Issuu on Google+


myWords from dççÖäÉ Dictionary PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS


This is a Print Ready Document It means this textbook has been set up to be easily printed and requires no further settings and/or enhancements. Just turn on your printer device. Put enough standard A4 papers into it. Set it to print both sides (Under “Finishing” tab in “Properties” section) and hit the PRINT button. That’s all!


NOT FOR SALE OR COMMERCIAL USE FEE DIGITAL TEXTBOOK Feel free to share it with your friends

myWords from dççÖäÉ Dictionary PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS

Personal Wordlist based on the TOEFL section of the book:

General English for MA, MS, & PhD Candidates Volume 2: Vocabulary and Reading Comprehensions 1st Edition, 2009 - Mehrdad Amiri - Poorane Pajouhesh Publishing Co.

Word’s definitions have been gathered manually from Google Dictionary*. Persian equals have been translated by Google Translate**. (*. You can get access to Google Dictionary by putting “define” ahead of your search query.) (**. Google Translate is an online translation service from Google: translate.google.com) myWords from Google Dictionary - Practical Words for English Learners Over 700 Essential Words; A Free Digital Textbook. First Edition - 2013 - the eBird Published Free on the “World Wide Web” Visit wordsfromgoogledic.blogspot.com for more information and free PDF version.

Fonts list: Cambria - Droid Serif - `~íìää - Ubuntu -Ubuntu Light - Impact

Copyright © 2013 - the eBird. ®

dççÖäÉ , dççÖäÉ= Dictionary® & dççÖäÉ= Translate® are registered logos and trademarks of Google Inc. All rights reserved under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Please note that the Creative Commons license only includes the textbook and the textbook itself and not Google’s Trademarks.


Table of Contents the Words [001 - 168] A [003]

B [015]

C [023]

D [035]

E [047]

F [055]

G [061]

H [065]

I [069]

J [079]

K [081]

L [083]

M [087]

N [095]

O [097]

P [103]

Q [117]

R [119]

S [129]

T [145]

U [151]

V [153]

W [157]

Y [161]

Z [163]

Appendix [165 - 180] Pronunciation Guidelines

[167]

Quick AtoZ Words List

[169]


Pronunciation Quick Guide This is a quick guide to NOAD (New Oxford American Dictionary) pronunciation spelling system. You can find the full guide and its comparison to IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) system in the appendix under the “Pronunciation Guidelines” section (Page 167).

CH

chin

ə

about

j

june

y

yes

v

van

w

woman

TH

thin

t

butter

T͟H

then

ā

say

s

so

ī

five

z

zoo

oi

boy

SH

she

ou

now

ē

see

ō

go

I

sit

ər

bird

e

ten

i(ə)

near

a

cat

e(ə)

hair

ä

hot

ä

car

ô

saw

ôr

north

ə

cup

ZH

vision

o͝o

put

h

hat

o͞o

too

īn

sign


the Words


myWords 3 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

A,a ab·er·rant

ab·struse

adjective /ˈabərənt/ /əˈber-/ 1. Departing from an accepted standard 2. Diverging from the normal type aberrant chromosomes

adjective /abˈstro͞os/ 1. Difficult to understand; obscure an abstruse philosophical inquiry

SYNONYMS adjective: abnormal, anomalous

ab·o·rig·i·ne noun /ˌabəˈrijənē/ aborigines, plural 1. A person, animal, or plant that has been in a country or region from earliest times 2. An aboriginal inhabitant of Australia SYNONYMS adjective: domestic, aboriginal noun: aboriginal, native, autochthon

a·bor·tion noun /əˈbôrSHən/ abortions, plural 1. The deliberate termination of a human pregnancy, most often performed during the first 28 weeks of pregnancy 2. The expulsion of a fetus from the uterus by natural causes before it is able to survive independently 3. The arrest of the development of an organ, typically a seed or fruit 4. An object or undertaking regarded by the speaker as unpleasant or badly made or carried out SYNONYMS noun: miscarriage, failure

SYNONYMS adjective: obscure, recondite, deep, profound

a·bu·sive adjective /əˈbyo͞osiv/ /-ziv/ 1. Extremely offensive and insulting abusive language he became quite abusive and swore at her 2. Engaging in or characterized by habitual violence and cruelty abusive parents an abusive relationship 3. Involving injustice or illegality the abusive and predatory practices of businesses SYNONYMS adjective: insulting, offensive, opprobrious, scurr ilous, outrageous

ac·cord verb /əˈkôrd/ accorded, past participle; accorded, past tense; according, present participle; accords, 3rd person singular present 1. Give or grant someone (power, status, or recognition) the powers accorded to the head of state the young man had accorded her little notice 2. (of a concept or fact) Be harmonious or consistent with


4 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - A,a noun /əˈkôrd/ accords, plural 1. An official agreement or treaty 2. Agreement or harmony the government and the rebels are in accord on one point function and form in harmonious accord SYNONYMS verb: grant, agree, give, confer noun: agreement, concord, harmony, accordance, concordance, concert, compact, consent, consonance

ac·knowl·edge verb /akˈnälij/ acknowledged, past participle; acknowledged, past tense; acknowledges, 3rd person singular present; acknowledging, present participle 1. Accept or admit the existence or truth of the plight of the refugees was acknowledged by the authorities the government acknowledged that the tax was unfair “That's true,” she acknowledged 2. (of a body of opinion) Recognize the fact or importance or quality of the art world has begun to acknowledge his genius he's generally acknowledged to be the game's finest coach 3. Express or display gratitude for or appreciation of he received a letter acknowledging his services 4. Accept the validity or legitimacy of Henry acknowledged Richard as his heir 5. Show that one has noticed or recognized (someone) by making a gesture or greeting she refused to acknowledge my presence 6. Confirm (receipt of something) SYNONYMS verb: admit, recognize, confess, avow, concede, grant, own, confirm, allow, accept

a·cous·tic adjective /əˈko͞ostik/ 1. Relating to sound or the sense of hearing dogs have a much greater acoustic range than humans 2. (of building materials) Used for soundproofing or modifying sound acoustic tiles 3. (of an explosive mine or other weapon) Able to be set off by sound waves 4. (of music or musical instruments) Not having electrical amplification acoustic guitar 5. (of a person or group) Playing such instruments

noun /əˈko͞ostik/ acoustics, plural 1. The properties or qualities of a room or building that determine how sound is transmitted in it Symphony Hall has perfect acoustics 2. The acoustic properties or ambience of a sound recording or of a recording studio 3. The branch of physics concerned with the properties of sound 4. A musical instrument without electrical amplification, typically a guitar SYNONYMS adjective: acoustical, phonic, auditory, sonic, aur al noun: acoustics

ac·qui·si·tion noun /ˌakwəˈziSHən/ acquisitions, plural 1. An asset or object bought or obtained, typically by a library or museum 2. An act of purchase of one company by another there were many acquisitions among travel agents expanding by growth or acquisition 3. Buying or obtaining an asset or object Western culture places a high value on material acquisition 4. The learning or developing of a skill, habit, or quality the acquisition of management skills

ac·ri·mo·ni·ous adjective /ˌakrəˈmōnēəs/ 1. (typically of speech or a debate) Angry and bitter an acrimonious dispute about wages SYNONYMS adjective: acrid, sharp, biting, pungent, caustic, b itter, cutting, poignant, acid, mordant, trenchant

ac·ro·pho·bi·a noun /ˌakrəˈfōbēə/ 1. Extreme or irrational fear of heights With the market already having advanced more nearly 16% year to date, it's easy to become afflicted by acrophobia and suffer from nose bleeds.

ad·he·sive adjective /adˈhēsiv/ /-ziv/ 1. Able to stick fast to a surface or object; sticky an adhesive label noun /adˈhēsiv/ adhesives, plural

/-ziv/


myWords 5 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

1.

A substance used for sticking objects or materials together; glue

SYNONYMS adjective: sticky, gluey, glutinous, tacky, gummy, clammy, adherent, viscous, tenacious noun: glue, paste, gum

ad·vo·cate noun /ˈadvəkit/ advocates, plural 1. A person who publicly supports or recommends a particular cause or policy he was an untiring advocate of economic reform 2. A person who pleads on someone else's behalf care managers can become advocates for their clients 3. A pleader in a court of law; a lawyer Marshall was a skilled advocate but a mediocre judge verb /-ˌkāt/ advocated, past participle; advocated, past tense; advocates, 3rd person singular present; advocating, present participle 1. Publicly recommend or support they advocated an ethical foreign policy SYNONYMS verb: defend, support, champion, uphold, plead, protect noun: lawyer, barrister, supporter, attorney, defender, counsel, solicitor, pleader, champion, counselor

af·fec·tion noun /əˈfekSHən/ affections, plural 1. A gentle feeling of fondness or liking she felt affection for the wise old lady he won a place in her affections 2. Physical expressions of these feelings the prisoners crave affection and hence participate in sexual relationships 3. The act or process of affecting or being affected 4. A condition of disease an affection of the skin 5. A mental state; an emotion SYNONYMS noun: love, fondness, attachment, liking

af·fi·da·vit noun /ˌafiˈdāvit/ affidavits, plural 1. A written statement confirmed by oath or affirmation, for use as evidence in court

af·fil·i·a·tion noun /əˌfilēˈāSHən/ affiliations, plural 1. The state or process of affiliating or being affiliated he had no particular affiliation, no close associates his political affiliations

af·fix af·fair noun /əˈfe(ə)r/ affairs, plural 1. An event or sequence of events of a specified kind or that has previously been referred to the board admitted responsibility for the affair I wanted the funeral to be a family affair 2. A matter that is a particular person's concern or responsibility what you do in your spare time is your affair 3. Matters of public interest and importance commissions were created to advise on foreign affairs 4. Business and financial dealings his time was spent in winding up his affairs 5. An object of a particular type her dress was a black low-cut affair 6. A love affair his wife is having an affair SYNONYMS noun: matter, business, thing, case, job, concern, cause

verb /əˈfiks/ affixed, past participle; affixed, past tense; affixes, 3rd person singular present; affixing, present participle 1. Stick, attach, or fasten (something) to something else he licked the stamp and affixed it to the envelope noun /ˈaˌfiks/ affixes, plural 1. An additional element placed at the beginning or end of a root, stem, or word, or in the body of a word, to modify its meaning SYNONYMS verb: attach, append, add, annex, fasten, subjoin noun: addition

af·front noun /əˈfrənt/ affronts, plural 1. An action or remark that causes outrage or offense


6 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - A,a he took his son's desertion as a personal affront privilege publicly worn is an affront to democracy verb /əˈfrənt/ affronted, past participle; affronted, past tense; affronting, present participle; affronts, 3rd person singular present 1. Offend the modesty or values of she was affronted by his familiarity SYNONYMS verb: insult, offend, outrage, slight noun: insult, offence, offense, contumely, indignity, outrage, abuse

a·gen·da noun /əˈjendə/ agendas, plural 1. A list of items to be discussed at a formal meeting the question of nuclear weapons had been removed from the agenda 2. A plan of things to be done or problems to be addressed he vowed to put jobs at the top of his agenda the government had its own agenda 3. The underlying intentions or motives of a particular person or group Miller has his own agenda and it has nothing to do with football 4. An appointment diary SYNONYMS noun: order paper

2. 3. 4.

the council was an aggregate of three regional assemblies The total number of points scored by a player or team in a series of sporting contests the result put the sides even on aggregate A material or structure formed from a loosely compacted mass of fragments or particles Pieces of broken or crushed stone or gravel used to make concrete, or more generally in building and construction work

adjective /ˈagrigit/ 1. Formed or calculated by the combination of many separate units or items; total the aggregate amount of grants made 2. (of a group of species) Comprising several very similar species formerly regarded as a single species 3. Denoting the total supply or demand for goods and services in an economy at a particular time aggregate demand aggregate supply verb /-ˌgāt/ aggregated, past participle; aggregated, past tense; aggregates, 3rd person singular present; aggregating, present participle 1. Form or group into a class or cluster the butterflies aggregate in dense groups SYNONYMS adjective: total, overall, collective verb: assemble, gather, collect, accumulate, amass noun: total, aggregation, sum, whole

a·like ag·gra·vate verb /ˈagrəˌvāt/ aggravated, past participle; aggravated, past tense; aggravates, 3rd person singular present; aggravating, present participle 1. Make (a problem, injury, or offense) worse or more serious military action would only aggravate the situation 2. Annoy or exasperate (someone), esp. persistently she found him thoroughly aggravating and unprofessional SYNONYMS verb: exasperate, exacerbate, irritate, nettle, worsen

ag·gre·gate noun /ˈagrigit/ aggregates, plural 1. A whole formed by combining several (typically disparate) elements

adjective /əˈlīk/ 1. (of two or more subjects) Similar to each other the brothers were very much alike the houses all looked alike adverb /əˈlīk/ 1. In the same or a similar way the girls dressed alike in black pants and jackets 2. Used to show that something applies equally to a number of specified subjects he talked in a friendly manner to staff and patients alike SYNONYMS adjective: similar, like, analogous, same, equal, akin, identical, such adverb: equally, similarly, likewise, evenly, even

al·lure noun /əˈlo͝or/ allures, plural 1. The quality of being powerfully and mysteriously attractive or fascinating


myWords 7 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

people for whom gold holds no allure

an ambitious enterprise

verb /əˈlo͝or/ allured, past participle; allured, past tense; allures, 3rd person singular present; alluring, present participle 1. Powerfully attract or charm; tempt

SYNONYMS adjective: aspiring

SYNONYMS verb: entice, lure, tempt, attract, seduce, decoy, inveigle, bait, draw noun: lure, charm, fascination, allurement, glamour, glamor, attraction, appeal

noun /əˈmen(d)mənt/ amendments, plural 1. A minor change in a document 2. A change or addition to a legal or statutory document an amendment to existing bail laws 3. An article added to the US Constitution the First Amendment 4. Something that is added to soil in order to improve its texture or fertility

al·tru·ism noun /ˈaltro͞oˌizəm/ 1. The belief in or practice of disinterested and selfless concern for the well-being of others some may choose to work with vulnerable elderly people out of altruism 2. Behavior of an animal that benefits another at its own expense SYNONYMS noun: unselfishness

a·lu·mi·num noun /əˈlo͞omənəm/ 1. The chemical element of atomic number 13, a light silvery-gray metal SYNONYMS adjective: aluminium noun: aluminium

am·big·u·ous adjective /amˈbigyo͞oəs/ 1. (of language) Open to more than one interpretation; having a double meaning the question is rather ambiguous ambiguous phrases 2. Unclear or inexact because a choice between alternatives has not been made this whole society is morally ambiguous the election result was ambiguous SYNONYMS adjective: equivocal, vague, uncertain, doubtful, obscure, dubious

am·bi·tious adjective /amˈbiSHəs/ 1. Having or showing a strong desire and determination to succeed his mother was hard-working and ambitious for her four children 2. (of a plan or piece of work) Intended to satisfy high aspirations and therefore difficult to achieve the scope of the book is very ambitious

a·mend·ment

SYNONYMS noun: correction, improvement, emendation, rectification, alteration, modification, reformation

am·nes·ty noun /ˈamnistē/ amnesties, plural 1. An official pardon for people who have been convicted of political offenses an amnesty for political prisoners the new law granted amnesty to those who illegally left the country 2. An undertaking by the authorities to take no action against specified offenses or offenders during a fixed period a month-long weapons amnesty verb /ˈamnistē/ amnestied, past participle; amnestied, past tense; amnesties, 3rd person singular present; amnestying, present participle 1. Grant an official pardon to the guerrillas would be amnestied and allowed to return to civilian life SYNONYMS verb: pardon noun: pardon

an·drog·y·nous adjective /anˈdräjənəs/ 1. Partly male and partly female in appearance; of indeterminate sex 2. Having the physical characteristics of both sexes; hermaphrodite SYNONYMS adjective: epicene

a·nom·a·ly noun /əˈnäməlē/ anomalies, plural


8 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - A,a 1.

2.

