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NUFU 2007 Th e Norw eg ian C ent er f or Int er n at io na l Co op er a t io n in H igh er Edu c at ion

Annual Report 2007 The NUFU programme Issued: 30 May 2008


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................2 2. The NUFU Programme – background and status .............................................3 3. New allocations in the NUFU Programme in 2007............................................8 4. Scientific quality and channels for communication and dissemination ............12 5. Capacity and competence building and institutional development .................19 6. The NUFU Programme and Norwegian priority areas for development cooperation .........................................................................................................27 7. Regional cooperation and South – South networks ........................................37 8. The NUFU Program on a Country Level ........................................................40 9. Meetings and visits .........................................................................................55 10. NUFU Programme Board and administration ...............................................59 11. NUFU Accounts ............................................................................................61 Appendices .........................................................................................................63


1. Introduction The NUFU Programme has in 2007 entered into the fourth five year period. A total of 38 new bilateral and network projects have started their activities, 19 projects have entered into their second five year period with NUFU support and 11 projects have received support for a two year termination phase, focusing on sustainability of project activities. An increased focus has been put on communication in and dissemination from the NUFU cooperation. A communication plan has been developed by Norad and SIU, which represents increased focus and expectations on researchers and institutions to be in dialogue with different stakeholders such as local communities, authorities and policy makers at all levels, professionals in the development sector as well as the wider public through the media. Norad and SIU have also an increased responsibility for facilitation of such communication and dissemination. In the NUFU Programme Document 2007 – 2011 gender equality is highlighted as an important strategic issue. A target regarding recruitment of females has been set; it is an aim to recruit 40% female PhD candidates to the programme. In the annual progress reports 29 projects report that they have achieved this target when recruiting PhD candidates. A total of 69 female PhD candidates have been recruited in 2007, which makes a substantial contribution to increased gender balance on PhD level in many partner institutions in the South. The NUFU Programme was initiated in 1991, and has been based on more or less the same basic principles and terms ever since. In the last few years the Norwegian institutions of higher education and research has experienced substantial changes in the funding system for the institutions. Substantial parts of the institutions’ income are based on results in terms of production of student credits and publications in high ranked journals. This system is by many researchers regarded as not conducive to South – North cooperation, and a clarification of the terms and conditions for such cooperation in the future is needed between the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. This issue might be one of several issues to be scrutinized in the forthcoming evaluation of the NUFU Programme in 2009. The NUFU Programme Board is welcoming the results of the evaluation, and hope that it will provide useful and evidence based inputs for the further development of South – North partnerships in higher education and research in general and the NUFU Programme in particular. Fanny Duckert Chair, NUFU Programme Board

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2. The NUFU Programme – background and status 2.1. Background / general information about the programme The NUFU programme – the Norwegian Programme for Development, Research and Education - is a Norwegian programme for academic research and educational cooperation based on equal partnerships. The programme is funded by the Norwegian government through the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad), and the overall administration of the programme is the responsibility of the Norwegian Centre for International Cooperation in Higher Education (SIU). The general objectives of the NUFU programme are to contribute towards building capacity and competence in developing countries within the fields of research and higher education, and conducting research and producing new knowledge relevant to national development and poverty reduction. These objectives are pursued by supporting long term cooperation between research and higher education institutions in the South and equivalent institutions in Norway. The NUFU programme supports cooperation and projects that are important for capacity and competence building in the South institutions. Most of the NUFU supported projects’ themes and research have a direct relevance for poverty eradication and national development, and many of the projects produce new knowledge that has an impact in an applied context. The cooperation between the institutions in the NUFU programme is built on the twinning of funds, on one hand, funds are made available through the “NUFUagreement” and on the other hand, a considerable contribution is made by the cooperating institutions themselves. The contribution by the institutions, first of all through allocation of time for research and supervision of candidates, reflects the professional commitment and ensures the results of the institutional cooperation and the individual projects.

2.2. The NUFU Programme in 2007 The fourth programme period, since the launching of NUFU in 1991 started in 2007. The current cooperation agreement between Norad and SIU for the period 2007 – 2011 was signed on 12 January 2006. The financial frame of the new agreement is NOK 300 million, the same amount as the frame for the third agreement (2002 – 2006). However, in the course of 2007, additional contracts have been entered between SIU and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Norad, according to § 2.2. in the NUFU agreement, adding another NOK 90 million to the financial frame for the fourth programme period (see part 2.4.) In 2007 all remaining projects from the third programme period have finalized their activities. The projects have contributed substantially to increased capacity and competence at the host institutions in the South, as reported by the institutions in their 3


annual reports. Results achieved in 2007 for the outgoing projects are mentioned throughout this report. In 2008 SIU will prepare a separate Final Report for the NUFU Programme 2002 – 2006. Further presentations and analyses of the results from this phase will be provided in that report. The new projects (2007 – 2011) have been in their start-up phase in 2007. Several research activities have been initiated, and 169 PhD candidates and 62 Master’s students have been recruited. Many projects have experienced some delay in the start-up phase. Efforts should be made by project coordinators and institutions in order to catch up with the milestone plans in 2008. Eleven projects supported for two years under the scheme Supportive Measures for Sustainability and Termination of Project Cooperation (SM) have continued their activities. Several publications have been produced and smaller research activities have been carried out as continuations of ten years of collaboration.

2.3. Highlights of activities carried out at Programme level in 2007 2.3.1. Annual project coordinator’s seminar in Norway The annual project coordinator’s seminar in 2007 was organised by SIU on 7 March, and hosted by the University of Bergen. Project coordinators, administrative staff and NUFU coordinating units and institutional contact persons at Norwegian partner institutions were invited. Norwegian project coordinators were encouraged to invite their South partners to participate in the seminar, and arrange for possible project meetings in Norway at a time which would facilitate participation in the seminar. The seminar had about 60 participants, out of whom 4-5 came from NUFU partner institutions in the South. The focus of the seminar was the start-up phase for the fourth NUFU Programme period – at programme and project level, and opportunities to share experiences and exchange information and knowledge was emphasised.

2.3.2. NUFU Dissemination Conference in Bergen 4 – 5 June 2007 Norad and SIU cooperated in organising and inviting to a dissemination conference for the third NUFU Programme period in June 2007, with the title “The NUFU Programme and its impact on policy, communities and institutions”. The conference was held at Clarion Bergen Airport Hotel, and around 100 participants from 20 different countries participated. The programme consisted of three key notes and two parallel sessions. Participants were welcomed by Norad’s Director General Poul Engberg-Pedersen and the chair of SIU’s Board, Professor Knut Brautaset. Introductions were given by State Secretary for

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International development in the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs Anne Stenhammer and Political adviser in the Ministry of Education and Research, Roger Pedersen. Former Minister of Education in Mozambique, Professor Lidia Brito from Eduardo Mondlane University gave the first key note about research and capacity building and its impact on policy development and implementation. Second key note was given by Professor Irene Odotei from the University of Ghana, discussing research and capacity building and its impact on communities and their development. The last key note speaker was President Zinabu Gebremariam from Hawassa University in Ethiopia, sharing his experiences about research and capacity building and its impact on institutional development at universities in the South. 30 different projects were presented in the parallel sessions, demonstrating the extensive results that have been achieved by project partners through the history of the NUFU cooperation in general, and the third programme period in particular. The conference was concluded by a panel discussing future perspectives for institutional cooperation SouthSouth-North.

2.3.3. Institutional visits at partner institutions in the South During 2007 SIU visited ten NUFU partner institutions in the South (see chapter 9). Workshops were organised for project coordinators and administrators, in order to inform and discuss administrative procedures in the NUFU cooperation. SIU was also broadly informed about the content and progress of the NUFU supported projects.

2.3.4. Revision of the reporting formats for the NUFU Programme In the second term of 2007 SIU implemented an internal project on revision of the reporting format for NUFU supported projects, to be implemented in the fourth programme period. In October SIU called on a group of NUFU coordinating units at Norwegian partner institutions in order to receive feedback on a draft reporting format that was developed. The group provided useful input for further development of the format. A draft format was later presented to the NUFU Programme Board, who also provided input for the finalisation of the format. The new reporting format has been used for the Annual Reporting for 2007 for projects receiving support form NUFU 2007 – 2011 (see part 2.6.).

2.3.5. Meetings in the NUFU Programme Board The NUFU Programme Board had three ordinary meetings in 2007, on 5 February, 21 May and 24 October. The meetings were held at the University of Bergen, the University of Oslo and SIU, Bergen respectively. In addition two extraordinary meetings were held, in order to allocate funds for projects based on the §2.2. agreements (see section 2.4. and chapter 3). The extraordinary meetings were held at a hotel in Oslo airport, Gardermoen.

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2.4. Additional contracts for the NUFU Programme 2007 – 2011 §2.2. The NUFU agreement has in § 2.2 the following provision (unofficial translation to English): “Norad may decide that the framework and control system established for NUFU may also be used for the control and administration of separately funded activities within NUFU’s area of responsibility, such as: • particular concentration on prioritised countries and regions, e.g. linked to sector programmes • projects in other countries and regions • thematic projects to support women and gender research, HIV/Aids and human rights • support for the development of educational opportunities in the South • the building of technical and administrative competence, ICT and knowledge management in the South”

Based on this paragraph two contracts have been entered by SIU in 2007. The first one has the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as contract partner, with the Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Salaam as acting partner. This contract has a financial frame of NOK 25 million over five years (2007 – 2011), and funds were earmarked for projects directed towards research and education actives within the thematic area natural resource management in Tanzania. The NUFU Programme Board selected on 5 September 2007 four projects to be supported by The Tanzania – Norway NUFU Programme. (see chapter 3). The second §2.2. agreement has Norad as contract partner. An allocation of NOK 65 million over five year is set aside for the Norwegian University Cooperation Programme for Capacity Development in Sudan (NUCOOP), a programme that has a particular focus on capacity development activities in Southern Sudan. On 10 December 2007 the NUFU Programme Board selected six projects to be supported by NUCOOP funds (see chapter 3). A second call for proposals has been issued in early 2008, and two more projects are likely to be selected base don this call.

2.5. NUFU project portfolio 2002 – 2006 – termination phase The NUFU project portfolio 2002 – 2006 has consisted of 71 cooperation projects. The majority of the projects started in 2002, whereas a second round of allocations was made by the Programme Board in late 2002, with projects starting in 2003. The projects that started in 2003 were planned for a five year period, and were supposed to continue into 2007, and be finalized at the end of this year. However, several of the projects that started in 2002 were delayed for several reasons, and needed the year 2007 to complete their activities and meet their goals and objectives.

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By the end of 2007 all projects have terminated their activities. Some few PhD candidates may not have completed their degree yet, and the institutions have been encouraged to find solutions as to secure the finalisation of all candidates that have been supported by the NUFU Programme. The final financial report from NUFU’s third programme period shows that from the total financial frame a total of NOK 4 508 598 has not been spent by the end of 2007, and will be returned to Norad.

2.6. The Annual reporting for 2007 in the NUFU Programme The Annual Report for the NUFU Programme is based on information gathered in the Annual progress reports prepared jointly by the project coordinators and submitted to SIU for every NUFU supported project; as well as in the institutional reports presented by the participating institutions in the South and in Norway. For 2007 a total of 124 cooperation projects have submitted their Annual Progress Reports, 57 five year projects and 11 SM projects in the fourth programme period, and 56 projects from the third programme period that have reported to NUFU for the last time. These projects have also submitted final reports, which will be the basis for the Final Report that SIU will prepare for NUFU’s third programme period. SIU developed from August to December 2007 new formats for the annual reporting in the NUFU Programme. The format for the Coordinators’ Annual Progress Reports (CAPR) is now more focused on reporting of changes and deviations according to original plans as outlined in the Project Document. The coordinators shall in addition report on results in terms of completed candidates and publication and dissemination activities. There is an increased focus on communication activities additional to publication in scientific journals Each CAPR is assessed by both the two main partner institutions hosting the project. The institutions assess the CAPR according to a format developed by SIU, and approve or disapprove the report. They also judge the overall progress of the project to be satisfactory, fair or not satisfactory. The institutions give also some general comments of the impact of the NUFU cooperation at their institution.

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3. New allocations in the NUFU Programme in 2007 In addition to the allocations made for the five-year projects in the main call for proposals in the NUFU Programme 2007-2011, a total of NOK 70 506 844 was allocated to 20 projects through four separate calls for proposals in 2007 (see part 2.4).

3.1. Tanzania – Norway NUFU Programme 2007-2011 By the deadline 3 July 2007, SIU received eleven project proposals to the Tanzania – Norway NUFU Programme. 5 September 2007 the NUFU Programme Board selected four projects to be funded with a total of NOK 21 563 130, as shown in table 3.1. Table 3.1. Projects supported under the “Tanzania – Norway NUFU Programme 2007-2011” Partner institution Partner institution Project title Allocation in Tanzania in Norway (NOK) University of Dar es Norwegian University Coastal fisheries of Tanzania: 5 345 488 Salaam of Life Sciences the challenges of globalisation to resource management, livelihoods and governance Sokoine Agricultural Norwegian University Assessing the impact of 5 379 642 University of Life Sciences forestland tenure changes on forest resources and rural livelihoods in Tanzania Sokoine Agricultural Norwegian University EKOSIASA: The political ecology 5 415 000 University of Life Sciences of wildlife and forest governance in Tanzania Sokoine Agricultural Norwegian University Integrating livelihoods and 5 423 000 University of Life Sciences multiple biodiversity values in wetlands management in Tanzania TOTAL

21 563 130

3.2. Norwegian University Cooperation Programme for Capacity Develpoment in Sudan (NUCOOP) SIU received thirteen project proposals to NUCOOP by the deadline 8 October 2007. Of these, six projects were granted a total of NOK 42 million when funds were allocated by the NUFU Programme Board 10 December 2007. The projects will start their activities in 2008.

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Table 3.2. Projects selected for support from NUCOOP in 2007 – with project start in 2008. Partner institution Partner institution Project title in Sudan in Norway University of Juba University of Bergen Juba university library automation project University of Juba University of Bergen Teaching basic sciences in laboratories and by field studies University of Juba Norwegian University Postwar livelihood and of Life Sciences environmental studies Upper Nile University Akershus University Bachelor programmes in College vocational and technical teacher education Southern Sudan – Uganda - Norway Upper Nile University Oslo University Education and sustainable College development in a post-conflict Southern Sudan University of Bahr el University of Oslo Capacity building in the field of Ghazal mental health in South Sudan TOTAL

Allocation (NOK) 7 627 660 7 568 000 7 300 000 7 430 000

6 939 900 5 700 000 42 565 560

3.3. Supportive Measures 2008-2009 At the beginning of the fourth NUFU Programme period (2007-2011), the NUFU scheme Supportive Measures was introduced in order to secure sustainability of capacity and competence at partner institutions in the South that had received support from the NUFU Programme in previous periods. The support is directed to projects that have already received NUFU support for two periods (approximately 10 years). The maximum grant to each project is NOK 1,5 million and the projects have a time limit of two years. In 2006, eleven projects with a total of NOK 10 453 200 were granted funding for the period 2007-2008. In 2007, SIU received eight applications for funding under the Supportive Measures scheme by the deadline 15 June. The NUFU Programme Board decided to allocate a total of NOK 5 979 454 to six projects in its meeting on 24 October 2007, as shown in table 3.3. The project period for these projects is 2008-2009.

