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Fish Identification Project Marine Biology/aquaculture Saltwater Fish-1-50, Freshwater-51-100,Invertabrate-101-125 Jessica Wilkes 12/16/2012


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 1

Common Name: Red Snapper Scientific Name: Lutjanus campechanus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lutjanidae

Order: Pechciformes Genus: Lutjanus

Species: L. campechanus

Geography / Habitat: Most common in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Snapper have any attraction to any thing like reefs, rocks, ledges, and ship or plane wrecks. Most smaller Snapper are found down in the sandy/muddy bottoms. Life Strategy: The Snapper usually spawn around June to October. Adults can live up to 20 years. Food / Feed Strategy: They like to eat crustacean, free swimming larvae prep, zooplankton, fish, and shrimp.

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Common Name: Red Snapper Scientific Name: Lutjanus campechanus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:2

Common Name: Bluefish Scientific Name: Pomatomus saltatrix Class: Actinopterygii Family: Pomatomidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Pomatomus

Species: P. saltatrix

Geography / Habitat: Bluefish are migratory marine fish, found worldwide, in tropic and temperate seas all over the world. Bluefish are generally found in bays and sandy bottomed waters close to the shore. Depending on conditions such as water temperature and atmospheric pressure, bluefish may be found almost anywhere in the water column, from just above the bottom to just below the surface. Life Strategy: At breeding time, bluefish migrate out to open sea to spawn, anywhere from 2 miles offshore to the continental platform. The eggs are released and drift along with plankton in surface waters, hatching about 48 hours after fertilization. Food / Feed Strategy:Depending on area and season, they favor menhaden and other sardine-like fish, jacks, weakfish, grunts, striped anchovies, shrimp and squid.

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Common Name: Bluefish Scientific Name: Pomatomus saltatrix Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:3

Common Name: Malabar Grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus malararicus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Serranidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Epinephelus

Species: E. malabaricus Geography / Habitat: Near coral or rocky reefs, in estuaries and mangrove swamps. Life Strategy: They are protogynous hermaphrodite, i.e. the young are predominantly female but transform into males as they grow larger. They grow about a kilogram per year. Food / Feed Strategy: Groupers are an aggressive carnivore that primarily eats crustaceans and small fish species in the wild.

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Common Name: Malabar Grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus malaraticus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:4

Common Name: Bonefish Scientific Name: Albula vulpes Class: Actinopterygii Family: Albulidae

Order: Albuliformes Genus: Alubla

Species: A. vulpes

Geography / Habitat: Bonefish are found in warm seas worldwide. They primarily inhabit shallow sand and grass flats of warm tropical waters, but also spend a good amount of their lives in deep water Life Strategy: bonefish spawn in deep water where currents can easily disperse the developing eggs and larvae to other locations. Food / Feed Strategy: Bonefish feed on benthic worms, fry, crustaceans, and molluscs. Ledge sporting currents; drop-offs along the edge and clean, healthy seagrass beds produce abundant small crabs and shrimp to nourish the bonefish. Bonefish may follow stingrays, looking for small prey items disturbed by the rooting rays.

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Common Name: Bonefish Scientific Name: Albula vulpes Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:5

Common Name: Cobia Scientific Name: Rachycentron canadum Class: Actinopterygii Family: Rachycentridae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Rachycentron

Species: R. canadum

Geography / Habitat: Distributed Gulfwide, cobia are found from the major, high-salinity bays. They are strongly attracted to floating debris, seaweed rips, channel markers, buoys and bells, offshore oil and gas platforms, and even floating sea turtles. Life Strategy: Either spawns in schools off-shore and then young live in sargassum, estruaries or shallow reefs, or more likely, cobia enter estruaries and shallow bays and spawn en-masse, and the young then head offshore soon after hatching Food / Feed Strategy: Cobia feed primarily on crabs, squid, and other fish. Cobia will follow larger animals such as sharks, turtles and manta rays in hope of scavenging a meal.

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Common Name: Cobia Scientific Name:Rachycentron Canadum Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:6

Common Name: Summer Flounder Scientific Name: Paralichthys dentatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Paralichthyidae

Order: Pleuronectiformes Genus: Paralichthys

Species: P. dentatus

Geography / Habitat: Summer flounder are bottom-dwellers and usually live in the Bay's deep channels and ridges, as well as sandbars. Most summer flounder migrate offshore for the winter, though some will remain in the Bay. Life Strategy: Summer flounder spawn from late summer to mid-winter in coastal ocean waters. When they hatch, summer flounder larvae have one eye on each side of the head. The right eye gradually moves to the left side of the head next to the left eye. Food / Feed Strategy: The summer flounder, which depends upon sight to capture its food, feeds most actively during daylight hours. Juveniles feed upon small shrimp and other crustaceans, while adults eat a variety of fish, including small winter flounder, menhaden, sand lance, red hake, silversides, bluefish, weakfish and mummichogs, as well as invertebrates such as blue crabs, squid, sand shrimp, opossum shrimp and mollusks.

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Common Name: Summer flounder Scientific Name:Paralichthys dentatus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #:7

Common Name: Sandbar Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus plumneus Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Carcharhinidae

Order: Carcharhiniformes Genus: Carcharhinus

Species: c. plumbeus

Geography / Habitat: They are commonly found over muddy or sandy bottoms in shallow coastal waters such as bays, estuaries, harbors, or the mouths of rivers, but it also swims in deeper waters as well as intertidal zones. Life Strategy: The mating process begins when the male follows a female, occasionally biting her between the dorsal fins until she gives him access to insert one clasper into the cloaca. Females give birth in shallow water nursing grounds where they are protected from predation Food / Feed Strategy: The sandbar shark is an opportunistic bottom-feeder that preys bony fishes, smaller sharks, rays, cephalopods, gastropods, crabs, and shrimps. The sandbar shark feeds throughout the day but becomes more active at night.

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Common Name: Sandbar Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus plumeneus Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #:8

Common Name: King Mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus cavalla Class: Actinopterygii Family: Scombridae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Scomberomorus

Species: S. cavalla

Geography / Habitat: The king mackerel is a subtropical species of the Atlantic Coast of the Americas. King mackerel are a "coastal pelagic" species, meaning they live in the open waters near the coast. They are found at depths of 115 to 591 feet. Life Strategy: Eggs and sperm are shed into the sea and their union is by chance. Depending on size, a female may shed from 50,000 to several million eggs over the spawning season. Fertilized eggs hatch in about 24 hours. Food / Feed Strategy: King mackerel are voracious, opportunistic carnivores. Their prey depends on their size. Depending on area and season, they favor menhaden and other sardine-like fish, jacks, cutlassfish, weakfish, grunts, striped anchovies, cigar minnows, threadfin, and northern mackerel.

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Common Name: King Mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus cavalla Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:9

Common Name: Striped Marlin Scientific Name: Tetrapturus audax Class: Actinopterygii Family: Istiophoridae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Tetrapturus

Species: T. audax

Geography / Habitat: Striped marlin occur in tropical and warm temperature waters of the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Life Strategy: Food / Feed Strategy: The striped marlin is highly predatory, feeding extensively on pilchards, anchovies, mackerel, sauries, flyingfish, squid, and whatever is abundant. The spear of the marlin is sometimes used for defense and as an aid in capturing food.

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Common Name: Striped Marlin Scientific Name:Tetrapturus audax Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:10

Common Name: Hogfish Scientific Name: Lachnolaimus maximus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Labridae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lachnolaimus

Species: L. maximus

Geography / Habitat: This fish is commonly found over open bottoms and coral reefs at depths ranging from 10-100 feet. The hogfish is often encountered in areas where gorgonians are abundant. The hogfish is widely distributed along the edges of the reef, forming small groups Life Strategy: Females, upon reaching larger size and through social dominance, can transform into fully functional males. The male and female release gametes into the surrounding water where fertilization takes place. The fertilized, pelagic eggs rapidly develop into larvae, hatching approximately 24 hours after fertilization occurs Food / Feed Strategy: the hogfish is a large bottom-associated predator. Adult hogfish feed mainly on mollusks including pelecypods, gastropods, and scaphopods, but will also feed on hermit crabs, amphipods, and sea urchins, crushing its prey with strong pharyngeal jaws.

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Common Name: Hogfish Scientific Name: Lachnolaimus maximus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 11

Common Name: Queen Triggerfish Scientific Name: Balistes ventula Class: Actinopterygii Family: Balistidae

Order: Tetraodontiformes Genus: Balistes

Species: B. ventula

Geography / Habitat: Queen triggerfish are usually found in rocky reef areas that contain crevices and other hiding places where their favorite prey, the sea urchin, hides Life Strategy: They lay demersal eggs and don’t undergo sex change during reproductive development. Once the eggs are laid the female and male defend the nest until the queen triggerfish hatch and go with the current. Food / Feed Strategy: The queen triggerfish is a carnivore specialized in eating hard-shelled prey such as urchins, lobsters, crabs and shellfish.

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Common Name: Queen Triggerfish Scientific Name: Balistes ventula Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:12

Common Name: Blue Marlin Scientific Name: Makaira nigricans Class: Actinopterygii Family: Istiophoridae

Order: Perciforms Genus: Makaira

Species: M. nigricans

Geography / Habitat: Found in temperate and tropical regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Blue Marlin prefer to stay in warm waters near the surface and like to stay in deep water. Life Strategy: The Spawning of thee Blue Marlin is known to occur near Cuba. The eggs will hatch depending on the temperature. When Blue Marlins spawn they usually produce millions of eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue marlins prefer to eat fish that swim at the surface, for example mackerel, tunas, and dolphin fishes.

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Common Name: Blue Marlin Scientific Name: Makaira nigricans Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:13

Common Name: Sailfish Scientific Name: Istiophorus albicans Class: Actinopterygii Family: Istiophoridae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Istiophorus

Species: I. albicans

Geography / Habitat: Sailfish are found many places around the Atlantic Ocean and some parts of the Pacific Ocean. Sailfish prefer warm temperatures and swim at the surface of the water. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs in the summer months. The female swims slowly in shallow water, one or more males will accompany her and spawn near the surface. Females will produce around 4,500,000 eggs will spawning. Food / Feed Strategy: Sailfish like to eat squids, octopus, sardines and any bony fish. These fish can be found near the reefs.

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Common Name: Sailfish Scientific Name: Istiophorus albicans Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:14

Common Name: Swordfish Scientific Name: Xiphias gladius Class: Actinopterygii Family: Xiphiidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Xiphias

Species: X. gladius

Geography / Habitat: Swordfish are found worldwide including the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. They prefer warm waters and sometimes cold waters. They are found in midwaters but are said to swim down to 2,100 feet. Life Strategy: Swordfish have been observed spawning in the Atlantic Ocean in shallow waters. .Females carries around 29 million eggs at a time. Food / Feed Strategy: Swordfish eat fish at the surface and at their depth zone. They like to sometimes eat zooplankton and squids, and any fish in thee pelagic.