Something that deviates from what is standard, normal, or expected there are a number of anomalies in the present system a legal anomaly the apparent anomaly that those who produced the wealth were the poorest the position abounds in anomaly The angular distance of a planet or satellite from its last perihelion or perigee

SYNONYMS noun: abnormality, irregularity, aberration, abnormity

a·non·y·mous adjective /əˈnänəməs/ 1. (of a person) Not identified by name; of unknown name the anonymous author of Beowulf the donor's wish to remain anonymous an anonymous phone call 2. Having no outstanding, individual, or unusual features; unremarkable or impersonal the anonymous black car waiting to take him to the airport a faceless, anonymous group 3. Used in names of support groups for addicts of a substance or behavior to indicate the confidentiality maintained among members of the group Alcoholics Anonymous Debtors Anonymous SYNONYMS adjective: nameless, authorless, unnamed

an·thol·o·gy noun /anˈTHäləjē/ anthologies, plural 1. A published collection of poems or other pieces of writing an anthology of European poetry 2. A similar collection of songs or musical compositions issued in one album SYNONYMS noun: garland, omnibus

an·tith·e·sis noun /anˈtiTHəsis/ antitheses, plural 1. A person or thing that is the direct opposite of someone or something else love is the antithesis of selfishness 2. A contrast or opposition between two things the antithesis between occult and rational mentalities 3. A figure of speech in which an opposition or contrast of ideas is expressed by parallelism

4.

of words that are the opposites of, or strongly contrasted with, each other, such as “hatred stirs up strife, but love covers all sins” his sermons were full of startling antitheses (in Hegelian philosophy) The negation of the thesis as the second stage in the process of dialectical reasoning

SYNONYMS noun: contrast, opposition, contradistinction, contraposition

an·ti·thet·i·cal adjective /ˌantəˈTHetikəl/ 1. Directly opposed or contrasted; mutually incompatible people whose religious beliefs are antithetical to mine two antithetical emotions pulled at her 2. Connected with, containing, or using the rhetorical device of antithesis SYNONYMS adjective: antithetic

an·to·nym noun /ˈantəˌnim/ antonyms, plural 1. A word opposite in meaning to another (e.g., bad and good)

anx·ious adjective /ˈaNG(k)SHəs/ 1. Experiencing worry, unease, or nervousness, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome she was extremely anxious about her exams 2. (of a period of time or situation) Causing or characterized by worry or nervousness there were some anxious moments 3. Wanting something very much, typically with a feeling of unease the company was anxious to avoid any trouble my parents were anxious that I get an education SYNONYMS adjective: uneasy, worried, solicitous, concerned, restless, eager, troubled, apprehensive

ap·a·thy noun /ˈapəTHē/ 1. Lack of interest, enthusiasm, or concern widespread apathy among students SYNONYMS noun: indifference, unconcern, torpor, listlessness, nonchalance


myWords 9 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

ap·o·gee

ap·plause

noun /ˈapəjē/ apogees, plural 1. The highest point in the development of something; the climax or culmination the White House is considered the apogee of American achievement 2. The point in the orbit of the moon or a satellite at which it is furthest from the earth

noun /əˈplôz/ 1. Approval or praise expressed by clapping they gave him a round of applause

SYNONYMS noun: zenith, climax, height, pinnacle, acme, culmination, summit, apex, heyday

ap·peal verb /əˈpēl/ appealed, past participle; appealed, past tense; appealing, present participle; appeals, 3rd person singular present 1. Make a serious or urgent request, typically to the public police are appealing for information about the incident she appealed to Germany for political asylum 2. Apply to a higher court for a reversal of the decision of a lower court he said he would appeal against the conviction they have 48 hours to appeal the decision 3. (of the defensive team) Call on the umpire to rule a strike or out on a completed play 4. Address oneself to (a principle or quality in someone) in anticipation of a favorable response I appealed to his sense of justice 5. Be attractive or interesting the range of topics will appeal to youngsters noun /əˈpēl/ appeals, plural 1. A serious or urgent request, typically one made to the public his mother made an appeal for the return of the ring 2. An attempt to obtain financial support a public appeal to raise $120,000 3. Entreaty a look of appeal on his face 4. An application to a higher court for a decision to be reversed he has 28 days in which to lodge an appeal the right of appeal 5. An address to a principle or quality in anticipation of a favorable response an appeal to black pride 6. The quality of being attractive or interesting the popular appeal of football SYNONYMS noun: call, plea, attraction, request, petition, entreaty

SYNONYMS noun: approval, acclamation, hand, acclaim, clap, plaudit, clapping

ap·pre·ci·ate verb /əˈprēSHēˌāt/ appreciated, past participle; appreciated, past tense; appreciates, 3rd person singular present; appreciating, present participle 1. Recognize the full worth of she feels that he does not appreciate her 2. Be grateful for (something) I'd appreciate any information you could give me 3. Understand (a situation) fully; recognize the full implications of they failed to appreciate the pressure he was under I appreciate that you cannot be held totally responsible 4. Rise in value or price they expected the house to appreciate in value SYNONYMS verb: value, estimate, appraise, evaluate, rate, esteem, prize

ap·ti·tude noun /ˈaptiˌt(y)o͞od/ aptitudes, plural 1. A natural ability to do something he had a remarkable aptitude for learning words 2. A natural tendency his natural aptitude for failure 3. Suitability or fitness aptitude of expression SYNONYMS noun: ability, capability, talent, faculty, capacity, competence, aptness, fitness, gift, flair

ar·bi·trar·y adjective /ˈärbiˌtrerē/ 1. Based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system his mealtimes were entirely arbitrary 2. (of power or a ruling body) Unrestrained and autocratic in the use of authority arbitrary rule by King and bishops has been made impossible 3. (of a constant or other quantity) Of unspecified value


10 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - A,a SYNONYMS adjective: high-handed

3.

ar·dent adjective /ˈärdnt/ 1. Enthusiastic or passionate an ardent baseball fan an ardent suitor 2. Burning; glowing the ardent flames

Something observed in a scientific investigation or experiment that is not naturally present but occurs as a result of the preparative or investigative procedure widespread tissue infection may be a technical artifact

SYNONYMS noun: artifact

ash·tray

SYNONYMS adjective: fervent, fiery, passionate, hot, zealous, fervid, burning, flaming, eager, torrid, keen, warm, glowing

noun /ˈaSHˌtrā/ ashtrays, plural 1. A receptacle for tobacco ash and cigarette butts

ar·dor

as·pir·ant

noun /ˈärdər/ ardors, plural; ardours, plural 1. Enthusiasm or passion they felt the stirrings of revolutionary ardor

adjective /ˈaspərənt/ /əˈspī-/ 1. (of a person) Having ambitions to achieve something, typically to follow a particular career an aspirant politician

SYNONYMS noun: ardour, zeal, fervour, fervor, fervency, enthusiasm, heat, fire, eagerness, passion, glow

noun /ˈaspərənt/ aspirants, plural 1.

ar·id adjective /ˈarid/ 1. (of land or a climate) Having little or no rain; too dry or barren to support vegetation hot and arid conditions 2. Lacking in interest, excitement, or meaning his arid years in suburbia SYNONYMS adjective: dry, barren, droughty, jejune

ar·ro·gant adjective /ˈarəgənt/ 1. Having or revealing an exaggerated sense of one's own importance or abilities he's arrogant and opinionated a typically arrogant assumption SYNONYMS adjective: haughty, proud, conceited, supercilious, lofty, overweening, uppish, presumptuous, overbearing, assuming, insolent

ar·ti·fact noun /ˈärtəˌfakt/ artefacts, plural; artifacts, plural 1. An object made by a human being, typically an item of cultural or historical interest gold and silver artifacts 2. Such an object as distinguished from a similar object naturally produced

/əˈspī-/

A person who has ambitions to achieve something an aspirant to the throne

SYNONYMS noun: candidate, applicant, pretender

as·sem·ble verb /əˈsembəl/ assembled, past participle; assembled, past tense; assembles, 3rd person singular present; assembling, present participle 1. (of people) Gather together in one place for a common purpose a crowd had assembled outside the gates 2. Bring (people or things) together for a common purpose he assembled the surviving members of the group for a tour 3. (of male moths) Gather for mating in response to a pheromone released by a female 4. Fit together the separate component parts of (a machine or other object) a factory that assembled parts for trucks 5. Translate (a program) from assembly language into machine code SYNONYMS verb: gather, collect, congregate, rally, muster, convene, aggregate, put together, accumulate

as·ser·tive adjective

/əˈsərtiv/


myWords 11 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

1.

Having or showing a confident and forceful personality patients should be more assertive with their doctors

SYNONYMS adjective: positive

as·set noun /ˈaset/ assets, plural 1. A useful or valuable thing, person, or quality quick reflexes were his chief asset the school is an asset to the community 2. Property owned by a person or company, regarded as having value and available to meet debts, commitments, or legacies growth in net assets debiting the asset account 3. Military equipment, such as planes, ships, communications and radar installations, employed or targeted in military operations SYNONYMS noun: property

as·suage verb /əˈswāj/ assuaged, past participle; assuaged, past tense; assuages, 3rd person singular present; assuaging, present participle 1. Make (an unpleasant feeling) less intense the letter assuaged the fears of most members 2. Satisfy (an appetite or desire) an opportunity occurred to assuage her desire for knowledge SYNONYMS verb: soothe, appease, allay, pacify, mitigate, calm, mollify, alleviate, still, ease, salve, quiet, relieve, lull, palliate, abate

as·sur·ance noun /əˈSHo͝orəns/ assurances, plural 1. A positive declaration intended to give confidence; a promise he gave an assurance that work would not recommence until Wednesday 2. Confidence or certainty in one's own abilities she drove with assurance 3. Certainty about something the crowd’s assurance of Joe’s guilt 4. Insurance, specifically life insurance SYNONYMS noun: security, certainty, insurance, surety, assuredness, certitude, confidence, guarantee, pledge

as·ton·ish verb /əˈstäniSH/ astonished, past participle; astonished, past tense; astonishes, 3rd person singular present; astonishing, present participle 1. Surprise or impress (someone) greatly you never fail to astonish me it astonished her that Mrs. Browing could seem so anxious SYNONYMS verb: astound, amaze, surprise, flabbergast, stupefy, stagger, dumbfound, daze

as·tound verb /əˈstound/ astounded, past participle; astounded, past tense; astounding, present participle; astounds, 3rd person singular present 2. Shock or greatly surprise her bluntness astounded him SYNONYMS verb: astonish, amaze, flabbergast, surprise, stupefy, dumbfound, stagger, daze

at·ti·tude noun /ˈatiˌt(y)o͞od/ attitudes, plural 1. A settled way of thinking or feeling about someone or something, typically one that is reflected in a person's behavior she took a tough attitude toward other people's indulgences being competitive is an attitude of mind differences in attitude were apparent between groups 2. A position of the body proper to or implying an action or mental state the boy was standing in an attitude of despair, his chin sunk on his chest 3. Truculent or uncooperative behavior; a resentful or antagonistic manner I asked the waiter for a clean fork, and all I got was attitude 4. Individuality and self-confidence as manifested by behavior or appearance; style she snapped her fingers with attitude 5. The orientation of an aircraft or spacecraft, relative to the direction of travel 6. A position in which one leg is lifted behind with the knee bent at right angles and turned out, and the corresponding arm is raised above the head, the other extended to the side SYNONYMS noun: posture, pose, position, stance, stand, bearing, manner


12 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - A,a

at·tract verb /əˈtrakt/ attracted, past participle; attracted, past tense; attracting, present participle; attracts, 3rd person singular present 1. Cause to come to a place or participate in a venture by offering something of interest, favorable conditions, or opportunities a campaign to attract more visitors to West Virginia he hoped this strategy would attract foreign investment by multinationals 2. Evoke (a specified reaction) I did not want to attract attention his criticism of the government attracted widespread support 3. Cause (someone) to have a liking for or interest in something I was attracted to the idea of working for a ballet company 4. Cause (someone) to have a sexual or romantic interest in someone it was her beauty that attracted him 5. Exert a force on (an object) that is directed toward the source of the force the negatively charged ions attract particles of dust SYNONYMS verb: draw, allure, lure, entice, tempt, charm

aug·ment verb /ôgˈment/ augmented, past participle; augmented, past tense; augmenting, present participle; augments, 3rd person singular present 1. Make (something) greater by adding to it; increase he augmented his summer income by painting houses noun /ˈôgˌment/ /-mənt/ augments, plural 1. A vowel prefixed to past tenses of verbs in Greek and other Indo-European languages SYNONYMS verb: increase, enlarge, enhance, grow, magnify, amplify, heighten, swell, expand, multiply, extend, add noun: increase, augmentation, increment

au·gu·ry noun /ˈôgyərē/ auguries, plural 1. A sign of what will happen in the future; an omen they heard the sound as an augury of death 2. The work of an augur; the interpretation of omens

SYNONYMS noun: omen, presage, prognostication, divination, sign, portent, prognostic, prediction, foretoken, premonition, prophecy

aus·pice noun /ˈôspis/ auspices, plural 1. A divine or prophetic token SYNONYMS noun: patronage, protection

au·then·tic adjective /ôˈTHentik/ 1. Of undisputed origin; genuine the letter is now accepted as an authentic document authentic 14th-century furniture 2. Made or done in the traditional or original way, or in a way that faithfully resembles an original the restaurant serves authentic Italian meals 3. Based on facts; accurate or reliable an authentic depiction of the situation 4. (in existentialist philosophy) Relating to or denoting an emotionally appropriate, significant, purposive, and responsible mode of human life 5. (of a church mode) Comprising the notes lying between the principal note or final and the note an octave higher SYNONYMS adjective: genuine, true, real, veritable, original

au·thor·i·tar·i·an adjective /əˌTHôriˈte(ə)rēən/ /ôˌTHär-/ 1. Favoring or enforcing strict obedience to authority, esp. that of the government, at the expense of personal freedom the transition from an authoritarian to a democratic regime 2.

Showing a lack of concern for the wishes or opinions of others; domineering; dictatorial he had an authoritarian and at times belligerent manner

noun /əˌTHôriˈte(ə)rēən/ /ôˌTHär-/ authoritarians, plural 1. An authoritarian person SYNONYMS adjective: authoritative, magisterial

au·thor·i·ta·tive adjective /əˈTHôriˌtātiv/ /əˈTHär-/ 1. Able to be trusted as being accurate or true; reliable clear, authoritative information and advice


myWords 13 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2. 3.

4.

an authoritative source (of a text) Considered to be the best of its kind and unlikely to be improved upon the authoritative study of mollusks Commanding and self-confident; likely to be respected and obeyed she had an authoritative air his voice was calm and authoritative Proceeding from an official source and requiring compliance or obedience authoritative directives

SYNONYMS adjective: imperious, magisterial, peremptory, imperative, masterful

au·ton·o·my noun /ôˈtänəmē/ autonomies, plural 1. (of a country or region) The right or condition of self-government, esp. in a particular sphere Tatarstan demanded greater autonomy within the Russian Federation 2. A self-governing country or region 3. Freedom from external control or influence; independence economic autonomy is still a long way off for many women 4. (in Kantian moral philosophy) The capacity of an agent to act in accordance with objective morality rather than under the influence of desires SYNONYMS noun: self-government, independence

a·vert verb /əˈvərt/ averted, past participle; averted, past tense; averting, present participle; averts, 3rd person singular present 1. Turn away (one's eyes or thoughts) she averted her eyes during the more violent scenes 2. Prevent or ward off (an undesirable occurrence) talks failed to avert a rail strike SYNONYMS verb: prevent, divert, avoid, head off, stave off, preclude, obviate

ax·i·om noun /ˈaksēəm/ axioms, plural 1. A statement or proposition that is regarded as being established, accepted, or self-evidently true the axiom that supply equals demand

2.

A statement or proposition on which an abstractly defined structure is based


14 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - A,a


myWords 15 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

B,b baf·fle verb /ˈbafəl/ baffled, past participle; baffled, past tense; baffles, 3rd person singular present; baffling, present participle 1. Totally bewilder or perplex an unexplained occurrence that baffled everyone 2. Restrain or regulate (a fluid, sound, etc.) to baffle the noise further, I pad the gunwales noun /ˈbafəl/ baffles, plural A device used to restrain the flow of a fluid, gas, or loose material or to prevent the spreading of sound or light in a particular direction SYNONYMS verb: confound, disconcert, bewilder, perplex, puzzle, confuse, frustrate

ba·nal adjective /ˈbānl/ /bəˈnal/ /-ˈnäl/ 1. So lacking in originality as to be obvious and boring songs with banal, repeated words SYNONYMS adjective: trite, commonplace, hackneyed, trivial, platitudinous, corny, common

bar·bar·ic adjective /bärˈbarik/ 1. Savagely cruel; exceedingly brutal he had carried out barbaric acts in the name of war 2. Primitive; unsophisticated

3.

the barbaric splendor he found in civilizations since destroyed Uncivilized and uncultured

SYNONYMS adjective: barbarous, barbarian, savage, uncivilized

ba·roque adjective /bəˈrōk/ 1. Relating to or denoting a style of European architecture, music, and art of the 17th and 18th centuries that followed mannerism and is characterized by ornate detail. In architecture the period is exemplified by the palace of Versailles and by the work of Bernini in Italy. Major composers include Vivaldi, Bach, and Handel; Caravaggio and Rubens are important baroque artists 2. Highly ornate and extravagant in style the candles were positively baroque noun /bəˈrōk/ baroques, plural 1. The baroque style 2. The baroque period

bar·ren adjective /ˈbarən/ barrener, comparative; barrenest, superlative 1. (of land) Too poor to produce much or any vegetation 2. (of a tree or plant) Not producing fruit or seed 3. (of a woman) Unable to have children 4. (of a female animal) Not pregnant or unable to become so


16 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - B,b 5.

6. 7.

8.