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Table 3.3. Projects granted support in 2007 by NUFU Supportive Measures schemes – with project start in 2008 Partner institution in the South Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia)

Partner institution in Norway University of Oslo

Eduardo Mondlane University (Mozambique)

Norwegian University of Life Sciences

University of Hebron (Palestinian areas)

University of Oslo

University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania)

Norwegian University of Science and Technology University of Bergen

University of Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) Kyambogo University (Uganda)

University of Oslo

TOTAL

Project title Biodiversity in Eastern Africa – taxonomy, conservation and use Competence building in research, teaching and application of mathematics and informatics in Mozambique Building competence in epidemiology in Palestine – taking over and maintaining phase Water management in Pangani River Tanzania Applied social psychology and HIV/AIDS – strengthening dissemination and sustaining capacity Research, innovation and postgraduate competence building in special needs education towards inclusion – Ethiopia – Uganda – Norway

Allocation (NOK) 965 000 1 044 010

1 283 000

1 320 000 1 096 000

271 444

5 979 454

3.4. Supplementing Activities The category Supplementing Activities was introduced in 2007 and is directed towards cooperation projects receiving support in the fourth NUFU Programme period (20072011). In 2007, applications under the SA category could include the following five activities: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5)

Institutional contact visits Regional seminars for PhD candidates Publication and dissemination of research results Force majeure Guest researcher and lecturer visits

The category ‘Guest researcher and lecturer visit’ is a category only open to researchers outside NUFU supported projects. The maximum amount to be applied for by each project in 2007 was NOK 150.000. It is a one time support with budget and activities that does not go beyond one calendar year.

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Submission deadlines come twice a year. In 2007, the deadlines were 15 April and 15 September. The following project was granted support in 2007: Partner institution in the South University of Ruhuna (Sri Lanka)

Partner institution in Norway Agder University College

Project title

University of Malawi

Bodø University College

Ethics, epistemology and social reality

143 000

University of Chittagong (Bangladesh)

University of Oslo

Tests and improvements of the Oslo method for extraction of level density and gamma strength in continuum

38 500

Makerere University (Uganda)

University of Tromsø

Researchers symposium/phd course, followed by a workshop on how to deal with joint supervision

125 000

TOTAL

Role of Universities in promoting innovation and entrepreneurship: Learning from Norwegian Experience

Allocation (NOK) 92 200

398 700

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4. Scientific quality and channels for communication and dissemination Scientific quality as well as dissemination and communication of research results are important strategic goals in the NUFU programme. According to the programme plan for 2007-2011 the qualitative success of the research will be measured against quantitative goals set forth by the project coordinators, most importantly on the publishing of research results in scientific journals. Scientific articles published in recognised refereed international journals are benchmarks of scientific quality and the most important indicator for the quality of research conducted in NUFU funded projects. The NUFU Programme also encompasses goals of relevance, poverty reduction and national development. In this regard, other ways and channels of disseminating research results may be more relevant. Communication and dissemination of results have always been integral parts of NUFU supported projects, but the importance of communication and dissemination activities have been further highlighted in the fourth NUFU programme period 2007-2011. Efforts should be made to communicate relevant research findings to policy makers, different user groups, the general public, and local communities. Policy dialogue and communication of results to authorities on all levels are important ways of achieving the strategic goals, as are other information and communication means. An increase in the production of knowledge and the dissemination of results are also signs of strengthened institutional capacity and competence.

4.1 Scientific publications According to the data reported in the project coordinators’ Annual Progress Reports 2007, the total number of publications and disseminations in 2007 was 898. This is a slight decrease from 2006, when the reported scientific production was 1062. However, a decrease in number of publications and disseminations was not unexpected, since 2007 was the first year of the fourth NUFU Programme period (2007-2011), and most projects have thus had little time to produce scientific results. Taking this consideration into account, the total number of scientific production in 2007 can be regarded as highly satisfactory. This is first and foremost due to the number of publications and disseminations reported in the third NUFU Programme period (20022006). 56 out of 71 projects in this programme period were still active in 2007, and some of these projects had a relatively high level of scientific production the last year of activity. The total number of scientific production from these projects is 614, of which 481 are publications and 133 are disseminations. Regarding the categories applied in the tables in the sections below, these differ somewhat between the third and the fourth NUFU Programme periods. The reason for this discrepancy is that the categories for publication and dissemination in the reporting schemes were not identical. Whereas the reporting scheme for the third NUFU 12


Programme period remained largely unchanged from previous years, the new online reporting form for the fourth period was developed in autumn 2007. The new categories will thus be used in the forthcoming annual reports.

4.1.1. Publications in 2007 from projects in the third NUFU Programme period The reason for the relatively high number of publications (481) is that, although financial support to projects in this programme period ceased in 2006, 56 projects were still active in 2007. Moreover, previous experience has shown that the two last years of the programme period are the most productive in terms of publications. Looking at Table 4.1 below, the large majority of the publications, 251 out of 481, are articles. Considering the scientific quality of the publications, more than half of the articles published (139 out of 251) is refereed. List of publications in the third NUFU Programme period is available on the Internet: http://fm.siu.no/Publications/public_search.htm Table 4.1. Number of publications as reported in the Annual Progress Reports 2007 in the third NUFU Programme period Broad category Article Book Part of book Product Report Workshop

Sub category

Number by sub category

Refereed article

139

Total

Total by broad category 251 29 55 3 92 51

481

4.1.2. Publications in 2007 from projects in the fourth NUFU Programme period (2007-2011) Despite 2007 being the first year of the fourth NUFU Programme period, the number of publications was relatively high. The total number of publications was 101, of which the majority were articles (52) and conference papers (25) (see Table 4.2 below).The reason as to why the number of publications was this high in 2007, is most likely that 20 projects from the third NUFU Programme period continued into the fourth period. The bulk of publications reported in the first year of the fourth NUFU Programme period are thus presumably based on the project activity in the third programme period. Concerning the scientific quality of the publications, this can be regarded as very high since all of the 52 articles published were refereed. Out of these, 31 were refereed articles accepted for publication in international journals. 13


Table 4.2. Number of publications as reported in the Annual Progress Reports 2007 in the fourth NUFU Programme period Broad category Sub category Number by sub Total by category broad category Article 52 Refereed article accepted for 31 publication in international journal Refereed article accepted for 21 publication in national journal Book 1 Book chapter in 2 edited volume Thesis 11 PhD Thesis 6 Report or working paper Conference paper Total

Master’s Thesis

5

10 25

101

4.1.3. Publications in NUFU Supported Measures projects (2007-2008) As mentioned in Chapter 3, the scheme Supportive Measures is directed towards projects that received financial support from NUFU during the two previous programme periods. Hence, although the projects receiving support within this scheme are two-year cooperation projects, they have had a relatively high level of production due to project activity in the previous programme periods. The total number of publications in 2007 was 61. The largest category were articles (33), of which 21 were refereed and accepted for publications in international journals (see table 4.3 on next page).

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Table 4.3: Number of publications as reported in the Annual Progress Reports 2007- Supportive Measures Broad category Sub category Number by sub Total by category broad category Article 33

Book Book chapter in edited volume Thesis Report or working paper Conference paper

Article accepted for publication in international journal Refereed article accepted for publication in international journal Refereed article accepted for publication in national journal

PhD Thesis

Master’s Thesis

2

21 10 8 9 2

2

4 1 6

Total

61

4.2. Dissemination activities 4.2.1. Dissemination in the third NUFU Programme period (2002-2006) The total number of disseminations in the third NUFU programme period was 133 (see table 4.4 below). As in previous years, the category with the highest number of disseminations was lectures (122).

Table 4.4: Disseminations as reported in the Annual Progress Reports 2007 in the third NUFU Programme period Category Exhibition Lecture Media exposure Total

Total by category 10 102 21 133

The University of Botswana reports how the cooperation project with the University of Tromsø has contributed to increased focus on San issues in the public space in Botswana:

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Box 4.1: Quotation from the Annual Institutional report 2007 from the University of Botswana

Contribution to research capacity building and competence building is immense in the University of Botswana and the country at large. Currently, the Programme has produced seasoned researchers, some of whom are now senior lectures in the University of Botswana. The scope of San research has grown over the years and has entered public space, while the San issues are debated widely in the media. The senior lecturers can now be looked to for further building competence across the university's multi-disciplinary teams. It is largely believed that the Programme has contributed to a better understanding of the San situation in Botswana and the region. The Programme has sustained research-led advocacy and information, and as such it has gained recognition as the authority in San research nationally, as well as being the authority on San issues. It is now consulted by both Government, the Public and the international researchers as such.�

4.2.2. Dissemination in the fourth NUFU Programme period (20072011) The number of dissemination activities is relatively high, taking into account that 2007 was the first year in the new programme period. As suggested above, this is most likely due to the fact that 19 of the projects in the fourth programme period are ongoing projects continuing from the third programme period. The total number of disseminations in the fourth NUFU Programme period was 97, of which 22 were conferences, 21 seminars, and 10 meetings (see table 4.5 below). A new category for the annual reporting in the fourth programme period is ‘Internet’, and 6 webbased disseminations (website/ -page, -log, or -forum) were reported in 2007. Concerning type of audience (not displayed in the table below), the most frequent beneficiaries of the dissemination activities in 2007 were scientific audience (65 out of 97). Table 4.5. Number of disseminations as reported in the Annual Progress Reports 2007 in the fourth NUFU Programme period Category Conference Exhibition Flyers, posters and brochures Internet (website/ -page, -log, -forum) Media coverage Meeting Newsletter Newspaper article Policy brief Popular scientific summary Research summary document Seminar Other Total

Total by category 22 1 4 6 3 10 2 2 3 2 5 21 16 97

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Partner institutions in the South report that the NUFU cooperation has contributed to increased capacity also for the institutions to take on its role towards policy development in the society in general. Box 4.2: Quotation from the Annual Institutional report 2007 from the University of Malawi

At national level, we have noticed an increase in the contribution of members of NUFU projects to the development of policies for example in various aspects of governance, biotechnology and research priorities. The University of Malawi is therefore reclaiming its rightful role as a stimulus to national development.

4.2.3. Dissemination in Supportive Measures (SM) projects There were 25 dissemination activities in NUFU SM projects in 2007 (see table 4.6 below). The most frequent categories were conferences (12) and seminars (5). 19 of the 25 dissemination activities were directed towards scientific audience (not displayed in the table below). Table 4.6: Number of disseminations as reported in the Annual Progress Reports 2007- Supportive Measures Category Conference Newsletter Popular scientific summary Press release Research summary document Seminar Other Total

Total by category 12 1 2 1 1 5 3 25

4.3. Communication plan Norad - SIU A communication plan for the cooperation between Norad and SIU on SIU-administered programmes funded by Norad has been developed for the period 2007-2011. The aim of the plan is to promote increased communication about research and research-based higher education between researchers/educators, users and those responsible for research and development at Norad and SIU. The target groups for communication are: Authorities and participants in development partnerships, the international research community, local, national and regional authorities and other public and private actors, and the local community. Measures for enhancing communication and dissemination are described, and the responsible for the implementation of the measures are identified.

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4.4 Global Knowledge The magazine Global Knowledge is published by SIU and partly financed by Norad through the funds that are provided to SIU for administration of different programmes. Global Knowledge is an interdisciplinary magazine presenting international collaboration in research and higher education. It focuses on cooperation between Norway and countries in the South and East, presenting research results both from the SIU portfolio and from other projects and programmes. Two issues of Global Knowledge were published in 2007. The two issues included features on HIV and tuberculosis, and on indigenous peoples and the fight for resources. NUFU supported projects were presented in both issues.

4.5 SIU’s web site SIU’s new website was published January 2007. In the process of making a new website for SIU, NUFU’s webpage also underwent a re-design. Links to the project catalogues of both the third and the fourth NUFU Programme periods were established on NUFU’s webpage in 2007 (see http://siu.no/en/programoversikt/nufu_programmet). In 2008, SIU aims to improve the accessibility of the catalogues, as well as developing the catalogue further. According to an enquiry carried out by the Communications Unit at SIU, NUFU’s website was visited 6 422 times during the period 1 January – 31 December 2007 (source: Google Analytics). The visits were made from 111 countries, the most frequent country being Norway (2 797 visits), followed by Ethiopia (238 visits) and Tanzania (215 visits). The bulk of the 111 countries the visits are made via, are countries in the South.

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5. Capacity and competence building and institutional development 5.1. Building capacity and competence in partner institutions in the South It is the goal of the NUFU programme to support the development of sustainable capacity and competence for research and research-based higher education in developing countries. Research collaboration and capacity building go hand in hand in NUFU funded projects. The education of new researchers on Master and PhD level is the most important means of building research capacity at institutions in the South through the NUFU programme. PhD candidates from the South institutions supported by the NUFU programme should either be employed by the institution or be members of staff recruiting programmes. PhD education takes place either at the South partner institution (UiS), in a sandwich model between UiS institution and the collaborating institution in Norway or in a third institution (preferably in the South). In cases where no PhD education is available and no PhD programme offered in the UiS institution or in the region the doctoral degree may be awarded by the Norwegian partner institution. The development of joint degrees between institutions in the South and/or in Norway (South – South, South- North or South – South – North) is encouraged in NUFU 2007 – 2011 (see section 5.5.). Some five-year projects from the third NUFU programme period 2002-2006 extended their activities to 2007, and a number of Masters and PhD candidates involved in these projects completed their degrees in 2007. As for five-year projects in the fourth programme period, most of the projects have recruited new Masters and PhD candidates in 2007. Accordingly, the statistics on completed degrees in 2007 include mostly candidates from the third programme period. In 2007 a total of 163 PhD candidates and Master’s students completed their degree within the framework of the third period of the NUFU programme. 84 of these candidates were funded by NUFU alone, some where funded partly by NUFU funds and partly by other sources and some by other sources alone. 44 candidates completed their PhD degrees, whereas 119 students completed their Master’s degree1. The distribution of candidates on discipline areas is shown in Tables 5.1. and 5.2. Table 5.1. shows the distribution between degrees and subject areas for all candidates/students connected to NUFU cooperation projects, whereas table 5.2. shows the same distribution for students/candidates funded by NUFU only. In 2007 like in 2006 most candidates have graduated within the fields of Mathematics and Natural Sciences and Social Sciences. 1

Another 12 students are reported to have completed their degree, but the actual degree is not given, and these students/candidates are left out of these statistics.