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Common Name: Swordfish Scientific Name: Xiphias gladius Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position:Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:15

Common Name: Wahoo Scientific Name: Acanthocybium salandri Class: Actinopterygii Family: Scombridae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Acanthocybium

Species: A. salandri

Geography / Habitat: Wahoo are found worldwide in tropical and subtropical waters like the Caribbean. Wahoo’s are pelagic and move to cooler waters during the warm summer months. Life Strategy: In some areas Wahoo indicate year round spawning. Females produce up to 60 million eggs per spawning. Food / Feed Strategy: Wahoo’s are mainly attracted by floating debris but will eat fishes in the pelagic and also eat squid. They have been found sometimes eating tuna, jacks and other fishes.

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Common Name: Wahoo Scientific Name: Acanthocybium salandri Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:16

Common Name: Atlantic Cod Scientific Name: Gadus morhua Class: Actinopterygii Family: Gadidae

Order: Gadiformes Genus: Gadus

Species: G. morhua

Geography / Habitat: Native to Northern Atlantic Ocean and live in depths of 200 to 360 feet. Cod undergo seasonal migrations. They don’t swim in school but will swim with few in search for food. Life Strategy: Atlantic Cod is a winter spawner and will spawn usually from November to December. Both females and males start reproducing when they are 5 years old. Depending on the size of the female depends on how many eggs will be produced. Food / Feed Strategy: Cod feed upon small crustaceans like shrimp and amphipods. Adults will eat anything small enough to fit their mouths like clams, mussel, and crabs. Cod also will go after schools of fish.

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Common Name: Atlantic Cod Scientific Name: Gadus morhua Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:17

Common Name: Haddock Scientific Name: Melanogrammus aeglefinus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Gadidae

Order: Gadiformes Genus: Melanogrammus

Species: M. aeglefinus

Geography / Habitat: Haddock are found in the Atlantic Ocean near the American and European coasts. Haddock are found in deep cool waters and prefer substrates of gravel, smooth rock, and sand. Life Strategy: Both male and females can start to reproduce at the age of 2 to 3 years of age. The haddock off Massachusetts reproduce on sandy, rocky, or muddy bottoms. Food / Feed Strategy: Haddock will feed on any slow moving invertebrate like crabs, sea worms, clams, starfish, and sea cucumbers.

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Common Name: Haddock Scientific Name: Melanogrammus aeglefinus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:18

Common Name: Atlantic Croaker Scientific Name: Micropogonias undulatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Sciaenidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropongonias

Species: M. undulatus

Geography / Habitat: Croaker live in the Bay and are bottom dwellers that prefer sandy, rocky, or muddy bottoms. Life Strategy: Croaker spawning occurs usually from July through December and will spawn off shore. They live up to 7 or 8 years. Food / Feed Strategy: Croaker eats Bristle worms, Crustaceans, mollusks, and plants.

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Common Name: Atlantic Croaker Scientific Name: Micropogonias undulatus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #:19

Common Name: Silver Seatrout Scientific Name: Cynoscion nothus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Sciaenidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Cynoscion

Species: C. nothus

Geography / Habitat: Most common in the Gulf of Mexico but can be found in southern Florida and Texas. They like to dwell the bottoms in sandy, rocky, or muddy bottoms. Life Strategy: Males produce a drumming noise to attract the females during the spawning season. These fish have a very long spawning season. Food / Feed Strategy: They like to feed on crustaceans and shrimp.

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Common Name: Silver Seatrout Scientific Name: Cynoscion nothus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:20

Common Name: Pacific Halibut Scientific Name: Hippoglossus stenolepis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Pleuronectidae

Order: Pleuronectiformes Genus: Hippoglossaus

Species: H. stenolepis

Geography / Habitat: They live in coastal waters of the northeast Pacific. Juveniles are more common in shallow waters. As the Halibut age they go deeper and deeper. Life Strategy: A 50 pound female can produce around 500,000 eggs. Females spawn once a year and release their eggs in series of days as batches. They like to do this in deep waters. Food / Feed Strategy: Halibut like to eat zooplankton, cod, Pollock, sablefish, rock fish, and many other fish. Juveniles will eat crustaceans and organisms.

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Common Name: Pacific Halibut Scientific Name: Hippoglossus stenolepis Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #:21

Common Name: Bat Ray Scientific Name: Myliobatis californica Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Myliobatidae

Order: Myliobatiformes Genus: Myliobatis

Species: M. californica

Geography / Habitat: Found in the Pacific Ocean in bays like the Gulf of California. They can be found at the bottom in sandy or muddy estuaries and bays. Life Strategy: Bat rays can live up to 23 years old. When they are about to reproduce they tend to do that during the spring or the summer. The litter sizes are usually around two to ten juvenile Bat Rays. Food / Feed Strategy: Bat Rays tend to feed on mollusk, crustaceans, and small fish they live in the sea beds. They use their fin to throw up sand and reveal prey hiding under the sand.

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Common Name: Bat Rays Scientific Name: Myliobatis californica Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #:22

Common Name: Porcupine Ray Scientific Name: Urogymnus asperrimus Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Dasyatidae

Order: Myliobatiformes Genus: Urogymus

Species: U. asperrimus

Geography / Habitat: Porcupine Rays are found in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. They prefer sandy flats or coral near reefs or inside caves. Life Strategy: Females are a little bigger than the males. The eggs developed in the female will hatch after 5 to 6 months. Food / Feed Strategy: The Rays feed usually on sipunculids, polychaete worms, and crustaceans.

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Common Name: Porcupine Ray Scientific Name: Urogymnus asperrimus Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #:23

Common Name: Knifetooth Sawfish Scientific Name: Anoxypristis cuspidata Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Pristidae

Order: Pristiformes Genus: Anoxypristis

Species: A. cuspidata

Geography / Habitat: They are found in tropical areas in the Atlantic and Pacific. They stay in bays and estuaries. They live in shallow muddy water. Life Strategy: Little is known about the reproduction of sawfishes. But the sawfish are known to live up to around 25 to 30 years old. Sawfish mate once every two years with a litter of around eight baby’s. Food / Feed Strategy: They tend to eat crustaceans and search the ocean bottoms to unearth buried prey. It will use its saw to bring these creatures out of the muddy bottoms.

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Common Name: Knifetooth Sawfish Scientific Name: Anoxypristis cuspidata Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #:24

Common Name: Atlantic Goliath Grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus itajara Class: Actinopterygii Family: Serranidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Epinephelus

Species: E. itajara

Geography / Habitat: Found mainly near shallow tropical waters near coral like the Florida Keys. It mainly hangs out around coral reefs. Life Strategy: Some have sex reversal. The spawning months are from July to September. They like to spawn in shipwrecks or isolated reefs. The females release the eggs while the males release sperm into the water. Food / Feed Strategy: Goliath Grouper eat crustaceans, and other fish that it can fit in its mouth. It will also eat octopus and sea turtles.

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Common Name: Atlantic Goliath Grouper Scientific Name: Epinephelus itajara Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:25

Common Name: Gag Grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca microlepis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Serranidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Mycteroperca

Species: M. microlepis

Geography / Habitat: This Grouper is found in the western Atlantic Ocean. The habitat it prefers is rocky bottoms. It is also commonly found on rocky ledges. Life Strategy: These grouper also tend to change sex from females to males. Spawning for this fish is in the months from January through May. The fertilized eggs are pelagic and hatch after 45 hours in water temperatures around 70 degrees. Food / Feed Strategy: Adult Grouper feed on fishes, crabs, shrimps, and cephalopods. The smaller ones eat crustaceans.

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Common Name: Gag Grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca microlepis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:26

Common Name: Port Jackson Shark Scientific Name: Heterodontus portusjacksoni Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Heterodontidae

Order: Heterodontiformes Genus: Heterodontus

Species: H. portusjacksoni

Geography / Habitat: They are found near the port of Australia specifically the southern part. They mainly are on the bottom, they are found close to shore and off the shelf in deep waters. During the day they find flat areas to shelter from currents. Life Strategy: Port Jackson sharks lay their egg capsules instead of giving birth. The female will lay around 16 eggs during the breeding season. Males reach the peak of sperm production around May, but the female don’t begin laying eggs until August so females store sperm in their shell glands. Food / Feed Strategy: This shark feeds on echinoderms, crustaceans, mollusks, and some small fish. Also these sharks grind up their food completely before swallowing.

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Common Name: Port Jackson shark Scientific Name: Heterodontus portusjacksoni Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #:27

Common Name: American Eel Scientific Name: Anguilla rostrata Class: Actinopterygii Family: Anguillidae

Order: Anguilliformes Genus: Anguilla

Species: A. rostrata

Geography / Habitat: Eels can be found in a wide range of habitats from rivers and streams to lakes and ponds, and salt marshes. Life Strategy: American eels spawn in the Sargasso Sea. After hatching, larvae float and drift until they develop into glass eels, and migrate into fresh water. Once they reach fresh water, young eels are called elvers, and at this point they develop pigmentation, eventually turning into yellow eels then silver eels as adults. When they reach the silver eel stage, American eels migrate back to the Sargasso Sea to spawn and eventually die. Food / Feed Strategy: Its diet changes with its size and location. Smaller eels will feed on benthic invertebrates, while larger eels will eat crustaceans, fish, and frogs.

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Common Name: American Eel Scientific Name: Anguilla rostrata Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:28

Common Name: Bar Jack Scientific Name: Carangoides ruber Class: Actinopterygii Family: Carangidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Carangoides

Species: C. ruber

Geography / Habitat: The bar jack is widely distributed through the tropical and subtropical waters of the western Atlantic Ocean. The bar jack generally live in clear shallow water environments, predominantly around coral reefs. Life Strategy: The bar jack spawns twice each year, with this timing related to seasonal changes as described previously. During the peak feeding periods, the fish accumulate body fat in preparation for spawning, which occurs through the period from March to August, with peaks during March-April and June-July Food / Feed Strategy: The bar jack is a benthopelagic predator, taking its prey both in midwater and along the seafloor. The diet consists mostly of fish, up to 90% of the fishes intake in some studies, with planktonic crustaceans and small cephalopods.

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Common Name: Bar Jack Scientific Name: Carangoides Ruber Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style:Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:29

Common Name: Jack Mackerel Scientific Name: Trachurus symmetricus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Carangidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Trachurus

Species: T. symmetricus

Geography / Habitat: The Pacific jack mackerel is distributed through the eastern Pacific Ocean from Alaska in the north, down the western North American seaboard. In more coastal environments they are known to inhabit bays and very shallow waters. Life Strategy: Half of females are ready to spawn at age 2, and all fish spawn by age 3. Spawning takes place from March through June over a considerable area, from 80 to more than 240 miles offshore. Food / Feed Strategy: Pacific jack mackerel feed on small crustaceans and fish larvae, as well as on anchovies, lanternfish, and juvenile squid.