Showing no results or achievements; unproductive much of philosophy has been barren (of a place or building) Bleak and lifeless the sports hall turned out to be a rather barren concrete building Empty of meaning or value those young heads were stuffed with barren facts Devoid of the room was barren of furniture

noun /ˈbarən/ barrens, plural 1. A barren tract or tracts of land crossing the barrens was no easy feat SYNONYMS adjective: sterile, infertile, fruitless, unproductive, arid, jejune

ba·sic adjective /ˈbāsik/ 1. Forming an essential foundation or starting point; fundamental certain basic rules must be obeyed the laying down of arms is basic to the agreement 2. Offering or consisting in the minimum required without elaboration or luxury; simplest or lowest in level basic and unsophisticated resorts the food was good, if a bit basic 3. Common to or required by everyone; primary and ineradicable or inalienable basic human rights 4. Having the properties of a base, or containing a base; having a pH greater than 7 5. (of rock, esp. igneous rock) Relatively poor in silica 6. Relating to or denoting steelmaking processes involving lime-rich refractories and slags noun /ˈbāsik/ basics, plural 1. The essential facts or principles of a subject or skill learning the basics of the business storytelling has reemerged as people have turned back to basics 2. Essential food and other supplies people are facing a shortage of basics like flour 3. Basic training SYNONYMS adjective: fundamental, primary, essential, cardinal, main, basal, radical, ultimate, principal, underlying, elementary, elemental

be·liev·a·ble adjective

/biˈlēvəbəl/

1. 2.

(of an account or the person relating it) Able to be believed; credible (of a fictional character or situation) Convincing or realistic

SYNONYMS adjective: credible, plausible, probable, likely, verisimilar

ben·e·fi·ci·ar·y noun /ˌbenəˈfiSHēˌerē/ beneficiaries, plural 1. A person who derives advantage from something, esp. a trust, will, or life insurance policy

ber·serk adjective /bərˈzərk/ /-ˈsərk/ 1. (of a person or animal) Out of control with anger or excitement; wild or frenzied after she left him, he went berserk, throwing things about the apartment 2. (of a mechanical device or system) Operating in a wild or erratic way; out of control the climate control went berserk and either roasted or froze us 3. (of a procedure, program, or activity) Fluctuating wildly the stock market's gone berserk, with sugar at 15.27 cents a pound SYNONYMS adjective: mad, frenzied, crazy, furious, frantic noun: berserker

bev·y noun /ˈbevē/ bevies, plural 1. A large group of people or things of a particular kind he was surrounded by a bevy of beautiful girls 2. A group of birds, particularly when closely gathered on the ground a bevy of quail stayed through winter, feeding on our locust beans SYNONYMS noun: flock, herd, swarm, crowd, cluster, group, troop, flight, pack, shoal, covey, drove

bi·as noun /ˈbīəs/ biases, plural 1. Prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair there was evidence of bias against foreign applicants the bias toward younger people in recruitment


myWords 17 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

a systematic bias in favor of the powerful A concentration on or interest in one particular area or subject he worked on a variety of Greek topics, with a discernible bias toward philosophy A systematic distortion of a statistical result due to a factor not allowed for in its derivation An edge cut obliquely across the grain of a fabric In some sports, such as lawn bowling, the irregular shape given to a ball The oblique course that such a shape causes a ball to run A steady voltage, magnetic field, or other factor applied to an electronic system or device to cause it to operate over a predetermined range

verb /ˈbīəs/ biased, past participle; biased, past tense; biases, 3rd person singular present; biasing, present participle 1. Show prejudice for or against (someone or something) unfairly readers said the paper was biased toward the conservatives the tests were biased against women and minorities 2. Influence unfairly to invoke favoritism her well-rehearsed sob story failed to bias the jury 3. Give a bias to bias the ball adjective /ˈbīəst/ 1. Unfairly prejudiced for or against someone or something we will not tolerate this biased media coverage

the recently concluded bilateral agreements with Japan SYNONYMS adjective: two-sided, two-way, reciprocal, mutual

bi·og·ra·phy noun /bīˈägrəfē/ biographies, plural 1. An account of someone's life written by someone else 2. Writing of such a type as a branch of literature 3. A human life in its course although their individual biographies are different, both are motivated by a similar ambition SYNONYMS noun: life, memoir

bi·ol·o·gy noun /bīˈäləjē/ 1. The study of living organisms, divided into many specialized fields that cover their morphology, physiology, anatomy, behavior, origin, and distribution 2. The plants and animals of a particular area the biology of Chesapeake Bay 3. The physiology, behavior, and other qualities of a particular organism or class of organisms human biology

bi·par·ti·san

SYNONYMS adjective: skew, oblique verb: influence, prejudice noun: prejudice, inclination, partiality, tendency adverb: aslant, slantwise, sideways, athwart

adjective /bīˈpärtəzən/ 1. Of or involving the agreement or cooperation of two political parties that usually oppose each other's policies educational reform received considerable bipartisan approval

big·ot

bi·sect

noun /ˈbigət/ bigots, plural 1. A person who is bigoted religious bigots

verb /bīˈsekt/ /ˈbīˌsekt/ bisected, past participle; bisected, past tense; bisecting, present participle; bisects, 3rd person singular present 1. Divide into two parts a landscape of farmland bisected by long straight roads 2. Divide (a line, angle, shape, etc.) into two equal parts

SYNONYMS noun: zealot, fanatic

bi·lat·er·al adjective /bīˈlatərəl/ 1. Having or relating to two sides; affecting both sides bilateral hearing is essential for sound location 2. Involving two parties, usually countries

SYNONYMS verb: halve

bit·ter adjective /ˈbitər/ bitterer, comparative;

bitterest, superlative


18 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - B,b 1.

Having a sharp, pungent taste or smell; not sweet the raw berries have an intensely bitter flavor 2. (of chocolate) Dark and unsweetened 3. (of people or their feelings or behavior) Angry, hurt, or resentful because of one's bad experiences or a sense of unjust treatment I don't feel jealous or bitter 4. (of a conflict, argument, or opponent) Full of anger and acrimony a bitter, five-year legal battle 5. (often used for emphasis) Painful or unpleasant to accept or contemplate today's decision has come as a bitter blow 6. (of wind, cold, or weather) Intensely cold a bitter wind blowing from the east noun /ˈbitər/ bitters, plural 1. Beer that is strongly flavored with hops and has a bitter taste 2. Liquor that is flavored with the sharp pungent taste of plant extracts and is used as an additive in cocktails or as a medicinal substance to promote appetite or digestion SYNONYMS adjective: sharp, acrid, acrimonious, pungent, biting noun: bitterness

bi·week·ly adverb /bīˈwēklē/ 1. Appearing or taking place every two weeks or twice a week a biweekly bulletin she followed her doctor's instructions to undergo health checks biweekly noun /bīˈwēklē/ biweeklies, plural 1. A periodical that appears every two weeks or twice a week SYNONYMS adjective: fortnightly, semiweekly

bi·zarre adjective /biˈzär/ 1. Very strange or unusual, esp. so as to cause interest or amusement her bizarre dresses and outrageous hairdos SYNONYMS adjective: odd, weird, strange, outlandish, quaint, fantastic, whimsical, eccentric, rum, peculiar, fantastical, singular, fanciful, freakish

blas·phe·my noun /ˈblasfəmē/ blasphemies, plural

1.

The act or offense of speaking sacrilegiously about God or sacred things; profane talk he was detained on charges of blasphemy screaming incomprehensible blasphemies

SYNONYMS noun: profanity

bla·tant adjective /ˈblātnt/ 1. (of bad behavior) Done openly and unashamedly blatant lies 2. Completely lacking in subtlety; very obvious forcing herself to resist his blatant charm SYNONYMS adjective: noisy, loud, obstreperous

bo·gus adjective /ˈbōgəs/ 1. Not genuine or true; fake a bogus insurance claim

bo·nus noun /ˈbōnəs/ bonuses, plural 1. A payment or gift added to what is usual or expected, in particular 2. An amount of money added to wages on a seasonal basis, esp. as a reward for good performance big Christmas bonuses 3. Something welcome and often unexpected that accompanies and enhances something that is itself good good weather is an added bonus but the real appeal is the landscape 4. An extra free throw awarded to a fouled player when the opposing team has exceeded the number of team fouls allowed during a period 5. An extra dividend or issue paid to the shareholders of a company 6. A distribution of profits to holders of an insurance policy SYNONYMS adjective: premium noun: premium, prize, gratuity, reward, bounty

bounce verb /bouns/ bounced, past participle; bounced, past tense; bounces, 3rd person singular present; bouncing, present participle 1. (of an object, esp. a ball) Move quickly away from a surface after hitting it; rebound he was bouncing the ball against the wall 2. Rebound repeatedly


myWords 19 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

3.

4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

9.

10. 11. 12.

13. 14. 15.

the ball bounced away, and he chased it the puck bounced into the middle of the ice (of light, sound, or an electronic signal) Come into contact with an object or surface and be reflected short sound waves bounce off even small objects (of an e-mail) Be returned to its sender after failing to reach its destination I tried to email him, but the message bounced Recover well after a setback admired for his ability to bounce back from injury Hit a ball that bounces before reaching a fielder bouncing out with the bases loaded bounced a grounder to third (of a person) Jump repeatedly up and down, typically on something springy bouncing up and down on the mattress (of a thing) Move up and down while remaining essentially in the same position the gangplank bounced under his confident step Cause (a child) to move lightly up and down on one's knee as a game I remember how you used to bounce me on your knee Move in an energetic or happy manner Linda bounced in through the open front door (of a vehicle) Move jerkily along a bumpy surface the car bounced down the narrow track (of a check) Be returned by a bank when there are insufficient funds to meet it my rent check bounced Write (a check) on insufficient funds I've never bounced a check Eject (a troublemaker) forcibly from a nightclub or similar establishment Dismiss (someone) from a job those who put in a dismal performance will be bounced from the tour

noun /bouns/ bounces, plural 1. A rebound of a ball or other object a bad bounce caused the ball to get away from the second baseman 2. The power of rebounding a large flange with lots of bounce 3. An act of jumping or an instance of being moved up and down a bounce on your knee or a cuddle and pat on the back 4. A sudden rise in the level of something economists agree that there could be a bounce in prices next year 5. Exuberant self-confidence the bounce was now back in Jenny's step 6. Health and body in the hair use conditioner to help hair regain its bounce SYNONYMS verb: bound, spring, rebound, hop, skip, leap noun: bound, leap, hop, spring, rebound

adverb: suddenly

brash adjective /braSH/ brasher, comparative; brashest, superlative 1. Self-assertive in a rude, noisy, or overbearing way he could be brash, cocky, and arrogant 2. Strong, energetic, or irreverent I like brash, vibrant flavors 3. (of a place or thing) Having an ostentatious or tasteless appearance the cafe was a brash new building noun brashes, plural 1. A mass of fragments, in particular 2. Loose broken rock or ice

SYNONYMS adjective: impudent, insolent, audacious, impertinent, cheeky, saucy

breadth noun /bredTH/ breadths, plural 1. The distance or measurement from side to side of something; width a black sweater outlined the breadth of his shoulders the boat measured 27 feet in breadth we traveled the length and breadth of India 2. Wide range or extent she has the advantage of breadth of experience there is a greater breadth of sound in the later recordings 3. The capacity to accept a wide range of ideas or beliefs the minister is not noted for his breadth of vision 4. A piece of cloth of standard or full width 5. Overall unity of artistic effect these masterpieces showed a new breadth of handling SYNONYMS noun: width, latitude, broadness, spread

brev·i·ty noun /ˈbrevitē/ 1. Concise and exact use of words in writing or speech 2. Shortness of time the brevity of human life SYNONYMS noun: briefness, conciseness, shortness, concision, short


20 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - B,b

broach verb /brōCH/ broached, past participle; broached, past tense; broaches, 3rd person singular present; broaching, present participle 1. Raise (a sensitive or difficult subject) for discussion he broached the subject he had been avoiding all evening 2. Pierce (a cask) to draw liquor 3. Open and start using the contents of (a bottle or other container) 4. (of a fish or sea mammal) Rise through the water and break the surface the salmon broach, then fall to slap the water verb broached, past participle; broached, past tense; broaches, 3rd person singular present; broaching, present participle 1. (of a ship with the wind on the quarter) Veer and pitch forward because of bad steering or a sea hitting the stern, causing it to present a side to the wind and sea, lose steerage, and possibly suffer serious damage we had broached badly, side on to the wind and sea the ship would have broached to if the captain had not sprung to the wheel

4.

(of an animal) Feed on leaves, twigs, or other high-growing vegetation they reach upward to browse on bushes the animals browse the high foliage of trees

noun /brouz/ 1. An act of casual looking or reading the brochure is well worth a browse 2. Vegetation, such as twigs and young shoots, eaten by animals a moose needs to eat forty to fifty pounds of browse a day SYNONYMS verb: graze, pasture

brusque adjective /brəsk/ 1. Abrupt or offhand in speech or manner she could be brusque and impatient SYNONYMS adjective: abrupt, rough, rude, coarse, gruff, curt, harsh, blunt

bu·col·ic

noun broaches, plural 1. A sudden and hazardous veering of a ship having such consequences

adjective /byo͞oˈkälik/ 1. Of or relating to the pleasant aspects of the countryside and country life the church is lovely for its bucolic setting

SYNONYMS verb: tap noun: spit, skewer, auger, brooch

noun /byo͞oˈkälik/ bucolics, plural 1. A pastoral poem

bro·chure noun /brōˈSHo͝or/ brochures, plural 1. A small book or magazine containing pictures and information about a product or service SYNONYMS noun: pamphlet, booklet, leaflet, tract, prospectus

browse verb /brouz/ browsed, past participle; browsed, past tense; browses, 3rd person singular present; browsing, present participle 1. Survey objects casually, esp. goods for sale he stopped to browse around a sporting goods store 2. Scan through a book or magazine superficially to gain an impression of the contents she browsed through the newspaper patrons can browse the shelves of the library 3. Read or survey (data files), typically via a network

SYNONYMS adjective: pastoral, rural

bul·wark noun /ˈbo͝olˌwərk/ bulwarks, plural 1. A defensive wall 2. A person, institution, or principle that acts as a defense the security forces are a bulwark against the breakdown of society 3. An extension of a ship's sides above the level of the deck SYNONYMS verb: entrench noun: rampart, bastion, stronghold

bu·reau noun /ˈbyo͝orō/ bureaus, plural; bureaux, plural 1. A chest of drawers 2. A writing desk with drawers and typically an angled top opening downward to form a writing surface


myWords 21 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

3.

4. 5.

An office or department for transacting particular business a news bureau The office in a particular place of an organization based elsewhere the London bureau of the Washington Post A government department the intelligence bureau

SYNONYMS noun: office, desk, writing desk

bus·boy noun /ˈbəsˌboi/ busboys, plural 1. A young man who clears tables in a restaurant or cafeteria


22 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - B,b


myWords 23 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

C,c cache

camp·site

noun /kaSH/ caches, plural 1. A collection of items of the same type stored in a hidden or inaccessible place an arms cache a cache of gold coins 2. A hidden or inaccessible storage place for valuables, provisions, or ammunition 3. An auxiliary memory from which high-speed retrieval is possible

noun /ˈkampˌsīt/ campsites, plural 1. A place used for camping

verb /kaSH/ cached, past participle; cached, past tense; cacheing, present participle; caches, 3rd person singular present; caching, present participle 1. Store away in hiding or for future use 2. Store (data) in a cache memory 3. Provide (hardware) with a cache memory SYNONYMS verb: hide, conceal, secrete noun: hiding place, stash

ca·dre noun /ˈkadrē/ /ˈkäd-/ /-ˌrā/ cadres, plural 1. A small group of people specially trained for a particular purpose or profession a small cadre of scientists 2. A group of activists in a communist or other revolutionary organization 3. A member of such a group SYNONYMS noun: frame, framework

SYNONYMS noun: camping site, camping, campground, camp

can·did adjective /ˈkandid/ 1. Truthful and straightforward; frank his responses were remarkably candid a candid discussion 2. (of a photograph of a person) Taken informally, esp. without the subject's knowledge SYNONYMS adjective: frank, sincere, open, honest, straightforward, outspoken, ingenuous, straight, forthright, open-hearted, downright, plain, direct, single-hearted, genuine, heartfelt

can·di·date noun /ˈkandiˌdāt/ /-dit/ candidates, plural 1. A person who applies for a job or is nominated for election candidates applying for this position should be computer-literate the Republican candidate 2. A person taking an examination doctoral candidates in literature 3. A person or thing regarded as suitable for or likely to receive a particular fate, treatment, or position