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Table 5.1. Candidates completed in 2007 according to degree and discipline area Degree/ PhD Master’s Total Discipline Agricultural and 3 0 3 Fisheries Sciences Humanities 3 9 12 Mathematics and 21 16 37 Natural Sciences Medical Sciences 3 8 11 Social Sciences 8 68 76 Technology 3 16 19 Combination 3 2 5 Total 44 119 163

Table 5.2. Candidates completed in 2007 according to degree and discipline area – funded by NUFU only. Degree/ PhD Master’s Total Discipline Agricultural and 1 0 1 Fisheries Sciences Humanities 0 7 7 Mathematics and 19 12 31 Natural Sciences Medical Sciences 1 1 Social Sciences 4 26 30 Technology 1 11 12 Combination 2 0 2 Total 28 56 84

Three PhD candidates are reported to have completed their degrees within the framework of the fourth programme period. These are candidates in projects that are running for their second five year period, and where the candidates did not complete their degree before the first phase was terminated. This means that the total number of PhD degrees completed in 2007 is 47. The number of candidates who graduated in 2007 adds to the number of candidates that have graduated in the years 2002 – 2006. The total number of candidates that have completed their degrees within the framework of the NUFU programme in the years 2002 – 2007 totals to 800, and the distribution on PhD and Master’s degrees respectively is shown in table 5.3. Table 5.3. Candidates completed in 2002 - 2007 by degree Year(s)/degrees PhD Master’s 2002 - 2006 124 510 2007 47 119 Total 171 629

Total 634 166 800

For the new projects 2007 has been an important year regarding the recruitment of candidates to be supported by the projects. The projects have in their project documents estimated that a total of 204 PhD candidates and 227 Master’s students are going to be 20


educated within the frameworks of the projects. The annual reports for 2007 show that 169 PhD candidates and 62 Master’s students have been identified for support. The emphasis has apparently been on the recruitment of PhD candidates in 2007, due to the fact that candidates need at least three – four years in order to be able to complete a PhD degree. Some project has started up late in 2007. One reason for delay may be late transfer of funds from UiN to UiS. Another reason may be that institutions are encouraged to apply their ordinary procedures for recruitment of candidates to Master’s and PhD studies, and these procedures are in some cases time consuming. The remaining 35 PhD candidates that have not been enrolled by the end of 2007 should be recruited as soon as possible, in order for the projects to be able to achieve the planned results within the end of the project period. Master’s students can be recruited also later in the project period, and the number of students recruited at this level is expected to increase in the coming two years.

5.2. Gender balance and gender mainstreaming The gender dimension is strengthened in the NUFU Programme for the period 2007 – 2011. The goals and objectives related to gender issues are threefold: 1. To promote gender balance in the projects 2. To pursue gender mainstreaming in all project activities 3. To support gender related research Point three is elaborated on in chapter 6.

5.2.1. Gender balance Pursuing gender balance at the partner institutions in the South has been an objective for the NUFU Programme throughout its history. In the NUFU Strategy paper 2001 – 2005 it is stated that 50% of the master’s students and 40% of the PhD candidates should be female. Statistics for the years 2002 – 2006 show that the goal is achieved at Master’s level, whereas there is still a long way to go, when it comes to the PhD level. This trend seems to have changed somewhat in 2007, as shown in table 5.4. This year a total of 40% of the PhD candidates that completed their degree were female, whereas only 37% of the Master’s students were female. Table 5.4. PhD candidates/Master’s students completed in 2007 by gender Female Male Total PhD 18 28 44 Master’s 44 75 119 Total 62 103 163

% female 40 37 38

A possible explanation to the improvements in female participation at PhD level may be that women in many cases need more time to complete their degree for instance due to 21


other commitments in the family and community. The positive effect of the emphasis on female participation may therefore appear only in the last year of the programme period. Total overviews of female participation and relevant discussions will be provided in the Final Report for the NUFU Programme 2002 – 2006. From 2007 financial rewards will be granted to projects that reach the stated objective of recruiting at least 40% women to PhD education. These grants may be used for additional financial support to the women involved for measures that can facilitate their participation in and completion of PhD education programmes. When looking at the gender balance of the recruited candidates and students, table 5.5 shows that from the total of 169 PhD candidates and 62 master’s students that have been recruited in 2007, 69 and 32 respectively are women. On programme level the goal of recruiting 40% female PhD candidates have been met by the end of 2007. Table 5.5. PhD candidates/Master’s students enrolled in 2007 by gender Female Male Not given PhD 69 98 2 Master’s 32 27 3 Total 101 125 5

Total 169 62 231

% female 40,8 51,6 43,7

The increased focus on gender balance in the NUFU Programme has apparently made project coordinators increasingly aware of the importance of promoting gender balance in institutions in the South. Many institutions have used the opportunity provided by the support from the NUFU Programme to recruit female PhD candidates. The challenge for the institutions in the following years, however, will be to facilitate the female candidates’ participation and completion, and to take measures to avoid that female candidates drop out of the study programmes. Based on experiences from the third programme period (see above) the issue of delays in project implementation and female candidates’ need for more time to complete their degrees will be raised by the NUFU Programme Board in 2008.

5.2.2. Gender mainstreaming In their application for NUFU funding, all projects presented plans for mainstreaming gender into the research and education activities of the project. This means that gender should be included as a dimension in project activities, where applicable. Gender mainstreaming will be developed as a separate issue of reporting from the annual reporting for 2008.

5.3. Institutional development in partner institutions in the South The NUFU Programme is built on a decentralised model for initiation, implementation, monitoring and reporting. Cooperation projects should be anchored in and committed by the leadership of the participating institutions. Institutions participating in the NUFU

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programmes must take an active role in the process of application, as well as monitoring and reporting throughout the programme period. Every year the institutions have to assess the project coordinators’ annual reports from the project, and have to approve the report. At many participating institution an academic committee is assigned to conduct this assessment and approval. The 59 five-year projects that so far have reported in the fourth NUFU programme period are coordinated by 32 different institutions in 18 countries in the South, in cooperation with 10 Norwegian institutions. The impact of the NUFU cooperation to institutional development depends of course on the number of projects supported at each institution. By the end of 2007 the five institutions with most NUFU supported projects were: Makerere University, Uganda (6), Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia (5), University of Malawi (5), Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania (5) and Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique (4). A total of 23 institutions have only one NUFU supported project. In these institutions it is assumed that the NUFU Programme’s impact is greater on department level than on the overall institutional level. The participating South institutions continue to emphasize the importance of the capacity building among their staff members, and the contribution this makes to institutional development. Some institutions also underline the importance of equipment and smaller contributions to infrastructure that have been purchased as parts of the NUFU supported projects. Box 5.1. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from the University of Dhaka, Bangladesh (one project)

The financial support from NUFU has greatly assisted in upgrading capacity and competence building. World class laboratory facilities supported by transfer of advanced technology from the UiN have remarkably enabled us in performing quality research. This would not have been possible without the support of NUFU, Norway. Young students and researchers have availed higher level of scientific and technical knowhow. Box 5.2. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from University of Malawi (five projects)

The purchased equipment and vehicles as well as training technical and administrative staff have strengthened UiS. It is important for future consideration however to provide small starter grants to those that complete their PhD work in UiS where equipment is lacking otherwise they may be impatient and seek greener pastures elsewhere resulting in brain drain. It is important that on completion, they return to facilities that have been improved. Box 5.3. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique (four projects)

All the projects have a good staff development component. Many PhD and Master candidates are expected to be trained during the current projects, which is of course a good contribution to capacity building not only at EMU and other universities involved, but for the countries, because the expertise acquired will give inputs to national economies. Box 5.4. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from Muhimbili Universityof Health and Allied Sciences (two projects)

Transfer of skills and technology has been successfully achieved through the sandwich model of training because students are exposed to modern technology during their study period in UiN and are subsequently able to introduce these technologies upon returning to UiS.

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5.4. Synergies All NUFU partners are encouraged to seek synergies with other programmes, in particular with other Norwegian partners and programmes, such as the Research Council of Norway, Norad's Programme for Master Studies (NOMA), the Quota scheme, and Norwegian bilateral development cooperation in the respective country. Coordination and synergy should also be pursued in relation to other international players in the field of higher education and research. 17 projects report that they have no other funding than the support from the NUFU Programme. Another 17 projects report that they are combining funds from NUFU with Quota scholarships. This means in most cases that one or more candidates connected to the NUFU projects is pursuing her/his degree at the Norwegian partner institution, with scholarship through the Quota scheme. Other costs for these students, such as costs for field work, are in many cases covered by NUFU funds. Three projects have combined support from NOMA and NUFU to the same institutes/departments. In this cases NUFU support is used for research and capacity building, whereas NOMA funds are used for development of a Master’s programme and scholarship for students. These projects are only in their very early phase, and it is too early to draw conclusions about these experiences, but SIU will follow these projects with particular attention focusing on added value from the combined efforts. One project in the NUFU portfolio for 2007 – 2011 is funded in combination with funds from Norad programme in Arts and Cultural Education (ACE), whereas another project is buidling on cooperation supported by the Teacher Educaton Programme North – South. Nine projects report that they have received additional funding from the Research Council of Norway, through different research programmes. Three projects are combining NUFU funds with research funding from the EU, whereas participants in one project are also involved in a Sida funded project. Only two projects report that they are combining NUFU funds with Norwegian bilateral support through the relevant Embassy. This is an area that should be looked into in order to facilitate closer relationships and synergies between different Norwegian efforts in a country and to particular institutions.

5.5. Joint degrees The NUFU Programme Document 2007 – 2011 states that the development of joint degrees is an implicit goal in the NUFU Programme. Experiences so far have however demonstrated that there are many obstacles to such a development, both in the South and in the North. Five projects report that they are pursuing the development of joint degrees at Master’s level and two projects report that they are doing the same at PhD level.

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From institutional visits SIU has been informed, however, that more institutions and projects are working on this issue. Results from these efforts will probably occur towards the end of the programme period.

5.6. Internationalisation, competence building and institutional development in the partner institutions in Norway The NUFU Programme has also in 2007 contributed to increased internationalisation at Norwegian partner institutions. Three institutions are new in the NUFU cooperation and the NUFU support means increased opportunities for building relationships with partner institutions in the South. Box 5.5. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from the University of Stavanger

The NUFU – funded project Human resources development in Madagascar is University of Stavanger’s first project of this kind and has therefore been very important in order to build competence about this particular type of project both centrally and on faculty level. We believe that this will prepare the ground for more projects with strategic partner institutions in the South, both in Madagascar and elsewhere.

Box 5.6. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from the University of Agder

The NUFU programme has enabled UiA to keep up this relationship, giving greater insight into the building of academic institutions in the South and it has also offered an opportunity for our researchers to present Norwegian academic traditions and perspectives to their colleagues at MU. The NUFU program has also undoubtedly given added value to our study programmes in Development Management"

Many Norwegian institutions have over the years built long standing relationships with partner institutions in the South, and by combining resources and ideas, the cooperation has contributed to increased internationalisation on campus, in research and in study programmes. Norwegian students have also been exposed to opportunities for doing field work and gaining experiences in the partner countries. Box 5.7. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from the University of Oslo

The contribution of the NUFU programme to capacity building at the University of Oslo can best be appreciated by looking at the results from the third NUFU period (2002-2007). In ten of the sixteen concluded projects, Norwegian (UiO) students have participated. At least 53 Master and Professional students (Medicine) have been doing fieldwork for their dissertations in a partner country. Eight Norwegian PhD students are reported, two of them have had Magne Lerheim doctoral fellowships (NFR fellowships linked to NUFU), as well as two at post doctoral level. At the bachelor level, three cohorts of Norwegian students have visited the University of Bamako for a month's tutoring on cultural studies. A total of 31 students have taken the module FASS2509/4509: "Studietur til det frankofone Afrika". The cooperation has comprised the joint supervision of 80 PhD candidates for UiO’s partner institutions in the South. The great majority has spent time in Oslo, and 18 of these have so far graduated from UiO, thus contributing to the internationalisation of UiO research. The collaborative NUFU projects have produced important and new research results, and a large number of publications. These publications are important merits for the UiO authors and co-authors of articles and books.

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Box 5.8. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology

In general, the NUFU supported projects benefit from the capacity for own research of our academic staff. At the same time, NUFU collaboration contributes significantly to the international orientation and exposure of the university.

Some Norwegian institutions, however, are worried about the development that an increasing number of activities are taking place in the South. The institutions’ involvement in the NUFU programme does, according to some institutions, to a lesser degree imply direct effects on the internationalisation of the institutions in Norway. Box 5.9. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from the University of Bergen

Projects differ. Some are almost exclusively centred around activities in the South - from Master training, Ph.D. courses, staff training, seminars, courses and publications, to research activities. These projects will in the worst of cases have other effects on UiB than in "depleting" our resources! Norwegian students will probably not meet and work with - or be inspired by South - students unless the centres or departments with NUFU projects invest own resources in including their students in the activities in the South. The effects on other researchers than those directly involved in the project will be limited, and in worst case adverse - they sometimes have to take on a heavier burden of daily tasks at their department when the "NUFU researchers" are away. The influence on the department management and administration might also be limited. The projects that UiB consider to be typical for the original NUFU thinking are those that carry benefits to all parties; to South students, researchers, institutions and societies; and to North students, researchers and institutions.

One of the basic ideas in the NUFU programme has all from the start been equal partnership and mutual benefits for all participating institutions. It is worth noting that there may be a shift in some of the longstanding Norwegian partner institutions’ attitudes towards the NUFU cooperation. Nevertheless, the number of proposals submitted according to the two calls for proposals issued in 2007 was as expected, demonstrating that there is still great interest in the programme also at Norwegian institutions.

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6. The NUFU Programme and Norwegian priority areas for development cooperation The Norwegian government has identified five priority areas for development cooperation. These are climate change, environment and sustainable development; peace building, human rights and humanitarian assistance; oil and clean energy; women’s rights and gender equality; and good governance and fight against corruption. In addition to these main priority areas, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the efforts to reduce global poverty are clearly reflected in the Norwegian official policy towards development cooperation. Other focus areas of the MDGs important for Norwegian development policy are health and education. The NUFU programme provides researchers and institutions in Norway’s partner countries, in cooperation with institutions of higher education and research in Norway, with the possibility to enhance capacity and competence and increase its contributions to national development, poverty reduction and the efforts to reach the Millennium Development Goals. The bulk of NUFU funded projects report that they have relevance for one or more of the priority areas of Norwegian development cooperation and the MDGs.

6.1 Poverty reduction and development A major part of NUFU supported projects in the current programme period (2007-2011) relate to the topics of poverty reduction and/or development. In the project CAPRs 2007, 32 projects marked ‘poverty’ as a thematic area relevant to their project and 30 projects reported that their project had significance for the area of ‘development’. Several projects related to poverty reduction and development are also interrelated to other thematic areas. An example of this is the project “Gender, poverty and social transformation in Uganda” (see Box 6.1 below).

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Box 6.1: Quotation from the synopsis of the project “Children, Young People and Local Knowledge in Ethiopia and Zambia” (Dilla University, Ethiopia, University of Zambia and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

Children are a marginalised group in different societies as well as in social research. The knowledge about how contemporary social and economic changes affect this particular group of people who are at the same time described as vulnerable, as representing the future of humanity, and most recently as competent social actors in the (re-)production of social, cultural and economic life of society, is scarce. [….]. Children’s perspectives and experiences will be a main focus of our multi-disciplinary collaboration. A particular emphasis is on the various ways in which children and young people might contribute to poverty reduction strategies […] An important dimension to explore is also the diverse mechanisms by which social and economic changes on a global scale (inequality, HIV/AIDS epidemic, Structural adjustment Programs and neo-liberal policies) contribute to delimit or increase children’s marginal position economically, socially and politically. We thus seek to explore whether contemporary childhoods in Ethiopia and Zambia are approaching towards a future characterised by increased social and cultural homogeneity or/and heterogeneity.

