

|

Precedents

Page 154

|

Concept

Page 162

|

Intervention

| INTERVENTION

| VIABILITY

Chapter Page 178

|

The Client

Page 181

|

The Project

Page 185

|

Implementation

Chapter

| REFERENCES

Page 189

|

Bibliography

Page 192

|

List of figures

Page 196

|

Ethics Clearance


CHAPTER Page 12

|

Prologue

Page 15

|

Abstract

Page 15

|

Acronyms + Glossary

Page 17

|

Introduction

09 | chapter 01


|COMMENCEMENTS

Commencements | 10


Fig 04

picture collage of waste pickers in Johannesburg (Author,2018)

11 | chapter 01


01 |

i

PROLOGUE

How it all started While driving through Braamfontein on the way to university a trolley pusher had been hit by a car. He was sitting in the road with he’s hands cradling he’s face next to an empty bicycle lane, and it occurred to me that I have never seen the bicycle lanes being used. Johannesburg had dumped these bicycle lanes in a part of the city, with no research or regard for the people using the streets. It seemed necessary to do further research into the lives of the informal recyclers as it seems they are not being considered, yet play such a big role in the city of Johannesburg. As my research continued and evolved, as it does. I came across an article explaining how The City of Johannesburg only has approximately 8 years of landfills left, with very little planned going forward. This bothered me, our country seems to have a

habit of trying to solve problems only once they are right at our door step. Cape Towns desalination plants being a prime example. What will happen to our living conditions or the environment around us if we don’t have space to properly dispose of our waste. I started imagining a city with mine dumps everywhere, now turning into landfills. The system is broken, from the wasteful consumers, to the disregarded recycler, to the mountainous landfills slowly encroaching into our living space.

Commencements | 12


13 | chapter 01


01 |

ii

ABSTRACT

This research report tells a story of how people respond to waste, the implications and the seriousness of this and how architecture and space could play a role in a solution. These interwoven relationships are explored with reference to the global problem, and a specific focus on South Africa's (mostly Johannesburg's) battle with this plight. As such, this report addresses the essential aspects of the issue at both a national as well as an international scale. The City of Johannesburg's waste management system is flawed. Landfill sites are quickly encroaching on to the living spaces of the less fortunate as these mounds continue to grow. The system is broken from the wasteful consumer, to the disregarded recycler, to the littered mounds growing extremely fast, but how do we fix it? It seems the solution is in the process, Johannesburg is home to a prominent yet disregarded figure who scours the streets in search for the very items we so easily throw away, but where do they take it? To the very landfills engulfing their living space. Most of our landfills are situated next to townships as part of The Group Areas Act, a crucial pillar of the segregation agenda during apartheid. Waste would be ‘imported’ from privileged white areas to impoverished, working-class black areas. Essentially that is what is happening now as poor waste management has resorted in the informal recyclers having to litter their homes to earn a wage.

With the end goal being zero waste to landfill, an intervention housing campaign strategies involving propaganda to try educate the public on reuse and recycling is not enough. As how does this directly deal with the landfill problem. I think the solution is in the process of how waste is recycled and Johannesburg's waste management system, therefore I intend to redesign the Johannesburg recycling depot. Through architecture, this research report introduces a redesign of these ‘middle men’ type depots, into a multifaceted recycling station which will include a weigh station, sorting station and baling and buy back centre. A municipal solid waste to energy incineration plant will also be added, now pressure will be taken off the landfills and hopefully the landfills themselves could be sorted and reprocessed back into the depot. This will provide a more organised and material specific station where industry can buy back their recyclable goods. The more organic waste that is left over is then incinerated in the plant and that energy will be placed into the electrical grid. It is also important to me to find a site that would be easily accessible to the Informal Recyclers, close to their routes and not on a landfill as once the landfills have been reprocessed there is an opportunity for land reform. The architectural intervention should also have a social layer linking the informal recycler to the recycling depot, acting as a base camp of sorts for these nomadic people. Commencements | 14


01 |

iii

A C R O N Y M S & A B B R E V I AT I O N S

APC Air pollution control CoJ City of Johannesburg GDP Gross domestic product MSW Municipal Solid Waste MSWM Municipal Solid Waste Management Pro's A PRO is generally a non-profit organisation funded by industry to promote the recovery and recycling of recyclable materials in South Africa. RCR Round collected refuse Seri South Africa’s Socio-Economic Rights Institute WIEGO A global network focused on securing livelihoods for the working poor, especially women, in the informal economy. 15 | chapter 01


01 |

iv

GLOSSARY

Kinematic Energy The motion of points, bodies (objects), and systems of bodies (groups of objects) without considering the forces that caused the motion Landfill airspace The volume of space on a landfill site which is permitted for the disposal of municipal solid waste. This space is initially occupied by air which will eventually be displaced by the disposed waste, hence the term “landfill airspace.�

Waste Management The collection, transportation, and disposal of garbage, sewage and other waste products. Waste management is the process of treating solid wastes and offers a variety of solutions for recycling items that don't belong to trash.

Leachate Is the liquid that drains or 'leaches' from a landfill. It varies widely in composition regarding the age of the landfill and the type of waste that it contains. It usually contains both dissolved and suspended material Recycling Convert 'waste' into reusable material. Slag Stony waste matter separated from metals during the smelting or refining of ore. Waste Any substance which is discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use Commencements | 16


01 |

v

INTRODUCTION

Over the past decade, there has been a noticeable climb in the amount of waste that the population produces. In all corners of the earth, we are witnessing the very items we produce to sustain ourselves and which help us to survive, are now so violently destroying our environment and everything in it. The world is currently experiencing the highest levels of waste and pollution littering our oceans, contaminating our atmosphere and engulfing our land. According to Pure Earth, a non-profit environmental organisation, the current global human population is just over 7,5 Billion, the amount of waste dumped is just over 720 Million and the number of planet Earth’s we need to provide resources and absorb our waste is 1,7 planets - they took it further in stating “If everyone on earth lived like the average American we would need 4.6 planets to support us. 2.4 for Japanese and about 2.3 for Europeans, and the number of people in the consumer class is growing by the second.” The size of the global ‘middle class’ is increasing from 1,8 Billion in 2009 to 3,2 Billion in 2020, this mean that the amount being consumed is going to double. We need to start paying close attention to the life cycle of the products that we produce, and not just the products itself but the materials and the processes involved in the manufacturing process. As globalisation accelerates, we are relying more on our natural resources, environments and ecosystems to support our rate of consumption, and therefore we are all part of a wide range of global challenges. South Africa’s current waste crisis is an inherent 17 | chapter 01

characteristic that is embedded in the countries history. Most of our landfills are situated next to townships as part of The Group Areas Act, a crucial pillar of the segregation agenda, during apartheid where the extent of waste management was to ‘import’ waste from privileged white areas to impoverished black areas. We did not inherit a perfect country, besides the obvious segregation and an extreme disconnect between its people and places, the workings of the country wasn’t all there. With military and mining being prioritised things like waste management was put a side and neglected, therefore it is understandable that sectors like these would need more work and therefore more time to become established and contribute to our country in a positive way. Currently 24 years have gone by since apartheid ended and not much has changed over the past couple of decades, although waste management has evolved and government has taken the initiative with local communities to improve the quality of waste management in certain sectors the end result is still the same. Yes, there are now more processes in place that include the concept of reuse and recycle but all processes end with majority of our waste being taken to landfill. Our country has about eight years left of landfill, with very little planned going forward. No land has been set a side for new landfill sites as the borders of the city expand and besides the small 10% being recycled and the process of reclaiming - where informal recyclers


or pickers in this case comb through the mounds in search for recyclables, there is no other way of decreasing these massive areas.

understand how our city got into the state that it is in, we need to understand where the mentality and the methods implemented came from.

The title of this essay stems from the two notions that have already been mentioned: South Africa’s landfills and the process of waste management. The two are interconnected, waste management being the process and the landfills being the finish line. A prominent characteristic in our country is how the formal and informal overlap and Johannesburg specifically is known for a key player in the process of disposing of waste. The informal recycler, waste picker or walker as they call themselves are ghosts, gliding through our city streets, disregarded and misunderstood. According to Pikitup, Johannesburg’s official waste management service provider, informal recyclers contribute to a third of waste collected in our city. It can be assumed that most ‘walkers’ come from townships and previous locations set up during the apartheid regime and as mentioned above a landfill will most probably border or be in the vicinity of a location, therefore one could say due to poor waste management ‘walkers’ have no choice but play a key role in littering their own homes and contribute to their families living conditions to earn a wage. The system is broken and it is clear something isn’t working, in this essay it is acknowledged that the topic being addressed is broad, complex and to Commencements | 18


CHAPTER Page 22

|

History

Page 30

|

Waste Management and Recycling

Page 50

|

The Informal Recycler

Page 66

|

Gentrification

Page 72

|

Space and Place

Page 78

|

Time for a change

Page 106

|

Conclusion

Fig 05

chapter 2

19 | chapter 02


| THEORY

Theory | 20


“It’s tempting to think of sacred tombs and ancient monuments as our best window into other cultures. But archaeologists have long known that if you really want to understand a civilization, to know its people’s passions, weaknesses, and daily rituals, look no further than their garbage.” Hunter Oatman-Stanford, 2013

21 | chapter 02


02 |

i

HISTORY

Disposal of waste in ancient times Throughout history people have generated waste. In areas with a small population the production of waste might not have been considered, however in a densely populated area large amounts of waste even biodegradable had to be disposed of. In ancient times villages were small and spread out and people disposed of their waste in the simplest of ways, like finding a piece of land that they couldn’t use and dumping it. Most waste in early history comprised of biodegradable organic waste, wood and the ash from burning it, as well as bones. It is interesting that Archaeologists studying ancient rubbish dumps very seldom find things like tools, pottery or weapons. It is assumed that people repaired and reused items and may have composted their organic waste to aid in farming. The earliest date found concerning laws on waste and rubbish dumps, was around 500 BC in Athens, Greece. They mandated that the dumping of rubbish was to be done at least one mile out of town and not on the streets. In 200 AD Rome released the first recorded sanitation force, where teams of two were sent out to pick up litter in the streets. It was then put on a wagon and taken to a popular dumping ground or even thrown into the Tiber river down stream. This method of early waste management was practiced all over medieval Europe.

As cities grew, designated people became responsible for collecting waste and taking it out of town. Early dumps were very unhealthy, but in those days no one understood what caused diseases. Dumps attracted rats, mice, and all kinds of birds. Among other diseases, the vermin caused outbreaks of plague. In 1751 after industrialisation and the sudden growth in population in England, the rapid and very sudden waste build up lead to a deterioration in sanitation and general quality of living. A man by the name of Corbyn Morris called for the establishment of a municipal authority with waste removal powers. It was the first organised solid waste management system where waste collection and resource recovery systems were established. The main constituent of municipal waste at the time was the coal ash which had a market value for brick-making. This encouraged dust-contractors to collect the remaining waste to make a profit and resulted in the removal of waste in and around the informal sectors in the street. During the 19th century a devastating cholera outbreak occurred, this resulted in many debates and legislations passed concerning sanitation and waste removal. The dramatic increase in waste and therefore the disposal of waste led to the establishment of the first ever incineration plant, built in Nottingham by Manlove, Alliott & Co. Ltd. Designed by Albert Fryer in 1874. Soon after similar municipal systems of waste disposal occurred at the turn of the 19th century in Theory | 22


other large cities of Europe as well as North America. New York City became the first city with a public-sectors garbage management system. Horse drawn carts were the very first garbage removal trucks, that then become motorised in the early 20th century.

Fig 06

In 1908 dumping waste in the most convenient places was common practice (waste removal blog, 2018)

Fig 07

London’s waste management (Speedy Clearances blog, 2018)

Fig 08

When New Yorkers Lived Knee-Deep in Trash (Hunter Oatman-Stanford, 2013)

23 | chapter 02

Landfills A landfill is a site where waste can be disposed of and buried. It is the oldest form of waste treatment, however historically refuse was thrown into pits or left in piles, only later did this method of dumping become more organised and the burial of waste occur. Typical municipal landfill site receive a high volume of waste daily. This waste consists of domestic, garden, business and commercial waste. It is first compacted to reduce the spaces between waste materials. It is then covered with a layer of soil to prevent further contact with the outside air. This prevents rodents and birds from flocking to the site and also reduces any odours. A series of reactions begin due to micro-organisms that are present in the organic waste and soil. At first, microbes break down the organic waste to produce carbon dioxide which depletes all oxygen, after all the oxygen is depleted, anaerobic bacteria - which thrive in conditions with very little oxygen, digest the organic waste to produce methane and carbon dioxide, which are the primary gases found around landfill sites and contribute massively to climate change. Landfills also cause infrastructure disruptions, such as damage to access roads by heavy vehicles, pollution of local roads from the wheels of garbage trucks when they leave the landfill - this can be significantly reduced by wheel washing, also polluting of the local environment, such as the contamination of groundwater or soil contamination, as well as leachate. A mix of chemicals as well as the chemicals produced during the decomposition of waste such as carbon dioxide and methane as stated above create a noxious mixture known as leachate and it is a major concern when it comes to landfills. Extensive efforts are made to capture and treat it before it reaches groundwater - like adding an engineered liner. The problem is that these engineered liners don’t last forever, eventually all landfill liners leak resulting in the very problem they tried to prevent, but still landfills are implemented, as they are the most cost effective way of disposing of waste as it has fewer fixed or recurring costs.


Landfills in South Africa

Fig 09

Fig 10

Essentially an ancient landfill (Catholic Network, 2018)

Make up of a landfill (Hobson, P, 1983)

South Africa is running out of landfill space and fast. South Africans generate about 100 million tonnes of waste each year and only 10% of that waste is recycled. Environmental Affairs aimed to ensure that all metropolitan municipalities had implemented a separation-at-source programmes by 2016 however, this hasn’t happened despite the fact that South Africa committed itself to the Polokwane Declaration, signed in 2001, to say that by 2022 there will be a 75% diversion of recyclable materials from landfills. Waste Campaign Manager at ground WorkSA, Musa Chamane states, “Not enough awareness about recycling is created, waste should not be thrown into dustbins anymore without being segregated. If households and businesses could segregate their waste, waste pickers will be able to get more for their recyclables, as they will not be dirty. If people are not educated and waste pickers not given space to operate recycling facilities, the goal of the Polokwane Declaration will not be met, said Chamane.� Which is clearly the case as 2022 is approaching fast and the systems that were meant to be implemented are quite scarce. Waste Management in South Africa is in the process of developing and is slowly improving due to acts like The National Environmental Management: Waste Act of 2008. Waste management in South Africa has historically been managed by the government through the establishment of large landfills and dumps. This method of waste management had previously been seen as successful during the apartheid regime as the white upper class citizens transported their waste to impoverished black communities. In 1980 the Bisasar Road landfill was opened for use in the Durban province in South Africa (this is one of over 4000 created across the country). This dump is the largest in Africa and processes 5000 tons of waste today. Residence were told by government that the landfill would be beneficial due to the jobs associated with the waste, however, the landfill only furthered socio-economic division. In 2013 the new Waste Classification and Management regulations came into effect which imposed strict norms and standards for waste disposal by landfill, one of those standards were that landfill sites have to Theory | 24


be at a specified distance away from residential areas and ecologically sensitive zones in order to protect the health and safety of residents and the environment, however they have already stipulated that there is no land left for new landfill and most landfill boarder the impoverished locations around the country. So shouldn’t the next step be to try and reduce or reprocess the current landfills, as although it might be the cheaper option our country is currently drowning in filth and the very people removing waste seem to have no choice but to dump it on their own door step. As part of The Group Areas Act, a crucial pillar of the segregation agenda, during apartheid, it seems nothing has changed as that is what is happening now as poor waste management has resorted in waste pickers having to litter their homes to earn a wage. Chamane told eNCA.com. “Government needs to implement and regulate waste management in a responsible manner otherwise they are not fulfilling their constitutional mandate to ensure that everyone has an environment that is not harmful to their health and well-being.� These mountainous piles of trash are quickly encroaching into our living spaces and nothing is being done to try change it, from the wasteful consumer, to the disregarded recycler, to the littered mounds growing so very fast, the question seems to be how do we fix it?

25 | chapter 02


Fig 11

Sasolburg landfill, SA drowning in dirt (enca.com, 2014)

Fig 12

Sandton Garden Site (Pikitup Johnannesburg AnnualReport, 2015) Theory | 26


1

R p p

1388

500BC

First municipal dump in western world organized. Regulations required waste to be dumped at least a mile from the city limits.

1400

Garbage piles so high outside of Paris gates that it interferes with city defense.

27 | chapter 02

1650

1600

1550

1500

1450

1400

0

500BC

English Parliament bars waste dispersal in public waterways and ditches.


A new technology called "the Destructor" provided the first systematic incineration of refuse in Nottingham, England. Until this time, much of the burning was accidental, a result of methane production.

1690

Rittenhouse Mill, Philadelphia makes paper from recycled fibers (waste paper and rags).

1980

Africas biggest landfill site, Bisasar Road, Durban under South Africa’s apartheid regime

2000

1950

1900

1850

1800

1750

2008 1700

1650

1874

1842

National Environmental Management: Waste Act of 2008

2001

A report links disease to filthy environmental conditions in England "age of sanitation" begins.

South Africa committed itself to the Polokwane Declaration, separation-at-source programmes implimented

1976

Institiute of Waste Management is launched in South Africa

Theory | 28


Waste genera�on by region 44% OECD

12% LCR

12% ECA

6% MENA

OECD Organisation Waste of economic co-operation and development genera�on by region LCR Latin America44% and Caribbean OECD Fig 13

12% LCR

12% ECA

5% AFR

21% EAP

ECA Europe and central Asia Middle East 6%MENA 5% and 21% EAP AFRNorth Africa MENA

ARF Sub-Saharan Africa EAP East Asia Pacific region

World map diagram showing waste generation by region (Author 2018)

Waste genera�on by income 46% High Income

6% Low Income

29% Lower Middle income

19% Upper middle income

Waste genera�on by income 46% High Income Fig 14

6% Low Income

29% Lower Middle income

World map diagram showing waste generation by income (Author 2018)

29 | chapter 02

19% Upper middle income


02 |

ii

WA ST E M A N AG E M E N T A N D RECYCLING

A Global Comparison To understand the relevance and the seriousness of Johannesburg’s waste problem and how it could be accommodated, it is important to place it in the larger global as well as national context. To better understand solid waste production and waste management in a global context, a couple of things need to be considered; what are the global waste problems? How did these problems come about? Why do they effect us locally?

advancement. As the worlds populations grows and modern urbanisation drives consumer economies the waste pile grows with them. To the left, the world maps indicate that the more developed countries generate more waste. Generally there are more people that fit into a higher income bracket in more developed countries, consuming more and therefore generating more waste.

The global waste issue currently is one of overconsumption. The amount of waste the world produces gradually increases each year and is one of the biggest by-product of urban living. Currently world cities produce an estimated 1.3 billion tonnes of solid waste per year (amounting to 1.2 kg per person per day) This is an amount they say will increase to 2.2 billion tonnes by 2025. (Hoornweg and Bhada-tata, 2012). The reason for this is a growing population and urbanisation that leads to an increase in consumption. The longevity of products currently is poor and therefore the amount people discard has increased. The sudden noticeable rise in waste production is felt socially, economically and environmentally and it is because of this that dialogue on recycling and waste minimisation has started. The current global waste issue is a result of human Theory | 30


SOLID WASTE PRODUCTION BY COUNTRY > 2.50 2.0 - 2.49 1.5 - 1.99 1.0 - 1.49 0.5 - 0.99 < 0.049 KG PER CAPITA PER DAY

31 | chapter 02


Fig 15

World map diagram showing solid waste production by country (Author 2018 - after waste management world 2018) Theory | 32


Fig 16

South Africa outline (Author 2018)

33 | chapter 02


Waste Management and Recycling in SA Recycling is the process of changing waste material into new products. It reduces the consumption of fresh raw materials and producing new products with secondary materials save a significant amount of energy. As less energy is used air pollution from incineration becomes less. The input of recovered recyclable materials has a positive impact on climate change as the amount of greenhouse gas emissions is less. Recycling has become one of the key components of modern day waste reduction and conservation. The process, discarded materials are collected and sorted. The sorted materials are then broken down into their smaller base components through various techniques and are used as an alternative for raw materials in the creation of new products, the processing of which is costly and unsustainable. For example producing aluminium from recycled aluminium requires 95% less energy then producing it from virgin materials (Hoornweg &Bhada-Tata,2012,pg.27). Additionally, the process of recycling benefits Waste Management economically as recycled materials are used more to replace raw materials. The global secondary materials market grows and in turn waste becomes valuable and an asset. The value of recycling waste can then not only offset the cost of waste collection and management making recycling more sustainable, but also become a viable and sustainable source of income.

The disposal of waste in South Africa currently consists mainly of collecting and then land filling, with as little as 10% of waste being recycled. According to the South African Constitution, local municipalities are mandated to collect domestic waste. Municipalities can either provide the collection services or appoint private companies. The commercial and industrial sectors are responsible for the safe disposal of their own waste, which includes both general and hazardous waste, and generally appoint waste service providers to manage their waste, however some waste may still be disposed of at the nearest municipal landfill site. Waste Management in South Africa is changing (albeit slowly) from the predominantly used method of land filling - where waste is collected and taken away to a dump site, to more waste diversion. This is due to policy and regulatory reform, pressures on municipalities (e.g. limited landfill airspace) an increase in awareness of sustainability. The government is also focusing on waste management as a job creator through different green economy policies and strategies. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The demand for basic services, coupled with the demand for alternative waste treatment (which is usually accompanied with the need for new infrastructure), cannot be met using current (allocated) government finances. As a result, municipalities need to look into Theory | 34


innovative and alternative ways of funding these support functions. This includes partnerships with the private sector, and provincial and national government playing a role in the implementation of extended waste management strategies.â&#x20AC;? (Waste Economy: Market Intelligence Report 2016 pg11) Referencing the waste hierarchy diagram below, South Africa is now predominantly focusing on the top three tiers, recycling, recovery (energy), and treatment and disposal. However, recycling is still ranked higher in the waste management hierarchy than (energy) recovery and treatment and disposal. There is now potential to increase the amount of waste being recycled and create job opportunity in the sale of alternative

methods of disposing of waste. The economics of recycling is quite simple, if the cost of collecting and processing a material is less than the end product then it is recycled. This is the case with paper, metal and certain types plastics. If it costs more to collect and process then the material is considered waste and will either go to landfill or could be used in a variety of Waste to Energy methods. With landfill airspace shortages and a steady increase in the cost of raw materials, a growing recycling industry is expected. Although recycling is legislated within South Africa, the actual recycling activities are largely driven by industry through the establishment of industry bodies or PROs. A PRO is generally a nonprofit organisation funded by industry to promote

Treatment & disposal

Recovery

Recycling

Re-use

Waste avoidance & reduction

Fig 17

Waste Hierarchy (Author 2018 - after Greencape 2016)

35 | chapter 02


the recovery and recycling of recyclable materials in South Africa. All mainstream recyclables (paper, glass, plastics and metal), tyres and electronic waste (e-waste) have respective PROs responsible for the diversion of the waste from going to landfill.

