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Title: Freshwater

Species #: 51

Common Name: Largemouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchiade

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropterus

Species: M. salmoides

Geography / Habitat: Largemouth Bass go from Minnesota to Quebec and to the Gulf of Mexico. Originally a species of the southern United States, but it has gone to many other places. The best habitat for these fish is slow, non-moving water; like ponds and lakes. Water temperature should range between 80° and 90°F

Life Strategy: Males build the nests in two to eight feet of water. Largemouth bass prefer to nest in quieter areas, like logs. Females deposit eggs in the nest protected by the male. 2,000-12,000 fry are hatched Food / Feed Strategy: Worms, salamanders, frogs, crayfish, snakes, ducklings, insects and fish. They get their food by if something invades their environment they strike at it, and they also eat by hunger

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Common Name: Largemouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus salmoides Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 52

Common Name: Alligator Gar Scientific Name: Atractosteus spatula Class: Osteichthyes Family: Lepisosteidae

Order: Lepisosteifomes Genus: Atractosteus

Species: Atractosteus Spatula

Geography / Habitat: Most of the Alligator Gar fish are located in the south-eastern part of the United States. The Alligator Gar habitat is usually located in deep water. They usually can be found in calm pools of water, deep rivers, backwaters, and larger lakes around the bottom. Life Strategy: In the spring a female Alligator Gar will swim along with two or three males swimming in formation with her. As she releases her eggs the males release sperm and the fertilized eggs fall to the bottom and stick to debris there. The female carries an average of 138,000 eggs Food / Feed Strategy: Alligator Gar is carnivorous, eating smaller fish as it swims along the top of plants at the bottom of the water.

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Common Name: Alligator Gar Scientific Name: Atractosteus spatula Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #:53

Common Name: Flathead Catfish Scientific Name: Pylodictis olivaris Class: Actinopterygii Family: Gobioidei

Order: Perciformes Genus: Gobiidae

Species: Acanthogobius

Geography / Habitat: Flathead catfish range from the lower Great Lakes through the Mississippi River watershed to the Gulf states. Flathead catfish prefer deep pools of streams, rivers, canals, lakes and reservoirs, where the water is cloudy and the currents are slow. Life Strategy: Unlike other catfish which are scavengers, flatheads prey only on live fish. Young flathead catfish feed mostly on invertebrates such as worms, insects and crayfish. Food / Feed Strategy: Males select hollow logs, caves or areas beneath the banks for their nest sites for the females to lay their eggs. Egg number varies greatly depending on female size, but the average is up to 100,000 eggs at a time.

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Common Name: Flathead Catfish Scientific Name: Pylodictis olivaris Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title:

Freshwater

Species #:54

Common Name: Black Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropeterus

Species: Micropterus

Geography / Habitat: Worms, salamanders, frogs, crayfish, snakes, ducklings, insects and fish. They get their food by if something invades their environment they strike at it, and they also eat by hunger Life Strategy: Males build the nests in two to eight feet of water. Largemouth bass prefer to nest in quieter areas, like logs. Females deposit eggs in the nest protected by the male. 2,000-12,000 fry are hatched Food / Feed Strategy: Black Bass are the most sought after freshwater fish because of their wide range and their aggressive bone jarring strikes and the strength they exhibit during the fight. Being active predators they feed on a large variety of creatures and can be tempted to strike at practically any kind of bait or lure, either natural or artificial

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Common Name: Black Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 55

Common Name: Blackfinned snakehead Scientific Name: Channa melanopterus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Channidae

Order: Perciformes Genus:

Species:

Geography / Habitat: Most snakeheads prefer stagnant or slow-running waters, usually hiding under vegetation, rocks, and sunken trees. Many snakeheads are highly adaptable, being tolerant to a wide range of environments, including polluted waters. Life Strategy: They primarily hunt by sight, but smell and other senses may also be involved. They sometimes jump up from the water surface to grasp their prey. Snakeheads feed on everything from insects to young birds, including fishes, frogs, tadpoles, lizards, geckos, mice, rats, and ducks Food / Feed Strategy: They are monogamous, exhibit parental care, and become aggressive, especially so during breeding. Many are known to be nest breeders, the parents first clearing vegetation and then building a simple circular nest at the water surface.

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Common Name: Blackfinned snakehead Scientific Name: Channa melanopterus Body Form or Style: Anguilliform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 56

Common Name: Longnose gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lepisosteidae

Order: Lepisosteiformes Genus: Lepisosteus

Species: Lepisosteus osseus

Geography / Habitat: The species is especially common in the Mississippi River drainage and in the Carolinas. Longnose gar are typically associated with backwaters, low inflow pools and moderately clear streams. They often do very well in man-made impoundments. Life Strategy: Nests are not prepared, they lay their eggs in the gravel as they swim. Each female may deposit a portion of her eggs at several different locations. The adhesive eggs are mixed in the gravel, hatching in six to eight days. Food / Feed Strategy: Long nose gars are ambush predators laying in wait or slowly stalking their prey. Gars attack their prey from the side. The wait until the prey is in range then lunge and thrash their head from site to side impelling they prey on their long needle sharp teeth. They then maneuver the prey in order to swallow it head first. The diet of longnose gar specimens collected included sunfishes, catfish, crayfish, mullets, and specifically gray redhorse, and gizzard shad

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Common Name: Longnose gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus osseus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 57

Common Name: Bluegill Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: Lepomis macrochirus

Geography / Habitat: Bluegills are mainly found in lakes. Slow-moving rivers, vegetated ponds and creek pools are also likely bluegill domains. Bluegills move into deeper waters when the water temperature rises in the summer. Life Strategy: Nests are created in shallow water, one to two feet in depth. Gravel substrate is preferred. Fifty or more nests may be crowded into a small area, thus creating a spawning bed. Males guard the nest until the eggs hatch and fry leave. Food / Feed Strategy: The adult bluegill will eat mostly small invertebrates and other fish smaller than itself. They like to eat when the sun is either just coming up, or just going down. They want a peaceful meal without worrying about getting eaten or attacked by enemies

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Common Name: Bluegill Scientific Name: Lepomis macrochirus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 58

Common Name: Grass Carp Scientific Name: Ctenopharyngodon idella Class: Actinopterygii Family: Gobiidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Acanthogobius

Species: Ctenopharyngodon idella

Geography / Habitat: This species occurs in lakes, ponds, pools and backwaters of large rivers, preferring large, slow-flowing or standing water bodies with vegetation. Life Strategy: In the wild, grass carp spawn in fast-moving rivers, and their eggs, which are slightly heavier than water, develop while drifting downstream, kept in suspension by turbulence. The eggs are thought to die if they sink to the bottom Food / Feed Strategy: Adults of the species feed primarily on aquatic plants. They feed on higher aquatic plants and submerged terrestrial vegetation, but may also take insects and other invertebrates.