In the Annual Institutional Report 2007, institutions in the NUFU Programme were asked to comment on what relevance the institutions’ NUFU supported projects have on poverty reduction and national development. A couple of reports are quoted below. Box 6.2: Quotation from the Annual Institutional report 2007 from Birzeit University, Palestinian Areas

Relevance to national development is clear, given the crucial importance of urban, landscape and territorial planning in our small country, especially given population pressures and, even more, Israeli settlement activities which impinge ever increasingly on existing resources. We also believe that attention to urban and rural planning is closely related to poverty reduction. .. Suffice it to be pointed out that our institutional workforce has been mightily strengthened in terms of skills and experience, and that we have a new and vibrant masters program, a model for other academic programs to come. Box 6.3. Quotation from the Annual Institutional report 2007 from Tribhuvan University, Nepal

The ongoing research part of the project has helped to focus upon the sustainable in watershed management and land management option for enhancing poor rural communities in the Hindu Kush Himalayas and address the problems of sustainable management of land resources which includes the study of biophysical and socio economic factors affecting soil bass land use and land management which is related to the national development.

6.2 Climate change, environment, and energy A number of NUFU supported projects include research within the fields of climate change, environment and sustainable development and thus contribute to indentifying issues relevant for addressing environmental problems on local, national and global level. Statistics from the project coordinator’s Annual Progress Reports 2007 show that 23 projects thematically are relevant for ‘Environment’. Some of the projects also have a direct focus on this topic (see Boxes 6.5 and 6.6 below).

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Box 6.4: Quotation from the synopsis of the project “Alternative Energy for Sustainable Development, Environmental protection and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania (ESEPRIT)” (University of Dar es Salaam and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology)

This research project aims to contribute towards improved, reliable and sustainable access to local energy resources to a majority of Tanzanians. Since biomass is most abundant and also a major source of energy it has unique potential to accelerate social economic development of the majority of Tanzanians. However, unsustainable extraction of biomass is a major cause of environmental degradation. Therefore, this research will initially focus on biodiesel, bioethanol and biogas. The research will carry out a baseline survey to identify the potential sources of bioenergy; characterise the sources; develop cost effective methods for production of bioenergy; optimize production parameters suitable for Tanzania environment; manufacture prototype where appropriate; assess the contribution of bioenergy industry in poverty reduction; and assess the existing fiscal and regulatory mechanisms that can be used to accelerate the growth of bioenergy industry. Box 6.5: Quotation from the synopsis of the project “Small scale concentrating solar energy systems” (Eduardo Mondlane University (EMU), Mozambique, Makerere University, Uganda, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway, as partners)

The general objective of the project is to contribute to capacity building in the field of solar energy in African Universities. …Some 10 PhD and 10 MSc candidates, mostly university staff, will be educated by the programme. The research and education in the program will be focused on the renewable energy field, and on solar energy in particular. Energy resources are the key to industrial development, and solar systems have particular large potentials for the Network partner countries. As research topics, several prototypes of multi-purpose concentrating solar energy systems with heat storage, suitable for use in villages outside the public electricity grid will be designed, modelled, constructed, tested and analysed. The small scale systems can provide energy for food preparation, for refrigeration and for water heating, both for the household, business and institutional sectors. It may also provide sterilisation services for health institutions.

In the Annual Institutional Report 2007 from Eduardo Mondlane University also refers to the benefits of the above mentioned project as well as the connection between energy and poverty. Box 6.6: Quotation from the Annual Institutional Report 2007 from Eduardo Mondlane University

For the most projects running under the NUFU Programme reported here, they have great impact in poverty reduction in Mozambique, as the results of the research are expected to be implemented country wide. For example, solar energy research activities are already giving good results in remote areas of Mozambique. In general with this staff training the country will gain trained people capable to manage the national natural resources.

The institutional report from the University of Malawi refers to the project “Capacity Building in Water Sciences for Improved Assessment and Management of Water resources” and the project’s relevance both to climate change, health and poverty. Box 6.7: Quotation from the Annual Institutional Report 2007 from the University of Malawi

The project [“Capacity Building in Water Sciences for Improved Assessment and Management of Water resources”] will identify knowledge related to climate change and water availability under extreme conditions and advice on better and more profitable crop and livestock production and thus better human health and welfare. It is expected that farming communities which are most susceptible and vulnerable to droughts will be better prepared and are able to mitigate the effects of these natural extremes and thus receive safe drinking water and better health and household welfare.

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Regarding the priority area “Oil and energy”, four NUFU supported projects relate to this thematic area. Competence and capacity building is needed in many countries, not least on oil and gas exploration, a field where Norwegian institutions holds expertise and research experience of value to the cooperation with partner institutions in the South. The project “Establishing MSc programs in the Petroleum Sector at African Universities” is coordinated with the corresponding NOMA-funded “MSc Sandwich Programme within the Petroleum Sector in Asia and Africa”, with Eduardo Mondlane University (EMU) and The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) as partners in both projects. In addition to establishing MSc education at EMU in Petroleum Geosciences, the aim is to build up a Geophysical Research Centre in Mozambique, a country where exploration of oil and gas has increased substantially in recent years.

6.3 Good governance, human rights and peace building According to the project coordinators’ Annual Progress Reports 2007, 13 NUFU supported projects are relevant to the thematic area ‘good governance’, 13 projects are relevant to ‘democratisation’, 12 projects are relevant to ‘human rights’, and 5 projects are relevant to the topic of ‘peace building’. There might be overlap between these projects, if more than one category could be chosen. Good governance and corruption are the central topics of the bilateral project “Governance Matters: Assessing, Diagnosing, and Addressing Challenges of Governance in Nepal” Box 6.8. Quotation from the synopsis of the Project Document of the project “Governance Matters: Assessing, Diagnosing, and Addressing Challenges of Governance in Nepal” (Tribhuvan University, Nepal and the University of Bergen, Norway)

The overall objective of the project is to improve the capacity for teaching and research on governance at the Central Department of Public Administration (CDPA), Tribhuvan University (TU) by bringing students, faculty, and academics /scholars in contact with the frontiers of research in this field. This is to be achieved through the following sub-objectives: 1) Establish a doctoral program on governance and public policy- in Nepal. To incorporate and highlight the issue of governance in the teaching and research in these two institutions and leading to course development at the PhD level. 2) To establish a data base at TU for the analysis and diagnosis of governance by highlighting the process of policy making, policy implementation, comparative regional developmental variations and their causes. The data base will form the foundation for developing a teaching kit for students and faculty for analyses of institutional performance. 3) To encourage the use of the data base for practical administrative purposes, such as providing suggestion for improvement of governance and policy advocacy.

Democratisation and peace building are topics of the project “The Role of Democracy in the Context of Power and Conflict in Indonesia and Sri Lanka”

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Box 6.9. Quotation from the synopsis of the Project Document of the project “The Role of Democracy in the Context of Power and Conflict in Indonesia and Sri Lanka (Gadjah Mada University (UGM) and the University of Oslo)

The principal objectives of the proposed NUFU project are: (i) to conduct comparative research on the role of democracy in the context of power relations and conflict in Indonesia and Sri Lanka; and (ii) to strengthen the capacity of public service oriented research and research training on democracy, power and conflicts. This will be achieved through an institutionalised collaboration between senior academic staff and doctoral candidates within political studies (primarily political science, political anthropology and political geography) at the University of Oslo (Norway), the Universitas Gadjah Mada (Indonesia) and the University of Colombo (Sri Lanka). The proposed research project will combine commissioned reports based on pre-existing research knowledge, new research on selected themes to address critical knowledge gaps and overarching synthesising and comparative analyses based on the commissioned reports and strategic research projects. The project will be coordinated by a steering committee consisting of three senior researchers from each of the participating universities, in close contact with associated partners such as the Indonesia programme at the KITLV, Demos and the Social Scientists’ Association of Sri Lanka.

Consolidation of democracy is the main focus of a collaboration project between the Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Malawi, and Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen. Box 6.10. Quotation from the synopsis of the Project Document of the project “Democracy consolidation in Malawi (University of Malawi and the University of Bergen)

The research project will analyse the challenges to democratic consolidation in Malawi. It is divided into three interrelated research components, constitutionalism, decentralisation and access to justice for the poor at the local level, and the role of non state actors in democracy consolidation. The research project compliments and builds on the previous NUFU-funded project on the institutional context of the 2004 general elections in Malawi. The new study will seek to identify the key factors for democracy consolidation and identify the roles of various institutions, both government at central and local level and civil society, in the democracy consolidation process. In order to ensure interlinkages between the three designated areas of research (constitutionalism, decentralisation and non state actors) three thematic cross cutting issues have been identified that will form the core focus of research: Representation and accountability, the 2009 general elections and the role of gender in Malawian politics. The three cross-cutting thematic areas will be analysed from the perspective of constitutionalism, decentralisation and non state actors.

In the Annual Institutional Assessment 2007, the University of Malawi points to the potential influence of the abovementioned project regarding national development and poverty reduction. Box 6.11. Quotation from the Annual Institutional report, University of Malawi

The research projects have a huge bearing on perfecting the framework for national development and poverty reduction. Projects on decentralization, constitutionalism and role of non-state actors are likely to contribute to the policy making discourse in various spheres with a direct bearing on national development and poverty reduction.

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6.4 Women and gender equality As described in chapter 5, gender mainstreaming has a renewed focus in the fourth NUFU programme period. All NUFU funded projects should aim at mainstreaming gender issues into their activities. In addition, a number of the projects focus on genderrelated research, in combination with other thematic fields relevant to regional and national development. 26 of the projects with funding for 2007-2011 report to be relevant for the thematic area gender. Several of these projects apply multidisciplinary approaches to their research. An example of this is the network project “Gender, generation and social mobilisation: Challenges of reproductive health and rights among vulnerable groups in Ethiopia, Sudan and Tanzania” (see Box 6.14 below). Partner institutions are the Ahfad University for Women, Sudan, and the University of Bergen, Norway, with Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia, University of Das es Salaam, Tanzania, Bergen University College, Norway, Institute of Social Work, Tanzania and Muhimbili University, Tanzania, as network partners. Box 6.12: Quotation from the synopsis of the Project Document of the project “Gender, generation and social mobilisation: Challenges of reproductive health and rights among vulnerable groups in Ethiopia, Sudan and Tanzania”

The initiative involves partners from seven institutions in Sudan, Ethiopia, Tanzania and Norway. The thematic focus of the project involves an assessment of vulnerability- and stigma (risks), as well as rights- and mobilisation-related aspects (resources) of a set of particularly challenging reproductive health issues, namely: Mother to child transmission of HIV (MTCT), obstetric and traumatic fistula (OF), female genital cutting (FGC) and unsafe abortion (UA). Gender- and generational perspectives, as well as critical theory/political economy inform the studies. The project is developed by scholars from the social sciences, health sciences, humanities, psychology and medicine with substantial experience in relevant research. It employs a combination of qualitative research approaches. Reproductive health is located at the heart of the UN’s millennium goals, and is found within the institutions research priorities. The proposed project involves capacity building (seven PhD and five MA students, primarily female, South based students), curriculum development, research and dissemination.

In the Annual Institutional Report, the Ahfad University for Women states that the project is highly relevant to the issue of gender equality. Box 6.13: Quotation from the Annual Institutional report, Ahfad University for Women

This NUFU project is tackling issues that are very relevant to poverty and gender inequality and the approaches used in the studies is expected to uncover gaps in policy and strategies by which these key health issues are addressed which will contribute eventually to more innovative and appropriate recommendations that will assist in poverty reduction and promotion of health rights, particularly of vulnerable women at national level.

The project “Gender, poverty and social transformation in Uganda” is also a multidisciplinary collaborative research project focusing on gender issues (see Box 6.14 below).

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Box 6.14: Quotation from the synopsis of the Project Document of the project “Gender, poverty and social transformation in Uganda (Makerere University and the University of Tromsø)

This is a multi-disciplinary collaborative research and education project between the Department of Women and Gender Studies (DWGS), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda and the Centre for Women Studies (KVINNFORSK) / Department of Planning and Local Community Research (IPL), University of Tromsø, Norway. We aim to build capacity through gender focused research and policy analysis on issues of poverty and social transformation in Uganda. Given the persistent gender inequalities, there is need for research and capacity building among academicians, as well as contributing to the knowledge base for students, politicians and practitioners. The collaborative initiative will in addition to research efforts, offer supervision assistance and mentor young/junior researchers in Uganda through two research symposiums/PhD-courses as well as sponsorship of PhD students. These events along with other seminars and workshops will facilitate scholarly exchange. The project will promote networking and enhanced academic collaboration between the two institutions (UiS and UiN), and more specifically facilitate the exchange of knowledge and experiences in the current debates on women and gender issues related to poverty and social transformation.

6.5 Health Several NUFU projects belong to the discipline medical sciences or are in other ways relevant to global health issues and the health-related Millennium Development Goals. According to the project coordinators’ Annual Progress Reports 2007, 21 projects with NUFU funding for 2007-2011 report to be relevant for ‘Health’ and 11 projects are relevant for ‘HIV/AIDS’. An example of a project focusing on health is “Assessment of microbial pollution and diversity of Escherichia coli and Shigella in freshwater resources in Bangladesh”. See Box 6.14 below for the synopsis of the project. Box 6.15. Quotation from the synopsis of the project “Assessment of microbial pollution and diversity of Escherichia coli and Shigella in freshwater resources in Bangladesh” (University of Dhaka, Bangladesh, and the University of Bergen)

The main objective of the research project is to establish a long-term collaboration, strengthening capacity building and acquisition of latest DNA based/ molecular genetics research facilities through the assistance of University of Bergen, Norway. PhD and Master students will undertake advanced level research and training enabling man power development through sandwich model. Shigellosis is a dreadful waterborne diarrhoeal disease caused by species of Shigella but report of recovery of Shigella from aquatic ecosystem is scanty and unconfirmed. Community structure of Shigella and survival of stressed/fragile cells, in the aquatic environment is still unknown. Innovation of novel isolation technique is in progress by our group and has met some success. Some environmental isolates possess unusual properties with no virulence or pathogenic potential. Host’s immune response to shigellosis is serotype-specific and protective against re-infection. This opens up the possibility to use these strains as promising candidate vaccine strain.

In the Annual Institutional Report 2007, the University of Dhaka points to the importance the abovementioned project will have on health, hygiene and sanitation programmes.

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Box 6.16. Quotation from the Annual Institutional report 2007, University of Dhaka

The research project and its findings will have far reaching impact on health, hygiene and sanitation programmes. In Bangladesh, about 80% of the diarrhoeal diseases are caused by waterborne pathogens like E. coli, Shigella and related bacteria. The poor and the distressed people are mostly affected. Availability of the microbiologically pure water is a rare thing in Bangladesh and most tropical developing countries. This research project will hopefully contribute some credible findings and recommendations for water use of all purposes. The poor will be highly benefitted by prewarning about the bacterial quality of the potable water and water for other use. This project will certainly have indirect effect on the health and sanitation of the poor and distressed people. They will then be able to spend money of some fruitful venture.

Another example within the topic of health is a project focusing on a school-based health promoting program in Tanzania (see Box 6.16 below). Box 6.17. Quotation from the synopsis of the project “A comprehensive school- and health system-based approach to adolescent health promotion in South Africa and Tanzania” (Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS), Tanzania, and the University of Oslo) The overall goal of this project is to improve the evidence base for effective health promotion among school-aged adolescents in sub-Saharan African settings, and to strengthen the research capacity and higher education within the field of health promotion. This research project will be the first attempt to do a group-randomized trial to investigate the potential for a comprehensive, school-based health promoting program in improving the general health for adolescents. At urban/rural sites in Limpopo Province in South Africa and Arusha Region in Tanzania, locally designed and adapted interventions will be implemented. Adolescents, teachers, parents and health personnel will be involved in most of the stages in these processes. … It is expected that the study will provide new knowledge and better understanding the crucial processes and factors necessary to address in order to ensure effective health promotion targeted adolescents in Sub-Saharan African schools. In addition to the two PhD candidates financed by the projects, additional two candidates will be applied for from other sources.