24 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - C,c she was the perfect candidate for a biography a leading candidate for the title of New York's ugliest building SYNONYMS noun: nominee, applicant, aspirant, postulant

can·dor noun /ˈkandər/ /-ˌdôr/ 1. The quality of being open and honest in expression; frankness a man of refreshing candor SYNONYMS noun: candour, frankness, sincerity, candidness, openness, honesty, straightforwardness

ca·nine adjective /ˈkāˌnīn/ 1. Of, relating to, or resembling a dog or dogs canine distemper virus 2. Of or relating to animals of the dog family noun /ˈkāˌnīn/ canines, plural 1. A dog 2. A pointed tooth between the incisors and premolars of a mammal, often greatly enlarged in carnivores SYNONYMS adjective: doggish, doggy noun: fang, cuspid, dogtooth

cap·i·tal noun /ˈkapitl/ capitals, plural 1. The most important city or town of a country or region, usually its seat of government and administrative center 2. A place associated more than any other with a specified activity or product Milan is the fashion capital of the world 3. Wealth in the form of money or other assets owned by a person or organization or available or contributed for a particular purpose such as starting a company or investing the senior partner would provide the initial capital rates of return on invested capital were high 4. The excess of a company's assets over its liabilities 5. People who possess wealth and use it to control a society's economic activity, considered collectively a conflict of interest between capital and labor 6. A valuable resource of a particular kind

there is insufficient investment in human capital 7. A letter of the size and form used to begin sentences and names he wrote the name in capitals adjective /ˈkapitl/ 1. (of an offense or charge) Liable to the death penalty murder was a capital crime 2. Of or relating to wealth capital losses 3. Of greatest political importance the capital city 4. (of a letter of the alphabet) Large in size and of the form used to begin sentences and names 5. Excellent he's a really capital fellow exclamation /ˈkapitl/ 1. Used to express approval, satisfaction, or delight That's splendid! Capital! noun capitals, plural 1. The distinct, typically broader section at the head of a pillar or column SYNONYMS adjective: main, principal, chief, prime, cardinal, major, leading noun: metropolis, principal, fund, capital letter

ca·pri·cious adjective /kəˈpriSHəs/ /-ˈprē-/ 1. Given to sudden and unaccountable changes of mood or behavior a capricious and often brutal administration a capricious climate SYNONYMS adjective: whimsical, wayward, fickle, freakish, crotchety, flighty, fanciful, moody

cash noun /kaSH/ 1. Money in coins or notes, as distinct from checks, money orders, or credit the staff were paid in cash a discount for cash 2. Money in any form, esp. that which is immediately available she was always short of cash verb /kaSH/ cashed, past participle; cashed, past tense; cashes, 3rd person singular present; cashing, present participle 1. Give or obtain notes or coins for (a check or money order) 2. Lead (a high card) so as to take the opportunity to win a trick


myWords 25 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

noun cash, plural 1. A coin of low value from China, southern India, or Southeast Asia SYNONYMS verb: encash noun: money, ready money, dough, ready cash

ca·su·al adjective /ˈkaZHo͞oəl/ 1. Relaxed and unconcerned she regarded his affairs with a casual indulgence he tried to make his voice sound casual 2. Made or done without much thought or premeditation a casual remark 3. Done or acting in a desultory way to the casual observer, rugby looks something like soccer 4. Done or acting without sufficient care or thoroughness the casual way in which victims were treated 5. Not regular or permanent the tent is ideal for casual outdoor use casual jobs 6. (of a worker) Employed on a temporary or irregular basis casual staff 7. (of a sexual relationship or encounter) Occurring between people who are not regular or established sexual partners 8. Happening by chance; accidental he pretended it was a casual meeting 9. Without formality of style, manner, or procedure, in particular 10. (of clothes or a style of dress) Suitable for everyday wear rather than formal occasions 11. (of a social event) Not characterized by particular social conventions 12. (of a place or environment) Relaxed and friendly the inn's casual atmosphere noun /ˈkaZHo͞oəl/ casuals, plural 1. A person who does something irregularly a number of casuals became regular customers 2. A worker employed on an irregular or temporary basis 3. Clothes or shoes suitable for everyday wear rather than formal occasions SYNONYMS adjective: accidental, incidental, fortuitous, occasional, chance, random, adventitious

cas·u·al·ty noun /ˈkaZH(o͞o)əltē/ casualties, plural

1. 2.

3.

A person killed or injured in a war or accident A person or thing badly affected by an event or situation the building industry has been one of the casualties of the recession (chiefly in insurance) An accident, mishap, or disaster

SYNONYMS noun: accident, victim, mishap

cat·a·log noun /ˈkatlˌôg/ /-ˌäg/ catalogs, plural; catalogues, plural 1. A complete list of items, typically one in alphabetical or other systematic order, in particular 2. A list of all the books or resources in a library 3. A publication containing details and often photographs of items for sale, esp. one produced by a mail-order company 4. A descriptive list of works of art in an exhibition or collection giving detailed comments and explanations 5. A list of courses offered by a university or college 6. A series of unfortunate or bad things his life was a catalog of dismal failures verb /ˈkatlˌôg/ /-ˌäg/ cataloged, past participle; cataloged, past tense; cataloging, present participle; catalogs, 3rd person singular present; catalogued, past participle; catalogued, past tense; catalogues, 3rd person singular present; cataloguing, present participle 1. Make a systematic list of (items of the same type) 2. Enter (an item) in such a list the picture was withdrawn before being cataloged 3. List (similar situations, qualities, or events) in succession the report catalogs dangerous work practices in the company SYNONYMS verb: catalogue, list noun: catalogue, list, index, schedule

catch verb /kaCH/ /keCH/ catches, 3rd person singular present; catching, present participle; caught, past participle; caught, past tense 1. Intercept and hold (something that has been thrown, propelled, or dropped) she threw the bottle into the air and caught it again 2. Intercept the fall of (someone) 3. Seize or take hold of


26 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - C,c

4. 5.

6.

7.

8. 9.

10.

11. 12. 13. 14.

15. 16. 17.

18. 19. 20.

21. 22.

23.

he caught hold of her arm as she tried to push past him Grasp or try to grasp his hands caught at her arms as she tried to turn away Capture (a person or animal that tries or would try to escape) we hadn't caught a single rabbit (of an object) Accidentally become entangled or trapped in something the charm bracelet always caught on her clothing (of a person) Have (a part of one's body or clothing) become entangled or trapped in something she caught her foot in the bedspread companies face increased risks of being caught in a downward spiral Fix or fasten in place her hair was caught back in a scrunchie Reach in time and board (a train, bus, or aircraft) they caught the 12:15 from Chicago Reach or be in a place in time to see (a person, performance, program, etc.) she was hurrying downstairs to catch the news Come upon (someone) unexpectedly unexpected snow caught us by surprise (of a person) Unexpectedly find oneself in (an unwelcome situation) my sister was caught in a thunderstorm Be punished or told off Surprise (someone) in an incriminating situation or in the act of doing something wrong he was caught with bomb-making equipment in his home Engage (a person's interest or imagination) Perceive fleetingly she caught a glimpse of herself in the mirror Hear or understand (something said), esp. with effort he bellowed something Jess couldn't catch Succeed in evoking or representing the program caught something of the flavor of Minoan culture Strike (someone) on a part of the body Ben caught him on the chin with an uppercut Accidentally strike (a part of one's body) against something she fell and caught her head on the corner of the hearth Contract (an illness) through infection or contagion Become ignited, due to contact with flame, and start burning the rafters have caught (of an engine) Fire and start running

noun /kaCH/ /keCH/ catches, plural 1. An act of catching something, typically a ball 2. An amount of fish caught a record catch of 6.9 billion pounds of fish

3.

4.

5. 6.

7.

A person considered attractive, successful, or prestigious and so desirable as a partner or spouse I mistakenly thought he would be a good catch A device for securing something such as a door, window, or box the window catch was rusty A hidden problem or disadvantage in an apparently ideal situation there's a catch in it somewhere An unevenness in a person's voice caused by emotion there was a catch in Anne's voice A round, typically one with words arranged to produce a humorous effect

SYNONYMS verb: seize, take, grasp, get, capture

cat·e·go·ry noun /ˈkatəˌgôrē/ categories, plural 1. A class or division of people or things regarded as having particular shared characteristics five categories of intelligence 2. One of a possibly exhaustive set of classes among which all things might be distributed 3. One of the a priori conceptions applied by the mind to sense impressions 4. A relatively fundamental philosophical concept SYNONYMS noun: class, rank, grade, kind, sort, rating, type, rate, predicament, denomination

cath·o·lic adjective /ˈkaTH(ə)lik/ (esp. of a person's tastes) Including a wide variety of things; all-embracing 1. Of the Roman Catholic faith 2. Of or including all Christians 3. Of or relating to the historic doctrine and practice of the Western Church noun /ˈkaTH(ə)lik/ 1. A member of the Roman Catholic Church SYNONYMS adjective: universal, general

caus·tic adjective /ˈkôstik/ 1. Able to burn or corrode organic tissue by chemical action a caustic cleaner 2. Sarcastic in a scathing and bitter way the players were making caustic comments about the refereeing


myWords 27 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

3.

4.

(of an expression or sound) Expressive of such sarcasm a caustic smile Formed by the intersection of reflected or refracted parallel rays from a curved surface

noun /ˈkôstik/ caustics, plural 1. A caustic substance 2. A caustic surface or curve SYNONYMS adjective: mordant, biting, acrid, acrimonious, sharp, pungent, cutting, corrosive

ce·les·tial adjective /səˈlesCHəl/ 1. Positioned in or relating to the sky, or outer space as observed in astronomy a celestial body 2. Belonging or relating to heaven the celestial city 3. Supremely good the celestial beauty of music SYNONYMS adjective: heavenly, supernal, divine, empyreal, empyrean

cel·i·bate adjective /ˈseləbət/ 1. Abstaining from marriage and sexual relations, typically for religious reasons a celibate priest 2. Having or involving no sexual relations I'd rather stay single and celibate noun /ˈseləbət/ celibates, plural 1. A person who abstains from marriage and sexual relations SYNONYMS adjective: unmarried, single, celibatarian noun: bachelor, celibatarian

ce·ram·ic adjective /səˈramik/ 1. Made of clay and hardened by heat a ceramic bowl 2. Of or relating to the manufacture of such articles noun /səˈramik/ 1. Pots and other articles made from clay hardened by heat handmade pottery and imaginative ceramics for the table 2. The art of making such articles sculpting, drawing, ceramics, and fiber art

3.

4.

The material from which such articles are made tableware in ceramic Any nonmetallic solid that remains hard when heated

cha·grin noun /SHəˈgrin/ 1. Distress or embarrassment at having failed or been humiliated Jeff, much to his chagrin, wasn't invited verb /SHəˈgrin/ 1. Feel distressed or humiliated he was chagrined when his friend poured scorn on him SYNONYMS verb: grieve, aggrieve noun: disappointment, grief, sorrow, annoyance, regret

cha·os noun /ˈkāˌäs/ chaoses, plural 1. Complete disorder and confusion snow caused chaos in the region 2. Behavior so unpredictable as to appear random, owing to great sensitivity to small changes in conditions 3. The formless matter supposed to have existed before the creation of the universe 4. The first created being, from which came the primeval deities Gaia, Tartarus, Erebus, and Nyx SYNONYMS noun: confusion, disorder, mess, clutter, muddle, welter, anarchy, pandemonium

chau·vin·ism noun /ˈSHōvəˌnizəm/ chauvinisms, plural 1. Exaggerated or aggressive patriotism public opinion was easily moved to chauvinism and nationalism 2. Excessive or prejudiced loyalty or support for one's own cause, group, or gender a bastion of male chauvinism SYNONYMS noun: jingoism

chau·vin·ist noun /ˈSHōvənist/ chauvinists, plural 1. A person displaying aggressive or exaggerated patriotism


28 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - C,c 2.

A person displaying excessive or prejudiced loyalty or support for a particular cause, group, or gender what a male chauvinist that man is

adjective /ˈSHōvənist/ 1. Showing or relating to such excessive or prejudiced support or loyalty a chauvinist slur SYNONYMS adjective: chauvinistic

clan·des·tine adjective /klanˈdestən/ /-ˌtīn/ /-ˌtēn/ /ˈklandəs-/ 1. Kept secret or done secretively, esp. because illicit she deserved better than these clandestine meetings SYNONYMS adjective: secret, surreptitious, undercover, furtive, privy, occult, underhand, confidential, underground, stealthy, private, hugger-mugger, hidden, hole-and-corner

clash noun /klaSH/ clashes, plural 1. A violent confrontation there have been minor clashes with security forces 2. An incompatibility leading to disagreement a personality clash 3. A mismatch of colors a clash of tweeds and a striped shirt 4. An inconvenient coincidence of the timing of events or activities it is hoped that clashes of dates will be avoided 5. A loud jarring sound made by or resembling that made by metal objects being struck together a clash of cymbals verb /klaSH/ clashed, past participle; clashed, past tense; clashes, 3rd person singular present; clashing, present participle 1. Meet and come into violent conflict protesters demanding selfrule clashed with police 2. Have a forceful disagreement Clarke has frequently clashed with his colleagues 3. Be incompatible or at odds his thriftiness clashed with Ross's largesse 4. (of colors) Appear discordant or ugly when placed close to each other suits in clashing colors 5. Inconveniently occur at the same time the date of the wedding clashes with Sean's graduation

6.

Strike (cymbals) together, producing a loud discordant sound

SYNONYMS verb: collide, conflict noun: collision, conflict, impact, smash, encounter, crash

cler·gy·man noun /ˈklərjēmən/ clergymen, plural 1. A male priest or minister of a Christian church SYNONYMS noun: priest, cleric, ecclesiastic, minister, parson, pastor, churchman, vicar

cli·en·tele noun /ˌklīənˈtel/ /ˌklē-/ clienteles, plural 1. Clients collectively an upscale clientele 2. The customers of a shop, bar, or place of entertainment the dancers don't mix with the clientele SYNONYMS noun: clientage, patronage, custom, practice

cli·max noun /ˈklīˌmaks/ climaxes, plural 1. The most intense, exciting, or important point of something; a culmination or apex the climax of her speech a thrilling climax to the game 2. An orgasm 3. The final stage in a succession in a given environment, at which a plant community reaches a state of equilibrium a mixed hardwood climax forest 4. A sequence of propositions or ideas in order of increasing importance, force, or effectiveness of expression verb /ˈklīˌmaks/ climaxed, past participle; climaxed, past tense; climaxes, 3rd person singular present; climaxing, present participle 1. Culminate in an exciting or impressive event; reach a climax the day climaxed with a gala concert 2. Bring (something) to a climax the sentencing climaxed a seven-month trial 3. Have an orgasm SYNONYMS noun: acme, peak, summit, pinnacle, zenith, culmination, top, apex, vertex, meridian, height


myWords 29 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

cling

col·li·sion

verb /kliNG/ clinging, present participle; clings, 3rd person singular present; clung, past participle; clung, past tense 1. (of a person or animal) Hold on tightly to she clung to Joe's arm they clung together she clung onto life 2. Adhere or stick firmly or closely to; be hard to part or remove from the smell of smoke clung to their clothes the fabric clung to her smooth skin 3. Remain very close to the fish cling to the line of the weed 4. Remain persistently or stubbornly faithful to something she clung resolutely to her convictions 5. Be overly dependent on someone emotionally you are clinging to him for security

noun /kəˈliZHən/ collisions, plural 1. An instance of one moving object or person striking violently against another a midair collision between two aircraft the device increases the chances of collision 2. An instance of conflict between opposing ideas, interests, or factions a collision between experience and theory cultures in collision 3. An event of two or more records being assigned the same location in memory 4. An instance of simultaneous transmission by more than one node of a network

noun /kliNG/ clings, plural 1. A clingstone peach SYNONYMS verb: adhere

cock·tail noun /ˈkäkˌtāl/ cocktails, plural 1. An alcoholic drink consisting of a spirit or several spirits mixed with other ingredients, such as fruit juice, lemonade, or cream cocktail parties a cocktail bar 2. A mixture of substances or factors, esp. when dangerous or unpleasant in its effects financial pressure plus isolation can be a deadly cocktail for some people a cocktail of drugs that inhibits replication of HIV 3. A dish consisting of small pieces of seafood or fruits, typically served cold at the beginning of a meal as an hors d'oeuvre a shrimp cocktail

co·erce verb /kōˈərs/ coerced, past participle; coerced, past tense; coerces, 3rd person singular present; coercing, present participle 1. Persuade (an unwilling person) to do something by using force or threats they were coerced into silence 2. Obtain (something) by such means their confessions were allegedly coerced by torture SYNONYMS verb: force, compel, constrain, oblige, enforce, necessitate, make

SYNONYMS noun: clash, conflict, impact, crash, smash, encounter, shock

col·lo·ca·tion noun /ˌkäləˈkāSHən/ collocations, plural 1. The habitual juxtaposition of a particular word with another word or words with a frequency greater than chance the words have a similar range of collocation 2. A pair or group of words that are juxtaposed in such a way “strong coffee” and “heavy drinker” are typical English collocations 3. The action of placing things side by side or in position the collocation of the two pieces SYNONYMS noun: arrangement, disposition

com·a·tose adjective /ˈkōməˌtōs/ /ˈkämə-/ 1. Of or in a state of deep unconsciousness for a prolonged or indefinite period, esp. as a result of severe injury or illness she had been comatose for seven months lying in a comatose state 2. (of a person or thing) Extremely exhausted, lethargic, or sleepy the economy remains almost comatose

com·merce noun /ˈkämərs/ 1. The activity of buying and selling, esp. on a large scale the possible increase of commerce by a great railroad 2. Social dealings between people outside the normal commerce of civilized life 3. Sexual intercourse SYNONYMS noun: trade, business, traffic, market, trading