PROs and recyclables managed Name of PRO

Material

Generated (tonnes)

Diverted from land ll (tonnes)

S9ll available for recycling (tonnes)

Paper Recycling Associa9on of South Africa (PRASA)

Paper

2 200 000

1 100 000

1 100 000

Plas9cs SA

Umbrella organisa3on for plas3cs

1 400 000

315 000

1 085 000

845 663

338 265

507 398

322 000

45 000

277 000

3 121 000

2 497 000

624 000

270 000

109 906

160 094

The Glass Recycling Company Glass (TGRC) e-Waste Associa9on
 of South Africa (eWASA) South e-Waste African e-Waste Alliance (SAEWA) Metal Recyclers’ Associa9on of Scrap metal South Africa REDISA

Tyres

01 | Paper and cardboard According to PRASA’s paper sta:s:cs, over 2.2 million tonnes of paper was used in South Africa in 2014. Only 1.6 Table of PRO’s (Author 2018 - after Greencape 2016) million tonnes (72%) of the paper produced is considered recoverable, whilst 620 000 tonnes (27%) is unsuitable for recycling — including :ssue and wax paper, bank notes, etc. or paper that has been exported and cannot be locally recovered (PRASA 2015). Of the 72% of recoverable paper waste, 1.1 million tonnes (66%) is recycled and 570 000 tonnes (34%) could s:ll be diverted from landfill. South Africa’s consump:on of office paper has declined in line with global trends. The consump:on of non-recyclable :ssue paper has increased, as more people can afford such Theory | 36 convenience products (PRASA 2015).

Fig 18


ANNUAL POPULATION GROWTH

POPULATION

013

2,30

52 982 000

014

1,80

53 947 998

015

1,80

54 901 943

016

2,00

56 020 718

017

0,90

56 521 948

Es#mated total popula#on and annual growth from 2013-2017 2,40

57 000 000

1,80

55 750 000

1,20

54 500 000

0,60

53 250 000

2013

2014

2015

Annual popula#on growth

Fig 19

2016 popula#on

Estimated total population and annual growth from 2013â&#x20AC;?2017 (Author 2018 - after StatsSA, 2017)

37 | chapter 02

2017

52 000 000


Population and waste production South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s population is growing and together with urbanisation increasing, so does the amount of waste. Poor waste management can result in many things. It can create a toxic or unhealthy living environment and negatively effect the economy mismanagement can result in negative externalities and downstream costs, which are often much higher than if the waste had been appropriately managed in the first place. With that said, there is a need to better understand the total amount of waste South Africa generates, and the tonnage of waste recycled, treated and landfilled.

2017 ( StatsSA, 2017). During this period the population increased from 53 million to 56.5 million. Although the population increases from year to year, the rate is decreasing from 2.3% in 2013 to 0.9% in 2017 which is in line with international trends.

South Africa produces approximately 108 million tonnes of waste a year (DEA, 2012). The majority of this waste (98 million tonnes) is landfilled, resulting in only 10 % being recycled. The proper management of waste requires, not only a good understanding of the types and quantities of waste generated, but also of how this waste is managed now and in the immediate future. Population growth and size is directly linked to the amount of waste generated. The more people in a space or area, the higher the consumption rate is of natural resources, and the amount of waste generated increases. The table to the left shows the estimated population of South Africa from 2013 Theory | 38


WASTE GENERATION IN ZA BY REGION > 600

101 - 200

401 - 600

50 - 100

201 - 400

< 49

KG PER CAPITA PER ANNUM

MOZAMBIQUE

ZIMBABWE

LIMPOPO BOTSWANA Polokwane

Nelspruit

Tshwane/Pretoria

NORTH WEST

NAMIBIA

MPUMALANGA

Johannesburg

SWAZILAND

GAUTENG

FREE STATE

Mangaung/Bloemfontein

KWAZULUNATAL

LESOTHO Durban

NORTHERN CAPE

ATLANTIC OCEAN

EASTERN CAPE WESTERN CAPE

INDIAN OCEAN Nelson Mandela Bay/Port Elisabeth

Fig 20 Waste generation in South Africa by region WASTE GENERATION IN ZA BY REGION 39 | chapter 02

(Author 2018 - after Greencape 2016)


GAUTENG

3,1

It is also important to consider the KZN growth rate of the population per province. The growth rate per LIMPOPO province is different, therefore the amount of waste each province generates and MPUMALANGA contributes to the countries total waste generatedNORTHERN will differ.CAPE

1,5 1,3 2,0 0,7

NORTH WEST

1,8

Consequently it is expected that waste generation in the provinces with a higher WESTERN growth CAPE rate will be higher. The table below shows this and demonstrates that Gauteng has the highest population growth rate over the 5 years between 2013- 2017 in South Africa (StatsSA, 2017).

2,2

Average popula#on growth per province from 2013 to 2017 4,0

Popula#on

3,0

2,0

1,0

0,0

PE CA

ES T W

ES TE R

N

W

PE

NO RT H

CA N

NO RT H

M AL M PU

ER

AN GA

PO PO LIM

KZ N

EN G GA UT

ST AT E EE FR

EA ST E

RN

CA

PE

-1,0

PROVINCES

Fig 21

Average population growth per province from 2013 to 2017 (Author 2018 - after StatsSA, 2017) Theory | 40


POPULATION 2013

R3 539 977,00

2014

R3 805 350,00

2015

R4 051 421,00

2016

R4 350 314,00

2017

R4 651 784,00

GDP of South Africa from 2013 to 2016 at current prices R5 000 000,00

R4 000 000,00

R3 000 000,00

R2 000 000,00

R1 000 000,00

R0,00

Fig 22

2013

2014

2015

GDP of South Africa from 2013 to 2016 at current prices (Author 2018 - after StatsSA, 2017)

41 | chapter 02

2016

2017


Economy Another factor that directly influences the amount of waste generated is the growth of the economy. This can occur directly due to industry and an increase in manufacturing consumables or indirectly due to more people earning a higher income. The GDP (Gross domestic product) is used to indicate the economic performance of a country. The table to the left shows this over a 5 year period from 2013 - 2017 in South Africa. There is an increase from year to year, therefore it is safe to assume that more waste is being generated each year, than the previous year. As waste generation is linked to the amount of goods and services produced, provinces with a higher GDP place more pressure on the waste management and collection services in that region and opposite applies with regards to the provinces with lower GDPâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s. Essentially provinces with a higher GDP have more of the population falling into a higher income bracket, resulting in more goods and services being consumed and more waste being generated.

Theory | 42


PLASTIC

5%

GLASS

3%

METALS

8%

TYRES

1%

OTHER

35%

COMMERCIAL & INDUSTRIAL 7% MUNICIPAL WASTE 4%

ORGANIC 16%

OTHER 35%

CONSTRUCTION & DEMOLITION 13%

TYRES 1% METALS 8%

Fig 23

PAPER 8% GLASS 3%

PLASTIC 5%

Breakdown of general waste generated in 2017 (Author 2018 - after South Africa state of waste report, 2018)

43 | chapter 02


Waste Types In terms of the Waste Amendment Act (2014), “waste means ‐

manner, excluded any waste stream or a portion of a waste stream from the definition of waste.”

a. any substance, material or object, that is unwanted, rejected, abandoned, discarded or disposed of, by the holder of the substance, material or object, whether or not such substance, material or object can be re‐used, recycled or recovered and includes all wastes as defined in Schedule 3 to this Act; or b. any substance, material or object that is not included in Schedule 3 that may be defined as a waste by the Minister by notice in the Gazette,

As stated previously waste generation in South Africa is primarily driven by a growing population, economic growth and an increase in the income levels. Here we look at the types of waste generated as well as the amount. South Africa generated approximately 42 million tonnes of waste in 2017 and an estimated 4.9 million tonnes (11%) was recycled. (South Africa state of waste report, 2018). The pie chart to the left depicts a percentage the each waste type has contributed to the general tonnage during the course of 2017. The largest percentage being ‘other’ of 35% which includes: biomass, from the sugar mills, sawmills, and the paper and pulp industry (South Africa state of waste report, 2018).

but any waste or portion of waste, referred to in paragraph (a) and (b) ceases to be a waste ‐ i. once an application for its re‐use, recycling or recovery has been approved or, after such approval, once it is, or has been re‐used, recycled or recovered; ii. where approval is not required, once a waste is or has been re‐used, recycled or recovered; iii. where the Minister has, in terms of section 74, exempted any waste or a portion of waste generated by a particular process from the definition of waste; or iv. where the Minister has, in the prescribed

Theory | 44


ni

36

i

29

hwane

18

hannesburg

8

pe Town

5

Es#mated remaining landďŹ ll airspace of South Africa's largest municipali#es 40

32

Years

24

16

8

0

Ekurhuleni

eThekwini

City of Tshwane Municipali#es

45 | chapter 02

City of johannesburg

City of Cape Town


Landfill airspace The volume of space on a landfill site which is permitted for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). This space is initially occupied by air which will eventually be displaced by the disposed waste, hence the term “landfill airspace.” Most of South Africa’s waste is sent to landfill sites and given how reliant we are on landfills currently it is important to understand how much space we have left. The table to the left shows how much landfill airspace South Africa’s biggest municipalities have left in years. Since this research report orientates itself around The City of Johannesburg we will be focusing on the amount of years it has left. As shown, Johannesburg has around 8 years left of landfill making the need for waste diversion quite urgent, in order to prolong the life span of the landfill that are in use currently. It is also important to consider the locations of the landfill sites. The further away a landfill site is from where people live and work, the longer its life span. For example in eThekwini the lovu landfills have 25 years remaining as it is located far away from any densely populated urban areas. This does however increase the distance and cost of rendering regular waste collection services (eThekwini Municipality, 2016) Theory | 46


WASTE MANAGEMENT 47 | chapter 02


Integrated Waste Management The concept of Integrated Waste Management is promoted as the solution for the world’s waste problem. The 3 R’s - Reduce, Reuse and Recycle form the top of the Diversion or disposal waste hierarchy that form the basis of this concept. However, Hoornweg and Bhada-Tata (2012, pg.25) explain it is more than just a combination of disposal techniques. They suggest the idea of Integrated Waste Management as a “sustainable application of appropriate technology, working conditions and the establishment of a social licence between community and authority” (Hoornweg and Bhada-Tata, 2012, pg.31) For an idea like this

to work in countries like South Africa there needs to be a better understanding and tolerance for the ‘informal’. Our current waste recycling economy and waste management issues provide opportunity for an intervention in Johannesburg. Taking into account the phenomenon our city holds allowing for many informal waste reclaimers to make a living as part of the formal recycling network of waste sales.

Reuse

diversion

Reduce

Landfill/Incineration Controlled dumping

disposal

Recover

Diversion or disposal waste hierarchy Fig 24

Diversion or disposal waste hierarchy (Author 2018 - after Greencape 2016)

Theory | 48


Fig 25

waste pickers of Kalkata (J.Stanton Mail online, 2015)

Fig 26

Waste pickers in Brazil, Jardim Gramacho (J.Barchfield the Associated press, 2012)

Fig 27

Garbage trucks, men and birds work at the top of the Robinson Deep landfill site in southern Johannesburg. (Image: Lucille Davie)

49 | chapter 02


02 |

iii

THE INFORMAL RECYCLER

Recyclable Waste Reclaimers The recycling industry has provided economic opportunity for many, as we see more and more initiatives and businesses pop up that are focused on dealing with waste. The phenomenon of ‘informal’ waste reclaiming or waste picking (the term preferred by the WIEGO) is one of those opportunities. Many, who are unemployed or ‘economically disadvantaged’ are now trying to make a living collecting and sorting and then selling recyclable waste. There are an estimated 2 million waste pickers globally (Hoornweg & Bhada-tata, 2012) however, there are probably more due to informality of the trade and the ability to track the number of people participating. What is waste reclaiming Waste reclaiming is the act of collecting reusable and recyclable materials from what has been disposed of and sustaining yourself by doing so. The way in which it is done varies in different counties and even in different cities. Different waste pickers in Johannesburg have their own strategies of collecting waste.

generalise across regions let alone the world. However there are areas of commonality in the challenges faced by waste pickers” (Samson, 2009, p1). Some not only occupy landfill sites but live on them as well. Others collect waste on the sidewalks by intersecting municipal refuse routes. In Kolkata, India there are an estimated 20, 000 waste pickers who live and work on the dumps (Medina, 2005). Rio de Janerio, Brazil is home to one of the biggest landfill sites in the world - Jardim Gramacho. Here a group of waste pickers (both men and women) have formed an organization to reclaim waste together. In Johannesburg some waste pickers work on landfill sites and others on sidewalks, it just depends on what the individual prefers doing. Despite these differences, the point is that waste reclaiming is an accessible industry for people who are ‘economically disadvantaged’ and that it is a possible viable option for people in multiple countries around the world.

“The issues and challenges faced by each group of waste pickers in particular parts of different cities are unique and must be understood on their own terms, as such it is neither possible nor desirable to try and Theory | 50


Fig 28

South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Armies of Waste Pickers Threatened by Plans to Manage Landfill Gases (Cath Everett, 2014)

51 | chapter 02


Johannesburg, a ‘Walkers’ role Italo Calvino, Invisible Cities, “nobody wonders where each day they carry their load of refuse, outside the city surely: but each year the city expands... the bulk of the outflow increases and the piles rise higher, become stratified, extend over a wider perimeter.“ These predominant figures scour the streets of Johannesburg looking for the very items the city so easily discards. They comb through dustbins and sidewalks in all neighbourhoods selecting particular items to sell. With their woven bags filled, they drag their trolleys for kilometres to the nearest buyback centres. They are referred to as scavengers, waste-pickers, trolley pushers and binners but call themselves Walkers. Walkers are common around the world and an estimated 1% of the urban population in developing countries who survive by collecting recyclable materials (Suliman, 2011), it doesn’t matter where in the world you go the lifestyle of the walkers are very similar, they fit into the process of recycling in the same way and are disregarded and frowned upon ‘there’ as they are here. Walkers have reinterpreted homelessness, they choose to spend their nights ‘sleeping rough’. They make use of alternative accommodation, sleeping under bridges, making make-shift shelters and sometimes renting a space in the basement of a building at a very low rate. Walkers choose to spend some nights in the city of Johannesburg to save on transport costs to be ready to start their journey into distant suburbs very early in the mornings. They choose spaces that might be cramped but where they are able to store their collected items. The role of the informal recycler involves collecting and then separating and sorting their items before taking it to the often material specific recycling depots/ weigh stations. The Informal recycler works independently of labour laws, they have no benefits or protection and are often stopped by police as their improvised trolleys disrupt traffic. They have no place yet play a significant role and are deeply entwined into the process of recycling. An employee of remade states

that, “Remade does have vans and trucks that go to businesses in the area to collect. But it is the walkers, about 150 of them, who bring in about three quarters of their daily intake.” The amount of money a walker makes is dependent on the price paid by the private buy-back centres. Generally they can earn up to R800 per week, however to make that a single informal recycler has to pull roughly 600kg over 5 working days. Most go to a recycling depot every two weeks as by then they have accumulated enough of each material to make the transaction worthwhile. Living centrally in the city requires a recycler to source material before it is claimed by others. Suburbs such as Yeoville and Kensington have too many recyclers already increasing the competition, this has resulted in many moving closer to the Newtown and Fordsburg areas as then they can reach further suburbs in a single day. Before taking the materials to be weighed, it needs to be separated according to material. Being able to accumulate, store and sort material near a buyback centres is the key factor in sustaining yourself as a Walker.

Theory | 52


40

Fig 29

A Pikitup vehicle dumping is load at a landfill site (Pikitup Johnannesburg Annual-Report, 2015)

Service Delivery Performance 53 | chapter 02


Pikitup Pikitup Johannesburg (SOC) Limited est. 2000 is an independent municipal entity owned by the City of Johannesburg. According to the service delivery agreement with the city they are mandated to provide sustainable integrated waste management services to all residential areas (formal and informal) and businesses in the City of Johannesburg. It services the entire 1 625km2 that is the CoJ, collecting and disposing of the 1.6 million tons of domestic waste generated. The mandate includes the provision of services to ensure the overall cleanliness of the CoJ’s streets (9000 km), open spaces, and certain public areas. I also offers commercial services to 17 000 businesses in the city (Pikitup Johannesburg Annual Report, 2014-2015) Pikitup owns and operates 12 waste management depots located across the city’s seven regions. It mangers 42 garden sites, one compost plant, one incinerator, 4 operational landfill sites and 2 closed landfill sites. All are licensed and comply with the National Department of Water and Forestry. (Pikitup Johannesburg Annual Report, 2014-2015)

Development Strategy 2040 (GDS 2040) paradigm, which responds to the global, national and regional challenges of climate change, resource constraints, the triple challenge of poverty, unemployment, and inequality, as well as improving the overall governance and compliance environment in the company. This new course requires increased focus on activities that will lead to waste minimisation and waste diverted away from landfill sites. A paradigm shift is needed to understand that waste is not “rubbish”, but a resource or a raw material. This requires a “full cycle” approach to waste management, with waste products becoming input materials to other value chains. It focuses on improved modes of collection, infrastructure, recycling and production partnerships and aims to change behaviour and create awareness.” (Pikitup Johannesburg Annual Report, 2014-2015)

“Pikitup’s approach to changing course is informed by the Polokwane Declaration of zero waste to landfill sites, and the Joburg Growth and Theory | 54


Johannesburg Pikitup depot sites Johannesburg pikitup depots sites

Joh

DIEPSLOOT

MIDRAND/ I V O RY PA R K

Midrand

ALEXANDRA SANDTON ROODEPOORT

Randburg Marlboro

NORTHCLIFF/ ROSEBANK Waterval Roodepoort

DOORNKLOOF/ SOWETO

Zondi D I E P K L O O F / MEADOWLANDS Central Camp

Norwood INNER CITY Shelby

D Southdale JOHANNESBURG SOUTH

Avalon

ENNERDALE/ O R A N G E FA R M

Pikitup Depots

Fig 30

Map of Pikitup waste management depots (Author 2018 - after Pikitup Johannesburg Annual Report, 2014-2015)

55 | chapter 02


Johannesburg Landfill sites Johannesburg landfill sites

DIEPSLOOT

MIDRAND/ I V O RY PA R K

Kya Sands Landfill ALEXANDRA SANDTON

Linbro Park Landfill Site

ROODEPOORT Panorama Composting site NORTHCLIFF/ ROSEBANK

Marie Lousie Landfill Site DIEPKLOOF/ MEADOWLANDS

DOORNKLOOF/ SOWETO

Goudkoppies Landfill Site

INNER CITY

Robinson Deep Landfill Site

JOHANNESBURG SOUTH

Ennerdale Landfill Site ENNERDALE/ O R A N G E FA R M

Landfill Sites

Fig 31

Map of Pikitup Landfill sites (Author 2018 - after Pikitup Johannesburg Annual Report, 2014-2015) Theory | 56


Processes

| Standard 01 01 Pikitup Service Standard Pikitup Service 1

Suburbs produce waste

Round

(standa Fig 32

Diagram explaining Pikitupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s standard refuse collection service (Author 2018 )

02 Seperation @ source

57 | chapter 02


01 | Standard Pikitup Service Round collected refuse (RCR) is the term given to the standard municipal solid waste collection service offered by Pikitup. It runs on a daily and weekly timetable using a decentralised method of strategically based depots, each with their own fleet. The depots act as a base camp of sorts from which refuse collection teams can operate. The depots provide maintenance for vehicles, storage bins, and performance and administration tasks but do not receive any waste.

completed, the truck returns to the depot where it is cleaned and filled ready for the next day. In this service all waste collected including recyclables is sent to landfill. There is no separating of recyclable waste done by Pikitup.

The diagram below shows the RCR process. Operating Monday to Friday the Pikitup service specific residential areas at specific times. Once the rubbish truck is full it disposes of its collected waste at the nearest landfill site and returns for another round until all the waste in the area specified for that day has been collected. Once the area has been

2

Round collected refuce

3

Waste goes to landfills

(standard municipal service)

Theory | 58


Suburbs produce waste

Round colle

(standard mun

02 Seperation @ source

02 | Separation @ source

1

2

Round collected refu

Suburbs produce & sort waste

(standard municipal serv

6

5

7 Materials recycled and sold back to the consumer Fig 33

Diagram explaining Pikitupâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Trial separate @ source program (Author, 2018 )

59 | chapter 02

Bails bought by recycling industry

Bailing St


02 | Separation @ source Separation at source is a trial program that is only running for specific areas that fall under the Waterval Pikitup depot (Pikitup, 2014). This trial program requires residents to separate their waste according to glass, paper, cans, and plastic. The recyclables are put in clear bags and organic waste is placed in standard rubbish bags. Both are required to be out at the same time on the same day. Pikitup Roundput collected refuce collects the organic (standard municipal service) waste and takes it to the nearest landfill site, the recyclables are collected by Mpact recycling who sort and bale the recyclable waste, which is then sold on to recycling and processing companies.