A project focusing on HIV in Southern Africa is “Capacity building and research in subSaharan Africa to promote survival among HIV-exposed infants”. The project is coordinated by the University of Western Cape in South Africa and the University of Bergen in Norway (see Boxes 6.17 and 6.18 below). Box 6.18. Quotation from the synopsis of the project “Capacity building and research in sub-Saharan Africa to promote survival among HIV-exposed infants” (University of Western Cape, South Africa, and the University of Bergen, Norway). Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the world’s highest prevalence of HIV infection, which contributes substantially to the high childhood mortality in the region. WHO recommends that mothers of HIVexposed infants, who can hygienically prepare formula feeds, exclusively formula feed their infants. However, formula feeding in disadvantaged communities carries substantial health risks for infants and formula feeding increases the incidence rates of diarrhoea and pneumonia. The aim of this project is to increase the capacity of researchers in SSA in the conduct of randomised clinical trials (RCT). Moreover, the research, primarily RCTs, aim to improve survival opportunities of HIV-exposed infants. Box 6.19. Quotation from the Annual Institutional report 2007, University of Western Cape Stemming the growth of HIV/AIDS infections in South and Sub-Saharan Africa is an ongoing real and challenging struggle. The specific concentration on HIV-exposed infants, is directly linked to the national objectives of South Africa. In general, the project is aimed at training high level expertise which is an expectation, expressed by the South African Government, from higher education institutions.

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6.6 Education Education is regarded as an important area of focus for Norwegian development policy. The right to education is also one of the MDGs. Education is an intrinsic part of all NUFU supported projects since the aim and focus of the programme is to support the development of sustainable capacity and competence for research and research-based higher education in developing countries. Statistics from the project coordinator’s Annual Progress Reports 2007 show that 32 projects marked that they were relevant for the topic of ‘Education’. However, some of the projects also focus directly on education in their research. One example is the “MaLEX: Malawian Lexicon Project” between the Centre for Language Studies, University of Malawi, and the Department of Language and Communication Studies, NTNU. The project aims to facilitate the creation of language tools designed to fit in with the educational system in Malawi. (see Box 6.19 below). Box 6.19: Quotation from the synopsis of the project “MaLEX : Malawian Lexicon Project” (University of Malawi and Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

The main objective of this project is to apply modern empirical methods from computational linguistics and lexicography in order to facilitate the creation of language tools designed to fit in with the educational system in Malawi. Language specimens will be gathered from two main sources, from fieldwork and from translation activities that are carried out at the Centre for Language Studies. These will be processed into electronic resources in the form of language corpora from which lexical databases will be derived. The linguistic resources will be designed to accommodate scholarly research without losing sight of the practical goal of producing dictionaries and language aids for the multilingual situation of schools in Malawi.

In the institutional report, the University of Malawi points to the relevance of this project both in relation to the MDGs and the goal to “Achieve Universal Primary Education” as well as importance for national development (see Box 6.20) below). Box 6.20: Quotation from the Annual Institutional report 2007, University of Malawi

The African Union Heads of State at a meeting in February 2006 in Khartoum, Sudan declared 2006 as "The Year of African Languages." The motivation being that Africans can not develop and attain real democracy if they continue to conduct their affairs in foreign languages. The results of this project will thus help to nullify claims that African Languages are not developed enough to be used in/for modern technology hence bring modernity to language studies in Malawi. This project is consistent with the policies of the Malawi Government regarding the use of local languages at primary level.

Another project focusing on education is the ongoing cooperation project “Productive Learning Cultures II” which involves several institutions in Southern Africa and does research on indigenous knowledge systems as well as ICT in learning in an African context:

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Box 6.21: Quotation from the synopsis of the project “Productive Learning Cultures II” (University of Pretoria, South Africa, and the University of Bergen, Norway, with the University of Malawi and the University of Zambia as network partners)

Productive Learning Cultures II (PLC II) …is a collaboration network project in education building on the strengths of the previous NUFU funded project PLC I (2002-2005). Senior academics from the PLC I project, some of whom have become leaders in their research fields and have proven themselves to be productive scholars, are continuing their work in the PLCII project. […] The PLCII project is structured around the following broad areas of activities: 1. A PhD programme: two PhD candidates and one senior academic who will supervise the PhD candidates research from each of the following universities that are involved: Malawi, Zambia and Pretoria. A total of six PhD candidates will be enrolled in doctoral programmes in Africa, and they will all participate in the planned PhD-programme with experienced supervisors from PLC I 2. Focus area for sub-projects: Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS). The IKS focus will be structured to prioritise IKS and gender, since women whose voices are often marginalized are mainly the custodians of IKS in their indigenous communities. 3. Focus area for sub-projects: Information Communication Technologies (ICT) in learning. This is a focus area of global socio-economic importance as it addresses some issues related to the narrowing of the digital divide gap between developing and developed worlds. ICT features on various levels in the project namely a) a research area, b) an academic support and learning tool to PhD candidates and supervisors and c) a communication tool.

Box 6.22: Quotation from the Annual Institutional report 2007, University of Pretoria

The University of Pretoria is the Southern Coordinating partner in the NUFU Productive Learning Cultures II (PLC II) Project. As such, it is very involved in the administration and management of the project. [….] The South/South/North partnership therefore contributes greatly to capacity building and collaborative activities at the University of Pretoria. programme by the project participants focus on educational and medical-educational issues, this research will also contribute to the various communities touched by the project in terms of empowerment, which in turn impacts on poverty reduction.

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7. Regional cooperation and South – South networks Part of the goal of the NUFU Programme is to “contribute to enhanced academic collaboration in the South and between South and North”2. The most powerful tool for promoting South – South collaboration in the NUFU Programme is regional network projects. These are NUFU supported projects with two or more partners in the South (from at least two different countries) and one or more partner from the North. Some of the NUFU supported network cooperation projects have brought together colleagues from neighbouring countries for the first time, and in more formal and mutually binding relationships than ever. An example of a network project that is promoting regional cooperation combined with benefiting from the international networks and experiences from the Norwegian partner institution is the project: “Improved Productivity and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle production in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia”, involving the National Institute of Animal Husbandry in Vietnam as main partner in the South (UiS) and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) as the main partner institution in Norway; with Hanoi Agricultural University, Hue Agricultural and Forestry University, National University of Laos and Royal University of Agriculture – Cambodia as network partners. Box 7.1. Project synopsis Improved Productivity and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle production in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia

Objectives of this project are (i) To strengthen the research capacity and competence at involved institutions in general and in particular improvement of beef cattle productivity and beef quality; (ii) To strengthen the cooperation between the three countries in the region (Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) in the field of animal science under the assistance of their colleagues at UBM-Norway. (iii) To implement results obtained by research in the field s for increasing beef production and improving quality of beef and (IV) To increase the production of human food of animal origin, reduce potential environmental hazards and increase the income of beef cattle producers - smallholder farmers by improved utilization of the locally available by-products as feeds for beef cattle. The main activities of the project include: survey, experiments on beef cattle feeding, staffs exchange, higher education (Ph.D. and MSc.), short term training courses for Laos and Cambodia lecturers and staff, dissemination, workshop and meetings etc. The expected out put is to develop some feeding techniques for beef cattle production based on efficient use of crop by-products, which will be adopted by small holder farmers and help them to improve beef productivity, beef quality and bring more profits to them.

The main partner institution in this network project, National Institute of Animal Husbandry emphasizes in its institutional report that the regional cooperation has contributed to increased knowledge generation and understanding about regional problems related to beef cattle production:

2

NUFU Programme Document 2007 – 2011, p 2

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Box 7.2. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from National Institute of Animal Husbandry, Vietnam

The exchanging of staffs between the institutions in Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia and the UMB (Norway) has contributed to the more understanding of the problem and technologies that should be implemented in the developing countries. By setting up the project network system through email and internet, we can communicate with each other very smoothly and quickly. The consultancy meeting and workshop organized in South country (Vietnam) can strengthen the collaboration among South countries and made good opportunity for expert from North countries to visit for more understand the south country’s situation. Through participation to NUFU project we can have more chance to open other cooperation in the other animal production branches.

Another example is the project “Gender, generation and social mobilisation: Challenges of reproductive health and rights among vulnerable groups in Ethiopia, Sudan and Tanzania”, which is a project in its second phase, but with the main partner Ahfad University for Women in Sudan as new main partner institution. Ahfad University for Women reports in its institutional report for 2007 that the involvement in the network project has already created useful links to other institutions in the region: Box 7.3. Quotation from the Institutional Report 2007 from Ahfad University for Women, Sudan

The NUFU project has created for Ahfad University for Women an avenue of collaboration and networking with universities in the north and south. The Ahfad University is planning to capitalize on these links by starting joint programs and links with the partner universities in the south. It has already signed an agreement with Bergen University for further collaboration.

Some of the partner universities that have participated in the NUFU cooperation for a long time have in the fourth programme period taken leading positions in regional networks. One of them is Tribhuvan University which is involved in three network projects including neighbouring countries, some of them in areas of political turmoil like China (Tibet) and Afghanistan. SIU visited Tribhuvan University in Nepal in early 2008 and were impressed by the competence and capacity built up over a long time, which had enabled Tribhuvan University to take a leading role in several discipline areas. However, the visit also revealed challenges and obstacles for effective network cooperation, especially in situations of regional or national political instability. During 2007 two of the NUFU supported network projects that were granted funds for the period 2007 – 2011 have been terminated due to difficulties regarding the understanding of basic principles in the implementation of the projects. It is most likely a coincidence that both projects that faced these problems were network projects, but on the other hand it is anticipated that more actors may add to the complexity and challenges in implementation and management of projects. The NUFU project portfolio consists thus by 31 December 2007 of 22 network projects, out of a total portfolio of 57 projects. Addis Ababa University, the Universities of Malawi and Eduardo Mondlane University in Africa and Tribhuvan University in Nepal are in the lead as main partners in network projects while the universities in Oslo and Bergen together with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) are main Norwegian partners.

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Table 7.1. Most prevalent main partner institutions in South-South-North projects, 2007-2011 Partner institution in the South Numbers of projects Addis Ababa University 3 Eduardo Mondlane University 2 University of Malawi 2 Tribhuvan University 2 Partner institution in Norway University of Oslo 6 University of Bergen 5 Norwegian University of Life Sciences 4 Norwegian University of Science and Technology 4

Network partner institutions are to a great extent the same institutions as those that are main partner institutions in other bilateral or network projects. However, some institutions will participate in the NUFU Programme only as network partners3. These are: Asia: Hanoi Agricultural University, Vietnam Hue Agricultural and Forestry University, Vietnam National University of Laos – Lao PDR Royal University of Agriculture, Cambodia Kathmandu University, Nepal Kabul University, Afghanistan Karakorum International University, Pakistan Latin America: San Carlos University, Guatemala University of Havana, Cuba Africa: Centre for Educational Development in Health, Tanzania Institute of Social Work, Tanzania National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania National Museums of Kenya Kenya Institute of Special Education University of the Free State, South Africa

3

The same criteria regarding eligibility do not apply for network partner institutions as for main partner institutions.

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8. The NUFU Program on a Country Level This section presents briefly all the projects supported by the NUFU Programme 2007 – 2011 according to the country of the main partner institution in the South. The overview includes five year bilateral and network projects, as well as two years Supportive Measures (SM) projects. The countries are listed in alphabetical order.

8.1 Bangladesh Assessment of microbial pollution and diversity of Escherichia coli and Shigella in freshwater resources in Bangladesh (NUFUPRO 2007/10063) This is an ongoing bilateral project between University of Bergen and University of Dhaka. The main objective of the proposed research project is to establish a long-term collaboration, strengthening capacity building and acquisition of latest DNA based/ molecular genetics research facilities through the assistance of University of Bergen, Norway. PhD and Master’s students will undertake advanced level research and training enabling man power development through sandwich model. Ecology, behaviour and conservation of some wildlife of Bangladesh (NUFUPRO 2007/10108) This objectives of this ongoing bilateral project between University of Chittagong and Norwegian University of Science and Technology is to, build human resource and institutional capacity in the areas of natural science, increase the ability to demonstrate a critical awareness and reflection on research-based information, interpret report research findings in areas of natural science; formulate research questions and problems, design and carry out small scale research projects and present findings in academic conferences.

8.2 Botswana University of Botswana, University of Tromso Collaborative Programme for San/Basarwa Research and Capacity Building (NUFUSM 2007/10219) The overall objectives of the partnership programme between the University of Botswana and the University of Tromsø, now supported by the SM-scheme is, to pursue innovative strategies for promoting San access to higher education and capacity building, and to identify ways in which research can make a positive contribution to San development, to promote and develop research capacity and competence among the University staff and students, and to ensure that capacity is reflected in appropriate teaching and studies within and outside of the University

8.3 China Trans-Himalayan University Network for Education and Research (THUNDER) - Tibet University and Tribhuvan University (NUFUPRO 2007/10215) Tibet University/Norwegian University of Science and Technology has partnership in this new network project. Its main objective is to facilitate capacity building through research at Tibet University (TIBU), School of Engineering (SOE) and School of Arts, Lhasa; and at Tribhuvan University (TRIBH), Institute of Engineering (IOE), Kathmandu.