30 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - C,c

com·mon·er

com·pas·sion·ate

noun /ˈkämənər/ commoners, plural 1. An ordinary person, without rank or title 2. A person who has the right of common (commonage) 3. (at some British universities) An undergraduate who does not have a scholarship

adjective /kəmˈpaSHənət/ 1. Feeling or showing sympathy and concern for others

com·mon·place

com·pel

adjective /ˈkämənˌplās/ 1. Not unusual; ordinary unemployment was commonplace in his profession 2. Not interesting or original; trite the usual commonplace remarks

verb /kəmˈpel/ compelled, past participle; compelled, past tense; compelling, present participle; compels, 3rd person singular present 1. Force or oblige (someone) to do something a sense of duty compelled Harry to answer her questions 2. Bring about (something) by the use of force or pressure they may compel a witness's attendance at court by issue of a summons 3. Drive forcibly by heav'n's high will compell'd from shore to shore

noun /ˈkämənˌplās/ commonplaces, plural 1. A usual or ordinary thing bombing has become almost a commonplace of public life there 2. A trite saying or topic; a platitude it is a commonplace to talk of the young being alienated 3. A notable quotation copied into a commonplace book SYNONYMS adjective: banal, trite, common, ordinary, hackneyed, everyday, trivial noun: banality, platitude, triteness

com·mu·nal adjective /kəˈmyo͞onl/ /ˈkämyənəl/ 1. Shared by all members of a community; for common use a communal bathroom and kitchen 2. Of, relating to, or done by a community communal achievement 3. Involving the sharing of work and property communal living 4. (of conflict) Between different communities, esp. those having different religions or ethnic origins violent communal riots SYNONYMS adjective: common, public, municipal

com·mut·er noun /kəˈmyo͞otər/ commuters, plural 1. A person who travels some distance to work on a regular basis the company provides showers and lockers for bicycle commuters

SYNONYMS adjective: merciful, sympathetic, pitiful, tenderhearted, charitable verb: commiserate, pity, sympathize, condole

SYNONYMS verb: force, coerce, constrain, oblige, enforce, impel, necessitate, drive, make

com·posed adjective /kəmˈpōzd/ 1. Having one's feelings and expression under control; calm SYNONYMS adjective: sedate, calm, quiet, placid, tranquil, serene, still, peaceful, cool, unruffled, restful, quiescent, self-possessed, imperturbable, collected, dispassionate, settled

con·cise adjective /kənˈsīs/ conciser, comparative; concisest, superlative 1. Giving a lot of information clearly and in a few words; brief but comprehensive a concise account of the country's history SYNONYMS adjective: succinct, brief, terse, short, laconic, compendious, summary, compact, curt, pithy

con·demn verb /kənˈdem/ condemned, past participle; condemned, past tense; condemning, present participle; condemns, 3rd person singular present 1. Express complete disapproval of, typically in public; censure


myWords 31 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

fair-minded people declined to condemn her on mere suspicion Find (someone) guilty of a criminal act or wrong Sentence (someone) to a particular punishment, esp. death the rebels had been condemned to death the condemned men Officially declare (something, esp. a building) to be unfit for use the pool has been condemned as a health hazard Prove or show the guilt of she could see in his eyes that her stumble had condemned her (of circumstances) Force (someone) to endure something unpleasant or undesirable the physical ailments that condemned him to a lonely childhood

SYNONYMS verb: convict, denounce, censure, sentence, decry, doom, reprobate, blame

con·de·scend verb /ˌkändəˈsend/ condescended, past participle; condescended, past tense; condescending, present participle; condescends, 3rd person singular present 1. Show feelings of superiority; be patronizing take care not to condescend to your reader 2. Do something in a haughty way, as though it is below one's dignity or level of importance we'll be waiting for twenty minutes before she condescends to appear SYNONYMS verb: deign, vouchsafe, stoop

con·do·min·i·um noun /ˌkändəˈminēəm/ condominiums, plural 1. A building or complex of buildings containing a number of individually owned apartments or houses 2. Each of the individual apartments or houses in such a building or complex 3. The system of ownership by which these operate, in which owners have full title to the individual apartment or house and an undivided interest in the shared parts of the property 4. The joint control of a country's or territory's affairs by other countries 5. A state so governed

con·fis·cate verb /ˈkänfəˌskāt/ confiscated, past participle; confiscated, past tense; confiscates, 3rd person singular present; confiscating, present participle

1.

2.

Take or seize (someone's property) with authority the guards confiscated his camera confiscated equipment Take (a possession, esp. land) as a penalty and give it to the public treasury the government confiscated his property

SYNONYMS verb: seize, impound, sequestrate, sequester, condemn, escheat, expropriate, commandeer

con·form verb /kənˈfôrm/ conformed, past participle; conformed, past tense; conforming, present participle; conforms, 3rd person singular present 1. Comply with rules, standards, or laws the kitchen does not conform to hygiene regulations the changes were introduced to conform with international classifications 2. (of a person) Behave according to socially acceptable conventions or standards the pressure to conform 3. Be similar in form or type; agree the countryside should conform to a certain idea of the picturesque SYNONYMS verb: adapt, accommodate, fit, comply, adjust, suit

con·gen·i·tal adjective /kənˈjenətl/ 1. (esp. of a disease or physical abnormality) Present from birth a congenital malformation of the heart 2. (of a person) Having a particular trait from birth or by firmly established habit a congenital liar SYNONYMS adjective: inborn, innate, native, inbred, connate, inherent, connatural, born

con·se·quence noun /ˈkänsikwəns/ /-ˌkwens/ consequences, plural 1. A result or effect of an action or condition many have been laid off from work as a consequence of the administration's policies 2. Importance or relevance the past is of no consequence he didn't say anything of great consequence 3. Social distinction a woman of consequence


32 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - C,c SYNONYMS noun: result, importance, outcome, effect, sequel, significance, weight, import, moment, upshot, magnitude, aftermath, conclusion, issue

con·vene verb /kənˈvēn/ convened, past participle; convened, past tense; convenes, 3rd person singular present; convening, present participle 1. Call people together for (a meeting) he had convened a secret meeting of military personnel 2. Assemble or cause to assemble for a common purpose he convened a group of well-known scientists and philosophers the committee had convened for its final plenary session SYNONYMS verb: assemble, convoke, summon, muster, meet, call, gather, congregate

SYNONYMS noun: transportation, transport, carriage, transfer, haulage, vehicle

con·vict verb /kənˈvikt/ convicted, past participle; convicted, past tense; convicting, present participle; convicts, 3rd person singular present 1. Declare (someone) to be guilty of a criminal offense by the verdict of a jury or the decision of a judge in a court of law her former boyfriend was convicted of assaulting her a convicted murderer noun /ˈkänˌvikt/ convicts, plural 1. A person found guilty of a criminal offense and serving a sentence of imprisonment SYNONYMS adjective: condemned verb: condemn, sentence, doom, denounce noun: prisoner, lag, inmate

con·ver·sa·tion noun /ˌkänvərˈsāSHən/ conversations, plural 1. The informal exchange of ideas by spoken words the two men were deep in conversation 2. An instance of this she picked up the phone and held a conversation in French SYNONYMS noun: talk, discourse, colloquy, dialogue, interlocution, chat, interview, discussion, speech

con·vey·ance noun /kənˈvāəns/ conveyances, plural 1. The action or process of transporting someone or something from one place to another he was building vessels for the conveyance of live cod 2. A means of transportation; a vehicle adventurers attempt the trail using all manner of conveyances, including mountain bikes and motorcycles 3. The action of making an idea, feeling, or impression known or understandable to someone art's conveyance of meaning is complicated 4. The legal process of transferring property from one owner to another protective measures that might be taken before the conveyance is concluded 5. A legal document effecting such a process

cor·ol·lar·y noun /ˈkôrəˌlerē/ /ˈkärə-/ corollaries, plural 1. A proposition that follows from (and is often appended to) one already proved 2. A direct or natural consequence or result the huge increases in unemployment were the corollary of expenditure cuts adjective /ˈkôrəˌlerē/ /ˈkärə-/ 1. Forming a proposition that follows from one already proved 2. Associated; supplementary SYNONYMS noun: consequence, conclusion, inference

corps noun /kôr/ corps, plural 1. A main subdivision of an armed force in the field, consisting of two or more divisions the 5th Army Corps 2. A branch of a military organization assigned to a particular kind of work the U.S. Army Medical Corps 3. A body of people engaged in a particular activity the press corps SYNONYMS noun: body


myWords 33 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

cor·rob·o·rate verb /kəˈräbəˌrāt/ corroborated, past participle; corroborated, past tense; corroborates, 3rd person singular present; corroborating, present participle 1. Confirm or give support to (a statement, theory, or finding) the witness had corroborated the boy's account of the attack SYNONYMS verb: confirm, bear out, affirm, verify, support, certify, acknowledge,validate, vouch, endorse, substantiate, sustain, uphold, attest

cos·mol·o·gy noun /käzˈmäləjē/ cosmologies, plural 1. The science of the origin and development of the universe. Modern astronomy is dominated by the Big Bang theory, which brings together observational astronomy and particle physics 2. An account or theory of the origin of the universe

cos·mo·pol·i·tan adjective /ˌkäzməˈpälitn/ 1. Familiar with and at ease in many different countries and cultures his knowledge of French, Italian, and Spanish made him genuinely cosmopolitan 2. Including people from many different countries immigration transformed the city into a cosmopolitan metropolis 3. Having an exciting and glamorous character associated with travel and a mixture of cultures their designs became a byword for cosmopolitan chic 4. (of a plant or animal) Found all over the world noun /ˌkäzməˈpälitn/ cosmopolitans, plural 1. A cosmopolitan person 2. A cosmopolitan organism or species 3. A cocktail typically made with vodka, Cointreau, cranberry juice, and lime juice SYNONYMS adjective: cosmopolite noun: cosmopolite

coun·ter·part noun /ˈkountərˌpärt/ counterparts, plural 1. A person or thing holding a position or performing a function that corresponds to

2.

that of another person or thing in another place the minister held talks with his French counterpart One of two or more copies of a legal document

SYNONYMS noun: duplicate, copy, double

crank verb /kraNGk/ cranked, past participle; cranked, past tense; cranking, present participle; cranks, 3rd person singular present 1. Turn the crankshaft of (an internal combustion engine), typically in order to start the engine 2. Turn (a handle), typically in order to start an engine 3. Increase the intensity of something he cranked up the foghorn to full volume 4. Produce something regularly and routinely an army of researchers cranked out worthy studies 5. Give a bend to (a shaft, bar, etc.) noun /kraNGk/ cranks, plural 1. A part of an axle or shaft bent out at right angles, for converting reciprocal to circular motion and vice versa 2. Methamphetamine noun cranks, plural 1. An eccentric person, esp. one who is obsessed by a particular subject or theory when he first started to air his views, they labeled him a crank 2. A bad-tempered person she was so sweet and forbearing that I came off as a crank 3. A fanciful turn of speech adjective 1. Originating from or denoting a malicious or mischievous person she was the target of a rash of crank calls adjective 1. (of a sailing ship) Easily keeled over, esp. by wind or sea through improper design or loading SYNONYMS adjective: cranky noun: eccentric, handle

cre·den·tial noun /krəˈdenCHəl/ credentials, plural 1. A qualification, achievement, personal quality, or aspect of a person's background,


34 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - C,c

2. 3.

typically when used to indicate that they are suitable for something recruitment is based mainly on academic credentials A document or certificate proving a person's identity or qualifications A letter of introduction given by a government to an ambassador before a new posting

SYNONYMS noun: mandate

cred·i·bil·i·ty noun /ˌkredəˈbilitē/ 1. The quality of being trusted and believed in the government's loss of credibility 2. The quality of being convincing or believable the book's anecdotes have scant regard for credibility SYNONYMS noun: plausibility, authenticity, reliability

crux noun /krəks/ /kro͝oks/ cruces, plural; cruxes, plural 1. The decisive or most important point at issue the crux of the matter is that attitudes have changed 2. A particular point of difficulty both cruces can be resolved by a consideration of the manuscripts

cryp·tic adjective /ˈkriptik/ 1. Having a meaning that is mysterious or obscure he found his boss's utterances too cryptic 2. (of a crossword) Having difficult clues that indicate the solutions indirectly 3. (of coloration or markings) Serving to camouflage an animal in its natural environment SYNONYMS adjective: occult, secret, enigmatic, mysterious, hidden, privy, mystic

curt adjective /kərt/ 1. Rudely brief his reply was curt SYNONYMS adjective: short, brief, terse, abrupt, concise, brusque, laconic

cy·cli·cal adjective /ˈsīklik(ə)l/ /ˈsik-/ 1. Occurring in cycles; recurrent the cyclical nature of the cement industry SYNONYMS adjective: cyclic, periodic

cyn·i·cal adjective /ˈsinikəl/ 1. Believing that people are motivated by selfinterest; distrustful of human sincerity or integrity her cynical attitude 2. Doubtful as to whether something will happen or whether it is worthwhile most residents are cynical about efforts to clean mobsters out of their city 3. Contemptuous; mocking he gave a cynical laugh 4. Concerned only with one's own interests and typically disregarding accepted or appropriate standards in order to achieve them a cynical manipulation of public opinion SYNONYMS adjective: cynic, sardonic

czar noun /zär/ /(t)sär/ czars, plural 1. A person with great authority or power in a particular area America's new drug czar SYNONYMS noun: tzar, tsar


myWords 35 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

D,d da·is noun /ˈdāis/ /ˈdī-/ daises, plural 1. A low platform for a lectern, seats of honor, or a throne SYNONYMS noun: platform, stage, podium, rostrum, stand

damn verb /dam/ damned, past participle; damned, past tense; damning, present participle; damns, 3rd person singular present 1. (in Christian belief) Be condemned by God to suffer eternal punishment in hell be forever damned with Lucifer 2. Be doomed to misfortune or failure the enterprise was damned 3. Condemn, esp. by the public expression of disapproval intellectuals whom he damns as rigid doctrinaire idealists 4. Curse (someone or something) she cleared her throat, damning it for its huskiness damn him for making this sound trivial exclamation /dam/ 1. Expressing anger, surprise, or frustration Damn! I completely forgot! adjective /dam/ 1. Used for emphasis, esp. to express anger or frustration turn that damn thing off! don't be so damn silly!

SYNONYMS adjective: damned, cursed, accursed, blasted, accurst, confounded verb: curse, condemn, execrate, imprecate, denounce, darn, anathematize noun: curse, cuss, malediction, damnation, imprecation, malison, anathema, oath adverb: damned

damp adjective /damp/ damper, comparative; dampest, superlative 1. Slightly wet her hair was still damp from the shower noun /damp/ damps, plural 1. Moisture diffused through the air or a solid substance or condensed on a surface, typically with detrimental or unpleasant effects 2. Foul, stifling, or poisonous gas, esp. in a mine 3. Damp air or atmosphere 4. A check or discouragement shame gave a damp to her triumph verb /damp/ damped, past participle; damped, past tense; damping, present participle; damps, 3rd person singular present 1. Make (something) slightly wet damp a small area with water 2. Control or restrain (a feeling or a state of affairs) she tried to damp down her feelings of despair 3. Make (a fire) burn less strongly by reducing the flow of air to it


36 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - D,d 4.

5.

6.

Restrict the amplitude of vibrations on (a piano or other musical instrument) so as to reduce the volume of sound rapidly damping the cymbals after repeatedly clashing them together Progressively reduce the amplitude of (an oscillation or vibration) concrete structures damp out any vibrations Reduce the level of (a noise or sound) the ground mist clung to the hedgerows, damping down all sound

SYNONYMS adjective: moist, humid, wet, dank, dabby, soggy verb: dampen, moisten, wet noun: moisture, humidity, dampness, wet, wetness

debt noun /det/ debts, plural 1. Something, typically money, that is owed or due I paid off my debts a way to reduce Third World debt 2. The state of owing money the firm is heavily in debt 3. A feeling of gratitude for a service or favor we owe them a debt of thanks SYNONYMS noun: obligation, indebtedness, debit, liability, loan

dec·a·dence dearth noun /dərTH/ dearths, plural 1. A scarcity or lack of something there is a dearth of evidence SYNONYMS noun: scarcity, shortage, lack, want, deficiency, famine, paucity, need, privation, absence, destitution, scarceness

de·bate noun /diˈbāt/ debates, plural 1. A formal discussion on a particular topic in a public meeting or legislative assembly, in which opposing arguments are put forward 2. An argument about a particular subject, esp. one in which many people are involved the national debate on abortion there has been much debate about prices verb /diˈbāt/ debated, past participle; debated, past tense; debates, 3rd person singular present; debating, present participle 1. Argue about (a subject), esp. in a formal manner the board debated his proposal the date when people first entered America is hotly debated 2. Consider a possible course of action in one's mind before reaching a decision he debated whether he should leave the matter alone or speak to her SYNONYMS verb: dispute, discuss, argue, deliberate, canvass noun: discussion, dispute, argument, disputation, controversy, argumentation, deliberation

noun /ˈdekədəns/ 1. Moral or cultural decline, esp. after a peak or culmination of achievement he denounced Western decadence 2. Behavior reflecting such a decline the rituals of joy and grief had become so ornate as to verge on decadence 3. Luxurious self-indulgence “French” connotes richness and decadence, and that's the idea of this ice cream SYNONYMS noun: decadency, decline, decay, declension, deterioration, degeneration

de·cay verb /diˈkā/ decayed, past participle; decayed, past tense; decaying, present participle; decays, 3rd person singular present 1. (of organic matter) Rot or decompose through the action of bacteria and fungi a decayed cabbage leaf the odor of decaying fish 2. Cause to rot or decompose the fungus will decay soft timber 3. (of a building or area) Fall into disrepair; deteriorate urban neighborhoods decay when elevated freeways replace surface roads 4. Decline in quality, power, or vigor the moral authority of the party was decaying 5. (of a radioactive substance, particle, etc.) Undergo change to a different form by emitting radiation the trapped radiocarbon begins to decay at a known rate 6. (of a physical quantity) Undergo a gradual decrease the time taken for the current to decay to zero noun /diˈkā/ decays, plural 1. The state or process of rotting or decomposition


myWords 37 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

hardwood is more resistant to decay than softwood tooth decay Structural or physical deterioration the old barn rapidly fell into decay Rotten matter or tissue fluoride heals small spots of decay The process of declining in quality, power, or vigor preachers warning of moral decay The change of a radioactive substance, particle, etc., into another by the emission of radiation the gas radon is produced by the decay of uranium in rocks and soil Gradual decrease in the magnitude of a physical quantity the decay of electrical fields in the electromagnets

SYNONYMS verb: rot, putrefy, moulder, decline, molder, decompose noun: decline, putrefaction, decadence, rot, decomposition

de·ceit·ful adjective /diˈsētfəl/ 1. (of a person) Deceiving or misleading others, typically on a habitual basis 2. Intended to deceive or mislead such an act would have been deceitful and irresponsible

4. 5. 6. 7.