2

Waste goes to landfills

3

collected refuce municipal service)

4 A

Pikitup Depot seperate recyclables

Waste goes to landfills

5

4 B Bailing Station

sorted materials taken to respective industries Theory | 60


03 | The Informal recycler

03 The Informal recycler 1

Walkers collect recyclables

Fig 34

Diagram explaining The role of the informal recyclers (Author, 2018 )

61 | chapter 02

2

Sells goods only once its worthwhile


e

03 | The Informal Recycler The Round collected refuse (RCR) implemented by Pikitup has provided a platform for private companies and informal recyclers to make a living. The Pikitup schedule provides a timetable of sorts for the recyclers to work off of. The informal recyclers move through the streets ahead of the Pikitup refuse trucks reclaiming any recyclable waste. A mutually beneficial relationship has formed. The formal entity being Pikitup provides the structure that the informal players utilize. With that said, often it can be quite problematic as there is no written or formal agreement. The system in place can often become ineffective, because if the Pikitup vehicle gets to a road or area before the informal recyclers do all waste including the recyclables go to landfill. Informal recyclers suddenly have to compete with not only each other but larger private reclaiming companies, all trying to get to an area before one

3

Recycling depot & Bailing station

another and before Pikitup. The trial system, Separation at source mentioned previously is a scheme implemented my Pikitup to try reduce recyclable waste going to landfill. However it is detrimental to the livelihood of the Informal recyclers. A scheme like this is essentially trying to solve a problem that is already being fulfilled by the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Walkersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. The reclaimers are in fact providing Pikitup a service but their contributions are overlooked. Pikitup has the opportunity to form a socially and economically beneficial integrated waste management plan, all they need to do is acknowledge an already working system that involves not only them.

4

5

Bails bought by recycling industry

Materials recycled and sold back to the consumer

Theory | 62


03 The Informal recycler 1

2

Sells goods only once its worthwhile

Walkers collect recyclables

04 | Reclaiming recyclables from landfill

03 Reclaiming recyclables from landfill 1

Reclaiming recyclables

Fig 35

2

Sorting materials

Diagram explaining The role of the informal recycler reclaiming waste from landfill sites (Author, 2018 )

63 | chapter 02

3

Sells goods only once its worthwhile


e

e

04 | Reclaiming recyclables from landfill As stated previously bought from the recyclers. It5 is then baled and sold to 3 any waste collected by Pikitup 4 goes to landfill, this unfortunately leads to many the respective recycling and processing companies. recyclable materials being lost. This gap in the This form of waste picking is different to the other types Johannesburg integrated waste management mentioned previously, but emphasises how important process is filled by waste pickers who work on landfill the informal waste pickers role is. It illustrates the point sites. Waste reclaiming that occurs on the landfills that informal waste activities are entwined and directly is quite different to that of suburban picking. The linked to the formal networks, filling the gaps that informal recyclers - who are predominantly men, sift seem to be making all the difference when it comes to through all kinds of waste looking for recyclables such recovering recyclable materials. as glass, metal, plastic and paper. The trucks dump their loads on site and the informal recyclers sort through Recycling the waste,depot picking valuable & out whatever isBails bought by Materials recycled and sold and packing it into their own material specific wovenindustry Bailing station recycling back to the consumer bags. Once these bags are full they are taken to the on site buy back centre where it is weighed and

5

4

Recycling depot & Bailing station

5

6

Bails bought by recycling industry

Materials recycled and sold back to the consumer

5 Theory | 64


Fig 36

Cartoon strip explaining on gentrification (Lees, Slater and Wyly, 2013)

65 | chapter 02


02 |

iv

G E N T R I F I C AT I O N

Gentrification is deeply rooted in social dynamics and economic trends. It’s signs, effects and trajectories are deeply rooted in its local context. In the end, the “why” of gentrification is less important than the “how” and the repercussions of the process. (van Weesep (1994; 80)). How it came about... The term gentrification was first used by the British socialist Ruth Glass in 1964. She used the term gentrification to describe certain processes of urban change that were beginning to effect inner London. The changes she described are now know as those of ‘classic gentrification’. “One by one, many of the working class quarters of London have been Invaded by the middle classes-upper and lower. Shabby, modest mews and cottages-two rooms up and two down-have been taken over, when their leases have expired, and have become elegant, expensive residences. Larger Victorian houses, downgraded in an earlier or recent period which were used as lodging houses or were otherwise in multiple occupation have been upgraded once again. Nowadays, many of these houses are being subdivided into costly flats or “houselets” (in terms of the new real estate snob jargon). The current social status and value of such dwellings are frequently in inverse

relation to their status, and in any case enormously inflated by comparison with previous levels on their neighbourhoods. Once this process of ‘gentrification’ starts in a district, It goes on rapidly until all or most of the original working class occupiers are displaced and the social character of the district is changed." (Glass 1964: xviii-xix) Gentrification or gentry-fication means the replacement of an existing population by a gentry. The emergence of gentrification began in postwar capitalist cities. It’s earliest systematic occurrences was in the 1950’s in large metropolitan cities like Boston, Washington, London and New York. (contra Clark 2005) In both the United States and Britain postwar urban renewal meant the total demolishing of old neighbourhoods to be replaced by modern housing and highways. As the destruction spread, so did the protest action against it. In the beginning the protesters were mainly historians and architecture enthusiasts, who were eventually joined by young, middle-class families who bought and renovated beat-up, turn-of-the-century houses in ‘bad’ neighbourhoods. In New York City, this was called ‘brownstoning’; in Baltimore, ‘homesteading’; in Toronto, ‘whitepainting’ or ‘whitewalllng’. Each term has its own little history. The term ‘brownstoning’, for example, came from the brownstoning movement in New York City. A brownstone is a building constructed or faced with, Theory | 66


Fig 37 A Brownstoner Newsletter on gentrification (Lees, Slater and Wyly, 2013) 67 | chapter 02


a soft sandstone which ages in colour, turning a chocolate brown. The pro-gentrification group the Brownstone Revival Committee was founded in New York City in 1968 by Everett Ortner, a pioneer gentrifier in Park Slope. The committee’s magazine, The Brownstoner, advocated brownstone living, provided historical analysis and rehabilitation tips, and voiced news and issues surrounding brownstones and their gentrification. Brownstoning was stylized as an act of love: I think one should approach the acquisition of a brownstone, the way one goes into a love affair: eyes open, but half closed too.... Pipes can be fixed, cracked walls repaired, painted woodwork stripped, old heating plants replaced. Those are only incidentals. What really counts is love.... To the non-lover it is merely a row-house. To the brownstone connoisseur, it is part of an architecturally homogeneous cityscape, scaled perfectly for its function, housing many but offering each person space and privacy and a civilized style of living. (‘The Brownstoner’ 1969; reprinted in 1991)

class neighbourhoods by the middle and upper classes’. The 2004 American Heritage Dictionary has altered that definition slightly: ‘the restoration and upgrading of deteriorated urban property by middle class and affluent people, often resulting in displacement of lower-income people’. The 2000 Dictionary of Human Geography, however, in an entry written by Neil Smith, Signified that the term itself was bound to change as the process evolved: ‘gentrification - The reinvestment of CAPITAL at the urban centre, which is designed to produce space for a more affluent class of people than currently occupies that space. The term, coined by Ruth Glass in 1964, has mostly been used to describe the residential aspects of this process but this is changing, as gentrification itself evolves’. (N. Smith 2000: 294)

Definition of gentrification Early definitions of gentrification by authors such as Neil Smith (1982: 139) were closely aligned to Glass’s (1964) description: “By gentrification I mean the process by which working class residential neighbourhoods are rehabilitated by middle class home buyers, land lords and professional developers. I make the theoretical distinction between gentrification and redevelopment. Redevelopment involves not rehabilitation of old structures but the construction of new buildings on previously developed land.” The 1980 Oxford American Dictionary defined ‘gentrification’ as the ‘movement of middle class families into urban areas causing property values to increase and having the secondary effect of driving out poorer families’; whilst the 1982 the American Heritage Dictionary defined it as the ‘restoration of deteriorated urban property especially in working Theory | 68


Fig 38

The Maboneng Precinct (Propertuity.co.za, 2018)

Fig 39

Fordsburg Flea Market (Gauteng.net, 2018)

69 | chapter 02


Gentrification in Johannesburg The City of Johannesburg is a fast pace driven place and its buildings and neighbourhoods are transforming just as quickly. Places like Fordsburg and the Maboneng Precinct have a fast developing hipster feel about them, however these now new suburbs have been carved out of what was a workingclass neighbourhood. These new and improved hubs of creativity are now attracting more middle-class residents, resulting in rental prices sky rocketing in the area. New businesses are opening, blocks that were previously no go zones are now home to galleries, café’s and museums - this would often be described as gentrification. “Our vision of the inner city is to make it the inclusive, modern and diverse heartbeat of Johannesburg,” Herman Mashaba. "The revitalisation of the centre was “pivotal” to the city’s economic growth", he added. Words like - Improvements, developing and better are all used when describing gentrification but there are two sides. The social implications have become tragic as redevelopment has resulted in waves of evictions of people who have lived in the unsafe, abandoned buildings for decades. "The biggest stumbling block to city gentrification is the people already living there," say Stuart Wilson , executive director of South Africa’s Socio-Economic Rights Institute (Seri). The city of Johannesburg's gentrification problem is rooted in its past when law stipulating that black people could not stay in urban areas began to crumble with the abolishment of Apartheid in the late 1980's. The city attracted rural migrants from all over South Africa, who were renting from white property owners illegally. With buildings becoming overcrowded with the sudden influx of people, the white population abandoned the city centre leaving there properties unmanaged. With no attempt at state regulation, the legacy of neglect resulted in a lack of public housing being built to alleviate unsafe

conditions in the city centre. Seri estimates that a third of the cities population cannot afford market rent prices. These people include taxi drivers, cleaners and petrol pump attendants on whom the renovated cafés, bars and galleries depend. As a result such development is forcing the very poor currently living in the city to move to the distant edges of Johannesburg where rent is cheaper. Many are forced to stay in the already crowded townships that were established in the apartheid regime. More on Maboneng... The Maboneng precinct, which is still surrounded by mostly low-income black people, is a distinctly hipster “cultural time zone” with upmarket bars, fashionable restaurants, creative work spaces and loft apartments. It has more in common with its equivalents in EuroAmerica than the less developed local areas adjacent to it. Maboneng represents one type of urban “development” that’s backed by the proponents  of “global cities”. The problem with this type of development is that it often leads to cities becoming more spatially unequal as urban regeneration or gentrification displaces people as mentioned previously. The blatant disregard for the locals is unfathomable as signs stipulate that no informal recyclers are allowed across the boarders into the Maboneng precinct. It does seem that any attempt to develop an area will have the possibility of displacing the people who are already there, and who utilise the space as it works for them currently. When your primary focus is to improve the lifestyles of a prominent and to a degree sensitive figure like the informal recycler it becomes important to understand why they gather in the spaces that they do and accept that any development or intervention that is essentially for them will not align with the common trend of “global cities”.

Theory | 70


INTUITION

LIVED SPACE

SOCIAL SPACE PERCEIVED SPACE INSTINCT

Fig 40

Triad of space production (Author, 2018 - after Henri Lefebvre)

71 | chapter 02

ABSTRACT SPACE INTELLECT


02 |

v

S PA C E A N D P L A C E

Space and place Space is a container for place and place results in a need for space or a change in space. In John Agnew’s words place is a “distinctive coming together in space” (2011:2)this highlights the cohesive nature of the two terms and how they relate to one another. This furthers the idea that space is a container for place. In essence space is the blank canvas that place paints its distinctive picture on. In Sense of place(2011) pg13, “Is it sensible, perhaps even irresistible, to assume that human experience begins with space and time and then proceeds to place. Are not space and time universal in scope, and place merely particular? Can place do anything but specify what is already the case in space and time? Or might it be that place is something special, with its own essential structures and modes of experience, even something universal in its own way?”. Newtown seems to portray this in its memory of what was, it has maintained its practical and honest typology. It seems to be a place that is true to its self and the people that utilise and in turn need it to survive. It is hard, it is tough and it is unforgiving, but it is true to its function and excluded no-one. Space, as a term that carries many meanings in various contexts. The key words from all these definitions are that space is : continuous, unoccupied, blank, an expression of structure through a set of points, freedom and lastly space is a position. In

essence space is an expression of physicality or physical elements. It is something that is bare but continues in time. In the architectural sense space is the bits and pieces between built forms that house activities or people. Simply, space is something that will be or must be occupied. According to Agnew,(2011:1) who writes about space and place, “space is regarded largely as a dimension with which matter is located” This further emphasises the concept of space being something that is unoccupied or rather it is the bare element in which something is occupied. Further on in his writing he likens space to that which is “general”, In essence space is found anywhere and everywhere and is generic in its attributes (Agnew, 2011: 6). He also addresses Henri Lefebvre’s ideas about space, where Lefebvre categorises spaces as three main types that help us in understanding what space is and how it comes to be place. The three categories are: abstract or conceived, perceived and lived space. Abstract/conceived space According to John Agnew’s understanding of the term abstract space, it is space that is “ produced by economic transactions”(2011:18). It is space that is “colonised” by money or hierarchy etc. Similarly conceived space is space that is planned or designed by people such as “architects,planners and urbanists” (Lefebvre, 1991:16) and in a sense try to tell people Theory | 72


01

Fig 41

Merry Fitzgerald Square, Newtown Johannesburg (Image: Anthony Comyn, 2014

Fig 42

20 000 South Africans from all walks of life demonstrate in Merry Fitzgerald square (image: Deon Dwarfe, 2017)

Fig 43

Concert in Merry Fitzgerald square (image: www.inyourpocket.com/Johannesburg/mary-fitzgerald-square, 2018)

02

03

73 | chapter 02


how to live or experience the space Perceived space Is the physical space and is spaced associated with production. Lived space Is space that can be changed by activity. Lefebvre says that “space is inherently social” and that” you cannot separate space with social productions”. (1991:16) This suggests that lived space is partly dependant on the way in which people experience the space. It is a space in which social interactions take place. Lefebvre also says that “user’s space is lived” (1991:16) suggest that lived space is that is determined by the user. Place, similarly to space, place carries many meanings in various contexts. Meanings such as a way to rank something, a position in social order, a portion of space, an area in space and lastly a building or area used for an activity. Unlike space place becomes more specific to a particular location and various places can be found in one space. When we say that space is specific we refer to the characteristics of place as place is influenced by time, people and culture. Therefore it becomes more specific in that regard and that the same place will not necessarily be found elsewhere but in the time and space that it is in. Therefore place is more about the social as, place is some what determined by activity or those who occupy that space. It is particularly interesting that place is likened to a “portion of space ”, In that regard place is rapidly changing and results in space changing as people move through spaces. Further on in John Agnew’s writing he says that place is a “spatial grid defined by a non-spatial process”(2011:3) The interrelationship Space is a container for place and place results in a need for space or a change in space. In John Agnew’s words place is a “distinctive coming together in space” (2011:2). To sum up the interrelationship Agnew phrases it beautifully when he says that the “social production of the spaces within which social life takes place”.(2011:18)

Now that we have defined the concepts of space and place we can address the relationship of space and place in Newtown. A discussion around the streets in Newtown is imperative in trying to understand the nature of this phenomenon and how it takes place. The Streets are mere spaces that are structured with pavings and the basics of space making. What makes the streets a place in Newtown are the various activities that take place in the street at different times. For instance, Merry Fitzgerald square and its surrounding streets is accessible to a certain calibre of people in that it accommodates to pedestrian activity. However, as a place it can differ depending on the time and day. For the purpose of understanding place making practices this is one way in which the streets of Newtown become a place. Not only is it the physical things that propel us to perceive the streets as a place but it is the people whom occupy these streets at different times. Different streets are utilised by different people at different times and therefore creating different places due to the character and activities carried out by these people. In the same breath of walk-ability, elements in the streets that cause us to pause and experience different emotions help to create different places. To the left the images show how the space can become different places at different times: 01 Merry Fitzgerald Square on an ordinary week day 02 It is used to make a political statement or protest 03 It host concerts and recreational celebrations often on the weekends It is therefore safe to say that Newtown can have many places within itself as a space. Newtown and the buildings are merely the spaces containing various activities. Agnew says, “place is the setting for social rootedness and landscape continuity”(2011:8) In other words, places are defined by lived experiences who’s roots lie in the social aspects which makes for a continuous Newtown due to the continuous in flux of people. Therefore in that regard we can conclude that there are many types of Newtown's within Newtown that cater to various people therefore creating various places. Theory | 74


Fig 44

Collage of littered streets of Johannesburg (images: Pikitup annual report, 2007,8,9)

75 | chapter 02


A Place of Waste As mentioned previously, walk-ability and how elements in the streets cause us to pause create different places. We as human beings have an automatic reaction to different types of environments. Clean, lush parks in the summer can be calming and joyous, a dark alley at night can bring on fear or make us feel uneasy. We tend to avoid dirty places as dirt is associated with disease and look down on people who work or are around dirty environments. Johannesburg is a city that has always gone through rapid change, from simple farms to mining camps, to a city surrounded with mine dumps, to those mounds becoming less and less. What if in the not to distant future, Johannesburg becomes a city surrounded in filth. Where vast mind dumps become landfill sites or the overwhelming amount of litter in the streets never stops growing. How would the city as a place feel then? Johannesburg has 8 years left of landfill, this is a statement I keep repeating because do we really and truly understand what this means and what the repercussions of this is. Waste management and garbage removal is something that is overlooked to often. We have no more air space left in The City of Johannesburg for new Landfill sites and the 8 years remaining refer to the limits of the existing ones. With very little planned going forward and the only answer currently being the 3R's (reduce, reuse, recycle) in a city that

only recycles 10% of their waste, a city surrounded in filth doesn't sound to far fetched. Here I try to elevate the concept of waste, and understand how it effects the quality of a space is key in emphasising the fact that we as a society need to start appreciating the removal of waste more. We need to change our mind set of trash being this around the corner back alley type of thing when essentially the process of removing it involves all of us. We all as consumers produce waste, therefore we all should play apart in dealing with it. The pictures on the left are all incidences in Johannesburg where streets have been littered or where mind dumps have encroached a little to close into our living space. How do these pictures make you feel? Would you accept this, if it was your everyday environment? Recycling and the procedures set in place currently to promote recycling are going ahead but what about the underlying problem of the nonrecyclables and our organic waste. Where does it go if there is no where for it to go to? What are we doing about the waste on landfills now and the magnitude of our landfill sites currently? Theory | 76


77 | chapter 02


02 |

vi

TIME FOR CHANGE

Redesigning the process I think the solution to Johannesburg's landfill issue lies in the process, therefore I intend to redesign the Johannesburg recycling depot. What is a recycling depot? Generally it is a yard, a weigh station or a buy back centre, where waste collectors (Pikitup, private companies, informal recyclers, general public) drop off their collected recyclable goods in exchange for money. It is sorted and then respective industries buy back the recyclable material and non-recyclables go to landfill. By re-designing these â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;middle menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; type depots, into a multifaceted recycling station

WEIGH STATIONB

ALING & BUY BACK CENTRE

which will include all of the above mentioned stations and centres as well as a waste to energy power plant, pressure will be taken off the landfills and hopefully the landfills themselves could be sorted and reprocessed back into the depot. This will provide a more organised and material specific station where industry can buy back their recyclables, and the more organic waste that is left over is then incinerated in the plant and that energy will be placed into the electrical grid.

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE INCINERATION PLANT

Theory | 78


02

03.2

04

03.1

10%

01

07

08

09 79 | chapter 02


Current Process The diagram to the left shows the current cycle of waste. The Inner cycle describes how recyclable materials get from the consumer to their respective processors however only an estimated 10% of waste gets recycled in Johannesburg. The outer cycle is Johannesburg's standard municipal service. Pikitup collects all waste that hasn't been collected by the different 'pickers' (private, informal recyclers) and takes it to landfill. No sorting of waste takes place. 01 The consumer 02 Pikitup standard service 03.1Waste pickers

05

03.2Sorting of recyclable waste 04 Weigh station: recyclables are weighed and bought from the pickers 05 It is then taken to a baling & buy back centre. Often waste falls off trucks and litter streets during transportation 06

06

Baling and Buy back centre

Respective industries buy the bales of recyclable waste 07 and again often waste falls off trucks and litter streets during transportation

90%

Respective industries such as Mpact and Nampack 08 recycle the waste and once again it is sold to the consumer 09

Landfill sites

Theory | 80


02

100%

03.2 08

03.1

05

01

07

06

09 81 | chapter 02


Proposed Process The diagram to the left shows the proposed process. The goal is not only 0 waste to landfill but to reprocess the existing landfill sites into the new Depot. This not only provides opportunity for land reform but provides the initial feed of waste needed to start the Incinerator furnace. Often Incineration plants ain't viable as there isn't a constant feed of waste to keep the furnace running.

X

01 The consumer 02 Pikitup standard municipal service redirected to new depot 03.1Waste pickers 03.2Sorting of recyclable waste by waste pickers

+

+

04 Redesigned recycling depot & MSW Incineration plant 04

05 Generation of power being put into the electrical grid 06 Respective recycling companies buy back their bales of recyclable waste 07 Respective industries such as Mpact and Nampack recycle the waste and once again it is sold to the consumer 08 Landfill sites are reprocessed into the new depot 09 Landfill sites gradually reduce, providing the opportunity for land reform. NOTE: Now waste is transported to only one depot to be processed before going to Industries to be recycled this also reduces the amount of waste littering the streets as a result of transportation (falling off trucks)

Theory | 82


Principal Solid waste ac�vi�es

Principal Technologies

Final Product

Sor�ng

Recycling

Produc�on, trade & consump�on

Solid Waste

Collec�on

Transporta�on

Transfer-sta�ons

Manual sor�ng Recycling Treatment (op�onal)

Recycling Fig 45

Mecanical sor�ng

Compos�ng

Recycling

Incinera�on

Recycling

Scavenging

Recycling

Recycling

The flow of waste and how it lands up at landfills (Author, 2018 after World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999)

83 | chapter 02


Waste to Energy Incineration Solid waste management is a huge problem in many of the world’s largest urban areas as populations flock to the cities. This has led to increasing quantities of domestic solid waste while space for disposal has decreased. This section focuses on large-scale incineration plants for large urban areas It does not address hazardous and infectious wastes. Although these to can be dealt with in W2E incineration plants.

wastes are materials and by-products with potentially negative value for the possessor. Understanding what may be considered waste will thus change with the circumstances of the possessor as well as in time and place. Waste may be transformed into a resource simply by transporting it to a new place or through treatment.