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8.4 Ethiopia Afro-alpine 'sky islands': genetic versus taxonomic biodiversity, climate change, and conservation (NUFUPRO 2007/10058) This is an ongoing network project between Addis Ababa University, National Museums of Kenya, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania, Makerere University, Uganda and the University of Oslo, with some other European partners. Biodiversity at the genetic (intraspecific resources) level is important in conservation, but difficult to quantify. It is therefore necessary to assess whether species richness is reliable as indicator of genetic diversity. This project addresses whether high plant species diversity is correlated with high genetic diversity or not. It infers responses to past climate change based on comparative phylogeography, and builds up a barcoding database coupled with DNA banks in four African countries. Biotechnology and Microbial diversity of Ethiopian Soda Lakes (NUFUPRO 2007/10069) The new network project between Addis Ababa University, University of Western Cape, South Africa and the University of Bergen will inventory microbial life in the Ethiopian alkaline soda lakes and surrounding environments. The proposed project will survey the Ethiopian alkaline soda lakes using a combination of ribosomal gene surveys, environmental genomics and culture-dependent methods. A second objective is to utilize the genetic resource in these unique habitats for biotechnological applications, because 99% or more of the microbial biodiversity in any habitat is not possible to be cultured. Constructions of Gender in the Formal and Informal Sector in Ethiopia (NUFUPRO 2007/10090) The ongoing bilateral project between Addis Ababa University and the University of Tromsø focuses along two main lines, concerning gender discourses and practices in Ethiopia and concerning formal and informal associations and networks. The topics will be studied in different ways by seven researchers through five subprojects like formal and informal networks, indigenous voluntary associations, representations of gender in some Ethiopian newspapers, Norwegian NGOs work in Ethiopia, gender and food security in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Malaria Project System (NUFUPRO 2007/10121) This is a project between Addis Ababa University and University of Bergen. This is a bilateral project under NUFU programme. Over a five-year period (2007 - 2011), this project will combine new population-based malaria transmission information with climate and land use variability data to develop an early warning system to predict malaria epidemics in Ethiopia. Studies of molecular epidemiology, clinical epidemiology and immunology of tuberculosis in pastoral communities and their livestock in Ethiopia (NUFUPRO 2007/10198). This is a new bilateral project between Addis Ababa University and the University of Oslo. The objectives of this project are to investigate molecular epidemiology, immunology, genetic, environmental, and socio-cultural factors that contribute to

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infection/disease due to M.tuberculosis and M.bovis among pastoralists and their livestock. Children, Young People and Local Knowledge in Ethiopia and Zambia (NUFUPRO 2007/10084) This joint research new network project among Dilla University and Norwegian University of Science and Technology aims to generate knowledge about children and young people's role in economic, social and cultural (re-)production in different contexts: within households, networks of relatives, local communities, schools as well as in the wider society. Children’s perspectives and experiences will be a main focus of this multidisciplinary collaboration. A particular emphasis is on the various ways in which children and young people might contribute to poverty reduction strategies. Environmental Impact Assessment and Management of Lake Resources (NUFUPRO 2007/10115) The objectives of this new bilateral program between Hawassa University and Norwegian University of Life Sciences is based on the fact that the natural fish resources, power generation, ecotourism, animal and plant production associated with these Ethiopian Rift Valley lakes and rivers are of great economic importance for the rift valley community. The research work supported by NUFU will identify and quantify the magnitude of the environmental problems in the area, and develop short and long-term management endeavors for the maintenance of the ecosystem and the livelihood of the society. Legumes and rhizobia in southern Ethiopia: Evaluation, management and utilization of biodiversity of the microsymbiont for sustainable agriculture (NUFUPRO 2007/10144) Recent findings demonstrated that Ethiopian soil harbor several unique strains of rhizobia whose nitrogen fixing efficiency is unknown. In the new bilateral project proposed here between Hawassa University and Norwegian University of Life Sciences, the plan is to investigate unexplored biodiversity resource and develop an innovative utilization of leguminous plants and their plant growth promoting bacteria in sustainable agriculture where farmers will be introduced (using farmer’s field school approach) with new ways of increasing production. Broad-host-range inoculants will be produced for target legume crops. Seed safety through diversity (NUFUPRO 2007/10189) Despite intensive research on Ethiopian barleys in and outside Ethiopia, results are few in terms of improved varieties accepted by farmers. This new bilateral project for Mekelle University, Ethiopia and Norwegian University of Life Sciences builds on a joint project from 2002-2006(7) trying to identify the reasons for this failure, using participatory methods of testing in close collaboration with farmers using experimental on-farm designs novel to Ethiopia.

8.5 Ghana Globalization and Changes in the Cultures of Survival and Care in Ghana: From Capacity Building to Policy Dialogue (NUFUPRO 2007/10129) This is an ongoing bilateral project between University of Ghana and the University of

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Bergen. The project will continue carrying out cultural research, expanding knowledge on norms, beliefs and practices regarding care of vulnerable groups, including infants, children, pregnant and nursing mothers, the elderly, the sick and the sexually active, in an era of escalating HIV/AIDS transmission; and transfer such knowledge to policy makers through building their policy dialogue capacity. Computational Lexicography, typology and literacy and language development (NUFUSM 2007/10089) The main activities of the project between the University of Ghana and NTNU has involved developing dictionaries for five Ghanaian languages (Akan, Ewe, Ga, Gurene, and Dagaare), researching the typological features of languages within the broad project area domain, and building the capacity of rural women and men through literacy training to enhance their wealth creation and consequent poverty reduction efforts. In the two years SM-project these activities are to be completed and sustained.

8.6 Guatemala Maya competence building II: Identities, Inter-cultural and the multiethnic state of Guatemala (NUFUSM 2007/10153) MCBII continues developing an efficient research unit on indigenous and inter-ethnic affairs. The SM-project between San Carlos University and University of Tromsø aims at recruiting young Mayan adults as students. It is a flexible approach, allowing Mayan students at graduate level to do research for the last year of their thesis. The project has now reached its third and final stage, which is oriented towards the summing up of all activities, sum-up of the overall research as well as the objective of bringing the project to a regional position in Central America.

8.7 Indonesia The Role of Democracy in the Context of Power and Conflict in Indonesia and Sri Lanka (NUFUPRO 2007/10209) The principal objectives of this network project between Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka and University of Oslo are: (i) to conduct comparative research on the role of democracy in the context of power relations and conflict in Indonesia and Sri Lanka; and (ii) to strengthen the capacity of public service oriented research and research training on democracy, power and conflicts. This will be achieved through an institutionalised collaboration between senior academic staff and doctoral candidates within political studies at the University of Oslo, the University of Gadjah Mada (Indonesia) and the University of Colombo (Sri Lanka).

8.8 Madagascar Human Resources Development in Madagascar (NUFUPRO 2007/10136) This is a new network project between University of Tulear and University of Stavanger. The main objective is to increase the environmental knowledge base for students, staff and academic personnel at the two Universities. This will be obtained through research, workshops, teaching, training and joint field projects in Tulear where both institutions participate. MSc and PhD students will be the true instruments of making this endeavour a success; through obtaining degrees. 43


8.9 Malawi Capacity Building in Water Sciences for Improved Assessment and Management of Water Resources (NUFUPRO 2007/10079) This is a new network project among the University of Malawi, University of Botswana, University of Western Cape and the University of Oslo. The overall goal is to improve human welfare among the resource poor through improved access and availability of wholesome and safe water. The participation of various stakeholders at all levels in the project design and implementation will ensure commitment to harnessing water resources for improved health and welfare at household levels and thus contribute significantly to national and regional goals of sustainable development. Child, Welfare and Gender in Comparative Social Work (NUFUPRO 2007/10085) The aim of this new network project between the University of Malawi, San Carlos University, Guatemala, University of KwaZulu Natal, South Africa and Bodø University College is to develop a sustainable network for cooperation in research and education in comparative social work focusing on children, gender and welfare. A strong network between the participating universities will be created to facilitate focused research collaboration. The research will focus on joint development of comparative analysis of interpretations of social problems related to gender, welfare and children. At Master’s level cooperation is sought for scholarships in Social Work. Democracy consolidation in Malawi (NUFUPRO 2007/10099) The bilateral project between the University of Malawi and the University of Bergen will analyse the challenges to democratic consolidation in Malawi. It is divided into three interrelated research components, constitutionalism, decentralisation and access to justice for the poor at the local level. The role of non state actors in democracy consolidation is added. The new study will seek to identify the key factors for democracy consolidation and identify the roles of various institutions, both government at central and local level and civil society, in the democracy consolidation process. Lungwena health, nutrition and agriculture research project (NUFUPRO 2007/10149) This bilateral project between the University of Malawi and the University of Oslo consists of 9 sub-projects for Lungwena villages, in many various sub-disciplines like health, sanitation, food/crops, animal sciences, and theatre for development. The general aims and objectives are to directly address the problems of poverty and ill health in rural areas of Malawi by analysing the impact of the agricultural, nutritional and poverty reduction initiatives introduced in our former NUFU project, phase 1, on food security, health and poverty. MaLEX: Malawian Lexicon Project (NUFUPRO 200710151)/ This new bilateral project will receive support from the ordinary NUFU programme. The main objective of this project between the University of Malawi and Norwegian University of Science and Technology is to apply modern empirical methods from computational linguistics and lexicography in order to facilitate the creation of language tools designed to fit in with the educational system in Malawi.

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8.10 Mali Medicinal plants in Mali: Ethnobotany, Phytochemistry and Biological activity (NUFUSM 2007/10154) The ultimate goal for the two years SM-project between National Center for Scientific and Technological Research and UIO in the last period was focusing on knowledge on medicinal plants in Mali is a better health for the Malian population. This will be followed up in the sustainability period of 2 years. In Mali, Malaria, different types of infections and fungal disease is common. More than 80% of the population rely on traditional medicine mainly based on plants. Information about the plants used, given by the healers in the rural villages will be the basis for the plants that are studied.

8.11 Mozambique Establishing MSc programs in the Petroleum Sector at African Universities (NUFUPRO 2007/10120) A bilateral partnership has been established between NTNU and Eduardo Mondlane University (EMU) with the purpose of strengthening the existing MSc education within the Petroleum Sector at EMU. NTNU cooperates closely with the University of Stavanger (UoS). The PhD studies are based on relevant national problems, and the PhD degree will be awarded by NTNU. Ore forming potential of the Tete Complex and sustainable management of mineral deposits in Mozambique (NUFUPRO 2007/10167) The goals of this new bilateral project between Eduardo Mondlane University and Norwegian University of Science and Technology is to equip Mozambique with the necessary human capital to study, characterize and exploit their mineral wealth from a shared perspective of environmental as well as economic considerations. The aim is through establishment of an MSc program in mineral deposit geology providing skilled geologists to cover the entire value chain from geological studies of the mineral deposits, evaluation of the preferred mining and beneficiation techniques. Small scale concentrating solar energy systems (NUFUPRO 2007/10190) The general objective of the project is to contribute to capacity building in the field of solar energy in African Universities. Members of the network, Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique, Makerere University in Uganda, Addis Ababa University in Ethiopia and the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Norway have participation from Bahir Dar University and Mekelle University in Ethiopia, under the AAU umbrella. The research and education program will be focused on the renewable energy field, and on solar energy in particular. Standardization and Harmonization of Cross-border Languages (NUFUPRO 2007/10225) The aim of this new network project between Eduardo Mondlane University, University of Zimbabwe and the University of Oslo, is to develop, harmonize and standardize cross border languages found in Mozambique and Zimbabwe, which have been broken up by political boundaries. This NUFU project is focused on research combined with practical

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construction of dictionaries and grammatical description of the cross-border languages Shona, Changana and Sena. Health Information Systems Programme finalization (NUFUSM 2007/10133) This SM-project between Eduardo Mondlane University and UIO aims at training and implementation of the District Health Information System as the only official system in the provinces. The research will constitute an evaluation of how the findings from the experimental implementation and from similar efforts in other countries are transferrable to the real implementation and organisational change.

8.12 Nepal Education, Research and Training for Sustainable Management of Natural Resources in Himalayan Watersheds (NUFUPRO 2007/10225) This project is a continuation and expansion to the former NUFU project between Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University (IOF-TU) and Noragric, University of Life Sciences, Norway (UMB). This phase will be a network project involving mountain universities in Nepal and other parts of the Himalayan Region, i.e. the University of Kabul, Afghanistan, Karakorum International University, Pakistan and University of Kathmandu. It is to share and explore feasibility of transferring MSc programs developed in the first phase with 3 other institutions and capacity building through collaborative research involving PhD students from each UiS institution. Governance Matters: Assessing, Diagnosing, and Addressing Challenges of Governance in Nepal (NUFUPRO 2007/10130) This is a new bilateral NUFU project, with overall objective on improving the capacity for teaching and research on governance at the Central Department of Public Administration (CDPA), Tribhuvan University (TU) by bringing students, faculty, and academics /scholars in contact with the frontiers of research in this field. Spatial and Seasonal variation in Solar Radiation and Aerosol Concentration and Compositions in Urban and Rural Sites in Himalayan Region (NUFUPRO 2007/10193) This is a new network project between Tribhuvan University, Tibet University and Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Human activities influence the composition of the atmosphere which alters the magnitude of radiation reaching the earth. Understanding the processes affecting solar radiation, caused by natural and anthropogenic changes, allows estimating levels of solar radiation at locations where measurements are unavailable. Nepal and Tibet, due to its unique geographical position, high population density and altitude variation will become an open lab for studying the attenuation of solar radiation. Program to improve child health and nutrition in Nepal (NUFUSM 2007/10177) This is a two year finalisation (SM) of a project between Tribhuvan University and UIB. This project aims to build institutional capacity and competence in research and education for promotion of child health and nutrition in Nepal. It encompasses support to and gradual institutionalization of the post-graduate training to become specialists in paediatrics in Nepal. The research components are:

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1) Case-control study of risk factors for childhood pneumonia in children. 2) Cohort study on risk factors for common childhood infections.

8.13 Nicaragua Competence building through Quality Education and Research in Central America and the Caribbean (NUFUPRO 2007/10088) This ongoing network project between the University of the Autonomous Regions of the Caribbean Coast of Nicaragua and the University of Tromsø aims at building a PhD program at URACCAN. The main objective is to further qualify URACCAN staff, and thus serve as a natural and logical next step of the cooperation between the two universities, focusing on competence building. This project has been terminated by the end of 2007.

8.14 Palestinian Areas Termination of: The Lower Jordan River Basin Project (NUFUSM 2007/10061) This is a SM-project between Birzeit University and UIB, which will enable the partnership team to integrate current aspects of the grant program into the regular operations of Birzeit University. In addition, long term activities need an extended period that will ensure filling the gaps and also completion of the partially-achieved long term objectives.

8.15 South Africa Broadening access into a socially responsible science and technology education (NUFUPRO 2007/10070) This is a new network project between the University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of Malawi, University of Zambia, University of Pretoria and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The objectives are to encourage joint research on various aspects relating to how much more learners can be granted access into science and technology education. Also to seek to explore new ways of making science and technology education more relevant, socially responsible and welcoming to learners with various backgrounds and interests. This project will work towards the aim of broadening access into a more socially responsible science and technology education through joint research and capacity building of teacher educators at both PhD and Master’s level. Capacity building and research in sub-Saharan Africa to promote survival among HIVexposed infants (NUFUPRO 2007/10074) This is a new bilateral project between the University of Western Cape and the University of Bergen. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has the world’s highest prevalence of HIV infection, which contributes substantially to the high childhood mortality in the region. WHO recommends that mothers of HIV-exposed infants, who can hygienically prepare formula feeds, exclusively formula feed their infants. The aim is to increase the capacity of researchers in SSA in the conduct of Randomised Clinical Trials (RCT). Moreover, the research, primarily RCTs, aim to improve survival opportunities of HIVexposed infants.