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Common Name: Grass Carp Scientific Name: Ctenopharyngodon idella Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 59

Common Name: Channel Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Ictalurus

Species: Ictalurus punctatus

Geography / Habitat: Channel catfish are native to North America east of the Rockies from southern Canada .Channel catfish are most abundant in large streams with low or moderate current. Life Strategy: Males select nest sites which are normally dark secluded areas such as cavities in drift piles, logs, undercut banks, rocks, cans, etc. A golden-yellow gelatinous egg mass is deposited in the bottom of the nest. Males guard the nest, and may actually eat some of the eggs if they are disturbed Food / Feed Strategy: They eat primarily at night and will accept food in all waters levels. In

the wild they feed on aquatic insects, crayfish, mollusks, crustaceans and other fish. Young fish might refuse to eat fish until they grow older and can then be given a diet of shrimp, crabs and mollusks

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Common Name: Channel Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus punctatus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 60

Common Name: Blue Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus furcatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Ictalurus

Species: Ictalurus furcatus

Geography / Habitat: Blue catfish are native to major rivers of the Ohio, Missouri, and Mississippi river basins. Blue catfish are primarily large-river fish, occurring in main channels, tributaries, and impoundments of major river systems. Life Strategy: They prefer to spawn in dark, secluded locations similar to those they inhabit. Males and females work together to build a nest prior to depositing and fertilizing their eggs. Afterward, both will remain to care for the young. Food / Feed Strategy: Blue catfish are mainly nighttime eaters and search for most of their food on or near the bottom. Their barbels give these fish a strong sense of smell that helps them find their food. Blue catfish will eat nearly anything that is available; their preferred diet includes small fish, crayfish, frogs, clams, mussels, and insects. Depending on what there is, they will consume both live and dead things.

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Common Name: Blue Catfish Scientific Name: Ictalurus furcatus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 61

Common Name: Muskellunge Scientific Name: Acanthogobius Flavimanus Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Gobiidae

Genus: Acanthogobius

Species: Acanthogobius flavimanus

Geography / Habitat: East Coast from Missouri, Alabama, Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina, West Virginia, and Pennsylvania, and the Great Lakes states. You find muskies in rivers, deep holes near feeder streams, or brush piles, underwater logs, undercut banks, and rock shelves. Life Strategy: Males are the first fish on the spawning sight and stay there longer than the females. They spawn in extremely cool water temperatures, and if the water changes they go deeper in the water. Food / Feed Strategy: Has a reputation for being a voracious predator. It seems to be more of a lurking than a stalking predator, and rarley pursues prey after a miss. They mostly feed on common carp and gizzard shad.

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Common Name: Muskellunge Scientific Name: Acanthogobius flavimanus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 62

Common Name: Alabama Shad Scientific Name: Alosa alabamae Class: Actinopterygii Family: Clupeidae

Order: Clupeiformes Genus: Alsoa

Species: alabamae

Geography / Habitat: The largest remaining population is in the Apalachicola River system. Adults live in salt water but migrate upstream into free-flowing rivers to spawn. Life Strategy: Adults spawn in April and migrate downstream shortly thereafter. Actual spawning has not been observed, but it probably occurs in open, flowing water over sand bars in the late afternoon or at night. Food / Feed Strategy: Shad feed on microscopic plankton but they will strike at other small food or objects.

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Common Name: Alabama Shad Scientific Name: Alosa alabamae Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 63

Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Class: Osteichthyes Family: Salmonidae

Order: Salmoniformes Genus: Oncorhynchus

Species: mykiss

Geography / Habitat: The rainbow trout is native only to the rivers and lakes of North America, west of the Rocky Mountains. They prefer cool, clear rivers, streams, and lakes, though some will leave their freshwater homes and follow a river out to the sea. Life Strategy: Spawning runs occur from summer to winter, largely dictated by river conditions. Spawning requires relatively high, fast-flowing rivers; muddy waters are un-fishable. Food / Feed Strategy: Rainbow trout survive on insects, crustaceans, and small fish.

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Common Name: Rainbow Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: freshwater

Species #: 64

Common Name: Pumpkinseed Scientific Name: Lepomis gibbosus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. gibbosus

Geography / Habitat: Pumpkinseeds prefer shallow water with some weed cover. They are often typical of ponds and small lakes. Life Strategy: Males prepare nests in colonies on gravel bottoms in late spring. The males are territorial and chase even early-arriving females away. When a female reaches a nest, she is joined by the male, and eggs are deposited. The eggs settle and stick to the pebbles. The female departs as soon as the eggs have been deposited. Food / Feed Strategy: They eat a variety of insects, including mosquito larvae, along with small mollusks and crustaceans. They also feed on smaller fish, including smaller pumpkinseeds.

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Common Name: Pumpkinseed Scientific Name: Lepomis gibbosus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Termianal


Title:

freshwater

Species #: 65

Common Name: Pignose Puffer Scientific Name: Tetraodon suvattii Class: Actinopterygii Family: Tetraodontidae

Order: Tetraodontiformes Genus: ?

Species: tetraodon suvattii

Geography / Habitat: The Pignose is native to Southeast Asia, where it is generally found in the muddy substrate, though it is also found in rocky substrates as well. Life Strategy: The female will lead the male into plants, moss or another form of cover, where she can release eggs for fertilization. The male may help her by rubbing against her side. Food / Feed Strategy: Is a specialized hunter, feeding on other fish. The puffer is an extremely effective hunter. Burrowing down into the ground, it waits for his next meal to pass over its nose, then it leaps from the sand and devours the animal in one quick motion.

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Common Name: Pignose Puffer Scientific Name: Tetraodon suvattii Body Form or Style: Globiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Ostraciiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 66

Common Name: Black Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Pomoxis

Species: Pomoxis nigromaculatus

Geography / Habitat: Populations of black crappie can be found in each of the 48 contiguous United States. They like water with lots of plants and underwater structures, such as logs, stumps, and rocks. They will also sit in water with overhanging trees creating shade and shadows. When it gets hot in the Summer, crappie move out to deeper water. Life Strategy: Black Crappie spawn in May and June. Male fish sweep out a nest in sand or gravel in water three to eight feet deep. After the female lays the eggs in the nest, she swims away and the male guards the eggs. He will stay with the baby fish until they are able to start feeding. Food / Feed Strategy: The main component of the black crappie diet is fish, especially small minnows, shad and small sunfish.

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Common Name: Black Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis nigromaculaus Body Form or Style: Carangiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Compressiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 67

Common Name: Warmouth Scientific Name: Lepomis gulosus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Gobiidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Acanthogobius

Species: Lepomis gluosus

Geography / Habitat: Lakes, ponds, swamps, and quiet areas of streams with muddy bottoms and vegetation are preferred habitat for the warmouth Life Strategy: When in breeding condition, the males' eyes turn red. After the female lays her eggs, the male fertilizes the eggs and aggressively defends the nest, eggs and fry from any intruder-including other females Food / Feed Strategy: They are sight feeders. Young warmouth feed on zooplankton and small insects. Adults feed on insects, mollusks, and small fish.