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Common Name: Jack Mackeral Scientific Name: Trachurus symmetricus Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #:30

Common Name: Ballyhoo Scientific Name: Hemiramphus brasiliensis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Hemiramphidae

Order: Beloniformes Genus: Hemiramphus

Species: H. brasiliensis

Geography / Habitat: Most common around reefs and shoals, but widespread from deep water to larger bays. Life Strategy: Ballyhoo spawns from early spring through late summer. Ballyhoo produce close to 2,000 eggs. The microscopic eggs attach to floating blades of sea grass and the larvae eventually develop in the floating vegetation. Food / Feed Strategy:

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Common Name: Ballyhoo Scientific Name: Hemiramphus brasilliesis Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior


Title:

Saltwater

Species #: 31

Common Name: Mahi-Mahi Scientific Name: Coryphaena hipporus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Coryphaenidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Coryphaena

Species: C. hipporus

Geography / Habitat: Oceanic pelagic fish; generally restricted to waters warmer than 68 degrees Fahrenheit Life Strategy: In the central North Pacific, dolphinfish appear to spawn in waters less than 50 nautical miles from islands and banks. Off the continents, they appear to spawn on the continental shelf. Food / Feed Strategy: Feeds mostly on ballyhoo, flying fish, grass minnows, squid, and crustaceans. Trolling skirted dead bait or artificial rigs proven to be very successful method of angling.

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Common Name: Mahi Mahi Scientific Name: Coryphaena hipporus Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 32

Common Name: Hammerhead Shark Scientific Name: Sphyrna lewini Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Sphyrinidae

Order: Carcharhiniformes Genus: Sphyrna

Species: S. lewini

Geography / Habitat: In the waters of eastern Atlantic Ocean, the hammerhead shark habitat spreads through Morocco to Senegal and the Mediterranean Sea. In the Indian Ocean, the hammerhead shark habitat includes the Indo-Pacific region of the Ryukyu Island to New Caledonia and French Polynesia. The habitat of hammerhead sharks in the eastern Pacific range includes southern Baja, California through Mexico and south of Peru Life Strategy: Fertilization is internal with the male transferring sperm to the female through one of two intermittent organs called claspers. The developing embryos are at first sustained by a yolk sac. Food / Feed Strategy: Hammerhead sharks are known to eat a large range of items, including fish, other sharks, squid, octopus, and crustaceans. Stingrays are a particular favorite. They are also known to eat their own young.

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Common Name: Hammerhead Shark Scientific Name: Sphyma lewini Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 33

Common Name: Escolar Scientific Name: Lepidocybium flavobrunneum Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Gempylidae

Genus: Lepidocybium

Species: L. flavobrunneum

Geography / Habitat: This is a truly open-water, pelagic species never found any shallower than 250 feet and usually deeper, to 700 feet deep. It is found Gulfwide. Life Strategy: Food / Feed Strategy: Feeds on squid, crustaceans and a wide variety of fishes

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Common Name: Escolar Scientific Name: Lepidocybium flavobrunneum Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 34

Common Name: Rainbow Runner Scientific Name: Elagatis bipinnulata Class: Actinopterygii Family: carangidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Elagatis

Species: E. bipinnulata

Geography / Habitat: The rainbow runner has a circumtropical distribution, inhabiting tropical and some subtropical waters worldwide. The species occasionally comes quite close to shore, known to inhabits lagoons for short periods and juveniles have even been reported in a Taiwanese estuary system Life Strategy: In the Atlantic, the species is known to spawn from spring through to early autumn. The fish is oviparous, producing pelagic eggs and larvae. Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow runner are fast swimming carnivores that take a wide range of prey including a wide variety of small fishes, cephalopods and pelagic or planktonic crustaceans including, shrimps and crabs.

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Common Name: Rainbow Runner Scientific Name: Elagatis bipinnulata Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Saltwater

Species #: 35

Common Name: Black Grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca bonaci Class: Actinopterygii Family: Serranidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Mycteroperca

Species: M. bonaci

Geography / Habitat: You can find the black grouper in the choppy waters of the Atlantic Ocean. This hearty fish has been known to swim anywhere between Massachusetts to the north and as far south as Brazil. These fish are predominantly found between the Florida Keys and the Gulf of Mexico though can be found in the Bahamas as well. Life Strategy: Black grouper do not tend to travel in schools, as they are very solitary. They are also hermaphrodites - they are born female and later in life, they are male. Food / Feed Strategy: Young black grouper tends to feed on small crustaceans, preferably shrimp. Adults will feed on squid and smaller fish

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Common Name: Black Grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca bonaci Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 36

Common Name: Spanish Mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomours maculatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Scombridae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Scomberomorus

Species: S. maculatus

Geography / Habitat: Spanish mackerel occur seasonally from the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, as far north as Cape Cod, Massachusetts. They are a shallow water species, preferring sand bottom Life Strategy: Spanish mackerel are batch spawners, meaning they shed their eggs more than once through a spawning season. Females release between half a million and 1.5 million eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: Spanish mackerel are voracious, opportunistic, carnivores

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Common Name: Spanish Mackerel Scientific Name: Scomberomorus maculatus Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 37

Common Name: Barracuda Scientific Name: Sphyraena barracuda Class: Actinopterygii Family: Sphyraenidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Sphyraena

Species: S. barracuda

Geography / Habitat: Great barracuda commonly occur in nearshore coral reefs, seagrasses, and mangroves. They may also reside in the open ocean, living predominantly at or near the surface, although they are at times found at depths to 325 feet Life Strategy: Spawning takes place in deeper, offshore waters. Newly hatched larvae bear little resemblance to adults. Seeking safety from predators as well as a source of food, the larvae settle in shallow, vegetated areas of estuaries. Food / Feed Strategy: Great barracudas feed on an array of prey including fishes such as jacks, grunts, groupers, snappers, small tunas, mullets, killifishes, herrings, and anchovies. Barracudas have a large gape and very sharp teeth, enabling them to feed on large fishes by chopping them in half

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Common Name: Barracuda Scientific Name: Sphyaena barracuda Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 38

Common Name: Common bream Scientific Name: Abramis brama Class: Actinopterygii Family: Cyprinidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Abramis

Species: A. brama

Geography / Habitat: The common bream's home range is Europe north of the Alps and Pyrenees, as well as the Balkans. It is found as far east as the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea, and the Aral Sea. The common bream lives in schools near the bottom. Life Strategy: At this time the males form territories within which the females lay 100,000 to 300,000 eggs on water plants. The fry hatch after three to twelve days and attach themselves to water plants with special adhesive glands, until their yolk is used up. Food / Feed Strategy: The fish's protractile mouth helps it dig for chironomid larvae, Tubifex worms, bivalves, and gastropods. The bream eats water plants and plankton as well.

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Common Name: Common Bream Scientific Name: Abramis Brama Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 39

Common Name: Atlantic Salmon Scientific Name: Salmo salar Class: Actinopterygii Family: Salmonidae

Order: Salmoniformes Genus: Salmo

Species: S. salar

Geography / Habitat: At sea, the species is found mainly in the waters off Greenland and in migrations to and from its natal streams Life Strategy: The species constructs a nest or "redd" in the gravel bed of a stream. This involves a female creating a powerful downdraught of water with her tail near the gravel, to thus excavate a depression. After she and a male fish have respectively shed eggs and milt (sperm) upstream of the depression, the female again uses her tail, this time to shift gravel so as to cover up the eggs and milt which have lodged in the depression. Food / Feed Strategy: The most commonly eaten foods include caddisflies, blackflies, mayflies, and stoneflies. In adulthood, fish feed on much larger food: Arctic squid, sand eels, amphipods, Arctic shrimp, and sometimes herring.

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Common Name: Atlantic Salmon Scientific Name: Salmo salar Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 40

Common Name: Spiny dogfish Scientific Name: Squalus acanthias Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Squalidae

Order: Squaliformes Genus: Squalus

Species: S. acanthias

Geography / Habitat: Dogfish prefer temperatures from 45 to 55 degrees Fahrenheit. They are located inshore and offshore of the continental and insular shelf and upper slopes and are usually found near the bottom Life Strategy: Females each have 2 to 12 eggs per season. They bear live young, after a gestation period of about 18 to 24 months, and typically produce 2 to 15 pups, with an average of 6. Food / Feed Strategy: Spiny dogfish eat a wide variety of prey. Herring, mackerel, squid, silver hake, and comb jellies constitute the major portion of their diets.

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Common Name: Spiny dogfish Scientific Name: Squalus acanthias Body Form or Style: Sagittitform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 41

Common Name: Tiger Grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca tigris Class: Actinopterygii Family: Serranidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Mycteroperca

Species: M. tigris

Geography / Habitat: Tiger Grouper inhabit coral reefs and rocky bottom Life Strategy: the young are predominantly female but transform into males as they grow larger. at the time of spawning, when the female rose off the bottom to join a male hovering 1 to 2m above the bottom and displaying an intensely pale head and white ventral area. Gametes were released as the fish came together a few meters above the bottom. Food / Feed Strategy: A sedentary ambush predator that feed mainly on fish, which is drawn into their gullets by a powerful suction created when they open their large mouths.

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Common Name: Tiger Grouper Scientific Name: Mycteroperca tigris Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 42

Common Name: Almaco Jack Scientific Name: Seriola rivoliana Class: Actinopterygii Family: Carangidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Seriola

Species: S. rivoliana

Geography / Habitat: The Almaco jack is a pelagic species that can be found in small groups on slopes and off of reefs. They live in the Indian to the west Pacific oceans. Life Strategy: Not a lot is known about this fish’s spawning, it is said to be like the Greater Amberjack. Spawning occurs offshore at various times throughout the spring, summer and fall, depending on latitude and water temperature.

Food / Feed Strategy: The Almaco jack is a fast-swimming predator that feeds both day and night. It eats mainly fishes, particularly baitfish, but also eats invertebrates such as small squid.

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Common Name: Almaco Jack Scientific Name: Seriola rivoliana Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 43

Common Name: Green Sturgeon Scientific Name: Acipenser medirostris Class: Actinopterygii Family: Acipenseridae

Order: Acipenseriformes Genus: Acipenser

Species: A. medirostris

Geography / Habitat: Green sturgeon rely on streams, rivers, and estuarine habitat as well as marine waters during their lifecycle Life Strategy: Green strugeons prefer to spawn in lower reaches of large rivers with swift currents and large cobble; no nest is built, adults broadcast spawn into the water column. The fertilized eggs sink and attach to the bottom to hatch. Food / Feed Strategy: Feeding on algae and small invertebrates while young, green sturgeon migrate downstream before they are two years old.

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Common Name: Green Sturgeon Scientific Name: Acipenser medirostris Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 44

Common Name: Coho Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus kisutch Class: Actinopterygii Family: Salmonidae

Order: Salmoniformes Genus: Oncorhynchus

Species: O. kisutch

Geography / Habitat: Coho live in freshwater for a couple weeks, then they migrate to the ocean. They are introduced to both sides of the North Pacific ocean, sea’s in and around Alaska, and most of the Great Lakes. Life Strategy: The eggs hatch in the late winter or early spring. They go through many life stages. Food / Feed Strategy: In the ocean Coho feed on small fish, using their teeth.

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Common Name: Coho Salmon Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus kisutch Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 45

Common Name: Blue Shark Scientific Name: Prionace glauca Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Carcharhinidae

Order: Carcharhiniforems Genus: Prionace

Species: P. glauca

Geography / Habitat: The blue shark is the most widely distributed animal in the world. It prefers waters with a temperature range of 45–61 °F but will tolerate temperatures of 70 °F or above. Life Strategy: Blue sharks are viviparous, which means they give birth to live young that have hatched from eggs internally. After hatching the young are nourished by a placental yolk sack until they are fully developed. Food / Feed Strategy: Squid are important prey for blue sharks, but their diet includes other invertebrates such as cuttlefish and pelagic octopuses, as well as lobster, shrimp, crab, a large number of bony fishes, small sharks, and occasional sea birds.