Caroline declined the coffee Politely refuse to do something the company declined to comment (esp. of the sun) Move downward Bend down; droop (in the grammar of Latin, Greek, and certain other languages) State the forms of (a noun, pronoun, or adjective) corresponding to cases, number, and gender

noun /diˈklīn/ declines, plural 1. A gradual and continuous loss of strength, numbers, or quality a serious decline in bird numbers a civilization in decline 2. A fall in value or price able to halt the stock's decline 3. The gradual setting of the sun 4. Any disease in which bodily strength gradually fails, esp. tuberculosis SYNONYMS verb: refuse, reject, decay, sink, wane noun: decay, fall, decadence, descent, declension, decrease, decadency, wane, ebb

dec·o·rous adjective /ˈdekərəs/ /diˈkôrəs/ 1. In keeping with good taste and propriety; polite and restrained dancing with decorous space between partners

SYNONYMS adjective: deceptive, false, fraudulent, delusive, lying, treacherous, tricky, mendacious

SYNONYMS adjective: decent, seemly, proper, becoming, respectable

de·cep·tion

de·crep·it

noun /diˈsepSHən/ deceptions, plural 1. The action of deceiving someone obtaining property by deception 2. A thing that deceives a range of elaborate deceptions

adjective /diˈkrepit/ 1. (of a person) Elderly and infirm a decrepit old drunk 2. Worn out or ruined because of age or neglect centuries-old buildings, now decrepit and black with soot

SYNONYMS noun: deceit, fraud, delusion, cheat, trick, trickery, guile, humbug, swindle, hoax, ruse

SYNONYMS adjective: ramshackle, dilapidated, senile

de·cline verb /diˈklīn/ declined, past participle; declined, past tense; declines, 3rd person singular present; declining, present participle 1. Become smaller, fewer, or less; decrease the birth rate continued to decline 2. Diminish in strength or quality; deteriorate her health began to decline the victims of declining educational standards 3. Politely refuse (an invitation or offer)

de·duc·tion noun /diˈdəkSHən/ deductions, plural 1. The action of deducting or subtracting something the dividend will be paid without deduction of tax 2. An amount that is or may be deducted from something, esp. from taxable income or tax to be paid tax deductions


38 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - D,d 3.

4.

The inference of particular instances by reference to a general law or principle the detective must uncover the murderer by deduction from facts A conclusion that has been deduced

3. 4.

SYNONYMS noun: inference, subtraction, conclusion, discount, allowance

de·fect noun /ˈdēˌfekt/ defects, plural 1. A shortcoming, imperfection, or lack genetic defects the property is free from defect verb /diˈfekt/ defected, past participle; defected, past tense; defecting, present participle; defects, 3rd person singular present 1. Abandon one's country or cause in favor of an opposing one he defected to the Soviet Union after the war SYNONYMS verb: desert noun: fault, shortcoming, flaw, imperfection, blemish, deficiency, failing, demerit, vice, failure, shortage, lack, drawback, want

de·fer verb /diˈfər/ deferred, past participle; deferred, past tense; deferring, present participle; defers, 3rd person singular present 1. Put off (an action or event) to a later time; postpone they deferred the decision until February 2. Postpone the conscription of (someone) he was no longer deferred from the draft verb deferred, past participle; deferred, past tense; deferring, present participle; defers, 3rd person singular present 1. Submit humbly to (a person or a person's wishes or qualities) he deferred to Tim's superior knowledge SYNONYMS verb: delay, postpone, adjourn, put off, hold over, procrastinate

def·i·cit noun /ˈdefəsit/ deficits, plural 1. The amount by which something, esp. a sum of money, is too small 2. An excess of expenditure or liabilities over income or assets in a given period

an annual operating deficit the budget will remain in deficit (in sports) The amount or score by which a team or individual is losing came back from a 3–0 deficit A deficiency or failing, esp. in a neurological or psychological function deficits in speech comprehension

SYNONYMS noun: deficiency, shortage, shortfall, wantage, scarcity, lack

de·i·fy verb /ˈdēəˌfī/ deified, past participle; deified, past tense; deifies, 3rd person singular present; deifying, present participle 1. Worship, regard, or treat (someone or something) as a god she was deified by the early Romans as a fertility goddess SYNONYMS verb: worship, idolize, adore

deign verb /dān/ deigned, past participle; deigned, past tense; deigning, present participle; deigns, 3rd person singular present 1. Do something that one considers to be beneath one's dignity she did not deign to answer the maid's question 2. Condescend to give (something) he had deigned an apology SYNONYMS verb: condescend, vouchsafe

del·e·gate noun /ˈdeligit/ delegates, plural 1. A person sent or authorized to represent others, in particular an elected representative sent to a conference 2. A member of a committee verb /ˈdeləˌgāt/ delegated, past participle; delegated, past tense; delegates, 3rd person singular present; delegating, present participle 1. Entrust (a task or responsibility) to another person, typically one who is less senior than oneself he delegates routine tasks the power delegated to him must never be misused 2. Send or authorize (someone) to do something as a representative


myWords 39 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Edward was delegated to meet new arrivals SYNONYMS verb: depute, commission noun: representative, deputy, envoy, agent, spokesman, proxy, commissary

de·lete verb /diˈlēt/ deleted, past participle; deleted, past tense; deletes, 3rd person singular present; deleting, present participle 1. Remove or obliterate (written or printed matter), esp. by drawing a line through it or marking it with a delete sign the passage was deleted 2. Remove (data) from a computer's memory 3. (of a section of genetic code, or its product) Be lost or excised from a nucleic acid or protein sequence if one important gene is deleted from an animal's DNA, other genes can stand in 4. Remove (a product, esp. a recording) from the catalog of those available for purchase their EMI release has already been deleted noun /diˈlēt/ 1. A command or key on a computer that erases text SYNONYMS verb: erase, cancel, obliterate, efface, expunge, strike out, strike off, cross out, rub out, scratch, scratch out, wipe out

de·lu·sion noun /diˈlo͞oZHən/ delusions, plural 1. An idiosyncratic belief or impression that is firmly maintained despite being contradicted by what is generally accepted as reality or rational argument, typically a symptom of mental disorder the delusion of being watched 2. The action of deluding someone or the state of being deluded what a capacity television has for delusion SYNONYMS noun: illusion, deception, hallucination, deceit, fallacy, error

den noun /den/ dens, plural 1. A wild animal's lair or habitation 2. A small, comfortable room in a house where a person can pursue an activity in private 3. A place where people meet in secret, typically to engage in some illicit activity an opium den a den of iniquity

4.

A small subdivision of a Cub Scout pack

verb /den/ denned, past participle; denned, past tense; denning, present participle; dens, 3rd person singular present 1. (of a wild animal) Live in or retreat to a den the cubs denned in the late autumn SYNONYMS noun: lair, cave, hole, burrow, nest, grotto, cavern, haunt

de·note verb /diˈnōt/ denoted, past participle; denoted, past tense; denotes, 3rd person singular present; denoting, present participle 1. Be a sign of; indicate this mark denotes purity and quality 2. Stand as a name or symbol for the level of output per firm, denoted by X SYNONYMS verb: indicate, signify, mark, designate, show, mean, betoken

de·pos·it noun /diˈpäzit/ deposits, plural 1. A sum of money placed or kept in a bank account, usually to gain interest 2. An act of placing money in a bank account I'd like to make a deposit 3. A sum payable as a first installment on the purchase of something or as a pledge for a contract, the balance being payable later we've saved enough for a deposit on a house 4. A returnable sum payable on the rental of something, to cover any possible loss or damage 5. A layer or body of accumulated matter the deposits of salt on the chrome 6. A natural layer of sand, rock, coal, or other material verb /diˈpäzit/ deposited, past participle; deposited, past tense; depositing, present participle; deposits, 3rd person singular present 1. Put or set down (something or someone) in a specific place, typically unceremoniously he deposited a pile of schoolbooks on the kitchen table 2. (of water, the wind, or other natural agency) Lay down (matter) gradually as a layer or covering beds where salt is deposited by the tide 3. Lay (an egg) the female deposits a line of eggs 4. Store or entrust with someone for safekeeping 5. Pay (a sum of money) into a bank account the money is deposited with a bank


40 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - D,d 6.

Pay (a sum) as a first installment or as a pledge for a contract I had to deposit 10% of the price of the house

SYNONYMS verb: place, lodge noun: sediment, deposition

de·pres·sion

de·vi·ate verb /ˈdēvēˌāt/ deviated, past participle; deviated, past tense; deviates, 3rd person singular present; deviating, present participle 1. Depart from an established course you must not deviate from the agreed route 2. Depart from usual or accepted standards those who deviate from society's values

noun /diˈpreSHən/ depressions, plural 1. Severe despondency and dejection, typically felt over a period of time and accompanied by feelings of hopelessness and inadequacy 2. A condition of mental disturbance characterized by such feelings to a greater degree than seems warranted by the external circumstances, typically with lack of energy and difficulty in maintaining concentration or interest in life clinical depression 3. A long and severe recession in an economy or market the depression in the housing market 4. The financial and industrial slump of 1929 and subsequent years 5. The lowering or reducing of something the depression of prices 6. The action of pressing down on something depression of the plunger delivers two units of insulin 7. A sunken place or hollow on a surface the original shallow depressions were slowly converted to creeks 8. The angular distance of an object below the horizon or a horizontal plane 9. A region of lower atmospheric pressure, esp. a cyclonic weather system

SYNONYMS verb: digress, deflect, diverge, swerve, depart, stray

SYNONYMS noun: dejection, hollow

SYNONYMS adjective: pious, religious, godly, prayerful, devotional

de·ri·sive adjective /diˈrīsiv/ 1. Expressing contempt or ridicule a harsh, derisive laugh SYNONYMS adjective: derisory, sneering, mocking, quizzical, ridiculous

de·sert·er noun /dəˈzərtər/ deserters, plural 1. A member of the armed forces who deserts deserters from the army SYNONYMS noun: runaway, fugitive, defector, renegade, turncoat

de·vote verb /diˈvōt/ devoted, past participle; devoted, past tense; devotes, 3rd person singular present; devoting, present participle 1. Give all or a large part of one's time or resources to (a person, activity, or cause) I wanted to devote more time to my family she devoted herself to fund-raising 2. Invoke or pronounce a curse upon SYNONYMS verb: dedicate, give, consecrate

de·vout adjective /diˈvout/ 1. Having or showing deep religious feeling or commitment she was a devout Catholic a rabbi's devout prayers 2. Totally committed to a cause or belief the most devout environmentalist

dex·ter·i·ty noun /dekˈsteritē/ 1. Skill in performing tasks, esp. with the hands her dexterity with chopsticks his record testifies to a certain dexterity in politics SYNONYMS noun: skill, adroitness, deftness, knack, cleverness, facility, agility, proficiency, ability, artfulness

di·ag·no·sis noun /ˌdīəgˈnōsis/ diagnoses, plural 1. The identification of the nature of an illness or other problem by examination of the symptoms


myWords 41 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2.

early diagnosis and treatment are essential a diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made The distinctive characterization in precise terms of a genus, species, or phenomenon

2.

prohibitions on all dancing and dicing Cut (food or other matter) into small cubes dice the peppers add the diced onions

SYNONYMS noun: diagnostic

SYNONYMS noun: die

di·a·logue

di·dac·tic

noun /ˈdīəˌläg/ /-ˌlôg/ dialogs, plural; dialogues, plural 1. Conversation between two or more people as a feature of a book, play, or movie the book consisted of a series of dialogues passages of dialogue 2. A discussion between two or more people or groups, esp. one directed toward exploration of a particular subject or resolution of a problem the U.S. would enter into a direct dialogue with Vietnam interfaith dialogue

adjective /dīˈdaktik/ 1. Intended to teach, particularly in having moral instruction as an ulterior motive a didactic novel that set out to expose social injustice 2. In the manner of a teacher, particularly so as to treat someone in a patronizing way slow-paced, didactic lecturing

verb /ˈdīəˌläg/ /-ˌlôg/ dialoged, past participle; dialoged, past tense; dialoging, present participle; dialogs, 3rd person singular present; dialogued, past participle; dialogued, past tense; dialogues, 3rd person singular present; dialoguing, present participle 1. Take part in a conversation or discussion to resolve a problem he stated that he wasn't going to dialogue with the guerrillas 2. Provide (a movie or play) with a dialogue SYNONYMS verb: dialog noun: dialog, conversation, duologue, colloquy, talk, interlocution

di·a·met·ri·cal·ly adverb /ˌdīəˈmetrik(ə)lē/ 1. (with reference to opposition) Completely; directly twodiametrically opposedviewpoints

dice noun /dīs/ dice, plural 1. A small cube with each side having a different number of spots on it, ranging from one to six, thrown and used in gambling and other games involving chance 2. A game played with dice 3. Small cubes of food verb /dīs/ diced, past participle; diced, past tense; dices, 3rd person singular present; dicing, present participle 1. Play or gamble with dice

SYNONYMS adjective: instructive

dig·it·al adjective /ˈdijitl/ 1. Relating to or using signals or information represented by discrete values (digits) of a physical quantity, such as voltage or magnetic polarization, to represent arithmetic numbers or approximations to numbers from a continuum or logical expressions and variables digital TV 2. Involving or relating to the use of computer technology the digital revolution 3. (of a clock or watch) Showing the time by means of displayed digits rather than hands or a pointer 4. Of or relating to a finger or fingers SYNONYMS adjective: numerical noun: key, digit

dig·ni·fy verb /ˈdignəˌfī/ dignified, past participle; dignified, past tense; dignifies, 3rd person singular present; dignifying, present participle 1. Make (something) seem worthy and impressive the Americans had dignified their departure with a ceremony 2. Give an impressive name to (someone or something that one considers worthless) dumps are increasingly dignified as landfills SYNONYMS verb: honour, honor


42 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - D,d

din

dire

noun /din/ dins, plural 1. A loud, unpleasant, and prolonged noise the fans made an awful din

adjective /dīr/ direr, comparative; direst, superlative 1. (of a situation or event) Extremely serious or urgent dire consequences 2. (of a warning or threat) Presaging disaster dire warnings about breathing the fumes

verb /din/ dinned, past participle; dinned, past tense; dinning, present participle; dins, 3rd person singular present 1. Make (someone) learn or remember something by constant repetition the doctrine that has been dinned into all our heads 2. Make a loud, unpleasant, and prolonged noise the sound dinning in my ears was the telephone ringing SYNONYMS noun: noise, racket, hubbub, uproar, tumult, clamor, clamour, ado, row, rumpus, clatter, shindy

dine verb /dīn/ dined, past participle; dined, past tense; dines, 3rd person singular present; dining, present participle 1. Eat dinner we dined at a restaurant a dining area 2. Eat dinner in a restaurant or the home of friends 3. Eat (something) for dinner 4. Regularly entertain friends with (a humorous story or interesting piece of information) it should have been one of those stories one dines out on afterward 5. Take (someone) to dinner I'll dine you soon SYNONYMS verb: have dinner, dinner, sup

dip·lo·mat·ic adjective /ˌdipləˈmatik/ 1. Of or concerning the profession, activity, or skill of managing international relations diplomatic relations between the United States and Britain 2. Having or showing an ability to deal with people in a sensitive and effective way that was a very diplomatic way of putting it 3. (of an edition or copy) Exactly reproducing an original version a diplomatic transcription SYNONYMS adjective: tactful

SYNONYMS adjective: terrible, dreadful, awful, frightful, horrible, direful, fearful, terrific, ghastly, tremendous, appalling, horrid, gruesome, formidable, grisly

dis·a·bil·i·ty noun /ˌdisəˈbilitē/ disabilities, plural 1. A physical or mental condition that limits a person's movements, senses, or activities 2. A disadvantage or handicap, esp. one imposed or recognized by the law he had to quit his job and go on disability SYNONYMS noun: incapacity, incapability, inability, incompetence, disablement, impotence, impotency

dis·ad·van·tage noun /ˌdisədˈvantij/ disadvantages, plural 1. An unfavorable circumstance or condition that reduces the chances of success or effectiveness a major disadvantage is the limited nature of the data the impact of poverty and disadvantage on children verb /ˌdisədˈvantij/ disadvantaged, past participle; disadvantaged, past tense; disadvantages, 3rd person singular present; disadvantaging, present participle 1. Place in an unfavorable position in relation to someone or something else we are disadvantaging the next generation SYNONYMS noun: drawback, handicap, detriment, loss, damage, harm, injury

dis·a·vow verb /ˌdisəˈvou/ disavowed, past participle; disavowed, past tense; disavowing, present participle; disavows, 3rd person singular present 1. Deny any responsibility or support for he appears to be in denial of his own past, which he continually disavows


myWords 43 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS verb: deny, disclaim, repudiate, disown, gainsay, renounce, negate, recant, retract

dis·cre·tion noun /disˈkreSHən/ 1. The quality of behaving or speaking in such a way as to avoid causing offense or revealing private information she knew she could rely on his discretion 2. The freedom to decide what should be done in a particular situation it is up to local authorities to use their discretion in setting the charges a pass-fail grading system may be used at the discretion of the department SYNONYMS noun: discreetness, prudence

2.