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Common Name: Warmouth Scientific Name:Lepomis gulosus Body Form or Style: Carangiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Compressiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 68

Common Name: Bigmouth Buffalo Scientific Name: Ictiobus cyprinellus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Catostomidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Ictiobus

Species: Ictiobus cyprinellus

Geography / Habitat: Bigmouth buffalo live in lakes, large rivers, and swamps. They can live in shallow, slow-moving water with a silty, muddy bottom and can tolerate low oxygen and high temperatures Life Strategy: The bigmouth buffalo migrates upstream to spawn in the spring, usually April to June where it lays its eggs on plants to which they adhere. Food / Feed Strategy: This species is a filter-feeder, using its very fine gill rakers to strain crustacean zooplankton from the water. It sometimes feeds near the bottom, using short up-and down movements to swirl the water and thus be able to filter from the water the plants and animals that hover near the bottom.

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Common Name: Bigmouth Buffalo Scientific Name:Ictiobus cyprinellus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 69

Common Name: Burbot Scientific Name: Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lotidae

Order: Gadiformes Genus: Lota

Species: Lota Lota

Geography / Habitat: Deep, clean, cold lakes of northern Minnesota, including Lake Superior. Life Strategy: This is the first fish to spawn each year and the only one to spawn under the ice. Spawning burbots move from deep water to the shallows and congregate in a living glob. A dozen to more than 100 burbots form a quivering sphere of tangled bodies and release eggs and milt into the stirred-up water Food / Feed Strategy: Burbot eat anything, including minnows, small game fish, and insects.

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Common Name: Burbot Scientific Name: Lota Lota Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 70

Common Name: Paddlefish Scientific Name: Polyodon spathula Class: Actinopterygii Family: Polyodontidae

Order: Acipenseriformes Genus: Polyodon

Species: Polyodon spathula

Geography / Habitat: Paddlefish like to live in slow moving water of large rivers or reservoirs, usually in water deeper than four feet Life Strategy: Spawning season is from March through June, when spring rains raise the water levels of rivers. Males and females gather in schools and release their eggs over gravel or sandbars. Food / Feed Strategy: Paddlefish have no teeth and eat by swimming through the water with its mouth held wide open, scooping up tiny plants and animals in the water called plankton. They filter out the food with their gill rakers.

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Common Name: Paddlefish Scientific Name:Polyodon spathula Body Form or Style: Fusiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 71

Common Name: Lake Sturgeon Scientific Name: Acipenser fulvescens Class: Actinopterygii Family: Acipenseridae

Order: Acipenseriformes Genus: Acipenser

Species: A. fulvescens

Geography / Habitat: The lake sturgeon is a fish of temperate waters and is found only in the Northern Hemisphere in North America. Their habitat is usually on the bottom of a riverbed or lake. Life Strategy: The females lay a vast number of eggs, anywhere from 2 to 3 million in one season, depending on their size and age. After spawning, the eggs are left to develop on their own. The parents will then return to the lake or river where they spend most of their time. Food / Feed Strategy: the fish goes among the mud for food. It finds its food largely by touch, using its sensitive barbels. These fish are slow feeders and can survive several weeks without eating. Moreover, the food it eats is small compared to its own size. eat insect larvae, worms, crayfish, snails, and other small fishes.

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Common Name: Lake sturgeon Scientific Name: A. fulvescens Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 72

Common Name: Spotted Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus oculatus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lepisosteidae

Order: Lepisosteiformes Genus: Lepososteus

Species: L. oculatus

Geography / Habitat: Spotted gar prefers clear, quiet, vegetated waters of streams, swamps and lakes. They sometimes enter brackish waters along the Gulf Coast. Life Strategy: They spawn in shallow water with low flow and heavy vegetation. Several males court a single larger female at the same time Food / Feed Strategy: Spotted gars eat mostly smaller fish, sometimes large fish. They wait in the plant life waiting on their food to pass by

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Common Name: Spotted gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus oculatus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 73

Common Name: Bowfin Scientific Name: Amia calva Class: Actinopterygii Family: Amiidae

Order: Amiiformes Genus: Amia

Species: A. Calva

Geography / Habitat: Bowfin are found throughout much of Minnesota in lakes and streams. They like slow-moving, clear water, but can live in swampy, weedy conditions. Life Strategy: The bowfin spawns in the spring in quiet bays or backwaters of a river. It is a nestbuilder and deposits the eggs in a saucer-like depression on the bottom or over sticks and vegetation. The eggs are guarded and tended by the male until they hatch,

Food / Feed Strategy: The bowfin is primarily carnivorous, feeding largely on fishes of all kinds, frogs, crayfish, large insects and their larvae, leeches and other aquatic life.

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Common Name: Bowfin Scientific Name:Amia Calva Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Anguilliform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 74

Common Name: Golden Trout Scientific Name: Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Class: Actinopterygii Order: Salmoniformes Family: Salmonidae

Genus: Occorhynchus

Species: O. mykiss

Geography / Habitat: The water is generally clear and cold and substrates are composed of cobble, gravel, and sand. Favorable reaches include pools that provide cover in the forms of undercut banks and aquatic vegetation Life Strategy: Golden Trout are the least reproductive of the trout family because of long cold winters and high elevation make food scarce. Food / Feed Strategy: The insects that come from these meadows; mayflies, gnats, mosquitoes, stoneflies, ants, beetles, spiders, dobsonflies, worms and larvae, are among the prey of the adult trout. Vegetable detritus, Plankton, trout eggs, and other small fish are also sources of nutrients.

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Common Name: Golden Trout Scientific Name:Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 75

Common Name: Threadfin Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma Petenense Class: Actinopterygii Family: Clupeidae

Order: Clupeiformes Genus: Dorosoma

Species: D. petenense

Geography / Habitat: Life Strategy: Threadfin shad spawn on the surface shortly after dawn along a weedy shoreline or in open water around rafts of driftwood and debris. Food / Feed Strategy: Plankton is the food source for threadfin shad. They run in schools of similar size fish and you often see them feeding on plankton right on the surface late in the day when photosensitive plankton rises to the top as the sun sets.