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Common Name: Blue Shark Scientific Name: Prionace glauca Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 46

Common Name: Yellowtail Flounder Scientific Name: Pleuronectes ferruginea Class: Actinopterygii Family: Pleuronectidae

Order: Pleuronectiformes Genus: Pleuronectes

Species: P. ferruginea

Geography / Habitat: Yellowtail flounder live in waters between 130 and 230 feet deep on sandy bottoms. Life Strategy: Eggs are deposited on or near the bottom and after fertilization, float to the surface. Larvae drift for approximately two months then change form and settle to the bottom. Food / Feed Strategy: Adult yellowtail feed on crustaceans, amphipods, and polychaete worms, while juveniles eat mostly polychaete worms.

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Common Name: Yellowtail Flounder Scientific Name: Pleuronectes ferruginea Body Form or Style: Depressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 47

Common Name: Pacific halibut Scientific Name: Hippoglossus stenolepis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Pleuronectidae

Order: Pleuronectiformes Genus: Hippoglossus

Species: H. stenolepis

Geography / Habitat: Halibut are demersal, living on or near the bottom of the water Life Strategy: Spawning takes place during the winter months with the peak of activity occurring from December through February. Fertilized eggs hatch after about fifteen days. Free-floating larvae float for up to six months and can be transported several hundred miles counter-clockwise by North Pacific currents Food / Feed Strategy: Being strong swimmers, halibut are able to eat a large variety of fishes including cod, turbot, pollock, and some invertebrates such as ocotpus, crab and shrimp. Sometimes halibut leave the ocean bottom to feed on pelagic fish such as salmon, sand lance and herring.

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Common Name: Pacific Halibut Scientific Name: Hippoglossus stenolepis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Superior


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 48

Common Name: Spotfin croaker Scientific Name: Roncador sternsii Class: Actinopterygii Family: Sciaenidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Roncador

Species: R. sternsii

Geography / Habitat: Shallow-water sandy areas, both in bays and along the coast. Life Strategy: Their spawning season is from June through September, and spawning evidently takes place offshore, as no ripe fish are caught in the surf, although 1-inch juveniles do appear in the surf in the fall. Food / Feed Strategy: Spotfin croaker have large pharyngeal teeth that are well suited to crushing clams, which make up a major portion of their diet; crustaceans and worms are also eaten extensively

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Common Name: Spotfin croaker Scientific Name: Roncador sternsii Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 49

Common Name: Thresher Shark Scientific Name: Alopias macrourus Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Alopiidae

Order: Lamniformes Genus: Alopias

Species: A. macrourus

Geography / Habitat: Common threshers tend to be more common in coastal waters over continental shelves. They are primarily pelagic; they prefer open ocean. Life Strategy: No distinct breeding season is observed by thresher sharks. Fertilization and embryonic development occur internally; live-bearing mode of reproduction results in a small litter Food / Feed Strategy: Pelagic schooling fish, such as bluefish, juvenile tuna, and mackerel; squid and cuttlefish are the primary food items of the thresher sharks.

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Common Name: Thresher Shark Scientific Name: Alopias macrourus Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Saltwater

Species #: 50

Common Name: Bull Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus leucas Class: Chondrichthyes Family: Carcharhinidae

Order: Carcharhiniformes Genus: Carcharhinus

Species: C. leucas

Geography / Habitat: The bull shark lives all over the world in many different areas and travels long distances. It is common in coastal areas of warm oceans, in rivers and lakes, and occasionally salt and freshwater streams if they are deep enough Life Strategy: Bull sharks mate during late summer and early autumn, often in the brackish water of river mouths. After gestating for 12 months, a bull shark may give birth to 4–10 live young Food / Feed Strategy: Bull Sharks use the "bump-and-bite" technique to attack their prey. Most of a bull shark's diet consists of bony fish and smaller sharks, including other bull sharks. Bull sharks' diets can also include turtles, birds, dolphins, terrestrial mammals, crustaceans, and echinoderms

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Common Name: Bull Shark Scientific Name: Carcharhinus leucas Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Thunniform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 51

Common Name: Largemouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchiade

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropterus

Species: M. salmoides

Geography / Habitat: Largemouth Bass go from Minnesota to Quebec and to the Gulf of Mexico. Originally a species of the southern United States, but it has gone to many other places. The best habitat for these fish is slow, non-moving water; like ponds and lakes. Water temperature should range between 80째 and 90째F

Life Strategy: Males build the nests in two to eight feet of water. Largemouth bass prefer to nest in quieter areas, like logs. Females deposit eggs in the nest protected by the male. 2,000-12,000 fry are hatched


Food / Feed Strategy: Worms, salamanders, frogs, crayfish, snakes, ducklings, insects and fish. They get their food by if something invades their environment they strike at it, and they also eat by hunger

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Common Name: Largemouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 52

Common Name: Alligator Gar Scientific Name: Atractosteus spatula Class: Osteichthyes Family: Lepisosteidae

Order: Lepisosteifomes Genus: Atractosteus

Species: Atractosteus Spatula

Geography / Habitat: Most of the Alligator Gar fish are located in the south-eastern part of the United States. The Alligator Gar habitat is usually located in deep water. They usually can be found in calm pools of water, deep rivers, backwaters, and larger lakes around the bottom. Life Strategy: In the spring a female Alligator Gar will swim along with two or three males swimming in formation with her. As she releases her eggs the males release sperm and the fertilized eggs fall to the bottom and stick to debris there. The female carries an average of 138,000 eggs Food / Feed Strategy: Alligator Gar is carnivorous, eating smaller fish as it swims along the top of plants at the bottom of the water.

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Common Name: Alligator Gar Scientific Name: Atractosteus spatula Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #:53

Common Name: Flathead Catfish Scientific Name: Pylodictis olivaris Class: Actinopterygii Family: Gobioidei

Order: Perciformes Genus: Gobiidae

Species: Acanthogobius

Geography / Habitat: Flathead catfish range from the lower Great Lakes through the Mississippi River watershed to the Gulf states. Flathead catfish prefer deep pools of streams, rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs, where the water is cloudy and the currents are slow. Life Strategy: Unlike other catfish which are scavengers, flatheads prey only on live fish. Young flathead catfish feed mostly on invertebrates such as worms, insects and crayfish. Food / Feed Strategy: Males select hollow logs, caves or areas beneath the banks for their nest sites for the females to lay their eggs. Egg number varies greatly depending on female size, but the average is up to 100,000 eggs at a time.

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Common Name: Flathead Catfish Scientific Name: Pylodictis olivaris Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:54

Common Name: Black Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropeterus

Species: Micropterus

Geography / Habitat: Worms, salamanders, frogs, crayfish, snakes, ducklings, insects and fish. They get their food by if something invades their environment they strike at it, and they also eat by hunger Life Strategy: Males build the nests in two to eight feet of water. Largemouth bass prefer to nest in quieter areas, like logs. Females deposit eggs in the nest protected by the male. 2,000-12,000 fry are hatched Food / Feed Strategy: Black Bass are the most sought after freshwater fish because of their wide range and their aggressive bone jarring strikes and the strength they exhibit during the fight. Being active predators they feed on a large variety of creatures and can be tempted to strike at practically any kind of bait or lure, either natural or artificial

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Common Name: Black Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 55

Common Name: Blackfinned snakehead Scientific Name: Channa melanopterus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Channidae

Order: Perciformes Genus:

Species:

Geography / Habitat: Most snakeheads prefer stagnant or slow-running waters, usually hiding under vegetation, rocks, and sunken trees. Many snakeheads are highly adaptable, being tolerant to a wide range of environments, including polluted waters. Life Strategy: They primarily hunt by sight, but smell and other senses may also be involved. They sometimes jump up from the water surface to grasp their prey. Snakeheads feed on everything from insects to young birds, including fishes, frogs, tadpoles, lizards, geckos, mice, rats, and ducks Food / Feed Strategy: They are monogamous, exhibit parental care, and become aggressive, especially so during breeding. Many are known to be nest breeders, the parents first clearing vegetation and then building a simple circular nest at the water surface.

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Common Name: Blackfinned snakehead Scientific Name: Channa melanopterus Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 56

Common Name: Longnose gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lepisosteidae

Order: Lepisosteiformes Genus: Lepisosteus

Species: Lepisosteus osseus

Geography / Habitat: The species is especially common in the Mississippi River drainage and in the Carolinas. Longnose gar are typically associated with backwaters, low inflow pools and moderately clear streams. They often do very well in man-made impoundments. Life Strategy: Nests are not prepared, they lay their eggs in the gravel as they swim. Each female may deposit a portion of her eggs at several different locations. The adhesive eggs are mixed in the gravel, hatching in six to eight days. Food / Feed Strategy: Long nose gars are ambush predators laying in wait or slowly stalking their prey. Gars attack their prey from the side. The wait until the prey is in range then lunge and thrash their head from site to side impelling they prey on their long needle sharp teeth. They then maneuver the prey in order to swallow it head first. The diet of longnose gar specimens collected included sunfishes, catfish, crayfish, mullets, and specifically gray redhorse, and gizzard shad

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Common Name: Longnose gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 57

Common Name: Bluegill Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: Lepomis macrochirus

Geography / Habitat: Bluegills are mainly found in lakes. Slow-moving rivers, vegetated ponds and creek pools are also likely bluegill domains. Bluegills move into deeper waters when the water temperature rises in the summer. Life Strategy: Nests are created in shallow water, one to two feet in depth. Gravel substrate is preferred. Fifty or more nests may be crowded into a small area, thus creating a spawning bed. Males guard the nest until the eggs hatch and fry leave. Food / Feed Strategy: The adult bluegill will eat mostly small invertebrates and other fish smaller than itself. They like to eat when the sun is either just coming up, or just going down. They want a peaceful meal without worrying about getting eaten or attacked by enemies

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Common Name: Bluegill Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 58

Common Name: Grass Carp Scientific Name: Ctenopharyngodon idella Class: Actinopterygii Family: Gobiidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Acanthogobius

Species: Ctenopharyngodon idella

Geography / Habitat: This species occurs in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers, preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Life Strategy: In the wild, grass carp spawn in fast-moving rivers, and their eggs, which are slightly heavier than water, develop while drifting downstream, kept in suspension by turbulence. The eggs are thought to die if they sink to the bottom Food / Feed Strategy: Adults of the species feed primarily on aquatic plants. They feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged terrestrial vegetation, but may also take insects and other invertebrates.