Refusal to accept the doctrines of an established or orthodox church; nonconformity

SYNONYMS verb: disagree, differ noun: dissidence, disagreement, dissension

dis·ser·ta·tion noun /ˌdisərˈtāSHən/ dissertations, plural 1. A long essay on a particular subject, esp. one written as a requirement for the Doctor of Philosophy degree Joe wrote his doctoral dissertation on Thucydides she went on then into a dissertation on her family's love of Ireland SYNONYMS noun: thesis, treatise, discourse, disquisition

dis·en·fran·chise verb /ˌdisenˈfranCHīz/ disenfranchised, past participle; disenfranchised, past tense; disenfranchises, 3rd person singular present; disenfranchising, present participle 1. Deprive (someone) of the right to vote the law disenfranchised some 3,000 voters on the basis of a residence qualification 2. Deprived of power; marginalized a hard core of kids who are disenfranchised and don't feel connected to the school 3. Deprive (someone) of a right or privilege a measure which would disenfranchise people from access to legal advice 4. Deprive (someone) of the rights and privileges of a free inhabitant of a borough, city, or country SYNONYMS verb: disfranchise

dis·sent verb /diˈsent/ dissented, past participle; dissented, past tense; dissenting, present participle; dissents, 3rd person singular present 1. Hold or express opinions that are at variance with those previously, commonly, or officially expressed two members dissented from the majority there were only a couple of dissenting voices 2. Separate from an established or orthodox church because of doctrinal disagreement noun /diˈsent/ 1. The expression or holding of opinions at variance with those previously, commonly, or officially held there was no dissent from this view

dis·trust noun /disˈtrəst/ distrusts, plural 1. The feeling that someone or something cannot be relied on his distrust of his mother's new suitor verb /disˈtrəst/ distrusted, past participle; distrusted, past tense; distrusting, present participle; distrusts, 3rd person singular present 1. Doubt the honesty or reliability of; regard with suspicion like a skillful gambler, Dave distrusted a sure thing SYNONYMS verb: mistrust, suspect, doubt, disbelieve noun: mistrust, suspicion, discredit, disbelief, doubt, misgiving

di·ur·nal adjective /dīˈərnl/ 1. Of or during the day 2. (of animals) Active in the daytime 3. (of flowers) Open only during the day 4. Daily; of each day diurnal rhythms 5. Of or resulting from the daily rotation of the earth SYNONYMS adjective: daily, quotidian, everyday

di·vi·sion noun /diˈviZHən/ divisions, plural


44 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - D,d 1.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6.

7. 8.

9. 10.

11. 12.

13. 14.

15. 16. 17.

The action of separating something into parts, or the process of being separated the division of the land into small fields a gene that helps regulate cell division The distribution of something separated into parts the division of his estates between the two branches of his family An instance of members of a legislative body separating into two groups to vote for or against a bill the new clause was agreed without a division The action of splitting the roots of a perennial plant into parts to be replanted separately, as a means of propagation the plant can also be easily increased by division in autumn The action of dividing a wider class into two or more subclasses Disagreement between two or more groups, typically producing tension or hostility a growing sense of division between north and south a country with ethnic and cultural divisions The process or skill of dividing one number by another The process of dividing a matrix, vector, or other quantity by another under specific rules to obtain a quotient Each of the parts into which something is divided the main divisions of the book A major unit or section of an organization, typically one handling a particular kind of work a retail division A group of army brigades or regiments an infantry division A number of teams or competitors grouped together in a sport for competitive purposes according to such characteristics as ability, size, or geographic location the team will finish in fifth place in Division One A part of a county, country, or city defined for administrative or political purposes a licensing division of a district A part of a county or borough forming a parliamentary constituency he was MP for the Lancaster division of North Lancashire A principal taxonomic category that ranks above class and below kingdom, equivalent to the phylum in zoology Any subsidiary category between major levels of classification A partition that divides two groups or things the villagers lived in a communal building and there were no solid divisions between neighbors

SYNONYMS noun: partition, section, distribution, department, separation

doc·u·ment noun /ˈdäkyəmənt/ documents, plural 1. A piece of written, printed, or electronic matter that provides information or evidence or that serves as an official record verb /ˈdäkyəˌment/ documented, past participle; documented, past tense; documenting, present participle; documents, 3rd person singular present 1. Record (something) in written, photographic, or other form the photographer spent years documenting the lives of miners 2. Support or accompany with documentation SYNONYMS noun: paper, deed, record, writing, act, instrument, certificate

dog·mat·ic adjective /dôgˈmatik/ 1. Inclined to lay down principles as incontrovertibly true he gives his opinion without trying to be dogmatic SYNONYMS adjective: opinionated, doctrinal, peremptory, pragmatic

dolt noun /dōlt/ dolts, plural 1. A stupid person SYNONYMS noun: fool, blockhead, dunce, simpleton, booby, loggerhead, nincompoop, ninny, noodle, numskull, dunderhead, chump, imbecile

do·nate verb /ˈdōnāt/ /dōˈnāt/ donated, past participle; donated, past tense; donates, 3rd person singular present; donating, present participle 1. Give (money or goods) for a good cause, for example to a charity the proceeds will be donated to an AIDS awareness charity 2. Allow the removal of (blood or an organ) from one's body for transplantation, transfusion, or other use SYNONYMS verb: give, present, bestow, grant, give away, endow, contribute


myWords 45 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

dor·mant adjective /ˈdôrmənt/ 1. (of an animal) Having normal physical functions suspended or slowed down for a period of time; in or as if in a deep sleep dormant butterflies the event evoked memories that she would rather had lain dormant 2. (of a plant or bud) Alive but not actively growing 3. (of a volcano) Temporarily inactive 4. (of a disease) Causing no symptoms but not cured and liable to recur 5. (of an animal) Depicted lying with its head on its paws SYNONYMS adjective: inactive, idle, asleep, sleeping, latent

3.

4. 5.

Used to emphasize the degree to which something is the case, esp. something regarded with sadness or disapproval you're a dreadful flirt (of a person or their feelings) Troubled I feel dreadful—I hate myself (of a person or their appearance) Feeling or looking ill she looked dreadful and she was struggling for breath

SYNONYMS adjective: terrible, frightful, horrible, awful, fearful, terrific, dire, horrid, tremendous, ghastly, grisly, formidable, appalling, gruesome, fearsome, redoubtable, shocking, direful, hideous, horrific

du·bi·ous doubt·ful adjective /ˈdoutfəl/ 1. Feeling uncertain about something he looked doubtful, but gave a nod I was doubtful of my judgment 2. Not known with certainty the fire was of doubtful origin 3. Improbable it is doubtful whether these programs have any lasting effect 4. Not established as genuine or acceptable of doubtful legality SYNONYMS adjective: dubious, uncertain, questionable, suspicious, shady, equivocal, precarious, suspect, fishy

adjective /ˈd(y)o͞obēəs/ Hesitating or doubting Alex looked dubious, but complied 1. Not to be relied upon; suspect extremely dubious assumptions 2. Morally suspect timesharing has been brought into disrepute by dubious sales methods 3. Of questionable value she earned the dubious distinction of being the lowest-paid teacher in the nation SYNONYMS adjective: doubtful, uncertain, questionable, shady, equivocal, suspicious, precarious, fishy, ambiguous

dull draw·back noun /ˈdrôˌbak/ drawbacks, plural 1. A feature that renders something less acceptable; a disadvantage or problem the main drawback of fitting catalytic converters is the cost 2. An amount of excise or import duty remitted on imported goods that the importer reexports rather than sells domestically SYNONYMS noun: handicap, disadvantage, obstacle, defect, hindrance, shortcoming

dread·ful adjective /ˈdredfəl/ 1. Causing or involving great suffering, fear, or unhappiness; extremely bad or serious there's been a dreadful accident 2. Extremely disagreeable the weather was dreadful

adjective /dəl/ duller, comparative; dullest, superlative 1. Lacking interest or excitement your diet doesn't have to be dull and boring 2. (of a person) Feeling bored and dispirited she said she wouldn't be dull and lonely 3. Lacking brightness, vividness, or sheen his face glowed in the dull lamplight his black hair looked dull 4. (of the weather) Overcast; gloomy next morning dawned dull 5. (of sound) Not clear; muffled a dull thud of hooves 6. (of pain) Indistinctly felt; not acute there was a dull pain in his lower jaw 7. (of an edge or blade) Blunt a lot more people are cut with dull knives than with sharp ones 8. (of a person) Slow to understand; stupid the voice of a teacher talking to a rather dull child 9. (of a person's senses) Not perceiving things distinctly; insensitive 10. (of activity) Sluggish, slow-moving gold closed lower in dull trading


46 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - D,d verb /dəl/ dulled, past participle; dulled, past tense; dulling, present participle; dulls, 3rd person singular present 1. Make or become dull or less intense time dulls the memory Albert's eyes dulled a little SYNONYMS adjective: obtuse, blunt, slow, dim verb: blunt, deaden, dim

dusk noun /dəsk/ dusks, plural 1. The darker stage of twilight dusk was falling rapidly working the land from dawn to dusk 2. Semidarkness in the dusk of an Istanbul nightclub verb /dəsk/ dusked, past participle; dusked, past tense; dusking, present participle; dusks, 3rd person singular present 1. Grow dark he saw the lights blaze in the dusking sky adjective /dəsk/ 1. Shadowy, dim, or dark SYNONYMS adjective: dusky, obscure, dark, murky, dim, gloomy, sombre, twilight verb: grow dark noun: twilight, gloaming, nightfall, duskiness


myWords 47 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

E,e ec·cen·tric

eel

adjective /ikˈsentrik/ 1. (of a person or their behavior) Unconventional and slightly strange my favorite aunt is very eccentric 2. (of a thing) Not placed centrally or not having its axis or other part placed centrally 3. (of a circle) Not centered on the same point as another 4. (of an orbit) Not circular

noun /ēl/ eels, plural 1. A snakelike fish with a slender elongated body and poorly developed fins, proverbial for its slipperiness the man was wanted in a dozen countries but was as slippery as an eel 2. Used in names of unrelated fishes that resemble the true eels, e.g., electric eel, moray eel

noun /ikˈsentrik/ eccentrics, plural 1. A person of unconventional and slightly strange views or behavior he enjoys a colorful reputation as an engaging eccentric 2. A disc or wheel mounted eccentrically on a revolving shaft in order to transform rotation into backward-and-forward motion, e.g., a cam in an internal combustion engine SYNONYMS adjective: odd, strange, quaint, peculiar, bizarre, cranky, outlandish noun: crank, original

SYNONYMS noun: grig

ef·fi·gy noun /ˈefijē/ effigies, plural 1. A sculpture or model of a person coins bearing the effigy of Maria Theresa of Austria 2. A roughly made model of a particular person, made in order to be damaged or destroyed as a protest or expression of anger the senator was burned in effigy

ed·i·fice

SYNONYMS noun: image, portrait, picture, likeness

noun /ˈedəfis/ edifices, plural 1. A building, esp. a large, imposing one 2. A complex system of beliefs the concepts on which the edifice of capitalism was built

e·lab·o·rate

SYNONYMS noun: building, structure, construction, fabric, house, erection

adjective /iˈlab(ə)rit/ 1. Involving many carefully arranged parts or details; detailed and complicated in design and planning elaborate security precautions elaborate wrought-iron gates 2. (of an action) Lengthy and exaggerated


48 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - E,e he made an elaborate pretense of yawning verb /iˈlabəˌrāt/ elaborated, past participle; elaborated, past tense; elaborates, 3rd person singular present; elaborating, present participle 1. Develop or present (a theory, policy, or system) in detail the key idea of the book is expressed in the title and elaborated in the text 2. Add more detail concerning what has already been said he would not elaborate on his news 3. (of a natural agency) Produce (a substance) from its elements or simpler constituents SYNONYMS adjective: complicated, complex, detailed verb: work out, develop

e·lec·tive adjective /iˈlektiv/ 1. Related to or working by means of election an elective democracy 2. (of a person or office) Appointed or filled by election he had never held elective office the National Assembly, with 125 elective members 3. (of a body or position) Possessing or giving the power to elect 4. (of a course of study) Chosen by the student rather than compulsory 5. (of surgical or medical treatment) Chosen by the patient rather than urgently necessary noun /iˈlektiv/ electives, plural 1. An optional course of study up to half the credits in many public high schools are electives SYNONYMS adjective: optional, electoral, facultative

e·lim·i·nate verb /iˈliməˌnāt/ eliminated, past participle; eliminated, past tense; eliminates, 3rd person singular present; eliminating, present participle 1. Completely remove or get rid of (something) a policy that would eliminate inflation 2. Exclude (someone or something) from consideration the police have eliminated Larry from their inquiries 3. Murder (a rival or political opponent) 4. Exclude (a person or team) from further participation in a sporting competition following defeat or inadequate results the Bears were eliminated from the playoffs in the first round

5.

6. 7.

Remove (a variable) from an equation, typically by substituting another that is shown by another equation to be equivalent Generate or remove (a simple substance) as a product in the course of a reaction involving larger molecules Expel (waste matter) from the body

SYNONYMS verb: remove, exclude

em·a·nate verb /ˈeməˌnāt/ emanated, past participle; emanated, past tense; emanates, 3rd person singular present; emanating, present participle 1. (of something abstract but perceptible) Issue or spread out from (a source) warmth emanated from the fireplace she felt an undeniable charm emanating from him 2. Originate from; be produced by the proposals emanated from a committee 3. Give out or emit (something abstract but perceptible) he emanated a powerful brooding air SYNONYMS verb: issue, arise, originate, proceed

em·bar·rass verb /emˈbarəs/ embarrassed, past participle; embarrassed, past tense; embarrasses, 3rd person singular present; embarrassing, present participle 1. Cause (someone) to feel awkward, selfconscious, or ashamed she wouldn't embarrass either of them by making a scene 2. Be caused financial difficulties he would be embarrassed by an inheritance tax 3. Hamper or impede (a person, movement, or action) the state of the rivers will embarrass the enemy in a considerable degree 4. Make difficult or intricate; complicate 5. Create difficulties for (someone, esp. a public figure or political party) by drawing attention to their failures or shortcomings SYNONYMS verb: perplex, abash, disconcert, confuse, puzzle, nonplus, hamper

em·ber noun /ˈembər/ embers, plural 1. A small piece of burning or glowing coal or wood in a dying fire the dying embers in the fireplace


myWords 49 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

the flickering embers of nationalism SYNONYMS noun: cinder

e·mit verb /iˈmit/ emits, 3rd person singular present; emitted, past participle; emitted, past tense; emitting, present participle 1. Produce and discharge (something, esp. gas or radiation) coal-fired power stations continue to emit large quantities of sulfur dioxide 2. Make (a sound) she emitted a sound like laughter 3. Issue formally and with authority; put into circulation, esp. currency SYNONYMS verb: issue, give off, send out, radiate

5.