Solid waste arises from human activities—domestic, commercial, industrial, agricultural, waste water treatment, and so on. If the waste is not properly handled and treated, it will have a negative impact on the hygienic conditions in urban areas and pollute the air, surface and ground water. Therefore a hygienic and efficient system for collection and disposing of solid waste is crucial for any community. Generally, the demands on the solid waste management system increase with the size of the community and its per capita income. The diagram to the left shows that the final destination of waste is always a disposal site. Residues from waste treatment processes are returned to the waste mainstream and end up in the landfill with untreated waste.

A waste-to-energy plant converts solid waste into electricity and/or heat - an ecological, cost-effective way of energy recovery. A waste-to-energy plant converts municipal and industrial solid waste into electricity and/or heat for industrial processing and for district heating systems – an ecologically sound, cost-effective means of energy recovery. The energy plant works by burning waste at high temperatures and using the heat to make steam. The steam then drives a turbine that creates electricity. Waste-toenergy isn’t just a trash disposal method. It’s a way to recover valuable resources. Waste-to-energy is a vital part of a sustainable waste management chain and is fully complementary to recycling. Today, it is possible to reuse 90 % of the metals contained in the bottom ash and the remaining clinker can be reused as road material. Waste-to-energy is one of the most robust and effective alternative energy options to reduce CO2 emissions and replace fossil fuels.

Resource recovery and recycling reflect that solid

Incinerators for municipal solid waste is adapted where Theory | 84


Waste facts!

tons of waste equals tons of waste equals

85 | chapter 02

ton of oil.

ton

of coal.


land for sanitary landfills is scarce, and financial and highly trained labourers are available. Moreover, heat, energy and precious metals may be recovered from the ashes and reused. There are three main types of large-scale incinerators: 1. Mass-burn incinerators 2. Fluidised-bed incinerators 3. Modular incinerators The primary benefit of municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a substantial reduction of the weight (up to 75%) and volume (up to 90%) of solid waste, which can be valuable if landfill space is scarce. (http://www.sswm.info, 2018). In considering the MSW incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant capital and operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating an incinerator (adapted from UNEP 1996).

and maintenance costs • Lack of convertible currency for purchase of spare parts • Operation and maintenance failures (including lack of skilled workers) • Problems with the waste characteristics and quantity • Poor plant management • Inadequate institutional arrangements (World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999)

MSW incineration can constitute a sound practice only in situations where most or all of the following conditions hold (adapted from UNEP 1996): • Suitable landfill space is scarce, making incineration a cost-effective alternative. • The necessary environmental controls are properly installed and maintained. • The facility is properly sized and sited to fit well with other components of the MSW management (MSWM) system. • The material to be burned is combustible and has sufficient energy content. • There are nearby energy markets. Introducing mechanical treatment of MSW entails a significant jump in technology and costs and is generally only feasible when all waste is already being disposed of in a sanitary landfill. The failure of MSW incineration plants is usually caused by one or more of the following: • Inability or unwillingness to pay the full treatment fee, which results in insufficient revenue to cover loan instalments and operation Theory | 86


Fig 46

Diagram of Mass burner Incineration (BBC, 2009)

Fig 47

Fluidised-bed Incineration ( Eisenmann (n.y.) and GEC (n.y.))

Fig 48

Modular Incineration (Consutech, 2004)

87 | chapter 02


Mass-burn incinerators Mass-burn systems are the predominant form of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incineration. Massburn systems generally consist of either two or three incineration units ranging in capacity from 50 to 1,000 tons per day; thus, facility capacity ranges from about 100 to 3,000 tons per day. These facilities can accept refuse that has undergone little pre-processing other than the removal of oversized items, such as refrigerators and sofas. Although this versatility makes mass-burn facilities

convenient and flexible, local programs need to be put in place to separate household hazardous wastes (e.g., cleaners and pesticides) and the recovery of certain materials (e.g., iron scrap) are necessary to help ensure environmentally responsible incineration and resource conservation. (UNEP 1996)

Fluidised-bed Incinerator In a fluidised-bed incinerator, the stoker grate is replaced by a bed of limestone or sand that can withstand high temperatures, fed by an air distribution system. The heating of the bed and the increasing of the air velocities cause the bed to bubble, which gives rise to the term â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;fluidisedâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;. There are two types of fluidised-bed technologies, a bubbling bed and a circulating bed. The differences are reflected in the relationship between air flow and bed material, and have implications for the

type of wastes that can be burned, as well as the heat transfer to the energy recovery system. They are widely used in Japan and have a capacity between 50 and 150 tons per day. (UNEP 1996)

Modular Incinerator Modular incinerator units are usually prefabricated units with small to medium capacities of between 5 and 120 tons of solid waste per day. Typical facilities have between one and four units for a total plant capacity of about 15 to 400 tons per day. The majority of modular units produce steam as the sole energy product. Due to their small capacity, modular incinerators are generally used in smaller communities or for commercial and industrial operations. Their prefabricated design gives modular

facilities the advantage of shorter construction times. Modular incinerators employ a somewhat different process than mass-burn incinerators, typically involving two combustion chambers. Gases generated in the primary chamber flow to an afterburner, which ensures more complete combustion and often serves as the primary means of pollution control. The modular incineration option has become less common, however, in part due to concerns over the consistency and adequacy of air pollution controls. (UNEP 1996) Theory | 88


Fig 49

The flue gas cleaning system of modern incineration plants (Hannover, Germany). Source EON (n.y.)

89 | chapter 02


Cost Considerations Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) incineration is typically only cost-effective in regions where land suitable for land filling is scarce. Such landfill scarcity can arise due to geographical constraints, as with a highly urbanised region, or environmental conditions, as in regions where the water table is high. Jurisdictional and political boundaries can also constrain the size and number of sites available for land filling, thereby increasing the attractiveness of incineration (adapted from UNEP 1996). Health Aspects and Pollution In addition to heat, the products of incineration include the normal primary products of combustion - carbon dioxide and water, as well as oxides of sulphur and nitrogen and other gaseous pollutants; non-gaseous products include fly ash and unburned solid residue. Emissions of fly ash and other particles are often controlled by wet scrubbers, electrostatic precipitators, and bag filters (ABUBAKAR 2006) Incineration systems must have complex air pollution control (APC) systems in order to meet the required limits for protecting the quality of the ambient air and human health. Therefore, the institutional framework and policies are crucial in order to enforce that environmental and health standards are met.

The complexity is a result of the fact that modern APC systems include provisions for controlling a number of pollutants to very low concentrations (e.g., parts per million or per billion). The provisions include control and manipulation of the combustion process itself within the combustion chamber and the use of postcombustion techniques, including the use of chemical reagents and of special mechanical and electrical systems to process the combustion gases (UNEP 2005). Operation and Maintenance Highly specialised personnel must service APC equipment regularly. Monitoring equipment is costly and requires aggressive maintenance and servicing by trained technicians. In summary, when incineration is done in a manner that has low adverse health and environmental impacts, it is expensive. When it is done poorly (with low financial costs) it can be expensive in terms of human health and environmental impacts. in short, The Working Principal of MSW Incineration It is basically the process of combusting solid waste under controlled, approximately stoichiometric conditions to reduce its weight and volume, and often to produce energy (electricity, heat). Theory | 90


waste requires little or no pretreatment. Mass burning systems are typically based on a moving grate. Mass burn incineration with a movable grate incinerator is a widely used and thoroughly tested technology. It meets the demands for technical performance and can accommodate large variations in waste composition and calorific value. A less common mass burning alternative is the rotary kiln.

The heart of an incineration plant is the combustion system—which can be divided into two broad categories: mass burning of “as-received” and inhomogeneous waste,and burning of pretreated and homogenized waste. For an overview of the different technologies and combinations hereof, see diagram 3.1, “Technological Overview.” Technical Overview

Diagram 3.1 Technological Overview Pretreatment Sorting

Homogenization

No Sorting

Coarse Mechanical Sorting

Incineration Furnace

Moving Grate

Mixing

Rotary Kiln

Energy Recovery Boiler

Energy Production Power Generation

End Use

Recovery Overall Recovery

Heat Only

80%

80%

Steam Only

80%

80%

No Recovery

0%

0%

Power Only

35%

35%

Heat Exchangers

Hot Water Boiler

LP Steam Boiler

Heat Production

Efficiency

Condensing Steam Turbine

Cooling Tower

0-35%

Automatic Sorting

Shredding

Fluidized Bed

75%

Extraction Turbine

Steam Boiler

35–75%

Combined Steam and Power

20–25%

65–60% Fine Manual Sorting

Fig 50

Back Pressure Turbine

Condensing Heat Exchanger

Technical overview of the process (World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999)

51

91 | chapter 02

Combined Heat and Power

85%


Furthermore, the chosen (or proposed) supcontinuous operationa and complete burntechnology grate. plier must havewith numerous moveable reference plants in Incineration Technology out of the waste and flue gases (CO<50 Furthermore, the chosen (or proposed) supsuccessful operation for a number of years. 3 3). mg/Nm mg/Nm plier must, TOC<10 have numerous reference plants in When implementing an MSW incineration plant, the successful operation for a number of years. ✓ The furnace must bebe designed for stable and At present, • With a movable grate, the waste may be burned technology must feasible and proven. The annual amount of waste for incineration continuous operation and complete burnwithout sorting, shred- ding, or drying. However, only the mass burning incinerator with a moveable be nomust less be than 50,000for metric tons, ✓ should The furnace designed stable and outgrate of the waste and flue gases (CO<50 an overhead crane typically removes inappropriate fulfils variations these criteria. Furthermore, suppliers and the weekly in the 3, TOC<10 3). waste supply continuous operation and complete burnmg/Nm mg/Nm bulky waste from the pit through a coarse and with numerous reference plants in successful to theofplant not exceed 20 percent. Technologysimple sorting. outoperation the should waste flue of gases (CO<50 for a and number years also inIncineration lowand Incineration Technology 3, TOC<10 mg/Nm3). mg/Nm The annual amount of waste for incineration middle-income countries (preferably) must With abemovable grate, the waste The Grate With a movable grate, the waste The Grate chosen. should be no less than 50,000 metric tons, may be burned without sorting,shredThe grate forms t atment of Wasteamount of waste for incineration may be burned without sorting,shredThe annual The grate forms t and the weekly variations in the waste supply Incineration Technology ding,or drying. However, an overhead ing grate, if prop Pretreatment of Waste should be no less than 50,000 metric tons, ding,or drying. However, an overhead ing grate, if prop to the plant should not exceed 20 percent. crane typically removes inappropriate and agitates the w dingand on the of the waste the incinerIncineration Technology the quality weekly variations in and the waste supply crane typically removes inappropriate and Grate agitates the w With a movable grate, the waste The bulky waste from the pit through a tion air. The grat system, sorting and homogenizing the waste may to Sorting the plant should not exceed 20 percent. bulkybewaste from the pit through a tion grate air. The gratt burned without sorting,shredThe forms coarse and sorting. adjustable a With aorsimple movable grate, the waste The Grate zones, incineration maymay be necessary. waste be sorted manually, automatically, No Sorting coarse and simple sorting. adjustable zones, a ding,or drying. However, an overhead ing grate, if prop atmentThe of Waste No Sorting preheated to acct may be burned without sorting,shredThe grate forms Homogenization mechanically, or as a combination: preheated crane typically removes inappropriate and agitatestotheacc w Homogenization calorific value of ding,or drying. However, overhead ing grate, if prop Some an degree of waste homogenization is always Manual and advanced automatic sorting allows gatment• of Waste Homogenization calorific value of waste from the pit through a tion air. The grate ding on the quality of the waste and the inciner- bulky Some degree of waste homogesever necessary. To control the energy input and are the typically removes inappropriate andThere agitates the w wastemanually, to be divided into recyclable materials, aste may bethe sorted automatically, or crane Some degree of waste There are sever and simple sorting.homogeadjustable zones, a system, sorting and homogenizing the waste coarse No Sorting nization is always necessary. forward movem combustion process, proper mixing of the waste is waste for treatment, and waste which is suitable waste from the pit through a tion air. The grat nically—or as a combination thereof. ding on the quality ofnecessary. the waste and the inciner- bulky nization is always necessary. forward movem preheated to acc incineration may be necessary before incineration. only for direct land filling. To and control thesorting. energy input movement,zones, rockin coarse simple adjustable a nual andsorting advanced sorting No Sorting system, and automatic homogenizing the allows waste Homogenization To control the energy input movement, rockin calorific value of t • For mass burn incineration, the mixing is typically and the combustion process, be suitable as wel preheated to wel acc aste to be divided into and the combustion process, be There suitable Some degree of wastedone homogeareassever gincineration may be necessary. by the proper mixing of the waste is overhead crane in the pit. The detailed Homogenization calorific value of d able materials, waste for proper mixing of necessary. the waste is The detailed d is always forward moveme aste may be sorted manually, automatically, or nization Mixing necessary before incineration. manufacturer, and Some degree of waste homogeThere are sever ment, and waste which is Mixing gnically—or necessary before incineration. manufacturer, and To control the energy input movement, rockin as a combination thereof. For massisburn incineration, carefully evaluate nization always necessary. the forward movem le for direct asteonly may sorted landmanually, or and For mass incineration, the carefully the burn combustion process, be suitableevaluate as well nual and be advanced automaticautomatically, sorting allows mixing is typically done by the Moreover, the des To control the energy input movement, rockin Fine Manual nically—or a combination thereof. mixing is typically donewaste by the Moreover, the desd proper mixing of the is The detailed aste to be as divided into Sorting overhead in the pit.process, by suitable the manufactu and the crane combustion be as wel ancedand sorting processes, Mixing nual advanced automatic sorting allows overhead crane in the pit. by the manufactu necessary before incineration. manufacturer, and able materials, waste for A shredder when eralThe relevant referd proper mixingmay of be theused waste is detailed er, are consuming aste to bewaste divided into Amass shredder be used when eral relevant refer Moving Grate • time Advanced sorting processes, however, time Forare burnmay incineration, theIncineration carefully evaluate ment, and which is Mixing there are before large quantities of necessary incineration. manufacturer, and stly, take up a lotwaste of space, conventional Mass burn incinerator based the on des able materials, for there large The quantities of and costly, take up a lot ofmixing space,are and is typically done by the Moreover, le only forconsuming direct landbulky waste. For fluidized bed The Furnace For mass burn incineration, the consists of a layer burning carefully quireand special precautions moving on evaluate the require special to ensure that the ment, waste which is precautions bulky waste. fluidized bed Thethe Furnace overhead craneFor inathe pit. grate by manufactu Fine Manual incineration, shredding is a The walls in the Shredding mixing is typically done by the Moreover, des ure that the sorters do not grate transporting material through the furnace. Anrefer sorters do not suffer any health problems as the Sorting le only for direct landincineration, shredding is a The relevant walls the in the Shredding A shredder may be used when eral anced sorting processes, minimum requirement and furrefractory lined overhead crane inoverhead the pit. by thewhere manufactu any health problems as thework. feeds waste into the hopper, it o result of their minimum requirement andcrane furrefractory lined o there are large quantities of er, are time consuming Fine Manual Automatic ther is necessary. wall furnaces oper A pretreatment shredder may be used whenvia the chute to the grate ineral relevant refer of their sorting work. processes, is transported the furnace. Sorting Sorting anced ther pretreatment is necessary. wall Furnace furnaces oper bulky waste. For fluidized bed The stly, take up a lot of space, the volume of the there are large On quantities the grate, of the waste is dried and then burned at high rse are mechanical sorting er, time precautions consuming the volume the incineration, shredding is a The walls inof the Shredding quire special Movingwaste. Grate For Incineration control equipmen bulky fluidized bed temperature with a supply of air. The grate forms the The Furnace ot be sufficient forspace, flustly, take up a lot of Moving Grate Incineration control equipmen minimum requirement and furrefractory lined o ure that the sorters do not The conventional mass burn based on a grate, pagein54the fo bottom of istheincinerator moving if walls properly incineration, shredding a furnace. The TheSee Shredding bed incineration, but can quire special precautions The pretreatment conventional mass burn incinerator based on a page 54 fo ther is necessary. wallSee furnaces oper any health problems as the designed, efficiently transports and agitates moving grate consists of and a layered burning on the grate datathe for waste mass buro minimum requirement furrefractory lined d for mass burning incinAutomatic ure that the sorters do not moving grate consists of a layered burning on the grate datavolume for mass of bur the of their work. Sorting and evenly distributes combustion air. the transporting material through the furnace. grate. ther pretreatment is necessary. wall oper n. It may beproblems performed on any as the transporting material through the furnace. grate.furnaces Moving Grate Incineration control equipmen rse health mechanical sorting • Coarse may not be sufficient Coarse Mechanical An overhead crane feeds waste the volume of the eption hall floor. mechanical sorting Automatic Sorting of work. overhead crane feeds waste TheAn conventional mass burn incinerator based on a See page 54 fo ottheir be sufficient for fluSorting for fluidized bed incineration, but can be used into the hopper, where it is transRotary Kiln Incine Moving Grate Incineration control equipmen rse incineration, mechanical sorting into the hopper, where it is transRotary Incine moving grate consists of a layered burning on the grate data forKiln mass bur bed but can for mass burning incineration. ported via the chutemass to theburn grate in TheSee mass burnin The conventional incinerator based on a page 54 fo ot be sufficient for fluported via thematerial chute to the grate in The mass burnin transporting through the furnace. grate. d for mass burning incinthe furnace.On the grate,the waste consists of a layer moving grate consists of a layered burning on the grate data for mass bur incineration, but can theAn furnace.On grate,the consists of a layer overheadthe crane feeds waste n.bed It may be performed on is dried and then burned at high the waste in a rot transporting material through the furnace. grate. Coarse Mechanical deption for mass is dried and thenwhere burned high the waste a rot into the hopper, it isattransRotary KilninIncine hallburning floor. incinMoving Grate Sorting temperature with a supply of air. The material i An overhead crane feedsofwaste Moving Grate n. It may be performed on temperature a supply air.in material ported via thewith chute to the grate The mass burnini (including fractions of throughKiln theIncine furna intoThe the ash hopper, where it noncombustible is transRotary Coarse Mechanical eption hall floor. ash (including noncombustible fractions of through of theafurna theThe furnace.On the grate,the waste consists layer Sorting waste) leaves the grate as slag/bottom ash through the tions of the inclin ported via the the chute to the in The mass burnin waste) as grate slag/bottom ash through the tionswaste of the is driedleaves and then grate burned at high the ininclin a rot ashfurnace.On chute. The rotary k Theory the the grate,the waste consists of |a92layer Moving Grate ash chute. with rotary kis temperature a supply of air. TheThematerial The following table shows the main advantages and refractory lined b


Overview of the Design and Layout of the Mass Burning Incineration System Grate The grate has two principal purposes: 1. transport, mix, and level the “fuel” (waste) 2. supply and distribute primary combustion air to the layer of waste. Various grate designs are available, usually characterized by the way they transport the “fuel”: slanting or horizontal forward, and backward pushing grates, roller grates, or rocking grates. As the grate performance is important to the entire plant, the grate and grate design should be chosen carefully. As a basic principle, the grate should in every respect be suitable for the specific waste the plant will treat. It should be able to accommodate a great variation in temperature and waste composition. Moreover, in connection with selecting and dimension of the grate. Regardless of the specific properties and varying “quality” of the waste, the grate should meet the requirements for waste capacity, operational reliability, combustion efficiency, and operation at partial load. The grate should be designed for mass burning— that is, the waste, except for particularly bulky waste, should be fed into the furnace and combusted without any special pre-separation or crushing. The grate system should also be designed so that waste can be transported automatically from feeding to slag extraction without obstacles or clogging and without any manual intervention. Furnace In principle, the furnace and the secondary combustion chamber - the after-burning zone, should be designed to ensure a long retention and reaction time of the flue gases at high temperatures. Most important is the secondary combustion chamber, the first radiation pass of the boiler, which should be designed with a large volume and height so that all processes and reactions in the flue gas end before they reach the unprotected boiler walls. Moreover, the size, volume, and geometry of the furnace should minimize the risk of slag deposits and ash fouling on the furnace walls, which requires a 93 | chapter 02

low thermal furnace load as well as a low relative flue gas velocity in the furnace. The flue gas velocity in the furnace should be maintained at a level lower than 3.5 to 4.0 m/ sec. It should be possible to control the furnace temperature in such a way to avoid undesired peaks. The furnace sections greatly depend on the extent of the chosen flue gas flow. The choice of flue gas flow in the primary combustion chamber depends to a great extent on the prevailing type of waste, the calorific value, and the specific grate concept. Another precondition for optimal furnace performance is the design of the secondary air supply system, which ensures effective mixing of the flue gases both above the waste layer and at the inlet to the secondary combustion chamber or the first pass of the boiler. The secondary air should be supplied through rows of nozzles in the zones at the inlet to the secondary combustion chamber, and possibly through rows of nozzles in the furnace. The furnace and the combustion control concept should be designed to recirculate flue gas to partially replace secondary air to the furnace. The furnace should be prepared for establishing start up and auxiliary burners. Flue Gas Recirculation Establishing flue gas recirculation is part of the furnace design. After passing through the dust filter, part of the flue gas is limited and retained through an insulated duct to the furnace. The recirculated flue gas is injected through separate nozzles in the furnace and in the turbulence zone at the inlet to the secondary combustion chamber, the first pass of the boiler. Among its primary advantages, flue gas: • Recirculates flue gas, which leads to a higher thermal efficiency, as the excess air and the oxygen content can be significantly reduced (efficiency can increase about 1 to 3 percent) • Reduces NOx (20 to 40 percent when recirculating 20 to 30 percent of the flue gas) • Reduces the dioxin generation (connected with a low amount of excess air and a low oxygen


content) • Stabilizes or improves the flow and turbulence conditions • Minimizes the risk of “bursts” in the secondary combustion chamber • Decreases the amount of flue gas entering the flue gas cleaning system. Consequently, establishing flue gas recirculation has operational, economic, and environmental advantages. Secondary Combustion Zone (After-Burning Chamber) The secondary combustion zone, which consists of the first part of the first radiation pass of the boiler, starts after the last injection of secondary air or recirculated flue gas. Efficient turbulence of the flue gas at the inlet to the secondary combustion zone should be ensured at any load except at start up and shut down. Combustion Air Systems and Fans Special attention should be given to the design and regulation of the combustion air systems, which provide excess air in the flue gas, to ensure a high combustion efficiency and avoid a reducing (corrosive) atmosphere, incomplete burnout of the flue gases, and related problems. The primary air should be drawn from above the crane slab in the waste pit and injected through the pressure side of the primary fan below the grate in at least four to six air zones regulated automatically by motorized dampers. Intake for the secondary air is situated at the top of the furnace or boiler, possibly in the waste pit and should be supplied to the furnace and at the inlet to the first pass of the boiler (afterburning chamber) through three to five rows of nozzles (depending on the design). The amount of secondary air supplied to each of the rows of nozzles is regulated automatically by motorized dampers. (World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999) Theory | 94