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Common Name: Grass Carp Scientific Name: Ctenopharyngodon idella Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 59

Common Name: Channel Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Ictalurus

Species: Ictalurus punctatus

Geography / Habitat: Channel catfish are native to North America east of the Rockies from southern Canada .Channel catfish are most abundant in large streams with low or moderate current. Life Strategy: Males select nest sites which are normally dark secluded areas such as cavities in drift piles, logs, undercut banks, rocks, cans, etc. A golden-yellow gelatinous egg mass is deposited in the bottom of the nest. Males guard the nest, and may actually eat some of the eggs if they are disturbed Food / Feed Strategy: They eat primarily at night and will accept food in all waters

levels. In the wild they feed on aquatic insects, crayfish, mollusks, crustaceans and other fish. Young fish might refuse to eat fish until they grow older and can then be given a diet of shrimp, crabs and mollusks

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Common Name: Channel Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 60

Common Name: Blue Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus furcatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Ictalurus

Species: Ictalurus furcatus

Geography / Habitat: Blue catfish are native to major rivers of the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi river basins. Blue catfish are primarily large-river fish, occurring in main channels, tributaries, and impoundments of major river systems. Life Strategy: They prefer to spawn in dark, secluded locations similar to those they inhabit. Males and females work together to build a nest prior to depositing and fertilizing their eggs. Afterward, both will remain to care for the young. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue catfish are mainly nighttime eaters and search for most of their food on or near the bottom. Their barbels give these fish a strong sense of smell that helps them find their food. Blue catfish will eat nearly anything that is available; their preferred diet includes small fish, crayfish, frogs, clams, mussels, and insects. Depending on what there is, they will consume both live and dead things.

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Common Name: Blue Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus furcatus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 61

Common Name: Muskellunge Scientific Name: Acanthogobius Flavimanus Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Gobiidae

Genus: Acanthogobius

Species: Acanthogobius flavimanus

Geography / Habitat: East Coast from Missouri, Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania, and the Great Lakes states. You find muskies in rivers, deep holes near feeder streams, or brush piles, underwater logs, undercut banks, and rock shelves. Life Strategy: Males are the first fish on the spawning sight and stay there longer than the females. They spawn in extremely cool water temperatures, and if the water changes they go deeper in the water. Food / Feed Strategy: Has a reputation for being a voracious predator. It seems to be more of a lurking than a stalking predator, and rarley pursues prey after a miss. They mostly feed on common carp and gizzard shad.

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Common Name: Muskellunge Scientific Name: Acanthogobius flavimanus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 62

Common Name: Alabama Shad Scientific Name: Alosa alabamae Class: Actinopterygii Family: Clupeidae

Order: Clupeiformes Genus: Alsoa

Species: alabamae

Geography / Habitat: The largest remaining population is in the Apalachicola River system. Adults live in salt water but migrate upstream into free-flowing rivers to spawn. Life Strategy: Adults spawn in April and migrate downstream shortly thereafter. Actual spawning has not been observed, but it probably occurs in open, flowing water over sand bars in the late afternoon or at night. Food / Feed Strategy: Shad feed on microscopic plankton but they will strike at other small food or objects.

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Common Name: Alabama Shad Scientific Name: Alosa alabamae Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 63

Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Class: Osteichthyes Family: Salmonidae

Order: Salmoniformes Genus: Oncorhynchus

Species: mykiss

Geography / Habitat: The rainbow trout is native only to the rivers and lakes of North America, west of the Rocky Mountains. They prefer cool, clear rivers, streams, and lakes, though some will leave their freshwater homes and follow a river out to the sea. Life Strategy: Spawning runs occur from summer to winter, largely dictated by river conditions. Spawning requires relatively high, fast-flowing rivers; muddy waters are un-fishable. Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout survive on insects, crustaceans, and small fish.

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Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: freshwater

Species #: 64

Common Name: Pumpkinseed Scientific Name: Lepomis gibbosus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. gibbosus

Geography / Habitat: Pumpkinseeds prefer shallow water with some weed cover. They are often typical of ponds and small lakes. Life Strategy: Males prepare nests in colonies on gravel bottoms in late spring. The males are territorial and chase even early-arriving females away. When a female reaches a nest, she is joined by the male, and eggs are deposited. The eggs settle and stick to the pebbles. The female departs as soon as the eggs have been deposited. Food / Feed Strategy: They eat a variety of insects, including mosquito larvae, along with small mollusks and crustaceans. They also feed on smaller fish, including smaller pumpkinseeds.


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Common Name: Pumpkinseed Scientific Name: Lepomis gibbosus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Termianal


Title:

freshwater

Species #: 65

Common Name: Pignose Puffer Scientific Name: Tetraodon suvattii Class: Actinopterygii Family: Tetraodontidae

Order: Tetraodontiformes Genus: ?

Species: tetraodon suvattii

Geography / Habitat: The Pignose is native to Southeast Asia, where it is generally found in the muddy substrate, though it is also found in rocky substrates as well. Life Strategy: The female will lead the male into plants, moss or another form of cover, where she can release eggs for fertilization. The male may help her by rubbing against her side. Food / Feed Strategy: Is a specialized hunter, feeding on other fish. The puffer is an extremely effective hunter. Burrowing down into the ground, it waits for his next meal to pass over its nose, then it leaps from the sand and devours the animal in one quick motion.

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Common Name: Pignose Puffer Scientific Name: Tetraodon suvattii Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 66

Common Name: Black Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Pomoxis

Species: Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Geography / Habitat: Populations of black crappie can be found in each of the 48 contiguous United States. They like water with lots of plants and underwater structures, such as logs, stumps, and rocks. They will also sit in water with overhanging trees creating shade and shadows. When it gets hot in the Summer, crappie move out to deeper water. Life Strategy: Black Crappie spawn in May and June. Male fish sweep out a nest in sand or gravel in water three to eight feet deep. After the female lays the eggs in the nest, she swims away and the male guards the eggs. He will stay with the baby fish until they are able to start feeding. Food / Feed Strategy: The main component of the black crappie diet is fish, especially small minnows, shad and small sunfish.

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Common Name: Black Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculaus Body Form or Style: Carangiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Compressiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 67

Common Name: Warmouth Scientific Name: Lepomis gulosus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Gobiidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Acanthogobius

Species: Lepomis gluosus

Geography / Habitat: Lakes, ponds, swamps, and quiet areas of streams with muddy bottoms and vegetation are preferred habitat for the warmouth Life Strategy: When in breeding condition, the males' eyes turn red. After the female lays her eggs, the male fertilizes the eggs and aggressively defends the nest, eggs and fry from any intruderincluding other females Food / Feed Strategy: They are sight feeders. Young warmouth feed on zooplankton and small insects. Adults feed on insects, mollusks, and small fish.

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Common Name: Warmouth Scientific Name:Lepomis gulosus Body Form or Style: Carangiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Compressiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 68

Common Name: Bigmouth Buffalo Scientific Name: Ictiobus cyprinellus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Catostomidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Ictiobus

Species: Ictiobus cyprinellus

Geography / Habitat: Bigmouth buffalo live in lakes, large rivers, and swamps. They can live in shallow, slow-moving water with a silty, muddy bottom and can tolerate low oxygen and high temperatures Life Strategy: The bigmouth buffalo migrates upstream to spawn in the spring, usually April to June where it lays its eggs on plants to which they adhere. Food / Feed Strategy: This species is a filter-feeder, using its very fine gill rakers to strain crustacean zooplankton from the water. It sometimes feeds near the bottom, using short up-and down movements to swirl the water and thus be able to filter from the water the plants and animals that hover near the bottom.

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Common Name: Bigmouth Buffalo Scientific Name:Ictiobus cyprinellus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 69

Common Name: Burbot Scientific Name: Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lotidae

Order: Gadiformes Genus: Lota

Species: Lota Lota

Geography / Habitat: Deep, clean, cold lakes of northern Minnesota, including Lake Superior. Life Strategy: This is the first fish to spawn each year and the only one to spawn under the ice. Spawning burbots move from deep water to the shallows and congregate in a living glob. A dozen to more than 100 burbots form a quivering sphere of tangled bodies and release eggs and milt into the stirred-up water Food / Feed Strategy: Burbot eat anything, including minnows, small game fish, and insects.

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Common Name: Burbot Scientific Name: Lota Lota Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 70

Common Name: Paddlefish Scientific Name: Polyodon spathula Class: Actinopterygii Family: Polyodontidae

Order: Acipenseriformes Genus: Polyodon

Species: Polyodon spathula

Geography / Habitat: Paddlefish like to live in slow moving water of large rivers or reservoirs, usually in water deeper than four feet Life Strategy: Spawning season is from March through June, when spring rains raise the water levels of rivers. Males and females gather in schools and release their eggs over gravel or sandbars. Food / Feed Strategy: Paddlefish have no teeth and eat by swimming through the water with its mouth held wide open, scooping up tiny plants and animals in the water called plankton. They filter out the food with their gill rakers.

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Common Name: Paddlefish Scientific Name:Polyodon spathula Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 71

Common Name: Lake Sturgeon Scientific Name: Acipenser fulvescens Class: Actinopterygii Family: Acipenseridae

Order: Acipenseriformes Genus: Acipenser

Species: A. fulvescens

Geography / Habitat: The lake sturgeon is a fish of temperate waters and is found only in the Northern Hemisphere in North America. Their habitat is usually on the bottom of a riverbed or lake. Life Strategy: The females lay a vast number of eggs, anywhere from 2 to 3 million in one season, depending on their size and age. After spawning, the eggs are left to develop on their own. The parents will then return to the lake or river where they spend most of their time. Food / Feed Strategy: the fish goes among the mud for food. It finds its food largely by touch, using its sensitive barbels. These fish are slow feeders and can survive several weeks without eating. Moreover, the food it eats is small compared to its own size. eat insect larvae, worms, crayfish, snails, and other small fishes.

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Common Name: Lake sturgeon Scientific Name: A. fulvescens Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 72

Common Name: Spotted Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus oculatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lepisosteidae

Order: Lepisosteiformes Genus: Lepososteus

Species: L. oculatus

Geography / Habitat: Spotted gar prefers clear, quiet, vegetated waters of streams, swamps and lakes. They sometimes enter brackish waters along the Gulf Coast. Life Strategy: They spawn in shallow water with low flow and heavy vegetation. Several males court a single larger female at the same time Food / Feed Strategy: Spotted gars eat mostly smaller fish, sometimes large fish. They wait in the plant life waiting on their food to pass by

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Common Name: Spotted gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus oculatus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 73

Common Name: Bowfin Scientific Name: Amia calva Class: Actinopterygii Family: Amiidae

Order: Amiiformes Genus: Amia

Species: A. Calva

Geography / Habitat: Bowfin are found throughout much of Minnesota in lakes and streams. They like slow-moving, clear water, but can live in swampy, weedy conditions. Life Strategy: The bowfin spawns in the spring in quiet bays or backwaters of a river. It is a nest-builder and deposits the eggs in a saucer-like depression on the bottom or over sticks and vegetation. The eggs are guarded and tended by the male until they hatch,

Food / Feed Strategy: The bowfin is primarily carnivorous, feeding largely on fishes of all kinds, frogs, crayfish, large insects and their larvae, leeches and other aquatic life.

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Common Name: Bowfin Scientific Name:Amia Calva Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 74

Common Name: Golden Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Class: Actinopterygii Order: Salmoniformes Family: Salmonidae

Genus: Occorhynchus

Species: O. mykiss

Geography / Habitat: The water is generally clear and cold and substrates are composed of cobble, gravel, and sand. Favorable reaches include pools that provide cover in the forms of undercut banks and aquatic vegetation Life Strategy: Golden Trout are the least reproductive of the trout family because of long cold winters and high elevation make food scarce. Food / Feed Strategy: The insects that come from these meadows; mayflies, gnats, mosquitoes, stoneflies, ants, beetles, spiders, dobsonflies, worms and larvae, are among the prey of the adult trout. Vegetable detritus, Plankton, trout eggs, and other small fish are also sources of nutrients.