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Common Name: Threadfin Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma Petenese Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 76

Common Name: Green Sufish Scientific Name: Lepomis cyanellus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. cyanellus

Geography / Habitat: Green sunfish are native to Ohio and are found throughout the state. They are very tolerant to poor water quality and are often the only sunfish found in very muddy waters. They do have a strong preference to hide around structure such as rocks, logs, or brush piles. Life Strategy: Green sunfish are communal spawners with males constructing nests in shallow water. The female then lays between 2,000 to 26,000 eggs. Males defend the nest for the three to five days it takes the eggs to hatch. Food / Feed Strategy: Young feed on zooplankton. Adults feed on insects, crayfish, terrestrial arthropods, eggs and fry, other fishes

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Common Name: Green Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis cyanellus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 77

Common Name: Fathead Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas Class: Actinopterygii Family: Cyprinidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Pimephales

Species: P. promelas

Geography / Habitat: The fathead minnow is a stream fish, able to tolerate a wide range of environmental conditions including high temperatures, low oxygen levels, and high turbidities. The species seems to be most abundant in small streams Life Strategy: The male fathead minnow stakes out an overhanging ledge or cave and begins defending this territory. The eggs are laid on the underside of the ledge in a monolayer. The male guards the eggs until they hatch. He may get several females into spawning, in which case the final hatch will be a genetic mixture of half-siblings. Food / Feed Strategy: Primarily benthic feeders; filling digestive tracts with mud or silt which are rich in numerous species of algae and protozoa, these constituting the major food source.

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Common Name: Fathead Minnow Scientific Name: Pimephales promelas Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 78

Common Name: Rio Grande Cichlid Scientific Name: Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum Class: Actinopterygii Order: Perciformes Family: Cichlidae

Genus: Herichthys

Species: C. cyanoguttatum

Geography / Habitat: It lives in pools and runs of small to big rivers and its native habitat is the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, U.S. and north-eastern parts of Mexico. Life Strategy: These cichlids are very easy to spawn. Females are ready to breed by 2-3 inches. The female will clean off a piece of slate or flat surface and lay eggs with the male following up and fertilizing them. Both parents prior to hatching dig a small pit for transfer. The female will now tend to the eggs while the male guards the perimeter. Food / Feed Strategy: The strong, cutting teeth make it chiefly carnivorous, feeding mostly on fish eggs, insects, and small fishes.

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Common Name: Rio Grande Cichlid Scientific Name: Cichlasoma cyanoguttatum Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 79

Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Sander vitreum Class: Actinopterygii Family: Percidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Sander

Species: S. vitreum

Geography / Habitat: The walleye is a cool water species, meaning that it prefers intermediate temperatures. Walleyes prefer water of relatively low clarity. They are most abundant where suspended silt or algae, or bog stain limits visibility to about 3 to 6 feet. Life Strategy: Shallow, rocky shorelines and reefs make ideal spawning grounds. The eggs fall into crevices between the rocks where they are safe from crayfish and other egg-eating predators. Spawning is most successful in large lakes because the spawning habitat is exposed to the wind. Food / Feed Strategy: Walleye fry eat zooplankton and aquatic insects and start feeding on fish. The diet of juvenile and adult walleye consists primarily of fish, but aquatic invertebrates, particularly mayfly larvae and crayfish,

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Common Name: Walleye Scientific Name: Sander vitreum Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 80

Common Name: Guadalupe Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus treculii Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropterus

Species: M. treculii

Geography / Habitat: Typically, Guadalupe bass are found in flowing water, whereas largemouth bass are found in quiet water. Life Strategy: Like all other black bass, Guadalupe bass build gravel nests for spawning, preferably in shallow water. Males tend to build nests in areas with higher flow rates. When a male has successfully attracted a female to the nest she may lay eggs. The female is then chased away and the male stands guard over the incubating eggs Food / Feed Strategy: Bass are primarily sight feeders and are extremely opportunistic. Their carnivorous diet includes fish, insects, crayfish, snakes, frogs, even small birds or mammals.

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Common Name: Guadalupe Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus treculii Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 81

Common Name: White Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis annularis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Pomoxis

Species: P. annularis

Geography / Habitat: White crappie can be found in large rivers, reservoirs and lakes throughout Ohio. They are also found in Lake Erie and the Ohio River. White crappies are more tolerant of murky waters than black crappie. Life Strategy: White crappies spawn in May and June. Males construct nests by fanning out small depressions on the bottom in and around brush, rocks, and logs in water between one and five feet deep. Females lay eggs and males guard the eggs till they hatch. Food / Feed Strategy: Minnows, shad, crayfish, mollusks and insects.

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Common Name: White Crappie Scientific Name: Pomoxis annularis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 82

Common Name: Shortnose Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus platostomus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Lepisosteidae

Order: Lepisosteiformes Genus: Lepisosteus

Species: L. platostomus

Geography / Habitat: They inhabit large rivers and their backwaters, as well as oxbow lakes and large pools. Life Strategy: Shortnose gar spawning activity may occur from May into July. Females are often accompanied by more than one male. Yellow eggs are scattered in vegetation and other submerged structures, usually hatching within eight days of spawning. Food / Feed Strategy: Feeds by sight. Fish comprise most of diet.

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Common Name: Shortnose Gar Scientific Name: Lepisosteus platostomus Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 83

Common Name: Chain Pickerel Scientific Name: Esox niger Class: Actinopterygii Family: Esocidae

Order: Esociformes Genus: Esox

Species: E. niger

Geography / Habitat: Pickerel are attracted to weedy pools in streams, ponds, lakes and rivers. Life Strategy: Strings of sticky eggs are deposited on aquatic vegetation and subsequently fertilized. There is no parental care. When the young hatch they feed on plankton, aquatic insects or even their own siblings. Food / Feed Strategy: The chain pickerel feeds primarily on smaller fish which it ambushes from cover with a rapid lunge and secures with its sharp teeth. It is not unusual for pickerel to leap out of the water at flying insects, or even at dangling fishing lures.

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Common Name: Chain Pickerel Scientific Name: Esox niger Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 84

Common Name: Black Buffalo Scientific Name: Ictiobus niger Class: Actinopterygii Family: Catostomidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Ictiobus

Species: I. niger

Geography / Habitat: Black buffalo are found in the Ohio River and larger tributaries to is such as the Scioto and Muskingum Rivers. The black buffalo inhabits the lower reaches of large streams, rivers, and reservoirs. Life Strategy: Black buffalo spawn in April and May often in side channels or back waters off the edge of a main river channel. They scatter their eggs over the bottom and provide no further parental care. Food / Feed Strategy: Consumes plankton, insect larvae, and vegetation; snails and other small mollusks are diet items, often in large quantities

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Common Name: Black Buffalo Scientific Name: Ictiobus niger Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 85

Common Name: Redear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis microlophus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. microlophus

Geography / Habitat: The species is usually found near the bottom in warm water with little current and abundant aquatic vegetation Life Strategy: They spawn during the warm months of late spring and early summer, and in deeper water than most other sunfish, congregating in spawning "beds." Nests are saucer-shaped depressions in gravel or silt, and are sometimes so close they almost touch. Food / Feed Strategy: The favorite food of this species is snails. These fish are bottomfeeders, meandering along lakebeds seeking and cracking open snails and other shelled creatures. The fish has thick pharyngeal teeth, hard, movable plates in its throat, which allow it to crunch exoskeletons. It is even capable of opening small clams.