Energy Recovery A main benefit of solid waste incineration is the possibility of reusing the waste as fuel for energy production. Waste incineration can therefore reduce methane gases at landfill sites and substitute fossil fuel, reducing the emission of greenhouse gases overall. The flue gases carrying the energy released in a waste incineration furnace have to be cooled in a boiler before entering the air pollution control system. The boiler is a necessary technical installation for energy recovery. The feasible type of boiler, however, depends whether the energy is used for hot water for district heating, process steam for various types of industries, or electricity. The overall thermal efficiency of an MSW incineration plant equipped for energy recovery depends on the end use of the energy recovered. Production of electricity has a low thermal efficiency, but results in high-priced energy, whereas hot water for district heating is considered inexpensive energy, but the overall thermal efficiency is high, and the complexity and the costs of the necessary technical installations are relatively low. Energy Recovery Technology Figure 46 (page 85) summarizes the efficiency of energy recovery for each use of energy with respect to the heat input. Assuming that the heat input is known, the efficiency numbers can be used to compute the absolute amount of energy recovered and the revenues from the energy sale. Energy is released from the incineration and leaves the furnace as flue gases at a temperature of approximately 1,000-1,200 ̊C. The hot flue gases from the incineration must be cooled before they can be passed on to a flue gas cleaning system. The flue gases are cooled through a boiler, where the energy released from incineration is initially recovered as hot water or steam. The end use possibilities of power, district heating, or steam depend on the type of boiler. The boilers are divided into three broad categories: • The hot water-producing boiler produces heat only (hot water). This boiler is also used if heat recovery is not possible (cooling of the surplus heat). • The low pressure (LP)-producing boiler produces 95 | chapter 02

LP steam only. • The steam-producing boiler generates power and combines power and process steam or heat The High-Pressure Steam Boiler A steam boiler requires more attention to design than the hot water-producing or LP steam boiler because of the highly corrosive nature of the flue gas. It also requires more attention to its operation and more space. Special attention must be paid to several characteristic of the steam boiler including design and arrangement and steam parameters. Design and Arrangement The steam boiler is divided into one to three open radiation passes and a convection part. After passing the radiation part, the flue gases enter the convection heating surfaces. Here, they first pass heat to the steam in the super-heaters. Then, in 62 the economizers, the flue gases are finally cooled to approximately 160° to of 220 before being apassed The radiation part the°Cboiler requires room up on to the flue gas cleaning system. The radiation to 30 to 40 meters in height. part of the boiler requires a room up to 30 to 40 The convection part of the boiler can be arranged meters in height. The convection part of the boiler either horizontally or vertically. The horizontal can be arranged either horizontally or vertically. The arrangement takes up approximately 20 meters 20 more horizontal arrangement takes up approximately space than vertical in the longitudinal meters morethe space thanarrangement the vertical arrangement in direction. The arrangement of the convection the longitudinal direction. The arrangement of section the can significantly building costs andbuilding should be convection sectionaffect can significantly affect determined as early as possible.as early as possible. costs and should be determined Horizontal layout

Steam Boiler

Steam Parameters

Steam Boiler

Vertical layout

The energy recovery from the steam boiler may be Steam Parameters


arrangement takes up approximately 20 meters more by observing a number of specific design criteria an space than the vertical arrangement in the longitudinal by designing the boiler for moderate steam param direction. The arrangement of the convection section ters (pressure and temperature). The waste-fire The super-heated steam from the sim more significant than that of the hot water or LP can significantly affect building costs and should be plant cannotand be high-pressurized designed with steam parameters boiler ilar expands in theofsteam turbine, whichplants transforms boil- er. However, there is as a trade off between high determined as early possible. to those traditional power fired wi the energy content of the steam to kinematic energy, recovery and reliability of the boiler because of the coal, gas, or oil. This is because waste differs from fo which is further trans- formed to electrical energy by the highly Horizontal corrosive nature layout of the flue gases. The steam sil fuel, particularly in terms of the content of chlo generator. The excess heat of the low-pressure steam is boiler must be designed to operate with a waste rine,towhich—combined lead converted hot water within thewith heat sulfur—may exchanger (confurnace to avoid potentially serious operational high-temperature corrosion, even at relatively denser) and either passed to a district heating network lo problems such as erosion, corrosion, fouling, temperatures. or cooled away. short continuous operation periods, insufficient Some combustion processes may, furthermor availability, and extensive repair and maintenance. have a risk of CO corrosion. The corrosive nature of the flue gas from waste The corrosive nature of the flue gas from was incineration usually limits the steam parameters to a incineration usually limits the steam parameters to maximum temperature of approximately 400Steam °C and Boiler Steam Boiler a pressure of approximately 40 bar. The temperature maximum temperature of approximately 400 °C and of the water returning to the boil- er (feed water) is pressure of approximately 40 bar. Vertical layout maintained at a minimum of 125 to 130 °C to limit The temperature of the water returning to the bo the risk of low temperature corrosion in the coldest er (feed water) is maintained at a minimum of 125 part ofSteam the boiler. Parameters 130 °C to limit the risk of low temperature corrosion The energy recovery from the steam boiler may be the coldest part of the boiler. The Steam moreCircuit significant than that of the hot water or LP boilThe energy recovery from a steam-producing boiler er. However, there is a tradeoff between high recovThe Steam Circuit is conventionally known as the Rankine process. The ery and reliability of the boiler because of the highly The energy recovery from a steam-producing boiler Rankine process allows energy outputs in the form corrosive nature of the flue gases. conventionally known as the Rankine process. Th of power, steam, and combinations of power, steam, The steam boiler must be designed to operate Rankine process allows energy outputs in the form and hot water. The energy from the hot flue gases with a waste furnace to avoid serious power, steam, and combinations of power, steam, an is recovered through the boiler andpotential passed to the operational problems such as erosion, corrosion, foulhot water. internal circuit of steam. The steam energy may be converted to power by a turbine and generator set. Figure 3.2 The Rankine process

Turbine Flue gas

Boiler

~

Generator Process steam District heating water or cooling

Condenser

Feed water pump Feed water tank Fig 51

The Rankine process (World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999) Theory | 96


ed The public concern for the environmental heavy metals Anareas. example of a Mass burning (Dry system) Incineration Plant and, for some APC residues, chlorides. impact of MSW incineration has, however, increased Fear of pollution often brings MSW incineration significantly over the last 20 years—forcing the manuplants to the center of emotional public debate. facturers to develop, and the plants to install and operIncinerating solid waste fulfills two purposes in the ate, high-cost advanced technology for pollution conadvanced waste management system. Primarily, it trol (especially air pollution). reduces the amount of waste for sanitary landfilling; Incineration of MSW does not completely elimiand it uses waste for energy production (power or disnate, but does significantly reduce, the volume of waste trict heating). Hence, waste incineration plants are to be landfilled. The reductions are approximately 75 generally introduced in areas where the siting of sanipercent by weight and 90 percent by volume. The tary landfills is in conflict with other interests such as residues arising from air pollution control (APC) are, city development, agriculture, and tourism. however, environmentally problematic, as they present Solid waste incineration is a highly complex technola severe threat to ground and surface waters. Current ogy, which involves large investments and high operattechnology is supposed to dispose of such residues in ing costs. Income from sale of energy makes an imporhighly controlled sanitary landfills equipped with tant (and necessary) contribution to the total plant advanced leachate collection and treatment measures, economy, and, consequently, the energy market plays an Legend: or in former underground mines to prevent leaching of important role in deciding 1. Furnace 2. Slag removalwhether to establish a plant. 3. Boiler 5. Bag house filter

4. Reactor 6. Stack

Figure 1.2 Exploded view of typical MSW incineration facility (mass burning)

An example of a Mass burning (Dry• system) Incineration Plant (AXO) Advantages No waste water • •

Disadvantages

Less prone to corrosion May be fairly easily adjusted to fulfill the requirements of the advanced control level Only visible plume in very cold weather

• • • •

Higher consumption of chemicals Uses the relatively expensive Ca(OH)2 More solid residues In medium control level, the SO2 concentration is also reduced

Fig Dry02system (World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999) 97 |52 chapter


Air Pollution Control Incinerating MSW generates large volumes of flue gases. The flue gases carry residues from incomplete combustion and a wide range of harmful pollutants. The pollutants and their concentration depend on the composition of the waste incinerated and the combustion conditions. However, these gases always carry ash, heavy metals, and a variety of organic and inorganic compounds. The pollutants are present as particles (dust) and gases such as HCl, HF, and SO2. Some harmful compounds such as mercury, dioxins, and NOx can be fully removed only through advanced and costly chemical treatment technologies. Primary and secondary measures can help reduce emission of pollutants. Primary measures- Which are initiatives that actually hinder the formation of pollutants, especially NOx and organic compositions such as dioxins, must be applied as much as possible. Primary measures comprise of an efficient combustion process (long flue gas retention time at high temperature with an appropriate oxygen content, intensive mixing and recirculation of flue gases, etc.). The content of CO and TOC (total organic carbon excluding CO) in the raw flue gas before inlet to the cleaning system is a good indicator of the efficiency of the combustion process. The air pollution control (APC) system comprises of electrostatic precipitators; bag house filters; dry, semi- dry, and wet acid gas removal systems; catalysts; and the like. Some characteristics of the secondary measures are that they precipitate, adsorb, absorb, or transform the pollutants. Composition of the Flue Gas • Particulate pollutants: Fly ash, including the heavy metals of antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V).

compounds; hydrogen fluoride (HF) from combustion of fluorine compounds; and nitrogen oxides (NOx) from part of the nitrogen in the waste and N2 in the air. Some of the heavy metals evaporate in the combustion process, then condense to a varying degree on the surface of the fly ash particles in the boiler section. At the exit of the boiler, part of each individual metal may remain gaseous. Environmental Standards MSW incineration plants are generally located close to densely populated areas for economic reasons (eg. sale of energy, transport distance). Any negative environmental effects of the plant can influence a great number of people. A combination of planning and technical measures is required to minimize such impacts. Any intervention needs to be in accordance of South African Legislation under the following Acts: Air Quality Act, 2004 (ACT NO. 39 of 2004) • National Pollution prevention regulations Air Quality Act, 2004 (ACT NO. 39 of 2004) • Declaration of Greenhouse gases as priority air pollution Electricity Regulation Amendment (ACT NO. 28 of 2007) • Electricity regulation Hazardous Substances (ACT NO. 15 of 1973) • Control of substances which may cause injury or illhealth to or death of human beings Waste (ACT NO. 59 of 2008) • Regulating waste management

• Gaseous pollutants: Hydrogen chloride (HCl), mainly from the combustion of PVC; sulphur dioxide (SO2) from combustion of sulphurous Theory | 98


The ART and SCIENCE of designing and erecting buildings.

99 | chapter 02


The Role of the Architect "Innovation, creativity, technology, social changes - These external factors constantly influence and transform industries and the roles within them. Thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s no denying how much the architectural design process has changed since the time of Sir Christopher Wren. So, what does the future hold for the role of the architect?" Managing Director Jonathan Kerr at Kerr Architects For centuries the architect was the keystone of every large construction project. The architect, throughout history, has been a master builder who held responsibility for both the design and the construction of a building. Today, however, the role of the architect has evolved into a profession that is unique from the historical definition. Specialization has separated the design from the construction and has introduced new professionals and methods to the construction process. The role of the architect has shifted and needs to be clearly defined today.

nineteenth century (Briggs, 1974) (Kostoff, 2000). The master builder of the past no longer exists. It has been fragmented through specialization which has eliminated a single source of responsibility and hindered collaboration due to the growing number of professionals involved. To counteract, the construction industry has been exploring alternative delivery methods and the introduction of new professionals such as the construction manager. Although these attempts have resolved some concerns, they have also introduced new problems such as confusion of definitions and conflicts of roles. This evolution of the construction industry has left the architect of today without a clear definition or position.

The main problem is that the profession of the architect is in its infancy and is still trying to find its place in a continuously evolving construction process. While the term architect came into use during antiquity, the profession of the architect, as it is understood today, was not created until the Theory | 100


Fig 53

The Acropolis, Athens, Greece (Image: www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ancient-greece, 2010)

Fig 54

Ruined aqueducts of Ancient Rome (Image: Bernard Gagnon; www.urbanghostsmedia.com, 2016)

Fig 55

Washington DC Capitol Building (Image: Gregory Ballos; www.pixels.com, October 23rd, 2016)

101 | chapter 02


History of the Architect Ancient Greece - the roots of the architect can be traced back to the times of the Ancient Greeks. The term architect, or arkhitekton in Greek, was the title given to the master builder who would oversee the design and construction of each construction project. The master builder was typically the head carpenter or head mason on the project, depending on the primary material used for construction. The head builder would assume the responsibility of the design and would work out all construction details throughout the construction process. Ancient Rome - the architecture of Ancient Rome has had a lasting impact on civilizations. Residents of Rome enjoyed a lavish lifestyle of luxury, art, trade, power, and entertainment. The great icons of the civilization such as the Coliseum, fountains, aqueducts, roads, and the forum reflect their culture and stand as landmarks of their history (Miller, 2003). The scale and complexity of these icons have intrigued historians for years. How could they have designed and engineered such projects in ancient times? The plumbing system of the period, for example, was revolutionary and the first of its kind. The aqueducts would bring water from the coast to provide fountains, running water, pools, baths, and sewer systems. The master masons alone could not have had the expertise to make this system work so well. The new levels of complexity triggered a shift in the role of the architect toward individuals with different backgrounds. Prominent architects of the period came from military engineers, civil servants, or even private training (Woods, 1999). The architects would develop a design and plan and then work together with the master builder to carry it out. Nineteenth Century - Establishment and Development of the Architect. The early 1800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s experienced new heights in construction technology. Steel beams for multi-story buildings, elevators, plumbing, ventilation systems, central heating, and electric lighting all began to be incorporated into the new construction. The apprentice-trained craftsmen struggled to maintain their expertise in all aspects

of the process. Educated/full-time architects and engineers to regulate the industry and ensure proper construction were needed (Landau, 1996). Culturally, legally, functionally, and economically, the design of buildings first began to separate from the construction. The architect worked out the design and construction details and then attempted to describe it to the builder through drawings. Throughout the nineteenth century the architect evolved from a single individual to ateliers with pupils, to partnerships, and finally to large offices. The large office was an established fact by the end of the nineteenth century which allowed the firms to live beyond the lives of the founding principals. The idea of an architect as a professional in the early 1800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s was a new concept. It was ill-defined and unorganized (Briggs, 1974). Kostoff (2000) described the status of the profession of architect in the early 1800â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s as follows: "In public estimation the architect continued to occupy an uneasy position halfway between the unscrupulous contractor and the feckless artist. The profession of architecture as it is understood today was created in the 19th century, in imitation of medicine and the law, then as now the dominant professional occupations. The ideals of the traditional architect were the ideals of society; like the older professions it imitated, the new profession of architecture replaced the ideals of society with the ideals of the profession itself. For the ideals of the profession, the modern architectural office in its turn substituted service to the firm, as in other modern businesses." The 21st century has brought huge changes to the architectural profession, and the world in general; huge technological advances, extreme periods of boom as the global economies spiral out of control, increasing environmental concerns and shortage of manual labour and traditional skills. Quite a bleak outlook that has seen many practices close, thousands of jobs lost, and graduates unable to get work.

Theory | 102


103 | chapter 02


What does this mean for the construction industry? The role of the Architect in the last century has been slowly given away. Today in the 21st century a massive team is required in order for a building to be built. An Architect isn’t always in a decision making position, they don’t have an input in every aspect of the process, and many decisions are out of their control leading to poor designs, badly constructed buildings with short lifespans and buildings that lack beauty and turn their backs on the public in the built environment. By the time Architects finally finish their formal training they are usually in their mid to late twenties and have seen their peers graduate other degrees and enter into jobs with fairly generous starting salaries. After years of studying and hard work there is an impatience to get started and prove their worth, to put all those years of training to good use, to finally design something and oversee it from inception to completion. However, It is quicker and cheaper to hire multiple consultants who specialise in ranging fields who are called in to help and combine efforts. While I’m all for collaboration, I don’t believe that having several consultants who specialise in very different fields and who are not learning from one another is truly collaborating. The demise of the chief builder has been for the role of the architect to be sub divided into different fields of specialisation and the education and training amplify this. There aren’t enough years in which you can bottle neck the vast amount of information required to become a chief builder in this day and age.

Architect being offered to the construction industry today? It is vital that Architects truly collaborate, grow and learn as the industry grows and technology advances. To make a conscious effort to have a basic understanding of the technologies involved in constructing our designs, whether it is reading up on a system or material or a workshops explaining the processes before designing commences. By doing this we can contribute constructively in altering and moulding systems to work with our buildings and not changing our designs to suit a system or technology because we don't understand it. Now we can truly collaborate with specialists and consultants by designing a building that utilises a technology at its optimum while still considering the urban fabric and the people using it. With buildings currently being so advanced and the list of consultants endless, it is easy for each specialist to get caught up in there own field without considering the others. Technical and even industrial buildings have become eye sores and even white elephants as although they work technically consultants forget that still people are the primary users. While the responsibilities of an Architect may expand, and technology may play a greater role in the way in which work is carried out, the fundamental role of the architect will remain the same. They will continue to use their expertise to transform someone’s dream into reality and consider the way in which building and design impacts our daily lives and the environment.

You couldn’t possibly fit all that there is to learn from architecture in five years, seven years or even ten years of formal education. Architecture isn’t a one shoe fits all solution and trying to pretend it can be taught in any number of years is beyond ridiculous. The chief builders spent a lifetime mastering their craft and the architectural system should promote similar ideals. It leads to questions about what kind of students does the education system produce and inevitably, does that influence the roles of the Theory | 104


Fig 56 105 | chapter 02

Diagrammatic collage of Johannesburg;s mind set when it comes to waste (Author, 2018 )


02 |

vii

CONCLUSION

To conclude, with the goal being to try and alleviate South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s landfill problem, and reduce the amount of waste being dumped this in turn will reduce the amount of waste around townships in the vicinity of the landfills. By doing this less Carbon Dioxide emissions will occur, water contamination and general pollution will subside improving the living conditions of the communities in the area. With the hope that landfills will reduce significantly over time, this could lead to land now being available for cultivation or development providing more space for townships and communities to grow . What type of intervention could initiate the above mentioned, and at what scale would it have to be at? For the purpose of this project I have taken a stance and decided that any intervention should not be on a landfill site, as then there would have to be one on every landfill and that could then prevent land reuse. With that said any intervention would have to fit into the process of recycling and waste management with ease, and then be accessible to all players. The proposed intervention as mentioned previously will be a redesigned or reprogrammed recycling depot. This could improve and increase the amount of waste recycled as there is less chance that recyclable materials will be further damaged making them non recyclable. The organic waste or waste that can not be recycled and that would usually go to landfill will then be incinerated, the energy produced from this

will then be put back into the electrical grid. This redesigned depot now provides an opportunity to improve but not formalise the role of the walker. It has already been established that the old milling precinct is the finish line of the walkers route, but it is still a hard, industrial place and although it gives the walkers security in a place to stay there are no extras or benefits that could improve their lifestyle. With that said the redesigned depot could now become a place that provides meals, ablutions, and a place to rest and store there collected items. It is understood that walkers are nomadic and there sleeping spaces are temporary as they do have homes in townships outside of the city, therefore this is not a housing project but a soft landing. A place they can call there own and not looked down upon. It is a building that could mediate a community made up of a variety of different people. It could create understanding between them and become a place of learning. It is not only contributing to Johannesburg's environment in a positive way, it is the key stone in how the city approaches waste and the people who deal with waste. It is time to change our mindset, this is not something we just throw away. It is someone's livelihood, a cities down fall or an opportunity be something better.