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Common Name: Golden Trout Scientific Name:Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 75

Common Name: Threadfin Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma Petenense Class: Actinopterygii Family: Clupeidae

Order: Clupeiformes Genus: Dorosoma

Species: D. petenense

Geography / Habitat: Life Strategy: Threadfin shad spawn on the surface shortly after dawn along a weedy shoreline or in open water around rafts of driftwood and debris. Food / Feed Strategy: Plankton is the food source for threadfin shad. They run in schools of similar size fish and you often see them feeding on plankton right on the surface late in the day when photosensitive plankton rises to the top as the sun sets.

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Common Name: Threadfin Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma Petenese Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 76

Common Name: Green Sufish Scientific Name: Lepomis cyanellus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. cyanellus

Geography / Habitat: Green sunfish are native to Ohio and are found throughout the state. They are very tolerant to poor water quality and are often the only sunfish found in very muddy waters. They do have a strong preference to hide around structure such as rocks, logs, or brush piles. Life Strategy: Green sunfish are communal spawners with males constructing nests in shallow water. The female then lays between 2,000 to 26,000 eggs. Males defend the nest for the three to five days it takes the eggs to hatch. Food / Feed Strategy: Young feed on zooplankton. Adults feed on insects, crayfish, terrestrial arthropods, eggs and fry, other fishes

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Common Name: Green Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis cyanellus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 77

Common Name: Fathead Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas Class: Actinopterygii Family: Cyprinidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Pimephales

Species: P. promelas

Geography / Habitat: The fathead minnow is a stream fish, able to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions including high temperatures, low oxygen levels, and high turbidities. The species seems to be most abundant in small streams Life Strategy: The male fathead minnow stakes out an overhanging ledge or cave and begins defending this territory. The eggs are laid on the underside of the ledge in a monolayer. The male guards the eggs until they hatch. He may get several females into spawning, in which case the final hatch will be a genetic mixture of half-siblings. Food / Feed Strategy: Primarily benthic feeders; filling digestive tracts with mud or silt which are rich in numerous species of algae and protozoa, these constituting the major food source.

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Common Name: Fathead Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 78

Common Name: Rio Grande Cichlid Scientific Name: Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Cichlidae

Genus: Herichthys

Species: C. cyanoguttatum

Geography / Habitat: It lives in pools and runs of small to big rivers and its native habitat is the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, U.S. and north-eastern parts of Mexico. Life Strategy: These cichlids are very easy to spawn. Females are ready to breed by 2-3 inches. The female will clean off a piece of slate or flat surface and lay eggs with the male following up and fertilizing them. Both parents prior to hatching dig a small pit for transfer. The female will now tend to the eggs while the male guards the perimeter. Food / Feed Strategy: The strong, cutting teeth make it chiefly carnivorous, feeding mostly on fish eggs, insects, and small fishes.

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Common Name: Rio Grande Cichlid Scientific Name: Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 79

Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Sander vitreum Class: Actinopterygii Family: Percidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Sander

Species: S. vitreum

Geography / Habitat: The walleye is a cool water species, meaning that it prefers intermediate temperatures. Walleyes prefer water of relatively low clarity. They are most abundant where suspended silt or algae, or bog stain limits visibility to about 3 to 6 feet. Life Strategy: Shallow, rocky shorelines and reefs make ideal spawning grounds. The eggs fall into crevices between the rocks where they are safe from crayfish and other egg-eating predators. Spawning is most successful in large lakes because the spawning habitat is exposed to the wind. Food / Feed Strategy: Walleye fry eat zooplankton and aquatic insects and start feeding on fish. The diet of juvenile and adult walleye consists primarily of fish, but aquatic invertebrates, particularly mayfly larvae and crayfish.

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Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Sander vitreum Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 80

Common Name: Guadalupe Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus treculii Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropterus

Species: M. treculii

Geography / Habitat: Typically, Guadalupe bass are found in flowing water, whereas largemouth bass are found in quiet water. Life Strategy: Like all other black bass, Guadalupe bass build gravel nests for spawning, preferably in shallow water. Males tend to build nests in areas with higher flow rates. When a male has successfully attracted a female to the nest she may lay eggs. The female is then chased away and the male stands guard over the incubating eggs Food / Feed Strategy: Bass are primarily sight feeders and are extremely opportunistic. Their carnivorous diet includes fish, insects, crayfish, snakes, frogs, even small birds or mammals.

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Common Name: Guadalupe Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus treculii Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 81

Common Name: White Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis annularis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Pomoxis

Species: P. annularis

Geography / Habitat: White crappie can be found in large rivers, reservoirs and lakes throughout Ohio. They are also found in Lake Erie and the Ohio River. White crappies are more tolerant of murky waters than black crappie. Life Strategy: White crappies spawn in May and June. Males construct nests by fanning out small depressions on the bottom in and around brush, rocks, and logs in water between one and five feet deep. Females lay eggs and males guard the eggs till they hatch. Food / Feed Strategy: Minnows, shad, crayfish, mollusks and insects.

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Common Name: White Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis annularis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 82

Common Name: Shortnose Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus platostomus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lepisosteidae

Order: Lepisosteiformes Genus: Lepisosteus

Species: L. platostomus

Geography / Habitat: They inhabit large rivers and their backwaters, as well as oxbow lakes and large pools. Life Strategy: Shortnose gar spawning activity may occur from May into July. Females are often accompanied by more than one male. Yellow eggs are scattered in vegetation and other submerged structures, usually hatching within eight days of spawning. Food / Feed Strategy: Feeds by sight. Fish comprise most of diet.

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Common Name: Shortnose Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus platostomus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 83

Common Name: Chain Pickerel Scientific Name: Esox niger Class: Actinopterygii Family: Esocidae

Order: Esociformes Genus: Esox

Species: E. niger

Geography / Habitat: Pickerel are attracted to weedy pools in streams, ponds, lakes and rivers. Life Strategy: Strings of sticky eggs are deposited on aquatic vegetation and subsequently fertilized. There is no parental care. When the young hatch they feed on plankton, aquatic insects or even their own siblings. Food / Feed Strategy: The chain pickerel feeds primarily on smaller fish which it ambushes from cover with a rapid lunge and secures with its sharp teeth. It is not unusual for pickerel to leap out of the water at flying insects, or even at dangling fishing lures.

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Common Name: Chain Pickerel Scientific Name: Esox niger Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 84

Common Name: Black Buffalo Scientific Name: Ictiobus niger Class: Actinopterygii Family: Catostomidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Ictiobus

Species: I. niger

Geography / Habitat: Black buffalo are found in the Ohio River and larger tributaries to is such as the Scioto and Muskingum Rivers. The black buffalo inhabits the lower reaches of large streams, rivers, and reservoirs. Life Strategy: Black buffalo spawn in April and May often in side channels or back waters off the edge of a main river channel. They scatter their eggs over the bottom and provide no further parental care. Food / Feed Strategy: Consumes plankton, insect larvae, and vegetation; snails and other small mollusks are diet items, often in large quantities

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Common Name: Black Buffalo Scientific Name: Ictiobus niger Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 85

Common Name: Redear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis microlophus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. microlophus

Geography / Habitat: The species is usually found near the bottom in warm water with little current and abundant aquatic vegetation Life Strategy: They spawn during the warm months of late spring and early summer, and in deeper water than most other sunfish, congregating in spawning "beds." Nests are saucer-shaped depressions in gravel or silt, and are sometimes so close they almost touch. Food / Feed Strategy: The favorite food of this species is snails. These fish are bottomfeeders, meandering along lakebeds seeking and cracking open snails and other shelled creatures. The fish has thick pharyngeal teeth, hard, movable plates in its throat, which allow it to crunch exoskeletons. It is even capable of opening small clams.

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Common Name: Redear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis microlophus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 86

Common Name: Striped Bass Scientific Name: Morone Saxatilis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Moronidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Morone

Species: M. saxatilis

Geography / Habitat: The striped bass is anadromous, native to a variety of habitats including shores, bays, and estuaries. Life Strategy: Spawning begins in the spring. Typically, one female is accompanied by several males during the spawning act. Running water is necessary to keep eggs in motion until hatching. In general, at least 50 miles of stream is required for successful hatches. Food / Feed Strategy: Adults are primarily piscivorous, feeding predominantly on members of the herring family such as gizzard shad and threadfin shad.

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Common Name: Striped Bass Scientific Name: Morone Saxatilis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 87

Common Name: Smallmouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropterus

Species: M. dolomieu

Geography / Habitat: Smallmouth bass prefer large clear-water lakes (greater than 100 acres, more than 30 feet deep) and cool streams with clear water and gravel substrate. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs in the spring. Males move into spawning areas. Nests are usually located near shore in lakes; downstream from boulders or some other obstruction that offers protection against strong current in streams. Food / Feed Strategy: Crayfish tend to be the favored prey, but they will go after minnows in the spring, insects during hatches (especially Mayflies), hellgramites and other fish species. Smallmouth are mainly ambush predators. They will dart out from behind boulders to grab their prey.

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Common Name: Smallmouth Bass Scientific Name:Micropterus dolomieu Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 88

Common Name: Yellow Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus natalis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Ameiurus

Species: A. natalis

Geography / Habitat: Its habitat includes river pools, backwaters, and sluggish current over soft or mildly rocky substrate in creeks, small to larger rivers, and shallow portions of lakes and ponds usually preferring clear water. Life Strategy: During late spring or early summer, yellow bullheads excavate nests in mud bottoms and spawn. Both parents guard the nest, which may contain 2,000 to 12,000 eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: The yellow bullhead is a voracious scavenger typically feeding at night on a variety of plant and animal material, both live and dead, including small fish, crayfish, insects, snails, and worms.

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Common Name: Yellow Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus natalis Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 89

Common Name: White Bass Scientific Name: Morone chrysops Class: Actinopterygii Family: Moronidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Morone

Species: Morone

Geography / Habitat: These fish usually travel in large schools. Adults prefer open water over sandy shoals during the day and shallows at night. Life Strategy: White bass are active early spring spawners. Schools of males migrate upstream to spawning areas as much as a month before females. There is no nest preparation. Spawning occurs either near the surface, or in midwater. Running water with a gravel or rock substrate is preferred. Females rise to the surface and several males crowd around as the eggs and sperm are released. Food / Feed Strategy: White Bass usually feed on shad, minnows, crustaceans and insects.

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Common Name: White Bass Scientific Name: Morone chyrosops Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 91

Common Name: Yellow Bass Scientific Name: Morone mississippiensis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Moronidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Morone

Species: M. mississippiensis

Geography / Habitat: The yellow bass is limited to the backwaters of the Mississippi below Lake Pepin. Yellow bass thrive in quiet pools, ponds, backwaters of large streams, small to large rivers, large lakes, clear to turbid waters below lakes, and reservoirs; they are somewhat tolerant of weedbeds, and are fond of warm water. Life Strategy: Yellow bass spawn in the spring and move into tributary streams when the water temperature reaches the upper 50s. They spawn on shoals and abandon their nesting site without protecting the young. Food / Feed Strategy: Yellow bass prefer small minnows, shad, crayfish and insects.