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Common Name: Redear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis microlophus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 86

Common Name: Striped Bass Scientific Name: Morone Saxatilis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Moronidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Morone

Species: M. saxatilis

Geography / Habitat: The striped bass is anadromous, native to a variety of habitats including shores, bays, and estuaries. Life Strategy: Spawning begins in the spring. Typically, one female is accompanied by several males during the spawning act. Running water is necessary to keep eggs in motion until hatching. In general, at least 50 miles of stream is required for successful hatches. Food / Feed Strategy: Adults are primarily piscivorous, feeding predominantly on members of the herring family such as gizzard shad and threadfin shad.

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Common Name: Striped Bass Scientific Name: Morone Saxatilis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 87

Common Name: Smallmouth Bass Scientific Name: Micropterus dolomieu Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Micropterus

Species: M. dolomieu

Geography / Habitat: Smallmouth bass prefer large clear-water lakes (greater than 100 acres, more than 30 feet deep) and cool streams with clear water and gravel substrate. Life Strategy: Spawning occurs in the spring. Males move into spawning areas. Nests are usually located near shore in lakes; downstream from boulders or some other obstruction that offers protection against strong current in streams. Food / Feed Strategy: Crayfish tend to be the favored prey, but they will go after minnows in the spring, insects during hatches (especially Mayflies), hellgramites and other fish species. Smallmouth are mainly ambush predators. They will dart out from behind boulders to grab their prey.

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Common Name: Smallmouth Bass Scientific Name:Micropterus dolomieu Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 88

Common Name: Yellow Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus natalis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Ameiurus

Species: A. natalis

Geography / Habitat: Its habitat includes river pools, backwaters, and sluggish current over soft or mildly rocky substrate in creeks, small to larger rivers, and shallow portions of lakes and ponds usually preferring clear water. Life Strategy: During late spring or early summer, yellow bullheads excavate nests in mud bottoms and spawn. Both parents guard the nest, which may contain 2,000 to 12,000 eggs. Food / Feed Strategy: The yellow bullhead is a voracious scavenger typically feeding at night on a variety of plant and animal material, both live and dead, including small fish, crayfish, insects, snails, and worms.

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Common Name: Yellow Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus natalis Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 89

Common Name: White Bass Scientific Name: Morone chrysops Class: Actinopterygii Family: Moronidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Morone

Species: Morone

Geography / Habitat: These fish usually travel in large schools. Adults prefer open water over sandy shoals during the day and shallows at night. Life Strategy: White bass are active early spring spawners. Schools of males migrate upstream to spawning areas as much as a month before females. There is no nest preparation. Spawning occurs either near the surface, or in midwater. Running water with a gravel or rock substrate is preferred. Females rise to the surface and several males crowd around as the eggs and sperm are released. Food / Feed Strategy: White Bass usually feed on shad, minnows, crustaceans and insects.

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Common Name: White Bass Scientific Name: Morone chyrosops Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 91

Common Name: Yellow Bass Scientific Name: Morone mississippiensis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Moronidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Morone

Species: M. mississippiensis

Geography / Habitat: The yellow bass is limited to the backwaters of the Mississippi below Lake Pepin. Yellow bass thrive in quiet pools, ponds, backwaters of large streams, small to large rivers, large lakes, clear to turbid waters below lakes, and reservoirs; they are somewhat tolerant of weedbeds, and are fond of warm water. Life Strategy: Yellow bass spawn in the spring and move into tributary streams when the water temperature reaches the upper 50s. They spawn on shoals and abandon their nesting site without protecting the young. Food / Feed Strategy: Yellow bass prefer small minnows, shad, crayfish and insects.

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Common Name: Yellow Bass Scientific Name: Morone mississippiensis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 92

Common Name: Smallmouth Buffalo Scientific Name: Ictiobus bubalus Class: Family:

Order: Genus: Ictiobus

Species: Ictiobus Bubalus

Geography / Habitat: Smallmouth buffalo are found in large rivers in both the Lake Erie and Ohio River drainage systems. They are typically found in deep fast chutes below shallow riffles and prefer clearer waters than the bigmouth buffalo. Life Strategy: Spawning takes place in the April and May when they congregate in areas of moderate flow in shallow water. Eggs are scattered over weeds and gravel bottoms and hatch in one to two weeks. No parental care is given by the adults. Food / Feed Strategy: Feed largely on bottom material, especially diatoms, dipteran larvae, small crustaceans.

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Common Name: Smallmouth Bass Scientific Name: Ictiobus bubalus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 93

Common Name: Longear Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis megalotis Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. megalotis

Geography / Habitat: The species prefers densely vegetated, shallow waters in lakes, ponds, and sluggish streams. Life Strategy: Males select a spawning site in shallow water and build a nest on gravel substrate usually near cover. Food / Feed Strategy: Its diet can include insects, aquatic invertebrates, and small fish.

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Common Name: Longear Sunfish Scientific Name:Lepomis megalotis Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 94

Common Name: Gizzard Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma cepedianum Class: Actinopterygii Family: Clupeidae

Order: Clupeifromes Genus: Dorosoma

Species: D. cepedianum

Geography / Habitat: Gizzard shad are most abundant in large rivers and reservoirs, avoiding high gradient streams. Life Strategy: Spawning generally takes place in late spring, usually in shallow protected water. Eggs and milt are released in the school, seemingly without regard for individual mates. Adhesive eggs attach to submerged objects and hatch in about 4 days. Food / Feed Strategy: American gizzard shad begin life feeding on zooplankton, using their teeth to catch them. At about 1 inch in length, they lose the teeth, become deeper-bodied, develop the muscular gizzard, and become filter feeders, consuming both small invertebrates and phytoplankton, as well as some sand for the gizzard.

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Common Name: Gizzard Shad Scientific Name: Dorosoma cepedianum Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 95

Common Name: Common Carp Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Class: Actinopterygii Family: Cyprinidae

Order: Cypriniformes Genus: Cyprinus

Species: C. carpio

Geography / Habitat: Wild common carp (generally referred to as 'carp' in this fact sheet) live in the middle and lower streams of rivers, in inundated areas, and in shallow confined waters, such as lakes, oxbow lakes, and water reservoirs. Life Strategy: Spawning begins in late April and continues into June. Females lay eggs in vegetation with water depths between one and four feet. Young carp remain in these vegetated areas until they are three to four inches in length and eat primarily small crustaceans. Food / Feed Strategy: Carp are omnivorous, with a high tendency towards the consumption of animal food, such as water insects, larvae of insects, worms, molluscs, and zooplankton.