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Productive Learning Cultures II (NUFUPRO 2007/10176) The project is a collaboration network project in education building on the strengths of the previous NUFU funded project PLC I (2002-2005). Some senior academics from the PLC I project, who have become leaders in their research fields, are continuing their work in the PLCII project. By drawing competence from the first round, these academics will contribute with supervision, knowledge on how to establish and run a journal with their considerable research experience. The University of Malawi and the University of Zambia are included in this project. University of Bergen (Norway) and University of Pretoria (South Africa) will be the UiN and UiS coordinators respectively. Research and capacity building to address the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in tuberculosis (NUFUPRO 2007/10183) University of Stellenbosch and University of Bergen are partners in this new network project. Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem. This project will research on to measure the diagnostic value and utility of novel ESAT-6-based TB tests. This project has four network partners in the South: University of Western Cape. SA, National Institute of Medical Research, Tanzania, Tribhuvan University, Nepal and All India Institute of Medical Science, India. Randomised controlled trials in India, Nepal, and South Africa will assess the effect of adjunctive micronutrient supplementation, administered as part of the established DOTS on treatment outcome among pulmonary TB patients. Nature conservation and management: Biodiversity in coastal Maputaland (Northern Kwazulu-Natal and Southern part of Mozambique): Links between Geology and Ecology (NUFUSM 2007/10162) This two years SM-project is a continuous project between the University of KwaZulu Natal (SA) and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB). The main goal is to complete the interdisciplinary studies started earlier along the scientists from Mozambique, Norway and South Africa in 1999. The studies are carried out in coastal Maputaland in southern Mozambique and northern South Africa in an area of dynamic dune systems, wetlands, lakes and estuaries. The studies include vegetation, groundwater, surface water and sediments. Renewable energy resources and their development (NUFUSM 2007/10181) This SM-project with NTNU will contribute to further activities at University of KwaZulu Natal (UKZN) on development of educational and research activities on solar energy systems. UKZN is proposing to establish an extended laboratory for solar energy on campus, in collaboration with ESKOM. One important new aspect is to test solar powered Stirling engines. A supportive NUFU project will strengthen this activity, and increase the prospects of sustainable further research activities at UKZN. The Psychology Co-operation Programme UoO/UNIN - Subproject Disruptive Behaviour and Attention Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence in South Africa (NUFUSM 2007/10207) The overall aim of the present research collaboration between the University of Limpopo and UIO in this SM-project is to develop the insights and advancements

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obtained during the previous NUFU-funded periods by investigating general principles underlying Disruptive Behavior Disorders by building on our ongoing research by the Polokwane, Cape Town and Oslo groups. The aim of the present research collaboration therefore, is to investigate general behavioral and neurobiological principles underlying ADHD building on the dynamic developmental theory of ADHD.

8.16 Sri Lanka Developing an entrepreneurial university based on local opportunities and knowledge(NUFUPRO 2007/10102) This bilateral NUFU project between University of Ruhuna and Bodø University College, aims at developing an entrepreneurial region in the southern part of Sri Lanka. It does so by building upon local knowledge and opportunities. An extensive academic exchange program will ensure that these efforts are research-driven and research-based. BUC’s Norwegian students will gain exposure in the mechanics of entrepreneurship in Asia. Post-crisis recovery: researching and teaching across boundaries (NUFUPRO 2007/10172) This new bilateral NUFU project between Eastern University and Norwegian University of Science and Technology seeks to foster inter-disciplinary teaching and research on post-crisis recovery and development in Sri Lanka. It involves collaboration among three universities in Sri Lanka; with NTNU, Norway. It would promote academic interaction across several boundaries and divisions created by the war and the recent Asian tsunami. The major objective is to enhance the universities’ contribution to the ongoing processes of peace building, recovery and development in more effective, proactive and meaningful ways.

8.17 Sudan Gender, generation and social mobilisation: Challenges of reproductive health and rights among vulnerable groups in Ethiopia, Sudan and Tanzania (NUFUPRO 2007/10126) It is a new network project between Ahfad University for Women and the University of Bergen. This is developed by scholars from the social sciences, health sciences, humanities, psychology and medicine with substantial experience in relevant research. It employs a combination of qualitative research approaches. Reproductive health is located at the heart of the UN’s millennium goals, and is found within the institutions’ research priorities.

8.18 Tanzania Alternative Energy for Sustainable Development, Environmental protection and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania (ESEPRIT) (NUFUPRO 2007/10059) This new bilateral cooperation project between the University of Dar es Salaam and Norwegian University of Science and Technology aims to contribute towards improved, reliable and sustainable access to local energy resources to majority of Tanzanians.

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Training of technicians will cover use of analytical instruments, management of R&D experiments, basic instrumentation and maintenance of scientific equipment. Language of instruction in Tanzania and South Africa (LOITASA) (NUFUPRO 2007/10143) This is an ongoing network project. The experience gained through the first phase is the need for building up an interdisciplinary, interfaculty master's programme in language and education in Africa both at the University of Dar es Salaam and the University of Oslo. The programme should be built up in cooperation with the University of Western Cape where such a program already exists. A Master programme will be built up, in Linguistics and Language Education at the University of Western Cape and Dar es Salaam, and the work will be done in the Faculty of Humanities and Faculty of Education at the University of Oslo. Coastal fisheries of Tanzania: the challenges of globalisation to resource management, livelihoods and governance (NUFUTZ 2007/10227) This is a bilateral project between the University of Dar-es-Salaam and Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB) which intends to focus on interdisciplinary research questions related to coastal fisheries resource management, incorporating an analytical approach and conceptual framework of linked social-ecological resilience and vulnerability in Tanzania. The overarching objective is to contribute to improving the knowledge base for management and governance of the coastal fisheries resources of Tanzania by addressing priority knowledge gaps through research collaboration and academic capacity building. A comprehensive school- and health system-based approach to adolescent health promotion in South Africa and Tanzania (NUFUPRO 2007/10051) The overall goal of this new NUFU network project between Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, University of Limpopo, South Africa and University of Oslo is to improve the evidence base for effective health promotion among school-aged adolescents in sub-Saharan African settings, and to strengthen the research capacity and higher education within the field of health promotion. Adolescents, teachers, parents and health personnel will be involved in most of the stages in these processes. Occupational respiratory diseases among male and female workers in dusty industries in Tanzania (NUFUPRO 2007/10166) Occupational Respiratory Diseases is one of the main health problems in developing countries like Tanzania. This bilateral project is a continuation of a previous NUFU project between Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences and the University of Bergen. It aims at exploring levels of harmful exposures and extent of occupational related respiratory diseases in the cement, sisal and coffee industries in Tanzania. The purpose is to contribute to a risk reduction of occupational respiratory diseases in dusty industries, increase productivity and reduce poverty in Tanzania. The project will train 3 PhD and 2 master students, run courses for undergraduate and postgraduate students in occupational health in Tanzania and train master students in Norway.

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Antelope Conservation and Application of Molecular Forensics in Investigating Wildlife Crime (NUFUPRO 2007/10060) The main objective of this project between Sokoine University of Agriculture and Norwegian School of Veterinary Science is enhancement of research capacity for biodiversity conservation in Tanzania through increased competence in assessment of the social ecology and population structure and population genetics of large antelopes. The main focus is on the Roan Antelope in the Serengeti ecosystem; and development of molecular tools for wildlife crime investigation and prevention. ZOOTOX-2007-11: Collaborative research in environmental toxicology and zoonotic diseases in the Human – Domestic animal – Wildlife interface areas of Eastern and Southern Africa – A South North Veterinary Network (NUFUPRO 2007/10224) The veterinary network encompasses six faculties at Universities in Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa in the South. The Norwegian School of Veterinary Science (NVH) is the Norwegian partner with Sokoine University of Agriculture. In addition, there is a close cooperation with researchers at the National Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway. The main objective is collaborative research and human resource competence building within the areas of Zoonoses and Environmental Toxicology. A major goal is to utilize the expertise and collaboration of participating countries in the established North and South network of senior researchers and PhD scholars. Assessing the impact of forestland tenure changes on forest resources and rural livelihoods in Tanzania (NUFUTZ 2007/10226) The main objective of this new bilateral project between Sokoine University of Agriculture and Norwegian University of Life Sciences is to train postgraduate students in the field of Forest Resource Assessment and Management to assess the impact of forestland tenure changes on forest resources and livelihoods in Tanzania. The project intends to build capacity through postgraduate students (MSc. and PhD) training in conducting various studies assessing the impact of forestland tenure changes since the colonial period. EKOSIASA: The Political Ecology of Wildlife and Forest Governance in Tanzania (NUFUTZ 2007/10228) This is a new bilateral project between Sokoine University of Agriculture and Norwegian University of Life Sciences. This project (EKOSIASA) consists of the two main components of research and capacity building, and in both the approach of political ecology plays a central role. The research will be carried out within six Work Packages. Along with, the course will be open for PhD and MSc students from the two universities. Integrating Livelihoods and Multiple Biodiversity Values in Wetlands Management in Tanzania (NUFUTZ 2007/10229) The overall goal of this new bilateral cooperation project between Sokoine University of Agriculture and Norwegian University of Life Sciences is to test and promote flexible and broadly applicable approaches for integrating livelihoods and biodiversity conservation in wetland ecosystems in Tanzania. The main focus will be to build capacity

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for wetland management for sustainable management of key biodiversity resources for local livelihood and global conservation value. MU-AUC Research Collaboration: Governance, Gender and Scientific Quality (GGSQ) (NUFUPRO 2007/10160) This is a new bilateral cooperation project between Mzumbe University and Agder University College, Norway. The thematic focus is on systems of governance and business processes that are participatory, representative, accountable, transparent and on vulnerable groups of citizens and gendered and gendering processes in business. The overall aim is on Gender and E-governance through producing detailed knowledge of the Tanzanian pay-packet. This knowledge will constitute an essential input to a welfare policy to help non-privileged groups, and to make strategic decisions in private business organisations. Registry based reproductive health research in Northern Tanzania (NUFUPRO 2007/10179 This is an ongoing bilateral project between Tumaini University and the University of Bergen. In 2000 a reproductive health registry at the KCMC hospital, in Tanzania was started. The purpose was to provide essential data on a range of important reproductive health outcomes and to build necessary competence in registration, computer management and research for registry operation. The registry is a valuable resource for research. The project will build capacity in registry epidemiology, registry management, computer technology and clinical epidemiology.

8.19 Uganda Capacity building in teacher education for children with disabilities and special needs (NUFUPRO 2007/10078) A new institution called Kyambogo University has joined University of Oslo to start up this project. The main objective is to establish Faculty of Special Needs & Rehabilitation at Kyambogo University and Kenya Institute of Special Education as high quality institutions for research on education for learners with disabilities and about teaching of reading and writing. Cultural Heritage for Social Development: Training, Research and Archiving in Ethnomusicology (NUFUPRO 2007/10095) Between Makerere University, Uganda and the University of Bergen, this is a new bilateral cooperation project. Through training, research and archiving, this project will contribute to the preservation, promotion and development of music in Uganda as one of the strategies for social development. The project aims to strengthen and develop the already established collaboration in ethnomusicology between the Music Section of the Department of Music, Dance and Drama at Makerere University (MDD) and the Grieg Academy (Music Dept.) at The University of Bergen (GA) Essential nutrition and child health in Uganda (NUFUPRO 2007/10119) This is an ongoing bilateral cooperation project between Makerere University and the University of Bergen. The Millennium Development Goal no 4 is aiming at lowering by

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two thirds of the child mortality globally. In Uganda, malnutrition and HIV/AIDS remain serious challenges. This project aims to work on, the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on growth, morbidity and mortality among HIV infected children in Uganda: A randomised double blind placebo-controlled study; facility-based intervention to increase male involvement in antenatal care and the prevention programme of motherto-child transmission of HIV; and peer support to improve child health. Gender, poverty and social transformation in Uganda (NUFUPRO 10127) This is a new bilateral research and education project between the Department of Women and Gender Studies (DWGS), Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda and the Centre for Women Studies (KVINNFORSK) / Department of Planning and Local Community Research (IPL), University of Tromsø, Norway. The aim is to build capacity through gender focused research and policy analysis on issues of poverty and social transformation in Uganda. The collaborative initiative will in addition to research efforts, offer supervision assistance and mentor young/junior researchers in Uganda through two research symposiums/PhD-courses as well as sponsorship of PhD students. Reintegration of female ex-child soldiers in Eastern Africa: Religious, ethical and practical perspectives (NUFUPRO 2007/10180) This is a new network project between Makerere University, Tumaini University in Tanzania and the School of Mission and Theology in Norway. The project responds to the societal challenges to handle female ex-soldiers, by developing knowledge of how religious communities can develop new methods for reintegration of female ex-child soldiers by drawing upon religious traditions as a strategic means of transition out of violent conflicts. The Role of Ugandan Folklores as Repository of Traditional Wisdom (NUFUPRO 2007/10210) This is a new bilateral project between Makerere University and the University of Bergen. The capacity of traditional folklores to delight and to instruct members of the community has never been lost in spite of the onslaught of contemporary cultures on them. The purpose of this research is to access the significant folklores of Ugandan people that represent the patrimony of the communities and use them to shape their values. The aim is to re-orient Ugandans to their traditional values where they can, through folklores, and draw wisdom from their heritages Value Addition for Traditional Ugandan Food for Improved Health and Nutrition (NUFUPRO 2007/10221) The new bilateral project proposes cooperation between the Makerere University and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. It will cover areas of research, training and staff and student exchange. The main objectives of the proposed cooperation are to improve the nutrient value and quality of traditional Ugandan foods namely sweet potato-based weaning foods and obushera and build capacity and competence in research and training in Uganda in the areas of microbial metabolism and genetics, and fermentation technology, food carbohydrate chemistry, enzymology, food processing and functional foods.

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8.20 Vietnam Coastal Modelling and Fish Health, Phase II (NUFUPRO 2007/10086) This ongoing bilateral project between the Research Institute for Aquaculture no 3 in Vietnam and University of Bergen aims to continue competence building in the fields of coastal modelling and fish health through education of PhD and master students. The core of the project is two research programs in coastal modelling and fish health. Improved Productivity and meat quality of beef cattle production in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia (NUFUPRO 2007/10050) Objectives of this continuous network project between National Institute of Animal Husbandry, Hanoi Agricultural University, Hue Agricultural and Forestry University, National University of Laos, Royal University of Agriculture -Cambodia and Norwegian University of Life Sciences are: (i) To strengthen the research capacity and competence at involved institutions in general and in particular improvement of beef cattle productivity and beef quality; (ii) To strengthen the cooperation between the three countries in the region, in the field of animal science. (iii) To implement research results, (iv) To increase the production of human food of animal origin.

8.21 Zambia Strengthening HIV-related interventions in Zambia: co-operation in research and institution capacity building (NUFUPRO 2007/10196) HIV epidemics in many countries in sub-Saharan Africa seriously impair productivity and are both a major cause and consequence of poverty. The bilateral project builds upon achievements during the first round of NUFU funding (2002-2006), a partnership between the University of Zambia and the University of Bergen. The aim is to conduct research to generate knowledge on how different population groups respond in terms of change in risk taking, and on effective preventive HIV interventions with particular focus on trust and equity questions.

8.22 Zimbabwe Archaeology and Traditions in eastern Zimbabwe(NUFUPRO 2007/10062) This new bilateral project will carry on research through the University of Zimbabwe and the University of Bergen, in Eastern Zimbabwe by doing an archaeological survey southwards from Zimunya towards the high mountains of Chimanimani and westwards to the Sabi River. This is an area which archaeologically or anthropologically has never been properly investigated. One film has been made on the current use of the rock art sites. This work will be expanded and two to three films will be produced where aspects from the first film will be followed up documenting peoples' relationship with the archaeological sites in current Zimbabwean society. Economic Modelling, Publication, and Teaching of Methodology Development (NUFUSM 2007/10226) The SM-project between the University of Zimbabwe and UIO consists of four interacting but separable components. The Publication Component, the Research Component, the Staff Development Component, the Teaching of Methodology Component. 54


9. Meetings and visits 9.1. Meetings with partner institutions in the South SIU and the NUFU Programme Board visited ten partner institutions in the South during 2007. Meetings were held with Vice Chancellors, NUFU coordinating units or institutional contact persons, as well as project coordinators. Workshops focusing on start-up and implementation of cooperation projects were held at most of the visited institutions. Meetings were held at the Norwegian Embassies in all countries that were visited. Separate reports are developed from all the institutional visits.