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Common Name: Yellow Bass Scientific Name: Morone mississippiensis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 92

Common Name: Smallmouth Buffalo Scientific Name: Ictiobus bubalus Class: Family:

Order: Genus: Ictiobus

Species: Ictiobus Bubalus

Geography / Habitat: Smallmouth buffalo are found in large rivers in both the Lake Erie and Ohio River drainage systems. They are typically found in deep fast chutes below shallow riffles and prefer clearer waters than the bigmouth buffalo. Life Strategy: Spawning takes place in the April and May when they congregate in areas of moderate flow in shallow water. Eggs are scattered over weeds and gravel bottoms and hatch in one to two weeks. No parental care is given by the adults. Food / Feed Strategy: Feed largely on bottom material, especially diatoms, dipteran larvae, small crustaceans.

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Common Name: Smallmouth Bass Scientific Name: Ictiobus bubalus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 93

Common Name: Longear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis megalotis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. megalotis

Geography / Habitat: The species prefers densely vegetated, shallow waters in lakes, ponds, and sluggish streams. Life Strategy: Males select a spawning site in shallow water and build a nest on gravel substrate usually near cover. Food / Feed Strategy: Its diet can include insects, aquatic invertebrates, and small fish.

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Common Name: Longear Sunfish Scientific Name:Lepomis megalotis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 94

Common Name: Gizzard Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma cepedianum Class: Actinopterygii Family: Clupeidae

Order: Clupeifromes Genus: Dorosoma

Species: D. cepedianum

Geography / Habitat: Gizzard shad are most abundant in large rivers and reservoirs, avoiding high gradient streams. Life Strategy: Spawning generally takes place in late spring, usually in shallow protected water. Eggs and milt are released in the school, seemingly without regard for individual mates. Adhesive eggs attach to submerged objects and hatch in about 4 days. Food / Feed Strategy: American gizzard shad begin life feeding on zooplankton, using their teeth to catch them. At about 1 inch in length, they lose the teeth, become deeperbodied, develop the muscular gizzard, and become filter feeders, consuming both small invertebrates and phytoplankton, as well as some sand for the gizzard.

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Common Name: Gizzard Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma cepedianum Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 95

Common Name: Common Carp Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Class: Actinopterygii Family: Cyprinidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Cyprinus

Species: C. carpio

Geography / Habitat: Wild common carp (generally referred to as 'carp' in this fact sheet) live in the middle and lower streams of rivers, in inundated areas, and in shallow confined waters, such as lakes, oxbow lakes, and water reservoirs. Life Strategy: Spawning begins in late April and continues into June. Females lay eggs in vegetation with water depths between one and four feet. Young carp remain in these vegetated areas until they are three to four inches in length and eat primarily small crustaceans. Food / Feed Strategy: Carp are omnivorous, with a high tendency towards the consumption of animal food, such as water insects, larvae of insects, worms, molluscs, and zooplankton.

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Common Name: Common Carp Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 96

Common Name: Freshwater Drum Scientific Name: Aplodinotus grunniens Class: Actinopterygii Family: Sciaenidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Aplodinotus

Species: A. grunniens

Geography / Habitat: Freshwater drum are found through most of Minnesota except in the Lake Superior watershed. They prefer shallow, quiet water in lakes and streams. They like to hang out at the bottom Life Strategy: Spawning seems to occur in open water. The eggs float until they hatch. Freshwater drum appear to be basically benthic, spending most of their time at or near the bottom Food / Feed Strategy: They feed primarily on fish, crayfish, and immature insects, often by rooting around in the substrate or moving rocks to dislodge their prey. The presence of heavy throat-teeth also allows them to consume mollusks to a certain extent.

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Common Name: Freshwater Drum Scientific Name: Aplodinotus grunniens Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 97

Common Name: Black Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus melas Class: Actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Ameiurus

Species: A. melas

Geography / Habitat: Low gradient sections of streams, backwaters, lakes, and reservoirs, frequently over silty, soft mud. Life Strategy: Black bullheads excavate nests in mud bottoms and spawn. Areas with some sort of cover are preferred. Nests contain golden-yellow egg masses which are guarded by both parents Food / Feed Strategy: Insects, snails, fish, clams, crayfish, fish eggs, plants

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Common Name: Black Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus melas Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 98

Common Name: Redbreast Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis auritus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. auritus

Geography / Habitat: The species prefers vegetated and rocky pools and lake margins for its habitat. Life Strategy: he redbreast spawns in beds or colonies on sand or gravel where the water is one to three feet deep. After hatching, the young may remain schooled for several weeks before scattering. Food / Feed Strategy: Adults feed on insects, snails, crayfish, and small fish.

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Common Name: Redbreast Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis auritus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Termianal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 99

Common Name: Duckbill Catfish Scientific Name: Sorubim Lima Class: Actinopterygii Family: Pimelodidae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Sorubim

Species: Sorumbim Lima

Geography / Habitat: Duckbill Catfish have been found in Venezuela, Peru, and Ecuador. The Adult duckbill can be found in flowing rivers and quiet habitats like lakes. Life Strategy: Duckbill catfish are known to spawn during the rainy season. Food / Feed Strategy: Prey on smaller fish, crustaceans, and earthworms.

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Common Name: Duckbill Catfish Scientific Name: Sorumbim Lima Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 100

Common Name: African Knife Fish Scientific Name: Xenomystus Nigri Class: Actinopterygii Family: Rhamphichthyidae

Order: Gymnotiformes Genus: Xenomystus Nigri

Species: Xenomystus Nigri

Geography / Habitat: This species can be found in still, overgrown waters that is vegetated. Life Strategy: The female African Knife fish lay around 150 to 200 eggs in the rocks. The male will guard them until they hatch 10 days later. Food / Feed Strategy: This species will feed on meat, earthworms, and insects.

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Common Name: African Knife Fish Scientific Name: Xenomystus Nigri Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Works Cited Fresh Water 

http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/fish/

http://www.seriouslyfish.com/

http://www.dnr.sc.gov/freshwater.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_common_fish_names


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 101

Common Name: Great Star Coral Scientific Name: Montastraea cavernosa Class: Anthozoa Family: Faviidae

Order: Scleractinia Genus: Montastraea

Species: M. cavernosa

Geography / Habitat: Great star coral colonies form massive boulders and domes over 5 feet in diameter in waters of shallow and moderate depths. It is found throughout most reef environments, and is the predominant coral at depths. Life Strategy: Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Food / Feed Strategy: n/a

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Common Name: Great Star Coral Scientific Name: Montastraea cavernosa Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 102

Common Name: Common Shrimp Scientific Name: Crangon crangon Class: Malacostraca Family: Crangonidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Crangon

Species: C. crangon

Geography / Habitat: Very common in European waters, and found around the coasts of Britain. This species occurs from the middle shore down to submerged depths of around 150m; it also extends into estuaries and typically buries into the sand Life Strategy: After mating, the female carries the eggs for 3-4 weeks in summer and up to 10 weeks in spring. The larvae, known as 'zoeae' are planktonic, and persist for around 5 weeks. Maturity is attained after 1-2 years, and average life span is 3 years Food / Feed Strategy: The common shrimp feeds on a range of worms, mollusks and crustaceans

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Common Name: Common Shrimp Scientific Name: Crangon crangon Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 103

Common Name: Giant Clam Scientific Name: Tridacna gigas Class: Bivalvia Family: Tridacnidae

Order: Veneroida Genus: Tradacna

Species: T. gigas

Geography / Habitat: Found in shallow waters of the Pacific Ocean, from Thailand and Japan to Australia and Micronesia. The giant clam inhabits warm tropical waters on reef flats and shallow lagoons Life Strategy: They reproduce by expelling sperm and eggs into the sea, where fertilization occurs. Food / Feed Strategy: Giant clams have an inhalant siphon, which they use to draw in seawater that is then filtered for planktonic food

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Common Name: Giant Clam Scientific Name: Tradacna gigas Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 104

Common Name: Common Jellyfish Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita Class: Scyphozoa Family: Ulmaridae

Order: Semaeostomeae Genus: Aurelia

Species: A. aurita

Geography / Habitat: It is a northern hemisphere species, found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Typically found close to the coast, this jellyfish can also be found in estuaries Life Strategy: The sexes are separate and fertilization occurs internally; the sperm is taken into the female's body via the mouth. The fertilized eggs undergo development in pockets in the arms that surround the mouth. Food / Feed Strategy: The common jellyfish is carnivorous, and feeds mainly on a variety of planktonic species such as mollusks, crustaceans, young worms and copepods.

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Common Name: Common Jellyfish Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 105

Common Name: Common Starfish Scientific Name: Asterias rubens Class: Asteroidae Family: Asteriidae

Order: Forcipulatida Genus: Asterias

Species: A. rubens

Geography / Habitat: Found on a range of marine substrata including fine sand, rock and gravel. It can often be found amongst mussel beds and barnacles on British shores Life Strategy: The sexes are separate, breeding occurs in spring and summer and fertilization occurs externally Food / Feed Strategy: This predatory species takes a range of marine prey including other echinoderms such as: sea urchins, starfish and brittle stars. Also worms and mollusks as well as carrion

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Common Name: Common Starfish Scientific Name: Asterias rubens Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #: 106

Common Name: Horseshoe crab Scientific Name: Limulus polyphemus Class: Merostomata Family: Limulidae

Order: Xiphosura Genus: Limulus

Species: L. polyphemus

Geography / Habitat: The horseshoe crab dwells on the bottom of muddy and sandy bays and estuaries. In the Gulf of Mexico. They require sloping sandy beaches on which to lay their eggs. Life Strategy: Breeding is associated with the lunar and tidal cycles, with most adults arriving at the full or new moon and within a couple of hours of high tide. The direction of the waves guides the females towards the beach. Males patrol along the bottom of the beach in the shallow water, waiting to intercept beach-bound females Food / Feed Strategy: Horseshoe crabs are typically active at night, with activity peaking around the time of the full moon. They dig for food, such as worms, algae and mollusks in the sediment.

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Common Name: Horseshoe crab Scientific Name: Limulus polyphemus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 107

Common Name: Common Shore Crab Scientific Name: Carcinus maenas Class: Crustacea Family: Portunidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Carcinus

Species: C. maenas

Geography / Habitat: Found on the shore from the high water mark down to depths of around 60 m Life Strategy: Breeding peaks in summer, and mating can only take place shortly after the female molts; the male finds a female before she is due to molt, and carries her around underneath his body for a number of days Food / Feed Strategy: The shore crab feeds on invertebrates including worms, mollusks and crustaceans Small mollusks and barnacles are taken by young crabs.