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Common Name: Common Carp Scientific Name: Cyprinus carpio Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 96

Common Name: Freshwater Drum Scientific Name: Aplodinotus grunniens Class: Actinopterygii Family: Sciaenidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Aplodinotus

Species: A. grunniens

Geography / Habitat: Freshwater drum are found through most of Minnesota except in the Lake Superior watershed. They prefer shallow, quiet water in lakes and streams. They like to hang out at the bottom Life Strategy: Spawning seems to occur in open water. The eggs float until they hatch. Freshwater drum appear to be basically benthic, spending most of their time at or near the bottom Food / Feed Strategy: They feed primarily on fish, crayfish, and immature insects, often by rooting around in the substrate or moving rocks to dislodge their prey. The presence of heavy throat-teeth also allows them to consume mollusks to a certain extent.

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Common Name: Freshwater Drum Scientific Name: Aplodinotus grunniens Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title:

Freshwater

Species #: 97

Common Name: Black Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus melas Class: Actinopterygii Family: Ictaluridae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Ameiurus

Species: A. melas

Geography / Habitat: Low gradient sections of streams, backwaters, lakes, and reservoirs, frequently over silty, soft mud. Life Strategy: Black bullheads excavate nests in mud bottoms and spawn. Areas with some sort of cover are preferred. Nests contain golden-yellow egg masses which are guarded by both parents Food / Feed Strategy: Insects, snails, fish, clams, crayfish, fish eggs, plants

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Common Name: Black Bullhead Scientific Name: Ameiurus melas Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 98

Common Name: Redbreast Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis auritus Class: Actinopterygii Family: Centrarchidae

Order: Perciformes Genus: Lepomis

Species: L. auritus

Geography / Habitat: The species prefers vegetated and rocky pools and lake margins for its habitat. Life Strategy: he redbreast spawns in beds or colonies on sand or gravel where the water is one to three feet deep. After hatching, the young may remain schooled for several weeks before scattering. Food / Feed Strategy: Adults feed on insects, snails, crayfish, and small fish.

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Common Name: Redbreast Sunfish Scientific Name: Lepomis auritus Body Form or Style: Compressiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Carangiform Mouth Position: Termianal


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 99

Common Name: Duckbill Catfish Scientific Name: Sorubim Lima Class: Actinopterygii Family: Pimelodidae

Order: Siluriformes Genus: Sorubim

Species: Sorumbim Lima

Geography / Habitat: Duckbill Catfish have been found in Venezuela, Peru, and Ecuador. The Adult duckbill can be found in flowing rivers and quiet habitats like lakes. Life Strategy: Duckbill catfish are known to spawn during the rainy season. Food / Feed Strategy: Prey on smaller fish, crustaceans, and earthworms.

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Common Name: Duckbill Catfish Scientific Name: Sorumbim Lima Body Form or Style: Sagittiform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Inferior


Title: Freshwater

Species #: 100

Common Name: African Knife Fish Scientific Name: Xenomystus Nigri Class: Actinopterygii Family: Rhamphichthyidae

Order: Gymnotiformes Genus: Xenomystus Nigri

Species: Xenomystus Nigri

Geography / Habitat: This species can be found in still, overgrown waters that is vegetated. Life Strategy: The female African Knife fish lay around 150 to 200 eggs in the rocks. The male will guard them until they hatch 10 days later. Food / Feed Strategy: This species will feed on meat, earthworms, and insects.

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Common Name: African Knife Fish Scientific Name: Xenomystus Nigri Body Form or Style: Taeniform Swim / Locomotion Style: Subcarangiform Mouth Position: Terminal


Works Cited Fresh Water 

http://www.aquaticcommunity.com/fish/

http://www.seriouslyfish.com/

http://www.dnr.sc.gov/freshwater.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_common_fish_names


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 1

Common Name: Great Star Coral Scientific Name: Montastraea cavernosa Class: Anthozoa Family: Faviidae

Order: Scleractinia Genus: Montastraea

Species: M. cavernosa

Geography / Habitat: Great star coral colonies form massive boulders and domes over 5 feet in diameter in waters of shallow and moderate depths. It is found throughout most reef environments, and is the predominant coral at depths. Life Strategy: Recommended measures for conserving this species include research in taxonomy, population, abundance and trends, ecology and habitat status, threats and resilience to threats, restoration action; identification, establishment and management of new protected areas; expansion of protected areas; recovery management; and disease, pathogen and parasite management. Food / Feed Strategy: n/a

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Common Name: Great Star Coral Scientific Name: Montastraea cavernosa Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 2

Common Name: Common Shrimp Scientific Name: Crangon crangon Class: Malacostraca Family: Crangonidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Crangon

Species: C. crangon

Geography / Habitat: Very common in European waters, and found around the coasts of Britain. This species occurs from the middle shore down to submerged depths of around 150m; it also extends into estuaries and typically buries into the sand Life Strategy: After mating, the female carries the eggs for 3-4 weeks in summer and up to 10 weeks in spring. The larvae, known as 'zoeae' are planktonic, and persist for around 5 weeks. Maturity is attained after 1-2 years, and average life span is 3 years Food / Feed Strategy: The common shrimp feeds on a range of worms, mollusks and crustaceans

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Common Name: Common Shrimp Scientific Name: Crangon crangon Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 3

Common Name: Giant Clam Scientific Name: Tridacna gigas Class: Bivalvia Family: Tridacnidae

Order: Veneroida Genus: Tradacna

Species: T. gigas

Geography / Habitat: Found in shallow waters of the Pacific Ocean, from Thailand and Japan to Australia and Micronesia. The giant clam inhabits warm tropical waters on reef flats and shallow lagoons Life Strategy: They reproduce by expelling sperm and eggs into the sea, where fertilization occurs. Food / Feed Strategy: Giant clams have an inhalant siphon, which they use to draw in seawater that is then filtered for planktonic food

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Common Name: Giant Clam Scientific Name: Tradacna gigas Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 4

Common Name: Common Jellyfish Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita Class: Scyphozoa Family: Ulmaridae

Order: Semaeostomeae Genus: Aurelia

Species: A. aurita

Geography / Habitat: It is a northern hemisphere species, found in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Typically found close to the coast, this jellyfish can also be found in estuaries Life Strategy: The sexes are separate and fertilization occurs internally; the sperm is taken into the female's body via the mouth. The fertilized eggs undergo development in pockets in the arms that surround the mouth. Food / Feed Strategy: The common jellyfish is carnivorous, and feeds mainly on a variety of planktonic species such as mollusks, crustaceans, young worms and copepods.