9.2. Institutional visits in Tanzania Adviser Ragnhild Tungesvik and Senior Adviser Helge Skugstad from SIU and Senior Advisers Kristin Hauge and Reidun Sandvold from Norad visited five partner institutions in Tanzania during one week in February 2007. Embassy Secretary Monica Svenskerud and Programme Officer Bodil Day from the Norwegian Embassy in Dar es Salaam participated also in the visit to Tumaini University. A meeting was held at the Embassy in Dar es Salaam, and initial discussions took place, which later in the year resulted in the ยง2.2. contract that was signed in June 2007.

9.2.1. Tumaini University (TU)/Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC) TU is a new main partner institution in the NUFU cooperation, with one project within the area of health with a focus on birth registration. The delegation met the leadership of the institution and visited the project coordinator and participants, and several issues regarding practical arrangements in project implementation were discussed.

9.2.2. University of Dar es Salaam (UDSM) UDSM is a longstanding partner in the NUFU cooperation. However, a new leadership entered into office at the end of 2006. The delegation met with the Vice Chancellor as well as his two Deputy Vice Chancellors. The project portfolio consists of one ongoing and two new projects, and a workshop was held for all coordinators and administrators, and separate meetings were held with each project.

9.2.3. Muhimbili University College of Health Sciences (MUCHS) There has been NUFU supported projects at MUCHS for several years, but these projects have been administrated as part of the UDSM portfolio, since MUCHS has been a faculty under UDSM. The delegation met with the Principal of MUCHS, who informed about a new law that will be effective from January 2008. MUCHS would then become an autonomous and separate University of Health Sciences, independent from UDSM. This law was effectuated in January 2008, and the name of the institution is from this date

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Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS). Two NUFU supported projects are hosted at MUHAS for the period 2007 – 2011. The delegation met with both coordinators, and they participated also at the workshop at UDSM.

9.2.4. Mzumbe University (MU) MU is a new partner institution in the NUFU cooperation, with one project within gender and governance. However, the institution has over many years cooperated with University of Agder, which is also the Norwegian partner in the NUFU project. The delegation met with the Vice Chancellor and project participants, and general issues on project implementation were discussed.

9.2.5. Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) SUA has been hosting a NUFU project since 2002, in cooperation with the Norwegian Institute of Nature Research (NINA). From 2007 two other projects are supported, both with the Norwegian School for Veterinary Science as Norwegian partner. The delegation met with the Vice Chancellor, who gave an extensive presentation of the institution, its history, development, programmes and activities. A workshop was held with project participants. From September 2007 SUA is hosting three more projects supported by the funds earmarked for natural resource management in Tanzania, all of them with the Norwegian University of Life Sciences as Norwegian partner institution.

9.3. Institutional visits in Ethiopia SIU visited three partner institutions in Ethiopia in April 2007. The fourth institution came to Addis Ababa to meet the representatives from SIU. The SIU delegation consisted of Head of Unit Paul Manger and Adviser Siri Monclair (SIU’s department of finance). Acting Director Bente Nilson from Norad’s Education and Research Department participated also in the institutional visits.

9.3.1. Addis Ababa University (AAU) AAU has been one of the four principal partners in the South within the NUFU cooperation. The key office to the NUFU cooperation at institutional level at AAU is the Office of the Associate Vice President for Research and Graduate Programs (AVPRGP). SIU met this office to discuss general issues related to the NUFU cooperation, and met also with project coordinators, to present and discuss issues of implementation in the new programme period.

9.3.2. Hawassa University (HU) Hawassa University (former Awassa College of Agriculture/Debub University) has been a partner in the NUFU cooperation since the first NUFU programme period with one cooperation project with the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. This project was coming to an end in 2007. Two new cooperation projects were established in 2007 with funding from the NUFU Programme. General issues related to project start-up, implementation and reporting were discussed with the staff from Hawassa University. The delegation was given the possibility to visit different locations at the campus, and also to visit the departments involved in the NUFU supported projects. 56


9.3.3. Dilla University (DU) Dilla University is a new partner in the NUFU cooperation and one new cooperation project is established in cooperation with the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. The delegation met with the leadership of Dilla University and staff involved in the NUFU supported project. The delegation met an institution with a lot of knowledge about the NUFU Programme and also with a cooperative spirit of the forthcoming project cooperation with the Norwegian institution.

9.3.4. Mekelle University Mekelle University is a new partner in the NUFU cooperation and one new cooperation project is established in cooperation with the Norwegian University of Life Sciences. The delegation did not have the time to visit Mekelle University. Instead two staff members from Mekelle University came to Addis Ababa to meet with the delegation. The Associate Vice President, Research and Graduate Programmes emphasised the importance of the NUFU cooperation for Mekelle University, and he also commented on the long lasting cooperation between Mekelle University and the Norwegian University of Life Sciences.

9.4. Institutional visits in Malawi and Mozambique In June 2007 a delegation from SIU and the Programme Boards of NOMA and NUFU visited partner institutions in Malawi and Mozambique. The delegation was headed by Chair of the NUFU Programme Board, Professor Fanny Duckert. Other participants were: Associate Professor Marianne Sandberg, member of the NOMA Programme Board, Hanne Alver Krum, Head of Information, SIU, Adviser Veena Gill, SIU and Adviser Ragnhild Tungesvik, SIU. Norad did not participate in this delegation.

9.4.1. The University of Malawi (UoM) University of Malawi has been a partner institution in the NUFU Programme since 2003, when a separate contract was entered between Norad (the Norwegian Embassy in Lilongwe) and UHR/SIU about funding for three projects within the NUFU framework (§ 2.2. arrangement). This arrangement introduced UMAL to the NUFU Programme and concept. Before the announcement and deadline for submission of project proposals to NUFU in 2006 UMAL took a very active role in making contacts with Norwegian institutions in order to prepare and submit applications to the NUFU Programme. University of Malawi has received support for five NUFU projects for the period 2007 – 2011. The delegation met with coordinators and participants in all five projects, and particular attention was given to a project in political science that has received support both from NOMA and NUFU. The delegation also met with the Vice Chancellor of UoM, and the Pro Vice Chancellor followed the delegation throughout the visit. He is also the institutional coordinator of the NUFU cooperation at UoM, and is following up very well on the implementation of the projects.

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9.4.2. Eduardo Mondlane University, Mozambique (EMU) The delegation only paid a very brief visit to EMU. EMU has participated in the NUFU cooperation for several years, and the portfolio for 2007 – 2011 consists of four projects. A general meeting was held with all project coordinators at EMU for NUFU and NOMA projects that have received funding for 2007 and onwards. The coordinators gave presentations about their projects, and the delegation could ask questions. The delegation met the Rector of EMU at a dinner hosted by the Norwegian Ambassador to Mozambique. The Vice Rector, who is also the NUFU institutional coordinator, participated in all meetings during the two days’ visit.

9.5. Meetings with partner institutions in Norway SIU had no formal meetings at Norwegian universities with particular focus on the NUFU Programme in 2007. However, on 6 March 2007 SIU invited the new Norwegian partner institutions in the NUFU cooperation to a separate meeting at SIU, the day before the Project Coordinators’ seminar. Representatives from Bodø University College and the University of Agder participated in this meeting. Representatives from the University of Stavanger were not able to come at this date, and a separate meeting was held with staff from this university on 27 February.

9.3. Visits to SIU from partner institutions in the South SIU received formal as well as informal visits from partner institutions in 2007. Registrars from three universities in Sri Lanka: Eastern University, Peradeniya University and South Eastern University of Sri Lanka visited SIU together with the Sri Lankan and the Norwegian project coordinators for the project “Post-crisis recovery: researching and teaching across boundaries”. An introduction was given to the NUFU concepts of reporting, accounts and audits, and issues regarding project implementation were discussed. Pro Vice Chancellor Professor Leonard Kamwanja from the University of Malawi visited SIU on 18 September 2007, and general issues regarding the NUFU cooperation were held. Vice Chancellor Professor Z.D. Kadzamira, also from the University of Malawi visited SIU in October 2007, related to his participation at SIU’s biennial conference “Bridges of Knowledge”.

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10. NUFU Programme Board and administration 10.1 NUFU Programme Board 2006 – 2009 The NUFU Programme Board consists of eight members; six members from the Norwegian Higher Education sector, one member appointed by Norad, and one student member appointed by Norwegian Student Union. The Norwegian Association of Higher Education Institutions (UHR) and Norad are observers to the Programme Board. The NUFU Programme Board for the period 1 June 2006 to 31 May 2009 was appointed by the SIU Board on 27 March 2006. In 2007, however, one of the board members appointed in 2006, Professor Paal Pedersen from Bodø University College (HiBo), was elected rector at HiBo and had to be replaced in accordance with the regulations of the NUFU Programme Board. Professor Pedersen was replaced by Professor Frank Lindberg. In addition, as the student representative is only nominated for one year, Kathrine Sunde was replaced by Erik Schreiner Evans. The members and deputy members of the current NUFU Programme Board are: Members of the NUFU Programme Board Professor Fanny Duckert University of Oslo Professor Torbjørn K. Nielsen, Norwegian University of Science and Technology Ass professor Asuncion Lera St Clair University of Bergen Professor Ørjan Olsvik University of Tromsø Professor Martha Ulvund Norwegian School of Veterinary Science Dean Frank Lindberg Bodø University College Professor Lennart Wohlgemuth Appointed by Norad Student Erik Schreiner Evans (from August 2008)

Deputy members Professor Anders Breidlid Oslo University College Director Kristel M. Skorge University of Stavanger Professor Anne Ryen University of Agder Professor Thorkild Tylleskär University of Bergen Ass Professor Stein R. Moe Norwegian University of Life Sciences Professor Kjetil Bjorvatn, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration Senior Policy Adviser Ingemar Gustafsson Appointed by Norad Student Joachim Bale Norwegian Student Union

Norwegian Student Union Observers: UHR: Special Adviser Ingvild Broch Norad: Senior Adviser Kristin Hauge (January – July) Senior Adviser Kristine Hauge Storholt (August – December)

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10.2 SIU’s administration of the NUFU Programme The NUFU Programme is administered by SIU. SIU is responsible for the day to day running of the NUFU Programme and serves as secretariat for the NUFU Programme Board. During 2007, the following staff members at SIU have worked part time or full time with NUFU: Senior Adviser Ragnhild Tungesvik Senior Adviser Kurt Løvschal Adviser Benedicte Solheim (part time until 1 October 2007) Higher Executive Officer Alisa Hodzic (part time) Higher Executive Officer Anette Staaland (from 6 August 2007) Higher Executive Officer Stina Petersen Sæther (from 1 December 2007) Ragnhild Tungesvik is the programme coordinator for the NUFU Programme. In addition to the staff mentioned above, Head of Unit for Development Cooperation Paul J. Manger, SIU’s Group for ICT and Group for Information, as well as other staff members at SIU, have contributed to SIU’s administration of the NUFU programme in 2007.

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11. NUFU Accounts SIU's TOTAL ACCOUNT FOR THE NUFU PROGRAMME 2007 4th programme period

Budget 2007

Revised budget 2007

Accounts 2007

Allocation from Norad, Frame agreement, dated 12.01.2006

60 435 960

58 805 503

58 805 503

Allocation from Norad, NUCOOP, dated 08.10.2007

10 000 000

10 000 000

10 000 000

2 876 087

5 000 000

5 000 000

Total income

73 312 047

73 805 503

73 805 503

Multi annual co-operation projects, Frame agreement

49 709 360

44 608 728

44 608 728

Multi annual co-operation projects, NUCOOP

0

0

0

Multi annual co-operation projects, Tanzania

2 272 452

2 272 452

2 272 452

51 981 812

46 881 180

46 881 180

Supportive Measures

5 226 600

5 023 642

5 023 642

Supplementing Activities

1 000 000

1 000 000

398 700

353 635

4 026 768

3 952 386

5 400 000

5 400 000

5 400 000

63 962 047

62 331 590

61 655 908

9 350 000

11 473 913

12 149 595

73 312 047

73 805 503

73 805 503

Allocation from Norad, Tanzania ยง 2.2 agreement, dated 28.06.2007

Total multi annual co-operation projects

Institutional support to UiN and UiS Administration Total expenditures

Balance transferred to next year Sum

61


SIU's TOTAL ACCOUNT FOR THE NUFU PROGRAMME 2007 - 3rd programme period

Text

Budget 2005

Revised budget 2005

Accounts 2005

Budget 2006 Revised bu dge t 20 06

Accounts 2006

Budget 2007

Incom e 1 355 723

3 552 845

3 552 845

5 276 474

5 276 473

19 048 727

72 901 453

65 831 373

65 831 373

63 5 96 061

55 323 531

69 023 531

2 749 570

Allocation from NORAD, South Africa agreement, dated 23.01.2001

1 442 004

1 891 380

1 891 380

1 3 44 054

0

0

0

Allocation from NORAD, Palestine agreement, dated 09.05.2003

1 899 102

1 779 102

1 779 102

2 1 36 576

1 941 014

4 876 362

0

Allocation from the Norweg ian Embassy, Lilongwe, Malawian agreement, dated 0 3.10.2003

3 566 441

3 344 131

3 344 131

2 6 60 222

2 343 481

2 343 481

886 839

81 164 723

76 398 831

76 398 831

69 7 36 913

64 884 500

81 519 847

22 685 136

Transferre d from last year Allocation from NORAD, Frame agreement, da ted 23.01.2 001

Total income

Expenditures: 67 524 293

62 312 594

59 528 913

58 4 96 061

53 007 212

51 518 143

16 449 570

Multi a nnu al co-o peration projects, South Africa

2 318 403

1 367 685

1 321 266

1 3 44 054

1 382 226

1 382 226

46 108

Multi a nnu al co-o peration projects, Palestinian Areas

2 272 176

2 152 176

2 152 176

2 0 30 326

1 834 764

1 834 764

2 829 098

Multi a nnu al co-o peration projects, Malawi

3 379 566

3 157 256

3 129 821

2 5 29 542

2 240 236

2 238 171

886 839

Total m ulti annual co-operation projects

75 494 438

68 989 711

66 132 176

64 3 99 983

58 464 438

56 973 303

20 211 615

877 160

1 215 802

197 056

1 018 746

226 000

0

0

Multi a nnu al co-o peration projects, Frame agre ement / Extra allocations

Short Term Activities Dissemination Conference 200 7 Re turn of project fund s Re turn of proj.adm.co sts (exceeded 1 0% rule)

0

-63 238

6 00 000

600 000

598 125

0

4 736 930

4 736 930

106 250

64 820 114

62 471 119

20 317 865

Project from 2nd period (PRO 28/2002) Asse ssment of applications by external evaluators Administration Total expenditure s

Ba lance to be transferred to Norad Sum

4 793 125

4 793 125

4 793 125

4 7 36 930

81 164 723

74 998 638

71 122 357

69 7 36 913

0

1 400 193

5 276 474

0

6 4 386

19 048 728

2 367 271

81 164 723

76 398 831

76 398 831

69 7 36 913

64 884 500

81 519 847

22 685 136


Appendices

1. NUFU project portfolio 2007 – 2011 2. NUFU Supportive Measures 2007 – 2008 3. NUFU project portfolio 2002 – 2006 a. By South institution b. By Norwegian institution 4. Partner institutions in the NUFU Programme 2007 - 2011



http://new.siu.no/eng/content/download/1066/11599/file/NUFU_annual_report_2007