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Common Name: Common shore crab Scientific Name: Carcinus maenas Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 108

Common Name: Common Octopus Scientific Name: Octopus vulgaris Class: Cephalopoda Family: Octopoda

Order: Octopoda Genus: Octopus

Species: O. vulgaris

Geography / Habitat: Occurs along rocky coasts in the shallow sublittoral zone Life Strategy: Food / Feed Strategy: They have modified salivary glands that produce venom used to incapacitate prey. It is often easy to identify what a common octopus has been feeding on, as they leave piles of debris known as ‘middens’ around the entrance of the protective lair in which they live. These middens consist of debris from a range of species and often include mollusk shells and the carapaces of crabs and other crustaceans

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Common Name: Common Octopus Scientific Name: Octopus vulgaris Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 109

Common Name: Sterrer’s cave shrimp Scientific Name: Parhippolyte sterreri Class: Crustacea Family: Hippolytidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Parhippolyte

Species: P. sterreri

Geography / Habitat: Sterrer’s cave shrimp is known to occur on Grand Bahamas, Exuma Cays and Andros in the Bahamas,

Life Strategy: A female specimen collected carried an estimated 2,000 tiny eggs. The small size of these eggs would suggest a relatively long planktonic larval stage

Food / Feed Strategy: (little is known)

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Common Name: Sterrers’s cave shrimp Scientific Name: Parhippolyte sterreri Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 110

Common Name: Common limpet Scientific Name: Patella vulgata Class: Gastropoda Family: Patellidae

Order: Archaeogastropoda Genus: Patella

Species: P. vulgata

Geography / Habitat: Attaches to firm substrates including rocks and stones from the high shore down to the edge of the sublittoral zone, a marine zone which reaches depths of around 200m Life Strategy: Fertilization occurs externally; the larvae spend their first few days of life in the water column, after which time they settle on the shore Food / Feed Strategy: none known

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Common Name: Common limpet Scientific Name: Patella vulgata Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 111

Common Name: Beadlet anemone Scientific Name: Actinia equina Class: Anthozoa Family: Actiniidae

Order: Actinaria Genus: Actinia

Species: A. equina

Geography / Habitat: This anemone attaches to hard surfaces and is found from the upper to lower shore, down to depths of 20 m. It can also tolerate brackish water and may be found in estuaries Life Strategy: Beadlet anemones are either male or female, but it is not yet understood if sexual reproduction occurs. Both sexes are known to brood offspring internally before giving birth to live young. Food / Feed Strategy: Prey is caught with the stinging tentacles and passed to the mouth. Although often thought of as sessile animals, they are able to move by sliding the base along the substratum.

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Common Name: Beadlet anemone Scientific Name: Actinia equina Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 112

Common Name: Edible sea urchin Scientific Name: Echinus esculentus Class: Echinoidea Family: Echinidae

Order: Echioida Genus: Echinus

Species: E. esculentus

Geography / Habitat: Occasionally may be found on the lower shore, but highest densities occur offshore, where it lives on rocky surfaces Life Strategy: The sexes are separate, breeding takes place in spring, and fertilization is external Food / Feed Strategy: The common sea urchin browses on seaweeds and invertebrates, moving along the sea floor by means of 'tube feet', which project out from the spines

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Common Name: Edible sea urchin Scientific Name: Echinus esculentus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 113

Common Name: Common Hermit crab Scientific Name: Pagurus bernhardus Class: Crustacea Family: Paguridae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Pagurus

Species: P. bernhardus

Geography / Habitat: Inhabits both rocky and sandy areas from the shore to depths of 140m Life Strategy: The female carries the eggs for around two months, after which time the pelagic larvae persist for a number of weeks. Maturity is typically reached before one year of age Food / Feed Strategy: The common hermit crab is an omnivorous scavenger, and can also obtain food by filtering organic particles from the water

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Common Name: Common Hermit crab Scientific Name: Pagurus bernhardus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 114

Common Name: Velvet Swimming crab Scientific Name: Necora puber Class: Crustacea Family: Portunidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Necora

Species: N. puber

Geography / Habitat: Small individuals are found on rocky shores at low water but larger specimens occur down to depths of 80 m Life Strategy: Females carrying eggs can be found at all times of the year Food / Feed Strategy: The adults feed on brown seaweeds, mollusks and crustaceans, whereas juveniles feed mainly on crustaceans such as small crabs and barnacles

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Common Name: Velvet Swimming crab Scientific Name: Necora puber Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 115

Common Name: North Pacific giant octopus Scientific Name: Enteroctopus dofleini Class: Cephalopoda Family: Octopodidae

Order: Octopoda Genus: Enteroctopus

Species: E. dofleini

Geography / Habitat: Distributed throughout the bottom of the ocean. The North Pacific giant octopus is usually most abundant in areas with large boulders and rocky reefs, using the crevices in rocks to make dens in which it shelters Life Strategy: may reproduce at any time during the year, with a spawning peak during the winter months Food / Feed Strategy: It is an active predator, feeding mainly at night on a wide array of species that include crustaceans (particularly crabs and lobsters), mollusks, small fish and other octopuses

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Common Name: North Pacific giant Octopus Scientific Name: Enteroctopus dofleini Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 116

Common Name: Southern Giant clam Scientific Name: Tridacna derasa Class: Bivalvia Family: Tridacnidae

Order: Veneroida Genus: Tridacna

Species: T. derasa

Geography / Habitat: Found on the outer edges of the reef at depths of between 4 and 10 m Life Strategy: They are hermaphrodites, having male and female reproductive organs. They release sperm and eggs at different times to prevent self-fertilization, but self-fertilization can occur. Food / Feed Strategy: Most clams fulfill their nutritional requirements by filter feeding and absorbing dissolved organic compounds from the water, but tridacnid clams have gone further than this by using zooxanthellae algae in their tissue to manufacture food for them

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Common Name: Southern Giant Clam Scientific Name: Tridacna derasa Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 117

Common Name: Common cockle Scientific Name: Class: Bivalvia

Cerastoderma edule

Family: Cardiidae

Order: Veneroida Genus: Cerastoderma

Species: C. edule

Geography / Habitat: inhabits the middle and lower shore, where it burrows into soft sand, mud and muddy gravel to depths of less than 5 cm Life Strategy: The sexes are separate, and adults typically begin to spawn in their second summer. Fertilization is external, and a large percentage of a population spawns at the same time. Eggs and sperm are released into the water Food / Feed Strategy: The common cockle is a suspension feeder, filtering plankton and other organic matter from the water

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Common Name: Common cockle Scientific Name: Cerastoderma edule Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 118

Common Name: Giant Tube worm Scientific Name: Riftia pachyptila Class: Pogonophora Family: Riftiidae

Order: Riftiida Genus: Riftia

Species: R. pachyptila

Geography / Habitat: The giant tube worm prefers strong flowing vents, and lives in areas where the vent fluids mix with the surrounding sea water Life Strategy: little is known about the reproductive biology due to their extreme environment.. Food / Feed Strategy: They are a non feeding invertebrate.

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Common Name: Giant tube worm Scientific Name: Riftia pachyptila Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 119

Common Name: Antarctic krill Scientific Name: Euphausia superba Class: Malacostraca Family: Euphausiidae

Order: Euphausiacea Genus: Euphausia

Species: E. superba

Geography / Habitat: The Antarctic krill inhabits a variety of habitats throughout its life cycle, with adults more often associated with deeper waters, especially during winter, while juveniles are usually found at the surface of inshore waters, beneath the sea ice Life Strategy: Spawning occurs mainly during the summer, when several thousand eggs are laid by the female within the upper 100 meters of water. The eggs sink, sometimes to depths of 2,000 meters, where they hatch into ‘nauplii’ Food / Feed Strategy: The adult Antarctic krill feeds preferentially on phytoplankton; however, it is also able to depend on a wide variety of alternative food sources during the winter months, which may include its own eggs and larvae, as well as other zooplankton, detritus and other materials.

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Common Name: Antarctic Krill Scientific Name: Euphausia superba Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 120

Common Name: Endemic predatory shrimp Scientific Name: Procaris ascensionis Class: Crustacea Family: Procarididae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Procaris

Species: P. ascensionis

Geography / Habitat: Found in two coastal rock pools set well inland from the high tide mark, but with possible underground connections with the ocean Life Strategy: Little is known about the reproductive biology or life history of these shrimp. A sex ratio of eight females to one male has been found, but the reason for this remains unknown. Food / Feed Strategy: The endemic predatory shrimp feeds on both plant matter and crustaceans, including amphipods

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Common Name: Endemic predatory shrimp Scientific Name: Procaris ascensionis Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #:121

Common Name: Longtail tadpole shrimp Scientific Name: Triops longicaudatus Class: Branchiopoda Family: Triopsidae

Order: Notostraca Genus: Tripops

Species: T. longicaudatus

Geography / Habitat: It is widespread throughout the continental United States, Mexico and Hawaii, but not Alaska. Life Strategy: Individuals may reproduce sexually, but this is rare, as most populations are highly male- or female-biased. Parthenogenesis (development from unfertilized eggs) is the most common reproductive strategy. Food / Feed Strategy: Tadpole shrimps are omnivorous and may eat algae, insects and other organic debris; known to chase very small fry and tadpoles, and oligochaete worms

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Common Name: Longtail tadpole shrimp Scientific Name: Tripops longicaudatus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 122

Common Name: Malaysian trumpet snail Scientific Name: Melanoides tuberculatus Class: Gastropoda Family: Thiaridae

Order: Caenogastropoda Genus: Melanoides

Species: M. tuberculatus

Geography / Habitat: This species is native to subtropical and tropical northern Africa and southern Asia. It is a warm-climate species. Life Strategy: Under good conditions, females will produce fertilized eggs that are transferred to a brood pouch where they remain until they hatch Food / Feed Strategy: This snail feeds primarily on algae

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Common Name: Malaysian trumpet snail Scientific Name: Melanoides tuberculatus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 123

Common Name: Apple snail Scientific Name: Marisa cornuarietis Class: Gastropoda Family: Ampullariidae

Order: Caenogastropoda Genus: Marisa

Species: M. cornuarietis

Geography / Habitat: It is widespread in northern South America. This snail prefers still or slowmoving fresh water, depending on the availability of aquatic vegetation as a food source Life Strategy: A non-hermaphrodite, it lays eggs in characteristic disk-shape clutches, adhering to various substrates. Unlike some other apple snails, this snail lays its eggs below the waterline.

Food / Feed Strategy: This species eats aquatic plants, algae, and dead fish and snails.

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Common Name: Apple snail Scientific Name: Marisa cornuarietis Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 124

Common Name: Hawaiian red shrimp Scientific Name: Halocaridina rubra Class: Malacostraca Family: Atyidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Halocaridina

Species: H. rubra

Geography / Habitat: They are endemic to the Hawaiian islands, and most commonly found in anchialine pools in fresh lava substrates Life Strategy: none is known for the Hawaiian Red Shrimp Food / Feed Strategy: Typical food is algal and bacterial mats on the surface of rocks and other substrates in anchialine pools.

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Common Name: Hawaiian red shrimp Scientific Name: Halocaridina rubra Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 125

Common Name: Golden freshwater clam Scientific Name: Corbicula fluminea Class: Bivalvia Family: Corbiculidae

Order: Veneroida Genus: Corbicula

Species: C. fluminea

Geography / Habitat: Naturally occurring in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. Found in Japan, Korea, China, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and even in parts of Eastern Russia. They are an invasive species and have been introduced in Northern America and Europe. Life Strategy: These clams are self fertilizers and will produce eggs and then sperm Food / Feed Strategy: This clam is a micro filter feeder and will filter out debris in the water.

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Common Name: Golden Freshwater clam Scientific Name: Corbicula fluminea Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Jess W's Fish ID Project  
Jess W's Fish ID Project  

125 pages of fish id

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