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Common Name: Common Jellyfish Scientific Name: Aurelia aurita Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 5

Common Name: Common Starfish Scientific Name: Asterias rubens Class: Asteroidae Family: Asteriidae

Order: Forcipulatida Genus: Asterias

Species: A. rubens

Geography / Habitat: Found on a range of marine substrata including fine sand, rock and gravel. It can often be found amongst mussel beds and barnacles on British shores Life Strategy: The sexes are separate, breeding occurs in spring and summer and fertilization occurs externally Food / Feed Strategy: This predatory species takes a range of marine prey including other echinoderms such as: sea urchins, starfish and brittle stars. Also worms and mollusks as well as carrion

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Common Name: Common Starfish Scientific Name: Asterias rubens Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrates

Species #: 6

Common Name: Horseshoe crab Scientific Name: Limulus polyphemus Class: Merostomata Family: Limulidae

Order: Xiphosura Genus: Limulus

Species: L. polyphemus

Geography / Habitat: The horseshoe crab dwells on the bottom of muddy and sandy bays and estuaries. In the Gulf of Mexico. They require sloping sandy beaches on which to lay their eggs. Life Strategy: Breeding is associated with the lunar and tidal cycles, with most adults arriving at the full or new moon and within a couple of hours of high tide. The direction of the waves guides the females towards the beach. Males patrol along the bottom of the beach in the shallow water, waiting to intercept beach-bound females Food / Feed Strategy: Horseshoe crabs are typically active at night, with activity peaking around the time of the full moon. They dig for food, such as worms, algae and mollusks in the sediment.

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Common Name: Horseshoe crab Scientific Name: Limulus polyphemus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 7

Common Name: Common Shore Crab Scientific Name: Carcinus maenas Class: Crustacea Family: Portunidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Carcinus

Species: C. maenas

Geography / Habitat: Found on the shore from the high water mark down to depths of around 60 m Life Strategy: Breeding peaks in summer, and mating can only take place shortly after the female molts; the male finds a female before she is due to molt, and carries her around underneath his body for a number of days Food / Feed Strategy: The shore crab feeds on invertebrates including worms, mollusks and crustaceans Small mollusks and barnacles are taken by young crabs.

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Common Name: Common shore crab Scientific Name: Carcinus maenas Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 8

Common Name: Common Octopus Scientific Name: Octopus vulgaris Class: Cephalopoda Family: Octopoda

Order: Octopoda Genus: Octopus

Species: O. vulgaris

Geography / Habitat: Occurs along rocky coasts in the shallow sublittoral zone Life Strategy: Food / Feed Strategy: They have modified salivary glands that produce venom used to incapacitate prey. It is often easy to identify what a common octopus has been feeding on, as they leave piles of debris known as ‘middens’ around the entrance of the protective lair in which they live. These middens consist of debris from a range of species and often include mollusk shells and the carapaces of crabs and other crustaceans

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Common Name: Common Octopus Scientific Name: Octopus vulgaris Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 9

Common Name: Sterrer’s cave shrimp Scientific Name: Parhippolyte sterreri Class: Crustacea Family: Hippolytidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Parhippolyte

Species: P. sterreri

Geography / Habitat: Sterrer’s cave shrimp is known to occur on Grand Bahamas, Exuma Cays and Andros in the Bahamas,

Life Strategy: A female specimen collected carried an estimated 2,000 tiny eggs. The small size of these eggs would suggest a relatively long planktonic larval stage

Food / Feed Strategy: (little is known)

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Common Name: Sterrers’s cave shrimp Scientific Name: Parhippolyte sterreri Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 10

Common Name: Common limpet Scientific Name: Patella vulgata Class: Gastropoda Family: Patellidae

Order: Archaeogastropoda Genus: Patella

Species: P. vulgata

Geography / Habitat: Attaches to firm substrates including rocks and stones from the high shore down to the edge of the sublittoral zone, a marine zone which reaches depths of around 200m Life Strategy: Fertilization occurs externally; the larvae spend their first few days of life in the water column, after which time they settle on the shore Food / Feed Strategy: none known

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Common Name: Common limpet Scientific Name: Patella vulgata Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 11

Common Name: Beadlet anemone Scientific Name: Actinia equina Class: Anthozoa Family: Actiniidae

Order: Actinaria Genus: Actinia

Species: A. equina

Geography / Habitat: This anemone attaches to hard surfaces and is found from the upper to lower shore, down to depths of 20 m. It can also tolerate brackish water and may be found in estuaries Life Strategy: Beadlet anemones are either male or female, but it is not yet understood if sexual reproduction occurs. Both sexes are known to brood offspring internally before giving birth to live young. Food / Feed Strategy: Prey is caught with the stinging tentacles and passed to the mouth. Although often thought of as sessile animals, they are able to move by sliding the base along the substratum.

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Common Name: Beadlet anemone Scientific Name: Actinia equina Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 12

Common Name: Edible sea urchin Scientific Name: Echinus esculentus Class: Echinoidea Family: Echinidae

Order: Echioida Genus: Echinus

Species: E. esculentus

Geography / Habitat: Occasionally may be found on the lower shore, but highest densities occur offshore, where it lives on rocky surfaces Life Strategy: The sexes are separate, breeding takes place in spring, and fertilization is external Food / Feed Strategy: The common sea urchin browses on seaweeds and invertebrates, moving along the sea floor by means of 'tube feet', which project out from the spines

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Common Name: Edible sea urchin Scientific Name: Echinus esculentus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 13

Common Name: Common Hermit crab Scientific Name: Pagurus bernhardus Class: Crustacea Family: Paguridae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Pagurus

Species: P. bernhardus

Geography / Habitat: Inhabits both rocky and sandy areas from the shore to depths of 140m Life Strategy: The female carries the eggs for around two months, after which time the pelagic larvae persist for a number of weeks. Maturity is typically reached before one year of age Food / Feed Strategy: The common hermit crab is an omnivorous scavenger, and can also obtain food by filtering organic particles from the water

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Common Name: Common Hermit crab Scientific Name: Pagurus bernhardus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 14

Common Name: Velvet Swimming crab Scientific Name: Necora puber Class: Crustacea Family: Portunidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Necora

Species: N. puber

Geography / Habitat: Small individuals are found on rocky shores at low water but larger specimens occur down to depths of 80 m Life Strategy: Females carrying eggs can be found at all times of the year Food / Feed Strategy: The adults feed on brown seaweeds, mollusks and crustaceans, whereas juveniles feed mainly on crustaceans such as small crabs and barnacles

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Common Name: Velvet Swimming crab Scientific Name: Necora puber Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 15

Common Name: North Pacific giant octopus Scientific Name: Enteroctopus dofleini Class: Cephalopoda Family: Octopodidae

Order: Octopoda Genus: Enteroctopus

Species: E. dofleini

Geography / Habitat: Distributed throughout the bottom of the ocean. The North Pacific giant octopus is usually most abundant in areas with large boulders and rocky reefs, using the crevices in rocks to make dens in which it shelters Life Strategy: may reproduce at any time during the year, with a spawning peak during the winter months Food / Feed Strategy: It is an active predator, feeding mainly at night on a wide array of species that include crustaceans (particularly crabs and lobsters), mollusks, small fish and other octopuses

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Common Name: North Pacific giant Octopus Scientific Name: Enteroctopus dofleini Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 16

Common Name: Southern Giant clam Scientific Name: Tridacna derasa Class: Bivalvia Family: Tridacnidae