Theory | 106


CHAPTER Page 110

|

Site

Page 120

|

History

Page 126

|

Analysis

Fig 57

Google Earth Aerial Image of Newtown, specifically the Carr street off ramp

107 | chapter 03


| SITE

AND CONTEXT

Site and Context | 108


JHB

Johanesburg, South Africa

Fig 58 109 | chapter 03

City of Johannesburg start of chapter (Author,2018)


03 |

i

SITE SELECTION

Understanding Johannesburg From its early existence as a mining town, to its more recent development into a cosmopolitan South African city, Johannesburg forms part of the largest and fastest growing urban region in the country (Asmal and Trangos, 2015). However with such an influx of people entering the city, considerations with regards to infrastructure seems to be lacking. With Johannesburg being such a capitalist place the amount being consumed has increased dramatically and in turn the amount of waste generated is more. The City of Johannesburg is shaped by a multitude of narratives. These narratives are constantly changing as Johannesburg’s post-apartheid landscapes and boundaries are drawn and redrawn. Multifaceted political agencies, fluctuating citizen conceptions, elitists’ capitalist interests and the survivalist strategies adopted by marginalized populations, are just some of the narratives defining Johannesburg today (Kotzen, 2014). Furthermore, the city is founded on shifting patterns of governance and unbalanced distributions of various forms of power, resulting in one of the most unequal urban environments in the world (Kotzen, 2014). This not only effects the difficulties of implementing the multiple procedures set in place when trying to sustain a city, but effects which ones are prioritized. As integrated waste management is so often over looked and not investigated enough it is once

again swept under the rug. Leaving the communities neighbouring the landfill sites to deal with the problem in what ever way they can, unnoticed. Apartheid A city that flourished at the discovery of gold in 1886, Johannesburg grew from a mining camp to a bustling metropolis almost overnight. Fueled by the insatiable capitalist fascination in the extreme wealth that lay beneath the city and the intent to stabilise a rapidly urbanising landscape, its beginnings formed the spatial and political foundation for the segregated and unequal city that it is today; ‘a vast experiment’, as architectural writer Lindsay Bremner (2007:207) suggests, ‘in how to inhabit apartheid ruins’. The racially defined townships were influenced by architectural theoretical movements, such as Le Corbusier temporary workforce housing, Ville Contemporaine, and Ebenezer Howards Garden city model, that were reinforced with the governments conceptualisation of limitation and surveillance. The result was the construction of ‘a series of matchbox houses whose sterile forms became ubiquitous across the sprawling township landscapes’ (Findley & Ogbu, 2011). The urban formation of these houses allowed for an environment that could be controlled, therefore Site and Context | 110


Fig 59

111 | chapter 03

Map illustrating the racial spatial planning in Johannesburg during the 1970s. Image: http-//www.mascontext.com/ wp-content/ uploads/2013/03/17_the_segregation_ paradoxes_04. jpg.


the ‘other’ could be contained. Yet informal spaces and activities broke through the deterrent forces as political acts or as means of survival; a form of reactive urbanism ‘which made visible extreme levels of socio-economic marginalisation’ (Kotzen, 2014:14). At the end of apartheid in 1994, the manifestation of racial and economic prejudices brought about by white sovereignty were ingrained into the spatial landscape of Johannesburg. Yet despite the negotiated transition to democracy, the city‘s wounds remain clear as its discontinuous territories of inequality endure. Most of our landfills are situated next to townships as part of The Group Areas Act, a crucial pillar of the segregation agenda, during apartheid where waste would be ‘imported’ from privileged white areas to impoverished and working-class black areas. Therefore understanding how the city is made and re-made, envisioned and re-imagined by its governance today is therefore critical to redress the ruins of the city that apartheid built.

Fig 60

Villa Contemporaine Workhouses, Le Corbusier Image 01 : http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-yAOnHUXGoRs/ UKZ6UHeAzRI/AAAAAAAAACc/ jNeetvGZTyg/ s1600/le+corbusier+ville+contemporaine+1922.jpg

Fig 61

Garden City, Ebenezer Howard Image 02: https://image.slidesharecdn.com/ fexmfiamrsq6mtwbaura-signature

Fig 62

Apartheid Township in the Modernist Image, Image 03: http://www.sahistory.org.za/sites/default/files/ place_pics/old-houses.jpg Site and Context | 112


EMMERENTIA

GREENSIDE

PARKVIEW

WESTCLIFF MELVILLE

ROSEMORE

AUCKLAND PARK

BRIXTON CROSBY

MAYFAIR WEST MAYFAIR

AMALGAM LANGLAAGTE

BOOYSEN

TURFFONTEIN

ROSSETTENVILLE CHRISVILLE

Fig 63

FOREST HILL

City of Johannesburg, RIDGE WAY extent of routes of ‘Walkers’ from central Johannesburg area (Author,2018)

113 | chapter 03


Routes of Johannesburgâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Trolley pushersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; When considering a site for an intervention that deals with waste, the first thing that came to mind was how the waste gets to site. How can the process begin if there is nothing to process. While considering all couriers of waste, the goal would to be to try make it as accessible to all relevant parties. As it is more challenging for informal recyclers to transport waste then it is for Pikitup and other smaller companies, the consideration for them will be greater. With regards to the routes used during collections, most players follow the Pikitup daily timetable as this provides surety that recyclables will be found. The informal recyclers follow the timetable daily racing to get to their collection points before the bigger players. They then make their way back and store their collected and sorted recyclables until they have collected enough to make the transaction worth while.

X

Therefore, when selecting a site it is important to look at where the informal recyclers congregate and store their collected waste. This would also be the starting and finishing point of their daily routes regardless of the direction they go in.

Site and Context | 114


The City of Johannesburg

Site Possibilities

Inner City | Newtown With an increase in competition ‘Walkers’ have started to migrate West. A group of informal recyclers now congregate in Newtown. This allows them to collect from suburbs that the Doornfontein group don’t get to. The competition is less and provides access to different Recycling centres and buy back facilities in the area. In Newtown the industry is not as saturated, there is an opportunity for a successful intervention that could further benefit the recycling community.

Fig 64

Image of a trolley pusher on Carr street (Author,2018)

115 | chapter 03


Inner City | Doornfontien A large group of ‘Walkers’ congregate in Doornfontein as it is conveniently situated between three recycling centres. Being close to these buy back centres is a vital part in their ‘businesses’ being successful. The ‘Walkers’ in Doornfontein follow the schedule below:

ff

rg

F

rth

nd Ra

34km

28.7km

31.5km

in

10.2km

lla

No

bu

cli

or

T

ds

rn

ey

W W

24.6km

T Ki

Lin

de

n

M

However the success of this has become noticeable as more and more recyclers join the Doornfontein group. This has resulted in tremendous competition as ‘walkers’ now need to compete with each other and not just Pikitup and private companies.

Fig 65

Image of a trolley pusher in Johannesburg (Author,2018) Site and Context | 116


CARR STREET

M2 DOUBLE DECK ER HIGHWAY

QUINN STREET GWI GWI MRWEBI STREET

Fig 66 117 | chapter 03

Aerial of ‘Walkers’ base camp on Carr street off ramp (Author,2018)


Inner City | Newtown My architectural intervention will be situated in Newtown. The primary reasons for this was the noticeable migration West by the ‘Walkers’. Braamfontein has become overly saturated with waste pickers who already use the existing recycling depots. As this system already works any additional competition could create conflict resulting in added pressure on an already vulnerable group of people.

All major players involved in the process of collecting and processing recyclable materials that would utilise the proposed intervention operate in the Newtown area, thus benefiting from it.

By re-programming a recycling depot and essentially combining some of the processes that would currently take place in different depots we now have to accommodate more players involved in the process. Pikitup has a depot in Newtown, the suburb is also home to a couple of privately owned material specific recycling depots and as shown on the map to the left, many walkers use the Carr Street off ramp as a base camp of sorts. This used to be the Old Railway Compound, now derelict, the former dormitories for African railway workers constitute some of the oldest surviving buildings in Newtown, dating from the 1890s. When the ‘Coolie Location’ was torched in 1904, the Compound was spared because it lay just outside of the Indian shanty-camp. Everything on the other side of Carr Street went up in flames.

Site and Context | 118


Fig 67

Plan of Johannesburg and Suburbs 1897 ....

119 | chapter 03


03 | ii HISTORY OF NEWTOWN

Location Newtown is situated on the Western side of Johannesburg’s Central Business District from the Kazerne marshalling yards and railway lines to the north, to Dolly Rathebe Street in the south, Ntemi Piliso Street in the east and Quinn Street to the west. It is home to many historic sites such as the internationally famous Market Theatre, Museum Africa and Mary Fitzgerald Square. The Precinct is cut - the double decker highway splits Newtown into the Market Precinct located on the Eastern side containing the above mentioned sites and to the West of the bridge the old Brickfields being more industrial A ‘new town’ The name ‘Newtown’ was chosen by the city administrators after the clearing of multi-racial slums in Johannesburg, specifically Brickfield during the first forced removals in the city. The racially diverse area was made up of parts of Brickfield, Aaron’s Yard and the Indian (or ‘Coolie’) location. In 1904 the ‘new town’ was redesigned as an industrial area with the intention of maximising productivity in the nearby goods yards. The Newtown plans adopted the CBD grid pattern, “The destruction of Brickfields and subsequent development of Newtown was an attempt by the post-South

African War administration of Lord Milner to refashion Johannesburg along ‘modern’ lines. This involved formalising the townscape, developing infrastructure and strictly enforcing racial segregation.”(Newtown Heritage Trial, 2010). It provides an understanding of how wider industrial and political forces disrupted and destroyed poorer communities from racially diverse backgrounds in the name of urban regeneration under colonial and apartheid racial policies. The suppression of labour rights became a recurrent theme in the history of Newtown. The presence of industrial and commercial functions, however, would also mean that Newtown became a focal point for many of the industrial strikes witnessed by the City during the first half of the 20th century - some lead by celebrated labour activists Mary Fitzgerald. The area experienced a rapid decline in the mid 20th century due to the closure of the tram lines in 1940, the decommissioned Jeppe Street Power Station and the construction of the freeway system in 1960, and the relocation of the Market to the new Fresh Produce Market in City Deep in the early 1970s. This in conjunction with apartheid’s racial legislation and the forced removal of communities from the inner city, Fordsburg, Pageview, Vrededorp and elsewhere effectively deprived Newtown of a vibrant community. Site and Context | 120


1890

Johannesburg station located north of present-day Newtown. First compound for black workers built at site of present-day Bus Factory.

1893

1937

Brickfields home to 7 000 people NZASM founded the Kazerne marshalling yards. Brickmakers relocated from Brickfields to Burghersdorp

Brickfields home to 7 000 NZASM founded the marshalling yards. Bri relocated from Brickf Burghersdorp

1907

1939

1904

1886

Johannesburg was founded, the 'Coolie location' was established

Clearance of the 'Coolie Location' at Brickfields and forced removal to Klipspruit (later Pimville, Soweto). Official founding of Newtown

1901

British administrators declared Burghersdorp and the ‘Coolie Location’ Insanitary Areas. Gandhi settled in Johannesburg

1900

Johannesburgsurrendered to the British. Re-introduction of ZAR-era pass laws. Lord Milner assumed control of city administration.

Fig 68 121 | chapter 03

Newtown timeline (Author,2018 after Newtown Heritage Trail (2010)

1927

Construction of the Jeppe Street Power Station commenced

1950

1940

Aaron’s Ground Square, Newtown) r Mary Fitzgerald Squa

1930

1920

1910

1900

1890

1880

1870

Newtowndeveloped into industrial and wholesale area


1961

Jeppe Street Power Station decommissioned

7

1974

elds home to 7 000 people M founded the Kazerne alling yards. Brickmakers ed from Brickfields to ersdorp

Closure of The Market and relocation of the Fresh Produce Market to City Deep

939

2001

1965

2010

2000

1990

1980

1970

Mary Fitzgerald Square reopened after extensive upgrades

1960

1950

ronâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ground (Market uare, Newtown) renamed ary Fitzgerald Square

2005

Jeppe Street Power Station given new lease of life as backup power station with two Rolls Royce gas turbines installed

Demolition of the North Boiler House, Turbine Hall

pe Street ed

1960

Construction of M1 and M2 motorway commenced Death of Mary Fitzgerald

1995

Newtown compounds and workers' cottages declared National Monument (today a provincial heritage site)

Site and Context | 122


123 | chapter 03


Fig 69

(Left) Historic photograph of Newtown, the old cooling towers and train tracks looking South (Museum Africa, Johannesburg. PH2002-865)

Fig 70

(Top) Historic photograph on the M2 double decker highway and Johannesburg looking South East (Museum Africa, Johannesburg. PH2006-10521, circa 1968)

Site and Context | 124


Locality image: Edited Aerial Photograph of the City of Johannesburg (Author, 2018(

125 | chapter 03

Transnet Tower

Ponte Tower

Vodacom Tower

Marry Fitzgerald square

Nelson Mandela Bridge

SITE Fig 71


03 | iii SITE ANALYSIS

About the site The current lot that sits on the corner of Quinn and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street is just a part of what used to be the old Premier Milling Precinct. The Milling Precinct evolved around a complex of buildings that were once owned and operated by the Premier Milling Company. In 1904, after the clearance of the ‘Coolie Location’, Joffe Marks, owner of Marks Limited, bought property in the newly-declared Newtown. In 1906, the first phase of development of a maize mill commenced. Over the next twenty years, Newtown would develop into the City’s foremost milling centre as the Premier Milling complex expanded its offices, mills and warehouses, occupying the site where Gandhi’s emergency hospital had once been. (Newtown Heritage Trail,2010)

Site and Context | 126


B

A AUCKLAND PARK

k 5 , 0 NEWTOWN MAYFAIR

LOCATING THE SITE IN THE GREATER CONTEXT OF JOHANNESBURG 127 | chapter 03

C


A B C D E F

University of the Witwatersrand The Oriental Plaza The Nelson Mandela Bridge Park Station Joubert Park

m k 2

BRAAMFONTEIN

D

University of Johannesburg

m

1k

F

m

k 5 , 0

E

CBD

Site and Context | 128


01 | Aerial Image of the Site The chosen site sits on the corner of Quinn Street and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street. As the program of the intervention involves recycling, the concept will be pulled through into design by recycling the existing structures on site. The chosen site was once part of the old Premier Milling Precinct which includes the 30 grain silos (5 x 6 rows) that have been empty for years.

CARR STR

M2 DOU

GWI G

STR

CARR STR

CARR STR

M2 DOUB

R HWAY QUINN ST

KER HIG

BLE DEC

I MRWEBI

R MRWEBI ST

HIGHWAY

MAKEBA

OYI STR

LILIAN NG

STR

MIRIAM

NGOYI

MIRIAM

LILIAN

STR

OYI STR

OYI STR

R MRWEBI ST

LE DECKER

GWI GWI

GWI GWI

LILIAN NG

R

JEPPE ST

R

JEPPE ST

Site Plan 129 | chapter 03

SITE P

00

5


02 | Green Spaces The tightly packed grid has resulted in a noticeable absence of vegetation and soft floor treatments in the area. The lack of utilized public green spaces contributes to a high carbon footprint in the CBD and results in missed opportunities for public interaction.

CARR STR

M2 DOU

GW

STR

KER HIG

BLE DEC

EBI GWI MRW

CARR STR

GWI GWI

Site R MRWEBI ST

WAY

ER HIGH

GWI GWI

LILIAN

NGOYI STR

STR MAKEBA

TR

NGOYI

STR

MIRIAM

LILIAN

NGOYI S

R MRWEBI ST

LE DECK

R

QUINN ST

M2 DOUB

HWAY

CARR STR

OYI STR

LILIAN NG

R

JEPPE ST

Site Plan

Green/ shared spaces

SITE PLAN

00

5

15 15

25

45M 45m

R

JEPPE ST

Site Plan Site and Context | 130

S

00


03 | Positive Space The grain is represented by the footprints of the buildings, indicating both the size and density of each structure. The largest footprints in the area are the retail buildings predominantly the Newtown Mall. The grain of Newtown is tightly packed following the grid of the Johannesburg CBD.

CARR STR

M2 DOU

GWI G

CARR STR

CARR STR

GWI GWI

Site R MRWEBI ST

WAY

ER HIGH

GWI GWI

NGOYI

STR

STR

MIRIAM

LILIAN

NGOYI

MIRIAM

LILIAN

MAKEBA

OYI STR

LILIAN NG

STR

OYI STR

R MRWEBI ST

LE DECK

R

QUINN ST

M2 DOUB

HWAY

KER HIG

BLE DEC

STR I MRWEBI

R

JEPPE ST

Site Plan

Positive and Negative space

SITE PLAN

00

5

15 15

25

45M 45m

R

JEPPE ST

Site Plan 131 | chapter 03

SITE P

00

5


04 | Negative Space These spaces are arguably of equal importance to the interior of a building, and encourages trading and chance encounters for the public. The negative spaces in Newtown are often utilised in interesting ways, like pop up events held by Carfax. This is a seldom occurrence and could be taken advantage of more if the spaces were designed properly.

CARR STR

M2 DOU

GW

HWAY

KER HIG

BLE DEC

EBI STR

GWI MRW

LILIAN

NGOYI

STR

TR

NGOYI S

R

JEPPE ST

Site Plan Site and Context | 132

S

00


05 | Newtown landmarks Although described as very disconnected, as one side celebrates the arts and cultural aspects of Newtown and the other side a harder more industrial zoned space. Newtown as a whole holds a rich and diverse range of building types. These include the historic Museum Africa and The Market Theatre to student residences and a public square.

M2 DOU

1 | Workers Museum 2 | Merry Fitzgerald Square

3 | Museum Africa

5 | Newtown Mall

7| Carfax

4 | The Market Theatre

6 | City Varsity

8 | The Mills

9 | The Silos Residences

KER HIG

STR

GWI G

10 | Railway

BLE DEC

10

I MRWEBI

CARR STR

HWAY

9

CARR STR

8

CARR STR

6 5 M2 DOUB

R

LE DECK

QUINN ST

Site

GWI GWI

7 R MRWEBI ST

4

ER HIGH

GWI GWI

R MRWEBI ST

NGOYI

STR

MIRIAM

WAY

LILIAN 3

STR

MAKEBA

OYI STR

NGOYI

MIRIAM

LILIAN

OYI STR

LILIAN NG

STR

2

R

JEPPE ST

1

Site Plan

Newtown Landmarks

1 | Workers Museum

3 | Museum Africa

2 | Merry Fitzgerald Square

4 | The Market Theatre

STR Newtown Mall JE5P|PE

6 | City Varsity

SITE PLAN

00

5

15 15

25

7| Carfax

45M 45m

8 | The Mills

9 | The Silos Residences 10 | Railway

133 | chapter 03

10

Site Plan

SITE P

00

5


06| Arterial vehicular routes The position of the site is easily accessible as the M2 Carr Street off ramp is one street up from the site. Although quite accessible the site is positioned well as traffic is filtered from the busy and congested double decker highway to Primary vehicular routes like Carr street and then to smaller secondary routes like Quinn and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street. This prevents congestion but because the grain silos are so visible and have such a presence from the highway, the site still introduces itself well.

2 | Main Vehicular Routes

M2 DOU

1 | M2 Highway

CARR STR

GW

3 | Secondary Vehicular Routes

HWAY

KER HIG

BLE DEC

EBI STR

GWI MRW

CARR STR

CARR STR

M2 DOUB

Site R MRWEBI ST

ER HIGH

GWI GWI

WAY

LILIAN

NGOYI

STR

STR

STR MAKEBA

TR

NGOYI

MIRIAM

LILIAN

NGOYI S

R MRWEBI ST

LE DECK

R

QUINN ST

GWI GWI

OYI STR

LILIAN NG

R

JEPPE ST

Circulation

1 | M2 Highway

3 | Secondary Vehicular E STR JEPPRoutes

Site Plan

SITE PLAN

00

5

15 15

25

45M 45m

2 | Main Vehicular Routes

Site Plan Site and Context | 134

S

00


07 | Sun Study Although the surrounding area is quite dense the site is surrounded with low rise buildings making the site quite light. With little shadows any intervention orientated well could be quite warm. The Sun study below shows how the sun would move across the site differently depending on the time of day/ year.

CARR STR

GWI G

I MRWEBI

1stRJul Sun Set ST

KER HIG

BLE DEC

M2 DOU

N

1st Jun Sun Rise

HWAY

1st Sep Sun Set

W

CARR STR

1st Apr Sun Rise 12

11

10

E

9

8 7

Site

6 GWI GWI

R MRWEBI ST

AY ER HIGHW

1st Dec Sun Set

GWI GWI

1st Jan Sun Rise

NGOYI

STR

STR

MA MIRIAM KEBA ST

S

NGOYI

MIRIAM

LILIAN LILIAN

OYI STR

LILIAN NG

R

OYI STR

R MRWEBI ST

LE DECK

R

QUINN ST

17 18

15

13

M2 DOUB

16

14

CARR STR

R

JEPPE ST

SITE PLAN

Positive and Negative space

00

5

15 15

25

45M 45m

R

JEPPE ST

Site Plan 135 | chapter 03

SITE P

00

5


08| Building Heights These heights are relatively low ranging from single storey buildings to no higher than 4 stories. The heights to the East of the bridge appear more varied indicating different building typologies. With only a few high rise buildings existing scattered around Newtown. The two silo buildings are the highest buildings in the area, towering at a heigh of almost 50m.

Single Storey

2 - 4 Stories

5 - 9 Stories

CARR STR

10 + Stories

M2 DOU

GW

KER HIG

BLE DEC

EBI STR

GWI MRW

CARR STR

HWAY

CARR STR

M2 DOUB

R R MRWEBI ST

WAY

ER HIGH

GWI GWI

LILIAN

NGOYI

STR

STR

MAKEBA

TR

NGOYI

MIRIAM

LILIAN

OYI STR

NGOYI S

R MRWEBI ST

LE DECK

QUINN ST

GWI GWI

LILIAN NG

STR

R

JEPPE ST

Building Heights

Single Storey

2 - 4 Stories

5 - 9 Stories R

JEPPE ST

Site Plan

SITE PLAN

10 + Stories 00

5

15 15

25

45M 45m

Site Plan Site and Context | 136

S

00


09 | Edge conditions Below are the street elevations for either side of Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street between Quinn street and Henry Nxumalo Street. The area consists of mostly low rise buildings that don't exceed 5 stories. The Silos tower above the surrounding buildings and are a definite landmark that is visible from the M2 Highway. These would be a interesting contribution to any intervention specially one that involves a MSW Incineration Plant in the city that would draw attention.

01

02

03

Site

M2

Quinn Street

Henry Nxumalo Street 1:1000 Northern side - Street Elevation of Silos on Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street

M2

Henry Nxumalo Street

Quinn Street 1:1000 Southern side - Street Elevation on Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street

137 | chapter 03


The site is situated on the corner of Quinn street and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi street. Quinn being the road directly connected to the M1 off ramp is quite busy, however being a single two way road it does become tight as a shortage of parking results in people parking on the street causing congestion. With regards to the side walk only one side is pedestrian friendly, and there isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t much with regards to seating or rest spaces.