Order: Veneroida Genus: Tridacna

Species: T. derasa

Geography / Habitat: Found on the outer edges of the reef at depths of between 4 and 10 m Life Strategy: They are hermaphrodites, having male and female reproductive organs. They release sperm and eggs at different times to prevent self-fertilization, but self-fertilization can occur. Food / Feed Strategy: Most clams fulfill their nutritional requirements by filter feeding and absorbing dissolved organic compounds from the water, but tridacnid clams have gone further than this by using zooxanthellae algae in their tissue to manufacture food for them

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Common Name: Southern Giant Clam Scientific Name: Tridacna derasa Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 17

Common Name: Common cockle Scientific Name: Class: Bivalvia

Cerastoderma edule

Family: Cardiidae

Order: Veneroida Genus: Cerastoderma

Species: C. edule

Geography / Habitat: inhabits the middle and lower shore, where it burrows into soft sand, mud and muddy gravel to depths of less than 5 cm Life Strategy: The sexes are separate, and adults typically begin to spawn in their second summer. Fertilization is external, and a large percentage of a population spawns at the same time. Eggs and sperm are released into the water Food / Feed Strategy: The common cockle is a suspension feeder, filtering plankton and other organic matter from the water

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Common Name: Common cockle Scientific Name: Cerastoderma edule Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 18

Common Name: Giant Tube worm Scientific Name: Riftia pachyptila Class: Pogonophora Family: Riftiidae

Order: Riftiida Genus: Riftia

Species: R. pachyptila

Geography / Habitat: The giant tube worm prefers strong flowing vents, and lives in areas where the vent fluids mix with the surrounding sea water Life Strategy: little is known about the reproductive biology due to their extreme environment.. Food / Feed Strategy: They are a non feeding invertebrate.

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Common Name: Giant tube worm Scientific Name: Riftia pachyptila Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 19

Common Name: Antarctic krill Scientific Name: Euphausia superba Class: Malacostraca Family: Euphausiidae

Order: Euphausiacea Genus: Euphausia

Species: E. superba

Geography / Habitat: The Antarctic krill inhabits a variety of habitats throughout its life cycle, with adults more often associated with deeper waters, especially during winter, while juveniles are usually found at the surface of inshore waters, beneath the sea ice Life Strategy: Spawning occurs mainly during the summer, when several thousand eggs are laid by the female within the upper 100 meters of water. The eggs sink, sometimes to depths of 2,000 meters, where they hatch into ‘nauplii’ Food / Feed Strategy: The adult Antarctic krill feeds preferentially on phytoplankton; however, it is also able to depend on a wide variety of alternative food sources during the winter months, which may include its own eggs and larvae, as well as other zooplankton, detritus and other materials.

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Common Name: Antarctic Krill Scientific Name: Euphausia superba Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Saltwater Invertebrate

Species #: 20

Common Name: Endemic predatory shrimp Scientific Name: Procaris ascensionis Class: Crustacea Family: Procarididae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Procaris

Species: P. ascensionis

Geography / Habitat: Found in two coastal rock pools set well inland from the high tide mark, but with possible underground connections with the ocean Life Strategy: Little is known about the reproductive biology or life history of these shrimp. A sex ratio of eight females to one male has been found, but the reason for this remains unknown. Food / Feed Strategy: The endemic predatory shrimp feeds on both plant matter and crustaceans, including amphipods

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Common Name: Endemic predatory shrimp Scientific Name: Procaris ascensionis Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 21

Common Name: Longtail tadpole shrimp Scientific Name: Triops longicaudatus Class: Branchiopoda Family: Triopsidae

Order: Notostraca Genus: Tripops

Species: T. longicaudatus

Geography / Habitat: It is widespread throughout the continental United States, Mexico and Hawaii, but not Alaska. Life Strategy: Individuals may reproduce sexually, but this is rare, as most populations are highly male- or female-biased. Parthenogenesis (development from unfertilized eggs) is the most common reproductive strategy. Food / Feed Strategy: Tadpole shrimps are omnivorous and may eat algae, insects and other organic debris; known to chase very small fry and tadpoles, and oligochaete worms

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Common Name: Longtail tadpole shrimp Scientific Name: Tripops longicaudatus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 22

Common Name: Malaysian trumpet snail Scientific Name: Melanoides tuberculatus Class: Gastropoda Family: Thiaridae

Order: Caenogastropoda Genus: Melanoides

Species: M. tuberculatus

Geography / Habitat: This species is native to subtropical and tropical northern Africa and southern Asia. It is a warm-climate species. Life Strategy: Under good conditions, females will produce fertilized eggs that are transferred to a brood pouch where they remain until they hatch Food / Feed Strategy: This snail feeds primarily on algae

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Common Name: Malaysian trumpet snail Scientific Name: Melanoides tuberculatus Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 23

Common Name: Apple snail Scientific Name: Marisa cornuarietis Class: Gastropoda Family: Ampullariidae

Order: Caenogastropoda Genus: Marisa

Species: M. cornuarietis

Geography / Habitat: It is widespread in northern South America. This snail prefers still or slowmoving fresh water, depending on the availability of aquatic vegetation as a food source Life Strategy: A non-hermaphrodite, it lays eggs in characteristic disk-shape clutches, adhering to various substrates. Unlike some other apple snails, this snail lays its eggs below the waterline.

Food / Feed Strategy: This species eats aquatic plants, algae, and dead fish and snails.

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Common Name: Apple snail Scientific Name: Marisa cornuarietis Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 24

Common Name: Hawaiian red shrimp Scientific Name: Halocaridina rubra Class: Malacostraca Family: Atyidae

Order: Decapoda Genus: Halocaridina

Species: H. rubra

Geography / Habitat: They are endemic to the Hawaiian islands, and most commonly found in anchialine pools in fresh lava substrates Life Strategy: none is known for the Hawaiian Red Shrimp Food / Feed Strategy: Typical food is algal and bacterial mats on the surface of rocks and other substrates in anchialine pools.

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Common Name: Hawaiian red shrimp Scientific Name: Halocaridina rubra Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Title: Freshwater Invertebrate

Species #: 25

Common Name: Golden freshwater clam Scientific Name: Corbicula fluminea Class: Bivalvia Family: Corbiculidae

Order: Veneroida Genus: Corbicula

Species: C. fluminea

Geography / Habitat: Naturally occurring in Eastern and Southeastern Asia. Found in Japan, Korea, China, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand, and even in parts of Eastern Russia. They are an invasive species and have been introduced in Northern America and Europe. Life Strategy: These clams are self fertilizers and will produce eggs and then sperm Food / Feed Strategy: This clam is a micro filter feeder and will filter out debris in the water.

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Common Name: Golden Freshwater clam Scientific Name: Corbicula fluminea Body Form or Style: n/a Swim / Locomotion Style: n/a Mouth Position: n/a


Jessica Wilkes' Fish ID Project