P

No Parking

P

Parking

P

3000

P

4000

4000

4250

1200

8000 1:200 Edge condition - Corner of Quinn Street and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street Site and Context | 138


The Silos are situated on Gwi Gwi Mrwebi street. With regards to the side walk only one side is pedestrian friendly, and there isn't much with regards to seating or rest spaces. Gwi Gwi Mrwebi street seems to be quite an industrial street during the week as it is used by many medium sized vehicles, however on weekends this changes . The road becomes quiet and is utilised by many pedestrians.

2000

4000

4000

2000

8000 1:1000 Silos on Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street 139 | chapter 03


The corner of Henry Nxumalo Street and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street is situated under the double decker bridge. Gwi Gwi Mrwebi is closed to prevent access to the Newtown Mall creating a culdesac of sorts that many use for parking. The road does become congested during the week because of the road closure and illegal parking.

P

P

Parking

2000

4250

4000

4000 8000

1:200 Edge condition - Corner of Henry Nxumalo Street and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street Site and Context | 140


01 | Visible The site is situated in full view of the M2 Double decker highway as shown in the photograph to the left. The silos draw the attention of anybody looking in that direction as the tall voluminous structure is quite overwhelming compared to the average 1 to 4 storey buildings in the area.

02 | Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street Northern side Many of the buildings on Gwi Gwi Mrwebi have been converted from industrial warehouses to art and design studios bringing colour to the old industrial precinct

03 | Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street Southern Side The Southern side of the street consists of low rise buildings, many still showing off their neoclassic trims and Cape Dutch gable ends.

141 | chapter 03


03 | iv A PHOTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

04 | Service street Currently the service road which was where the old train tracks ran through is predominantly used for parking. On the odd occasion it also hosts events such as Carfax as well as others.

05 | The Mills Building The Mills building, which is a landmark building in Johannesburg - as it was one of the original buildings in the Old Premier Milling Precinct sits behind /next to the site.

Site and Context | 142


06 | Carr Street off ramp The Carr street off ramp is often host to many informal recyclers as many use the island as a base camp.

07 | Site The Silos could create an opportunity for any intervention to look onto the rest of Newtown and the Johannesburg CBD. As well as be seen from all directions.

143 | chapter 03


08| Private Recycling depot The precinct is home to many private material specific recycling depots and buy back centres.

09| Corner of Quinn and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street The site sits on a corner stand allowing any intervention to announce its self well.

Site and Context | 144


CHAPTER Page 148

|

Precedents

Page 154

|

Concept

Page 162

|

Intervention

Fig 72

Chapter 4

145 | chapter 04


|

INTERVENTION

Intervention | 146


"WHY NOT DEEPEN OUR ARCHITECTURAL ANALYSIS? WHY NOT BE OPEN AND HONEST ABOUT THE REFERENCES WE MAKE? WHY NOT IMPROVE ON THE EXPLORATIONS, INNOVATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS OF OUR PREDECESSORS?" Winy Maas, Dutch Architect @ MVRDV

Maas, W. and Madrazo, F (2018). Copy Paste, The Badass Architectural copy guide.

147 | chapter 04


04 | i PRECEDENT

When looking for precedents a few things had to be considered. The first, how would comparing an existing building/ project benefit my intervention what could I learn. Then, comparing how different methodologies were implemented on previously projects and how could they be implemented now. 01 Zeits MOCAA Museum of Contemporary Art Africa As a large portion of the intervention would be housed in existing grain silos it is important to look at how this type of building method has worked previously. The reason for the Art Museum specifically was because it is a local project. How they designed and executed the carving out of large portions of the silos creating interesting spaces and grand atrium is one of the points being looked at when considering Zeits MOCAA as a precedent. 02 Waste-to-Energy Plant in Coppenhagen As the redesigned recycling depot includes a MSW Incineration plant it was it's important to find a project that met a certain criteria. The W2E Plant in Coppenhagen did this in a way that incorporated a green and social space softening the edge of a normally very hard industrial building. Intervention | 148


South Africa: | Zeits MOCAA Museum of Contemporary Art Africa Architect : Heatherwick Studio Location: Cape Town, South Africa The museum is housed in 9,500 sq metres of custom designed space, spread over nine floors, carved out of the monumental structure of the historic Grain Silo Complex. The silo, disused since 1990, stands as a monument to the industrial past of Cape Town, at one time the tallest building in South Africa, now given new life through the transformation by Heatherwick Studio.

149 | chapter 04


"Heatherwick Studio's final design has been described as revealing a harmonious union of concrete and metal with crisp white spaces enveloped in light. The monumental façades of the silos and the lower section of the tower will be maintained without inserting new windows allowing for the thick layers of render and paint to be removed in order to reveal the raw beauty of the original concrete", ArchDaily's European Editor James Taylor-Foster. The building is split into two buildings: there’s the elevator tower, and the storage annex next to it, and due to heritage restrictions no surrounding building could be taller than the storage annex. This meant that the elevator tower would always be the tallest building on the waterfront, and this particular characteristic was quite important because regardless of your approach, you’ll always be able to see it. There was quite a bit of experimenting with regards to the cutting of the concrete. Thermal lances, all sorts of diamond wire cutting techniques, and jigs were tested, however each technique had a particular restriction. The concrete cutting method meant they couldn’t do 3D curves, having to create ruled surfaces along the edges. It was quite an iterative process where the methodology of cutting, and the setting out of the bins all influenced each other.

The galleries and the atrium space at the centre of the museum have been carved from the silos’ dense cellular structure of forty-two tubes that pack the building.

A

B B

First Floor Plan A Converted Elevator tower B Converted Grain Silos

A

North Elevation

Intervention | 150


Denmark | Waste-to-Energy Plant Architect : BIG, Bjarke Ingels Location: Coppenhagen, Denmark A new plant combining waste incineration and energy recovery, complete with a ski slope and a climbing wall, will replace the 40-year-old Amager incinerator Initially master planned by BIG, the unique design seeks to reclaim a typically unused element of a building for the public through the introduction of the nature-filled program. During summer months, the SLA-designed

151 | chapter 04

rooftop activity park will provide visitors with hiking trails, playgrounds, fitness structures, trail running, climbing walls, and of course, incredible views. In the winter, the park will be joined by over 1,640 feet (500 meters) of ski slopes designed by BIG.


Rising 88 meters into the air, the landscape design required special attention when selecting a series of trees and plants that could handle difficult living conditions and a steeply sloping terrain. In addition to security and safety needs, heat from the facilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s large energy boilers also needed to be negotiated, as in certain points earth temperatures may reach as high as 60 degrees celsius. Plants for the park were selected through the creation of 1:1 experimental mockups that tested different species resiliency and ability to create an optimal micro-climate and wind shelter for visitors. These tests also helped to influence the biome of natural areas throughout the city.

! International

" Tekla Online

# Login

Search Select:

ABOUT

The roof topâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nature is designed to attract and shelter a wide selection of birds, bees, butterflies and insects, which in itself will mean a dramatic increase in the biodiversity of the area. By utilizing natural pollination, seed dispersal can spread from the rooftop to also benefit the adjacent industry area, parking lots and infrastructure. In this way, it will function as a generous natural source that will radically green-up the entire area.

NEWS

BAKKE ONE LARGEST ENVIRONMENTAL PROJECTS EUROPE EXPLOITS BIM

2013

ger Bakke - One of the largest environmental projects rope exploits BIM

vironmental project is getting underway in Copenhagen. A new plant combining waste

A rendition of the Amager Bakke plant provided by technology firm Tekla, which is providing building information modelling for the project (Tekla)

Intervention | 152


153 | chapter 04


04 | ii CONCEPT

01 | Land Opportunity As mentioned previously, the location of landfill sites in South Africa were strategically placed as part of The Group Areas Act, a crucial pillar of the segregation agenda, during apartheid where waste would be ‘imported’ from privileged white areas to impoverished and working-class black areas. Therefore, the redesigned recycling depot will not be placed on a landfill site, as the goal is not to reduce landfills but prevent them. Once the landfills have been sorted and processed into the ‘new depot typology’ there is an opportunity to reuse that land. The diagrams to the left portray this.

Intervention | 154


155 | chapter 04


Recycling a building | Cnr Quinn & Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street As the proposed intervention is a recycling depot it only seemed fit to recycle a building. For a building / site to be considered, it had to be abandoned or not in use. Recyclable waste is a material that is discarded but that can be processed back into a usable item or material. Therefore, any building with potential but that has been 'discarded' could be considered.

many times it seems to not know what it wants to be. It is now standing unfinished and forgotten with rusted re-bar sticking out of its unfinished columns. The old premier milling grain silos have been empty and out of use for decades. Currently all they are used for is advertising, with the inside in disrepair. It is a landmark craving attention.

The structures on the chosen site met this criteria. The building on the corner of Quinn and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Street has been broken down and rebuilt so

Intervention | 156


House W2E Plant Admin & Services

Admin & Services

Weigh sta�on

Drop off zone

Drop off zone

Sor�ng sta�on Weigh sta�on Sor�ng sta�on

Green roof / elevated green space Green roof / elevated green space

Green space

Green space 157 | chapter 04


buy back centre Glass

weigh station

sorting station

buy back centre Paper

buy back centre Plastic

Non-recyclables

Incineration

Program By redesigning these ‘middle men’ type depots, into a multifaceted recycling station which will include all of the above mentioned stations and centres as well as a waste to energy power plant, pressure will be taken off the landfills and the landfills themselves could be sorted and reprocessed back into the depot. This will provide a more organised and material specific station where industry can buy back their recyclables, and the more organic waste that is left over is then incinerated in the W2E plant and that energy will be placed into the electrical grid. A big mistake, one that is a contributing factor to our current problem is not considering people. It is easy to get very involved and quite carried away in the technicalities and the process of Waste Management. It involves us all, as long as people consume items there will be waste, it is something that will always need to be considered and is never going to go away. So why are the people that carry out such an important task, so easily looked down upon.

shelters. This helps save on transport costs and helps them get to surrounding suburbs collecting as much as possible before the more formal pickers get there. Formal pickers include private collection companies and Pikitup. The social layer will be a base camp of sorts. Providing temporary sleeping spaces, storage and sorting spaces and ablution facilities. Informal recyclers ain’t regulated and therefore have no union or formal body protecting them. There will be a training centre providing lectures on new materials and methods in the process of recycling. A social worker and nurse will be on site, as well as a post office.

A social layer will be included in the intervention, and because there are so many players involved in the process we will start at the ‘bottom’. The informal recyclers in The City of Johannesburg ‘sleep rough’. They stay in the city during the week in make shift Intervention | 158


Formal and Informal | Hierarchy Informal recyclers are disregarded figures who are looked down upon and misunderstood in the City of Johannesburg. As the proposed intervention has such a strong social layer that hopes to make the lives of the informal recyclers easier. Elevating their break away spaces contradicts the norms of societies hierarchy as now the Walkers look down onto the city. Interac�ve model The chosen site demonstrates formal and informal, Newtown is a suburb divided. The double decker splits Newtown into theShowing Formal, the welljuxtaposi�on documentedand anddisconnec�on celebrated heritage precinct to the East and then the more industrial precinct that is home to the site to the West. Even through research this divide is evident as there is very little documenting the western side, yet historically it played a major role in creating what the Interac�ve model City of Johannesburg is today. Interactive Model New townand Si disconnec�on los Showing the juxtaposi�on Showing the juxtaposition and Interac�ve disconnection model

M u s eu m Afr i ca

Showing the juxtaposi�on and disconnec�on

New townNew Sitow losn S i lo s

M useum MAfr u sica eu m

Hierachy: above and below Hierarchy, above and below

Hierachy: above and below

New town S i l os New tow n Silos

Hierachy: above and below

M useu m Afr ica

New town S i l os

M u s eu m Africa

159 | chapter 04

Afr i ca


A Burning Ember Newtown used to be home to the Johannesburg coal powered Power Station which provided the city with electricity. Now, the proposed intervention houses a MSW Incineration Plant that will contribute power to the cities electrical grid. This energy is cleaner and more environmentally friendly. However, the concept of a burning ember will be pulled through the design as a reminder of what was.

The colours of burning coal embers

Initial sketch Silos housing the incineration plant

Intervention | 160


04 | iv INTERVENTION

5 4

8

7

161 | chapter 04

6

3


KEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

MSW Incineration Plant Drop off zone (Feed) Weigh bridge Storage units Silo Reception Baling and Buy back centre Post Office Recycling depot Administration

1

2

GROUND FLOOR PLAN | SCALE 1:500 Intervention | 162


163 | chapter 04 asement Book

9

8

3

6

7

4 2

5

BASEMENT PLAN | SCALE 1:1 000


KEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

MSW Incineration Plant MSW Incineration Plant Admin Sleeping space / Base Camp Baling and Buy Centre Open plan offices Main circulation (fire lobby) Reception Staff break away space Sky bridge to the Mills building

1

FIRST FLOOR PLAN | SCALE 1:500

Intervention | 164


DN

Level 3 Book 1 : 500

165 | chapter 04


KEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

MSW Incineration Plant Drop off zone (Feed) Weigh bridge Sleeping spaces/ Base camp Silo Reception Baling and Buy back centre Post Office Recycling depot Administration

SECOND FLOOR PLAN | SCALE 1:500 Intervention | 166


8

1 3

7 6 5

2 4

SECTION 01 | SCALE 1:500 Section 01 cuts through the MSW Incineration Plant situated in the Silo's as well as the double volume recycling depot. KEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

MSW Incineration Plant Baling and Buy back Centre Terrace Basement Post Office Administration Workshops/ Seminars Rooms Vegetable Garden/ break away space

167 | chapter 04


Elevated Green terrace spaces

MSW Incineration Plant in Silos

Recycling depot (Baling & Buy Back

Intervention | 168


4

1

2

3

SECTION 02 | SCALE 1:500

Section 02 and 03 cuts through the sleeping area / base camp of the Silos. KEY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

MSW Incineration Plant Sleeping spaces Storage for the Informal recyclers Elevated vegetable garden / break away space Terrace Baling and Buy back Centre Social Worker and Nurses office

169 | chapter 04

5

7 6


4

2

1

3

SECTION 02 | SCALE 1:500

Atrium through the Silos Intervention | 170


NORTH ELEVATION | SCALE 1:500

WEST ELEVATION | SCALE 1:500

171 | chapter 04


EAST ELEVATION | SCALE 1:500

SOUTH ELEVATION | SCALE 1:500

Intervention | 172


Cnr Quinn and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Str

173 | chapter 04


Elevated Vegetable garden & break away space

Internal view of the main atrium in the Silo's Intervention | 174


CHAPTER Page 178

|

The Client

Page 181

|

The Project

Page 185

|

Implementation

Fig 73

Chapter 5

175 | chapter 05


|

VIABILITY STUDY

viability | 176


177 | chapter 05


05 |

i

THE CLIENT - A PRACTICAL A P P L I C AT I O N

Legal Constitution The proposed ‘redesigned recycling depot’ will be situated in Newtown - around the old Premier Milling precinct as it hosts all players involved in the process of waste management / waste picking, from Johannesburg’s official integrated waste management service provider Pikitup, to small privately owned recycling depots in the area like Newtown recycling PWMC, it also acts as a base camp or origin of routes for a community of informal recyclers. As Newtown is an already working ‘recycling precinct’ of sorts the Mpact Group is proposed as the client, the proposed ‘redesigned recycling depot’ will therefore fall under Mpact recycling who is South Africa’s largest recycler of recovered paper and plastic collection in southern

Africa. The Company has a paper division and a plastic division, supported by shared services for finance, human resources administration and ICT. The recycling depot in conjunction with the Waste to Energy plant is quite a substantial project and with the electrical connection the project would have to be funded as a joint venture between Mpact recycling and the City of Johannesburg.

viability | 178


Leadership & Decision-Making The ‘redesigned recycling depot’ is proposed to form part of an existing management structure, it will fall under the management that is already set up by Mpact recycling. The executive management structure is shown below in Figure xx1. The Board comprises of eight directors, two of whom are executive directors, the CEO and CFO. The remaining six directors, three of whom are women, are all independent non-executive directors, including the Board Chairman. The Board is ultimately responsible for the Group’s business, approval of the strategy and key policies and is the focal point and custodian of corporate governance at Mpact. It is also responsible for approving the Group’s strategy, financial objectives and targets. The roles of the Chairman and CEO are separate. The Board is led by the Chairman, who is elected by the Board annually, while operational management of the Group is the responsibility of the CEO. No business of the Group is or will be managed by a third party. The proposed ‘redesigned recycling depot’ will fall under the existing management structure, in terms of management and decision-making, the proposed project will fall under the control scope of the Mpact management team. The building shall need its own general operational manager and employees but decisions will be made by the board. Funding As the Mpact Group, specifically Mpact recycling will be benefiting financially from the proposed redesigned recycling depot, they are proposed to be the full funders of the project. The company sets aside a budget of R241.0 million per financial year that is specified for investment activity. A waste to energy plant takes on average 5 to 6 years to complete from the permitting and approval phase that takes 2 to 3 years, followed by a 3-year engineering and construction period. Over this 6 year period the Mpact group would have R1.446billion to invest. The full amount that shall be funded for the proposed ‘redesigned recycling depot’ is estimated to be around R700-million. 179 | chapter 05

The funding model is based on the precedent, a waste-to-energy biogas plant in Athlone in Cape Town, with the aim of converting municipal solid waste into energy. The project was aimed at achieving zero waste to landfill, ensuring that all usable waste brought into the plant is developed into environmentally sensitive, high quality products, it was expected to create 80 full-time jobs and a few hundred indirect jobs. The plant is owned by New Horizons Energy, a subsidiary of Clean Energy Africa. The building cost R400-million and was funded by Clean Energy Africa in partnership with waste management company Waste Mart. African Oxygen (Afrox) has also came on board as a key partner, it has an off take agreement to use the gas that is produced and now about 10% of Cape Town’s total waste will go through the plant instead of to landfill.


management that is already set up by Mpact recycling. The execuIve management structure is shown below:

MPACT SHAREHOLDERS MPACT BOARD OF DIRECTORS

AUDIT AND RISK COMMITTEE

REMUNERATION AND NOMINATION COMMITTEE

SOCIAL AND ETHICS COMMITTEE

GROUP EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE SUBSIDIARY BOARDS

Fig 74

Table showing the executive management structure of the Mpact Group (Author 2018)

‘A city defiled’ - a redesigned recycling depot

The Board comprises of eight directors, two of whom are execuIve directors, the CEO and CFO. The remaining six directors, three of whom are women, are all independent non-execuIve directors, including the Board Chairman. The Board is ulImately responsible for the Group’s business, approval of the strategy and key policies and is the focal point and custodian of corporate governance at Mpact. It is also responsible for approving the Group’s strategy, financial P a roles c t G r oofu pthe Chairman and CEO are separate. The Board is led by the Chairman, who is objecIves and targets. M The elected by the Board annually, while operaIonal management of the Group is the responsibility of the CEO. No Paper Business External Group Sales business of the Group is or will be managed by a third party. The proposed ‘redesigned recycling depot’ will fall under Baled recovered paper, plas�c and other recyclable materials

RECYCLING

(Including Remade)

Recovered paper

PAPER MANUFACTURING

Containerboard and cartonboard

Containerboard and cartonboard

PAPER CONVERTING

Corrugated boxes, other paper packaging products

Plas�cs Business Corrugated boxes Recycled PET pellets: Savuka TM PET

MPACT POLYMERS Recovered PET bo�les PLASTIC CONVERTING rPET pellets

External sales

Fig 75

!5

Inter-segmental sales

Preforms, PET bo�les, jars, trays, film, bins and other plas�c containers

Inter-divisional sales

Table showing how the Mpact Group is structured (Author 2018)

Leadership & Decision-Making

viability | 180

The ‘redesigned recycling depot’ is proposed to form part of an exisIng management structure, it will fall under the


05 |

ii

THE PROJECT

Project Initiation

Project Brief

The project ‘A city defiled’ was driven by a number of academic resources and government initiatives that have identified that Johannesburg has around 8 years led of landfill. With growing city boundaries and an increasing population the city of Johannesburg is in disappear. The perception of waste and how the world treats waste is changing and so should ours. Previously the main market driver for the waste and renewable energy market was based on economic factors and currently that is still what drives the city of Johannesburg when it comes to waste management, however with new market drivers that are more sustainable and deal with the underlying problem- that there is not enough space, waste to energy also deals with the social implications waste has on communities, but now in a positive way.

‘A city defiled’ is a new interpretation of a recycling depot that consolidated a weight station, a bailing station and a buy back centre, with an additional waste to energy incineration plant. The purpose of the building is to create a depot that is more central to waste collection routes and aims at achieving zero waste to landfill, and then the reprocessing of landfills into the incineration plant. It could also become a model for a more efficient waste collection process, increasing the amount of waste that is recycled in the city.

The project is in line with Pikitup, Johannesburg’s waste management service provider initiative in aiding informal recyclers with their collections, as well as providing trolleys and bugs and workshops on informing the recyclers on new products as well as road safety. The project therefore goes beyond the need to decrease and reprocess landfills but incorporates positive social initiatives that could be ran this ‘redesigned recycling depot’.

181 | chapter 05

The architecture should be a recognisable piece, that informs and tries to change the mind set of people and their perception towards the topic. The building would need to accommodate not only the process of recycling materials but also provide facilities for the informal recyclers that help them in different ways. Things like ablution facilities, showers, storage facilities and temporary accommodation. The depot would also need to accommodate admin and management facilities for staff and the running of the building and could also house seminar/educational spaces when hosting talks and workshops for waste pickers.


1. Administa8on

4. Recycling Depot

• • • • • •

• • • •

Managers office Open plan office Board room Staff lounge Security office Staff Parking

Weigh station Sorting station Baling station Buy back centre (Mpact owns the plant ie. its Mpact collection bay)

2. Service Amenities

5. Waste to Energy Plant

• • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

Bathrooms Generator room Storage Refuse Fire Services Patch room HT & LT Rooms

Drop off area Waste feed Incinerator Boiler Turbine generator Ash collec6on Scrubber reactor (filters smoke) Chimney stack

3. Base Camp (for the informal recyclers) • • • • • • • • •

Ablu6on facili6es Showers & change rooms Canteen Kitchen Deliveries Refuse Seminar rooms Sleeping areas Storage Rooms

Site Selection My site sits on the old Premier Milling precinct in Newtown on the corner of Quinn Str and Gwi Gwi Mrwebi Str, currently the area is an already working ‘recycling precinct’, as it hosts all players involved in the process of waste management / waste picking, from Johannesburg’s official integrated waste management service provider Pikitup, to small privately owned recycling depots in the area like Newtown recycling PWMC, it also acts as a base camp or origin of routes for a community of

informal recyclers. It is important that accessibility is easy to all involved or interested in dealing with the plant especially the more informal players. The plant being quite central accomplishes that as the distance to dispose of waste or sell recyclables is a lot shorter. Other informative factors for selecting the site are: 1. Its ease of access off of the M1 highway, making it accessible from the North, East, West and South of Johannesburg. viability | 182


2. Existing service amenities that exist on the site and its surrounds. 3. Zone and site restrictions already being in place. 4. Visibility of the site from the highway and surrounding areas. 5. Display of various spatial issues whereby introduction of such a project would have a received benefit to the surrounding public. map below illustrates the position of The Premier Milling grain Silos:

the well The Old

N

M1

Mayfair Newtown CBD

M2

E

W Selby

S

SITE

Development FigSustainable 76 Aerial image of Johannesburg and the surrounds of the site (Author 2018) 183 | chapter Social 05

The project aims to drive social change and provide a more inclusive environment for the informal recyclers. The


Sustainable Development Social The project aims to drive social change and provide a more inclusive environment for the informal recyclers. The project functions to benefit the waste pickers by formalising there role to a degree, regulating their routes, providing benefits and workshops, whilst providing them with essential life skills and job readiness training as well as providing better temporary living spaces for the recyclers. The project will seek the help of the local community during construction, with the use of locally sourced materials when building the recycling depot component, during the running of the plant small business in the area will be approached in dealing with over flow and assist in sorting and bailing as they have the facilities already. Environmental The project is proposed to form part of the exiting fabric and infrastructure, as its function is to recycle it only seemed appropriate to recycle a building that it will inhabit. The old grain silos are of an adequate size to accommodate a medium sized waste to energy incineration plant and could contribute to the architecture in a interesting way. The land/ area was a grain milling precinct and was on the opposite side of the bridge to the old Newtown power station, all industrially zoned.

energy options to reduce CO2 emissions and replace fossil fuels. With regards to the recycling depot and administration building (not the waste to energy plant) the normal passive design procedures will be undertaken such as the use of natural light and ventilation. The building shall be placed in a position on site that will be at a optimum orientation in order to maximise the buildings ability to be passively cooled or heated. The building shall have a facility to collect rainwater in order to irrigate surrounding green spaces. Economic The building will be located on a site that is central during the process of waste management which in turn could ensure utilisation. Mpact recycling forms part of a sustainable company that turns over large amounts of money per year and have an already positive cash flow. The proposed project aims to increase the revenue of Mpact recycling as recyclable materials are sorted and brought directly to their depot. No money will spent buying tons of paper and plastic from buy back centres as well as money saved on transport costs and vehicle maintenances.

In terms of building considerations, long term environmental sustainability will be ensured. Incinerators for municipal solid waste are adapted where land for sanitary landfills is scarce, moreover, Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a way to recover valuable resources, heat, energy and precious metals can be recovered from the ashes and reused. It is possible to reuse 90 % of the metals contained in the bottom ash and the remaining can be reused as road material. The smoke from incineration plants are significantly cleaner than that of coal burning plants and the smoke is further filtered and controlled by wet scrubbers preventing further damage to the ozone layer. Waste-to-energy is one of the most robust and effective alternative viability | 184


05 |

iii

I M P L E M E N TAT I O N

The Professional Team The implementation of a successful Waste to energy plant and recycling depot requires a number of professionals to ensure that the building functions properly. The professional team shall be headed by the Architect who is responsible for the design and implementation of the design brief. The Architect shall assemble the professional team, along with the client. The clients attorney shall ensure that all legalities are in order for the construction project to proceed. A Structural Engineer is required to ensure that the existing buildings loading is in equilibrium and that the building is structurally sound as well as to assess to what extent the construction team can strip the inside of the silos. A Mechanical Engineer will be required to ensure the mechanical systems within the building making it habitable for the user and a Power Engineer (which is a branch of Electrical Engineering) will be required to overlook the complex circuits needed in a waste to energy plant and its connection to the electrical grid. The professional team required is usually of high cost due to the fact that the building typology is so specialised and needs to be safe and in working order. Specialists in these regards are therefore vital throughout the design process to help the Architect design in the best possible manner. A consultant that specialises in waste to energy incineration plants is vital and can help assist the architect so that all element are correctly designed. 185 | chapter 05


The full professional team is as follows: The full professional team is as follows: ARCHITECT STRUCTURAL ENGINEERS

PROFESSIONAL TEAM

MECHANICAL ENGINEERS POWER ENGINEERS QUANTITY SURVEYOR

THE CLIENT

WASTE TO ENERGY PLANT CONSULTANT

PROJECT MANAGER

WASTE MANAGEMENT SPECIALIST ATTORNEY

SUB CONTRACTORS MAIN CONTRACTOR COMMUNITY REPRESENTATIVE

Project Management Project Management

A project of such a scale and complexity requires project managers to ensure the project runs smoothly on site,

A because project the of project such ais scale andclient complexity so big the is advisedrequires to hire a project manager who’s sole purpose is to oversee finances, project managers to ensure smoothly contracts and scheduling forthe theproject duraIonruns of the project, from start to close-out. This will aid in ensuring that the project runs smoothly and on Ime, ensuring no unexpected on site, because the project is so big the client is expensive and shornalls. advised to hire a project manager who’s sole purpose Plan is Financial to oversee finances, contracts and scheduling for Building Costs the duration of the project, from start to close-out. With reference to Appendix A, the calculated area of ‘The Redesigned Recycling Depot’ is 8957 msq with a final cost of This will323 aid750,00. in ensuring thatcost theper project runs smoothly R755 The total msq is therefore R84 327,76. The selected case studies, 48 MW Waste to Energy and on time, ensuring no unexpected expenses and as there is no Waste to Energy incinerated plant in South Plant Planned for Jawaharnagar, India - which is relevant shortfalls. Africa therefore one that was built in a developing country seemed appropriate, and an Mpact Buy-back centre located

in Johannesburg helped disInguish program and the size of that program. The cost of a Waste to Energy Plant is viability | 186 extremely high as it requires specialised design elements that are inclusive of voluminous mechanical systems. It is


CHAPTER Page 189

|

Bibliography

Page 192

|

List of figures

Page 196

|

Ethics Clearance

Fig 77

Chapter 6

187 | chapter 06


|

REFERENCES

References | 188


06 |

i

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BOO KS Amin, A. 2013. ‘The Urban Condition: A Challenge to Social Science’ in Public Culture, 25 (270) pp. 181-188.

Building Walls. 1st ed. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press.

Asmal, Z. and Trangos, G. (2015). Movement Johannesburg. 1st ed. Cape Town: The City.

Glass, R. (1989) Clichés of Urban Doom (Oxford: Blackwell). (pg. 132-158 and 159-183.)

Bremner, L. 2010. ‘Essays on Johannesburg: Writing the City Into Being’. Johannesburg: Fourthwall Books.

Hobson, P. (1983). Household waste management in Europe—Economics and techniques. Agricultural Wastes, 5(1), p.60.

Bremner, L. & Subiros, P. 2007. ‘Johannesburg: Emerging/ Diverging Metropolis’. Mendrisio: Mendrisio Academy Press. Brodie, N. (2008). The Joburg Book. 1st ed. Johannesburg: Pan Macmillan/Sharp Sharp Media. Crysler, C., Cairns, S. and Heynen, H. (2013). The SAGE handbook of architectural theory. London: SAGE Publications, pp.289 -297. Feld, S. (2011). Senses of place. Santa Fe, N.M.: School of American Research Press. Foucault, M. 2008. ‘Of Other Spaces. Trans De Cauter, L. & Dehaene, M. Heterotopia and the City: Public Space in a Post Civil Society’. Routledge: New York. Frug, G. 1999. City Making: Building Cities Without 189 | chapter 06

Hoornweg, D and Bhada-tata, P (2012). What a Waste : A Global Review of Solid Waste Management. Urban development series; knowledge papers no. 15. World Bank. Katz, P. 1994. ‘The New Urbanism: Towards an Architecture of Community’. Portland, Oregon: Point Vision. Kotzen, B. (2014). Fragmented Otherwheres: Sociospatial production in Johannesburg. MSc City Design and Social Science. London School of Economics and Political Science, U.K. Lees, L., Slater, T. and Wyly, E. (2013). Gentrification. Florence: Taylor and Francis. Lefebvre, H. 1991. The Production of Space. Blackwell


Publishing Oatman-Stanford, H (2013). A Filthy History: When New Yorkers Lived Knee-Deep in Trash. Collection weekly, New York. Trancik, R. (1986). Finding Lost Space: Theories of Urban Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold. Weesep, J. (1994). Gentrification as a research frontier. Progress in Human Geography, 18(1), pp.74 -83. Weiwei, A., 2014. Ai Weiwei Spatial Matters, Art Architecture and Activism. 1st ed. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. O NL I NE AFRICA IS A COUNTRY, CULTURE. 2013. Johannesburg: where criminals don’t discriminate, property developers do. [ONLINE] Available at: http:// africasacountry.com/2013/10/johannesburg-wherecriminals-dont-discriminate-property-developersdo/. [Accessed 28 March 2018]. B&W Volund. 2018. How waste-to-energy works. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.volund.dk/

Waste_to_Energy/How_it_works. [Accessed 23 January 2018]. dodho magazine. 2012. TROLLEY PUSHERS IN JOHANNESBURG BY CLAUDIO RASANO. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.dodho.com/trolley-pushersin-johannesburg-by-claudio-rasano/. [Accessed 12 January 2018]. ENCA. 2014. Recycling the only solution to South Africa’s landfill shortage. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www. enca.com/south-africa/recycling-only-solution-southafricas-landfill-shortage. [Accessed 23 January 2018]. Engineering news. 2017. Ground-breaking waste-toenergy plant opens in Cape Town. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/groundbreaking-waste-to-energy-plant-opens-in-capetown-2017-01-24. [Accessed 11 February 2018]. Financial Times.com. (2017). City centre ‘gentrification’ in Gauteng is bad news for the poor | Financial Times. [online] Available at: https://www.ft.com/content/ da3b4b24-206c-11e7-b7d3-163f5a7f229c [Accessed 4 Sep. 2018]. Findley, L. & Ogbu, L. 2011. South Africa after Apartheid: From Township to Town. Places: Design Observed. References | 190


Available from http:// places.designobserver.com/ feature /south-africa-after-apartheid-from- townshipto-town/31148/. Date of Access: 6 April 2017. Green Cape. 2016. Waste Economy – 2016 Market Intelligence Report. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www. greencape.co.za/assets/MIRs%202016/GreenCapeWaste-MIR-2016.pdf. [Accessed 23 January 2018]. Infrustructure News. 2017. IWMSA President on the importance of land filling regulations. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.infrastructurene.ws/2017/03/22/ iwmsa-president-on-the-importance-of-landfillingregulations/. [Accessed 23 January 2018]. Jozi City Four dimensions of Jo’burg’s CBD. 2011. Waste ghosts sweep the streets By Sakeena Suliman. [ONLINE] Available at: http://journalism.co.za/indepth/jozicity/ joburgs-invisible-recyclers/. [Accessed 12 January 2018]. London’s History Of Waste Management. (2018). London’s History Of Waste Management – Speedy Clearances – Medium. [online] Available at: https://medium.com/@speedyclearance/londonshistor y-of-waste-management-dd50883de44c [Accessed 29 Aug. 2018]. NETWORK), C. (2018).  Biblical King Hezekiah’s official seal found in ancient landfill - Middle East - International 191 | chapter 06

- News - Catholic Online. [online] Catholic Online. Available at: https://www.catholic.org/news/ international/middle_east/story.php?id=65725 [Accessed 29 Aug. 2018]. Newtown. 2018. History. [ONLINE] Available at: https://www.newtown.co.za/content/history. [Accessed 12 January 2018]. Newtown Heritage Trail. 2010. The History of Newtown. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www. newtown.co.za/heritage/history. [Accessed 12 January 2018]. Removal, 24/7. (2018). A Brief History of Waste Management. [online] 24/7 Waste Removal. Available at:https://247wasteremoval.co.uk/blog/abrief-history-of-waste-management/ [Accessed 29 Aug. 2018]. THE SOUTH AFRICAN INFORMAL CITY. 2011. Recycle Change. [ONLINE] Available at: http://informalcity. co.za/recycle. [Accessed 12 January 2018]. THE SOUTH AFRICAN INFORMAL CITY. 2012. Recycle Change (Panel 2). [ONLINE] Available at: http://informalcity.co.za/sites/default/files/ RecycleChange2.pdf. [Accessed 12 January 2018].


06 |

iii

LIST OF FIGURES

generation by region (Author 2018) . . . . . 29

Image of Ponte Tower and the Vodacom tower in the Johannesburg skyline (pikitup Annual Report-2010-2011). . . . . . . . . 01

Fig 14

Fig 02

Aerial of Johannesburg showing how the train tracks divide the city. (emira 2014). . . 03

World map diagram showing waste generation by income (Author 2018). . . . . 29

Fig 15

Fig 03

A working landfill in Johannesburg (infrastructure news 2017). . . . . . . . . 05

World map diagram showing solid waste production by country (Author 2018- after waste management world 2018). . . . . . 32

picture collage of waste pickers in Johannesburg (Author,2018) . . . . . . . . 11

Fig 16

South Africa outline (Author 2018). . . . . 33

Fig 04

Fig 17

Fig 05

chapter 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

Waste Hierarchy (Author 2018 - after Greencape 2016). . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

In 1908 dumping waste in the most convenient places was common practice (waste removal blog, 2018). . . . . . . . . 23

Fig 18

Fig 06

Table of PRO’s (Author 2018 - after Greencape 2016). . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

Fig 19

Estimated total population and annual growth from 2013‐2017 (Author 2018 after StatsSA, 2017). . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Fig 20

Waste generation in South Africa by region (Author 2018 - after Greencape 2016). . . . 39

Fig 21

Average population growth per province from 2013 to 2017 (Author 2018 - after StatsSA, 2017). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

Fig 22

GDP of South Africa from 2013 to 2016 at current prices (Author 2018 - after StatsSA, 2017). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Fig 23

Breakdown of general waste generated in 2017 (Author 2018 - after South Africa state of waste report, 2018). . . . . . . . 43

Fig 24

Diversion or disposal waste hierarchy

Fig 01

Fig 07

London’s waste management (Speedy Clearances blog, 2018) . . . . . . . . . . 23

Fig 08

When New Yorkers Lived Knee-Deep in Trash (Hunter Oatman-Stanford, 2013). . 23

Fig 09

Essentially an ancient landfill (Catholic Network, 2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Fig 10

Make up of a landfill (Hobson, P, 1983) . . 24

Fig 11

Sasolburg landfill, SA drowning in dirt (enca.com, 2014). . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Fig 12

Sandton Garden Site (Pikitup Johnannesburg Annual-Report, 2015). . . . 26

Fig 13

World map diagram showing waste

References | 192


Fig 25

(Author 2018 - after Greencape 2016). . . . 48

Fig 41

waste pickers of Kalkata (J.Stanton Mail online, 2015) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Merry Fitzgerald Square, Newtown Johannesburg (Image: Anthony Comyn, 2014. 73

Fig 42

20 000 South Africans from all walks of life demonstrate in Merry Fitzgerald square (image: Deon Dwarfe, 2017). . . . . . . . 73

Fig 43

Concert in Merry Fitzgerald square (image: www.inyourpocket.com/Johannesburg/ mary-fitzgerald-square, 2018) . . . . . . . 73

Fig 44

Collage of littered streets of Johannesburg (images: Pikitup annual report, 2007,8,9). . . 75

Fig 45

The flow of waste and how it lands up at landfills (Author, 2018 after World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999). . 83

Fig 46

Diagram of Mass burner Incineration (BBC, 2009). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Fig 47

Fluidised-bed Incineration ( Eisenmann (n.y.) and GEC (n.y.)) . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

Fig 48

Modular Incineration (Consutech, 2004) . . . 87

Fig 49

The flue gas cleaning system of modern incineration plants (Hannover, Germany). Source EON (n.y.). . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

Fig 50

Technical overview of the process (World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

Fig 26

Waste pickers in Brazil, Jardim Gramacho (J.Barchfield the Associated press, 2012) . . . 49

Fig 27

Garbage trucks, men and birds work at the top of the Robinson Deep landfill site in southern Johannesburg. (Image: Lucille Davie).49

Fig 28

South Africa’s Armies of Waste Pickers Threatened by Plans to Manage Landfill Gases (Cath Everett, 2014). . . . . . . . . 51

Fig 29

Fig 30

Fig 31

A Pikitup vehicle dumping is load at a landfill site (Pikitup Johnannesburg Annual-Report, 2015) . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Map of Pikitup waste management depots (Author 2018 - after Pikitup Johannesburg Annual Report, 2014-2015). . . . . . . . . 55 Map of Pikitup Landfill sites (Author 2018after Pikitup Johannesburg Annual Report, 2014-2015). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Fig 32

Diagram explaining Pikitup’s standard refuse collection service (Author 2018 ). . . 57

Fig 33

Diagram explaining Pikitup’s Trial separate @ source program (Author, 2018 ). . . . . 59

Fig 34

Diagram explaining The role of the informal recyclers (Author, 2018 ) . . . . . . . . . 61

Fig 51

The Rankine process (World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999). . 96

Fig 35

Diagram explaining The role of the informal recycler reclaiming waste from landfill sites (Author, 2018 ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

Fig 52

Dry system (World Bank Municipal Solid Waste Incineration, 1999). . . . . . . . . 97

Cartoon strip explaining on gentrification (Lees, Slater and Wyly, 2013) . . . . . . . . 65

Fig 53

Fig 36

The Acropolis, Athens, Greece (Image: www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/ ancient-greece, 2010). . . . . . . . . . 101

Fig 37

A Brownstoner Newsletter on gentrification (Lees, Slater and Wyly, 2013) . . . . . . . . 67

Fig 54

Fig 38

The Maboneng Precinct (Propertuity.co.za, 2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Ruined aqueducts of Ancient Rome (Image: Bernard Gagnon; www.urbanghostsmedia. com, 2016) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Fig 55

Washington DC Capitol Building (Image: Gregory Ballos; www.pixels.com, October 23rd, 2016). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Fig 56

Diagrammatic collage of Johannesburg;s mind set when it comes to waste (Author, 2018 ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

Fig 39

Fordsburg Flea Market (Gauteng.net, 2018). . 69

Fig 40

Triad of space production (Author, 2018 after Henri Lefebvre). . . . . . . . . . . 71

193 | chapter 06


Fig 57

Google Earth Aerial Image of Newtown, specifically the Carr street off ramp. . . . . 107

Fig 71

Locality image: Edited Aerial Photograph of the City of Johannesburg (Author, 2018(. 125

Fig 58

City of Johannesburg start of chapter (Author,2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109

Fig 72

Chapter 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Map illustrating the racial spatial planning in Johannesburg during the 1970s. Image: http-//www.mascontext.com/wp-content/ uploads/2013/03/17_the_segregation_ paradoxes_04. jpg.. . . . . . . . . . . . 111

Fig 73

Chapter 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

Fig 59

Fig 74

Table showing the executive management structure of the Mpact Group (Author 2018).180

Fig 75

Table showing how the Mpact Group is structured (Author 2018) . . . . . . . . . 180

Fig 76

Aerial image of Johannesburg and the surrounds of the site (Author 2018) . . . . 183

Fig 77

Chapter 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Fig 60

Villa Contemporaine Workhouses, Le Corbusier Image 01 : http://1.bp.blogspot. com/-yAOnHUXGoRs/ UKZ6UHeAzRI/ AAAAAAAAACc/jNeetvGZTyg/ s1600/ le+corbusier+ville+contemporaine+1922.jpg. 112

Fig 61

Garden City, Ebenezer Howard Image 02: https://image.slidesharecdn.com/ fexmfiamrsq6mtwbaura-signature. . . . . 112

Fig 62

Apartheid Township in the Modernist Image, Image 03: http://www.sahistory. org.za/sites/default/files/ place_pics/oldhouses.jpg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

Fig 63

City of Johannesburg, extent of routes of ‘Walkers’ from central Johannesburg area (Author,2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Fig 64

Image of a trolley pusher on Carr street (Author,2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

Fig 65

Image of a trolley pusher in Johannesburg (Author,2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116

Fig 66

Aerial of ‘Walkers’ base camp on Carr street off ramp (Author,2018). . . . . . . 117

Fig 67

Plan of Johannesburg and Suburbs 1897 ..... 119

Fig 68

Newtown timeline (Author,2018 after Newtown Heritage Trail (2010). . . . . . . 121

Fig 69

(Left) Historic photograph of Newtown, the old cooling towers and train tracks looking South (Museum Africa, Johannesburg. PH2002-865). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

Fig 70

(Top) Historic photograph on the M2 double decker highway and Johannesburg looking South East (Museum Africa, Johannesburg. PH2006-10521) . . . . . . 124 References | 194


06 |

ii

ETHICS CLEARANCE

195 | chapter 06


References | 196

Profile for Shannon Richardson

A city defiled. Redesigning the Johannesburg recycling depot, rescuing a city drowning in landfills  

Masters in Architecture (professional) thesis document on the challenges the city of Johannesburg faces regarding waste management and the s...

A city defiled. Redesigning the Johannesburg recycling depot, rescuing a city drowning in landfills  

Masters in Architecture (professional) thesis document on the challenges the city of Johannesburg faces regarding waste management and the s...

Advertisement