Place (something) in an envelope together with a letter I enclose a copy of the job description

SYNONYMS verb: inclose, surround, encircle, encompass, fence in, fence

en·gulf verb /enˈgəlf/ engulfed, past participle; engulfed, past tense; engulfing, present participle; engulfs, 3rd person singular present 1. (of a natural force) Sweep over (something) so as to surround or cover it completely the cafe was engulfed in flames Europe might be engulfed by war 2. Eat or swallow (something) whole SYNONYMS verb: swallow, devour, ingulf, absorb, swallow up, gulp

em·pa·thy noun /ˈempəTHē/ 1. The ability to understand and share the feelings of another SYNONYMS noun: sympathy

en·act verb /enˈakt/ enacted, past participle; enacted, past tense; enacting, present participle; enacts, 3rd person singular present 1. Make (a bill or other proposal) law legislation was enacted in 1987 to attract international companies 2. Put into practice (a belief, idea, or suggestion) 3. Act out (a role or play) on stage SYNONYMS verb: decree, perform

en·close verb /enˈklōz/ enclosed, past participle; enclosed, past tense; encloses, 3rd person singular present; enclosing, present participle; inclosed, past participle; inclosed, past tense; incloses, 3rd person singular present; inclosing, present participle 1. Surround or close off on all sides the entire estate was enclosed with walls a dark enclosed space 2. Fence in (common land) so as to make it private property 3. Seclude (a religious order or other community) from the outside world 4. Bound on all sides; contain

en·hance verb /enˈhans/ enhanced, past participle; enhanced, past tense; enhances, 3rd person singular present; enhancing, present participle 1. Intensify, increase, or further improve the quality, value, or extent of his refusal does nothing to enhance his reputation computer techniques that enhance images SYNONYMS verb: increase, heighten, augment, raise, magnify, up, amplify, improve, enlarge, intensify

e·nig·ma noun /iˈnigmə/ enigmas, plural 1. A person or thing that is mysterious, puzzling, or difficult to understand 2. A riddle or paradox SYNONYMS noun: riddle, puzzle, conundrum, mystery

en·thu·si·as·tic adjective /enˌTHo͞ozēˈastik/ 1. Having or showing intense and eager enjoyment, interest, or approval the promoter was enthusiastic about the concert venue SYNONYMS adjective: zealous, keen, eager, ardent


50 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - E,e

ep·ic noun /ˈepik/ epics, plural 1. A long poem, typically one derived from ancient oral tradition, narrating the deeds and adventures of heroic or legendary figures or the history of a nation 2. The genre of such poems the romances display gentler emotions not found in Greek epic 3. A long film, book, or other work portraying heroic deeds and adventures or covering an extended period of time a Hollywood biblical epic adjective /ˈepik/ 1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of an epic or epics England's national epic poem Beowulf 2. Heroic or grand in scale or character his epic journey around the world a tragedy of epic proportions SYNONYMS adjective: heroic, epical noun: epos, epopee

ep·i·logue noun /ˈepəˌlôg/ /-ˌläg/ epilogs, plural; epilogues, plural 1. A section or speech at the end of a book or play that serves as a comment on or a conclusion to what has happened SYNONYMS noun: epilog

ep·i·taph noun /ˈepiˌtaf/ epitaphs, plural 1. A phrase or statement written in memory of a person who has died, esp. as an inscription on a tombstone

ep·och noun /ˈepək/ epochs, plural 1. A period of time in history or a person's life, typically one marked by notable events or particular characteristics the Victorian epoch 2. The beginning of a distinctive period in the history of someone or something welfare reform was an epoch in the history of U.S. social policy 3. A division of time that is a subdivision of a period and is itself subdivided into ages, corresponding to a series in chronostratigraphy the Pliocene epoch

4.

An arbitrarily fixed date relative to which planetary or stellar measurements are expressed

SYNONYMS noun: period, era, age, time, season, date, day

e·rot·ic adjective /iˈrätik/ 1. Of, relating to, or tending to arouse sexual desire or excitement SYNONYMS adjective: amatory

es·teem noun /iˈstēm/ 1. Respect and admiration, typically for a person he was held in high esteem by colleagues verb /iˈstēm/ esteemed, past participle; esteemed, past tense; esteeming, present participle; esteems, 3rd person singular present 1. Respect and admire many of these qualities are esteemed by managers a highly esteemed scholar 2. Consider; deem I should esteem it a favor if you could speak to them SYNONYMS verb: respect, value, regard, honour, honor, appreciate, estimate, rate, prize, appraise, venerate, revere noun: respect, regard, estimation, deference, reverence, honour, honor, obeisance

es·ti·mate verb /ˈestəˌmāt/ estimated, past participle; estimated, past tense; estimates, 3rd person singular present; estimating, present participle 1. Roughly calculate or judge the value, number, quantity, or extent of the aim is to estimate the effects of macroeconomic policy on the economy it is estimated that smoking causes 100,000 premature deaths every year an estimated cost of $140,000,000 noun /ˈestəmit/ estimates, plural 1. An approximate calculation or judgment of the value, number, quantity, or extent of something at a rough estimate, our staff is recycling a quarter of the paper used


myWords 51 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2.

3.

A written statement indicating the likely price that will be charged for specified work or repairs compare costs by getting estimates from at least two firms A judgment of the worth or character of someone or something his high estimate of the poem

2. 3.

4. SYNONYMS verb: appraise, evaluate, value, assess, rate, calculate, measure, judge, appreciate, esteem, compute, gauge, reckon noun: estimation, appraisal, valuation, evaluation, rating, assessment, appreciation, calculation, appraisement, account, reckoning

e·ter·nal adjective /iˈtərnl/ 1. Lasting or existing forever; without end or beginning the secret of eternal youth fear of eternal damnation 2. (of truths, values, or questions) Valid for all time; essentially unchanging eternal truths of art and life 3. Seeming to last or persist forever, esp. on account of being tedious or annoying eternal nagging demands she is an eternal optimist 4. Used to emphasize expressions of admiration, gratitude, or other feelings to his eternal credit, he maintained his dignity throughout 5. Used to refer to an everlasting or universal spirit, as represented by God SYNONYMS adjective: everlasting, perpetual, timeless, undying, perennial, sempiternal, imperishable, endless, unending, immortal, perdurable noun: lord, master, providence, heaven

eth·ics noun (plural) /ˈeTHiks/ ethics, plural 1. Moral principles that govern a person's or group's behavior Judeo-Christian ethics 2. The moral correctness of specified conduct the ethics of euthanasia 3. The branch of knowledge that deals with moral principles

5.

cultural group) with a common national or cultural tradition leaders of ethnic communities Of or relating to national and cultural origins two playwrights of different ethnic origins Denoting origin by birth or descent rather than by present nationality ethnic Albanians in Kosovo Characteristic of or belonging to a nonWestern cultural tradition ethnic dishes folk and ethnic music Neither Christian nor Jewish; pagan or heathen

noun /ˈeTHnik/ ethnics, plural 1. A member of an ethnic minority SYNONYMS adjective: ethnical

et·i·quette noun /ˈetikit/ /-ˌket/ etiquettes, plural 1. The customary code of polite behavior in society or among members of a particular profession or group SYNONYMS noun: label, tag, ticket, decorum

eu·lo·gize verb /ˈyo͞oləˌjīz/ eulogised, past participle; eulogised, past tense; eulogises, 3rd person singular present; eulogising, present participle; eulogized, past participle; eulogized, past tense; eulogizes, 3rd person singular present; eulogizing, present participle 1. Praise highly in speech or writing contemporaries eulogized him as a great U.S. Senator a plaque that eulogizes the workers SYNONYMS verb: praise, laud, extol, glorify, extoll, exalt, belaud, commend, celebrate

Eu·ro·dol·lar

SYNONYMS noun: morality, morals, ethic, moral

noun /ˈyərōˌdälər/ /ˈyo͝orō-/ Eurodollars, plural 1. A US dollar deposit held in Europe or elsewhere outside the U.S

eth·nic

e·va·sive

adjective /ˈeTHnik/ 1. Of or relating to a population subgroup (within a larger or dominant national or

adjective /iˈvāsiv/ 1. Tending to avoid commitment or selfrevelation, esp. by responding only indirectly she was evasive about her phone number


52 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - E,e 2.

Directed toward avoidance or escape they decided to take evasive action

SYNONYMS adjective: elusive, non-committal

e·ven·tu·al adjective /iˈvenCHo͞oəl/ 1. Occurring at the end of or as a result of a series of events; final; ultimate it's impossible to predict the eventual outcome of the competition SYNONYMS adjective: ultimate, final, terminal, definitive, conclusive, possible, contingent, last

ev·er·last·ing adjective /ˌevərˈlastiNG/ 1. Lasting forever or for a very long time the damned would suffer everlasting torment it would be an everlasting reminder of this evening noun /ˌevərˈlastiNG/ everlastings, plural 1. Eternity 2. A flower of the daisy family with a papery texture, retaining its shape and color after being dried, esp. a helichrysum SYNONYMS adjective: eternal, perpetual, perennial, undying, sempiternal, timeless, perdurable, permanent, immortal, imperishable, endless, unending noun: eternity, perpetuity, aeon, eon

ex·ag·ger·ate

excuses, 3rd person singular present; excusing, present participle 1. Attempt to lessen the blame attaching to (a fault or offense); seek to defend or justify he did nothing to hide or excuse Jacob's cruelty 2. Forgive (someone) for a fault or offense you must excuse my sister he could be excused for feeling that he was born at the wrong time 3. Overlook or forgive (a fault or offense) sit down—excuse the mess 4. (of a fact or circumstance) Serve in mitigation of (a person or act) his ability excuses most of his faults 5. Release (someone) from a duty or requirement it will not be possible to excuse you from jury duty 6. (used in polite formulas) Allow (someone) to leave a room or gathering now, if you'll excuse us, we have to be getting along 7. Say politely that one is leaving 8. (used esp. by school pupils) Be allowed to leave the room, esp. to go to the bathroom please, can I be excused? noun /ikˈskyo͞os/ excuses, plural 1. A reason or explanation put forward to defend or justify a fault or offense there can be no possible excuse for any further delay no one will have the excuse that they didn’t know 2. A reason put forward to conceal the real reason for an action; a pretext they use their hunting as an excuse to get away from the womenfolk 3. A poor or inadequate example of that pathetic excuse for a man!

verb /igˈzajəˌrāt/ exaggerated, past participle; exaggerated, past tense; exaggerates, 3rd person singular present; exaggerating, present participle 1. Represent (something) as being larger, greater, better, or worse than it really is they were apt to exaggerate any aches and pains I couldn't sleep for three days—I'm not exaggerating 2. Enlarged or altered beyond normal or due proportions her plump thighs, exaggerated hips, and minuscule waist

SYNONYMS verb: pardon, forgive, justify, absolve, remit, condone, exculpate, exempt, warrant noun: pretext, apology, plea, justification, pretence, pretense, pardon, alibi

SYNONYMS verb: overstate, magnify, overdo, overdraw, aggrandize, overact, amplify

verb /igˈzem(p)t/ exempted, past participle; exempted, past tense; exempting, present participle; exempts, 3rd person singular present 1. Free (a person or organization) from an obligation or liability imposed on others they were exempted from paying the tax

ex·cuse verb /ikˈskyo͞oz/ excused, past participle;

excused, past tense;

ex·empt adjective /igˈzem(p)t/ 1. Free from an obligation or liability imposed on others these patients are exempt from all charges they are not exempt from criticism


myWords 53 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

noun /igˈzem(p)t/ exempts, plural 1. A person who is exempt from something, esp. the payment of tax SYNONYMS adjective: free, quit, released, immune verb: release, acquit, absolve, excuse, relieve, free, discharge, exonerate, dispense, deliver, dismiss

ex·haust·ing

the company was exploiting a legal loophole accusations that he exploited a wealthy patient 3. Benefit unfairly from the work of (someone), typically by overworking or underpaying them making money does not always mean exploiting others noun /ˈekˌsploit/ exploits, plural 1. A bold or daring feat the most heroic and secretive exploits of the war

adjective /igˈzôstiNG/ 1. Making one feel very tired; very tiring a long and exhausting journey

SYNONYMS verb: use, utilize, operate, milk noun: feat, deed, achievement

SYNONYMS adjective: wearing, tiresome, tiring, fatiguing, wearisome, grueling, gruelling, exhaustive

ex·press·ly

ex·per·tise noun /ˌekspərˈtēz/ /-ˈtēs/ 1. Expert skill or knowledge in a particular field technical expertise SYNONYMS noun: proficiency, skill

adverb /ikˈstiNG(k)t/ 1. Explicitly; clearly she was expressly forbidden to use the stove 2. For a specific purpose; solely the house was expressly built for entertaining SYNONYM adverb: specially, designedly, purposely

ex·tinct ex·plic·it adjective /ikˈsplisit/ 1. Stated clearly and in detail, leaving no room for confusion or doubt the speaker's intentions were not made explicit 2. (of a person) Stating something in such a way let me be explicit 3. Describing or representing sexual activity in a graphic fashion explicit photos showing poses and acts noun /ikˈsplisit/ explicits, plural 1. The closing words of a text, manuscript, early printed book, or chanted liturgical text SYNONYMS adjective: express, clear, definite, distinct, plain, evident, obvious

ex·ploit verb /ikˈsploit/ exploited, past participle; exploited, past tense; exploiting, present participle; exploits, 3rd person singular present 1. Make full use of and derive benefit from (a resource) 500 companies sprang up to exploit this new technology 2. Use (a situation or person) in an unfair or selfish way

adjective /ikˈstiNG(k)t/ 1. (of a species, family, or other larger group) Having no living members trilobites and dinosaurs are extinct 2. No longer in existence the sort of girls' school that is now extinct 3. (of a volcano) Not having erupted in recorded history 4. No longer burning his now extinct pipe 5. (of a title of nobility) Having no qualified claimant SYNONYMS adjective: dead, defunct

ex·tin·guish verb /ikˈstiNGgwiSH/ extinguished, past participle; extinguished, past tense; extinguishes, 3rd person singular present; extinguishing, present participle 1. Cause (a fire or light) to cease to burn or shine firemen were soaking everything to extinguish the blaze 2. Put an end to; annihilate hope is extinguished little by little 3. Cancel (a debt) by full payment the debt was absolutely extinguished 4. Render (a right or obligation) void rights of common pasture were extinguished


54 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - E,e SYNONYMS verb: put out, quench, douse, turn off, destroy, blow out

ex·tra·cur·ric·u·lar adjective /ˌekstrəkəˈrikyələr/ 1. (of an activity at a school or college) Pursued in addition to the normal course of study extracurricular activities include sports, drama, music, chess 2. Outside the normal routine, esp. that provided by a job or marriage Harriet's extracurricular sweetheart

ex·tra·ne·ous adjective /ikˈstrānēəs/ 1. Irrelevant or unrelated to the subject being dealt with one is obliged to wade through many pages of extraneous material 2. Of external origin when the transmitter pack is turned off, no extraneous noise is heard 3. Separate from the object to which it is attached other insects attach extraneous objects or material to themselves SYNONYMS adjective: strange, foreign, alien, outside, extrinsic, external


myWords 55 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

F,f fad noun /fad/ fads, plural 1. An intense and widely shared enthusiasm for something, esp. one that is short-lived and without basis in the object's qualities; a craze prairie restoration is the latest gardening fad in the Midwest SYNONYMS noun: whim, caprice, vagary, fancy, crotchet

faith noun /fāTH/ faiths, plural 1. Complete trust or confidence in someone or something this restores one's faith in politicians 2. Strong belief in God or in the doctrines of a religion, based on spiritual apprehension rather than proof 3. A system of religious belief the Christian faith 4. A strongly held belief or theory the faith that life will expand until it fills the universe SYNONYMS noun: belief, trust, confidence, credence, credit, reliance, creed, religion, loyalty, fidelity, persuasion

fa·nat·ic noun /fəˈnatik/ fanatics, plural

1. 2.

A person filled with excessive and singleminded zeal, esp. for an extreme religious or political cause A person with an obsessive interest in and enthusiasm for something, esp. an activity a fitness fanatic

adjective /fəˈnatik/ 1. Filled with or expressing excessive zeal his fanatic energy SYNONYMS adjective: fanatical, rabid, bigoted, phrenetic, frenetic noun: zealot, bigot

far·thest adjective /ˈfärT͟Hist/ 1. Situated at the greatest distance from a specified or understood point the farthest door led to a kitchen it was the farthest thing from my mind 2. Covering the greatest area or distance his record for the farthest flight 3. Extremely remote the farthest ends of the earth adverb /ˈfärT͟Hist/ 1. At or by the greatest distance (used to indicate how far one thing or person is or becomes distant from another) the bed farthest from the window the people who are furthest removed from the political process 2. Over the greatest distance or area his group probably had farthest to ride the areas where prices have fallen farthest 3. Used to indicate the most distant point reached in a specified direction


56 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - F,f

4.

it was the farthest north I had ever traveled To the most extreme or advanced point countries where industrialization had gone furthest the farthest he'll go is to admit a sort of resentment

SYNONYMS adjective: farthermost, furthest, furthermost, utmost, extreme adverb: furthest

fast adjective /fast/ faster, comparative; fastest, superlative 1. Moving or capable of moving at high speed a fast and powerful car 2. Performed or taking place at high speed; taking only a short time the journey was fast and enjoyable 3. Allowing people or things to move at high speed a wide, fast road 4. Performing or able to perform a particular type of action quickly a fast reader 5. (of a playing field) Likely to make the ball bounce or run quickly or to allow competitors to reach a high speed 6. (of a person or lifestyle) Engaging in or involving exciting or shocking activities the fast life she led in London 7. (of a clock or watch) Showing a time ahead of the correct time I keep my watch fifteen minutes fast 8. Firmly fixed or attached he made a rope fast to each corner 9. (of friends) Close and loyal 10. (of a dye) Not fading in light or when washed 11. (of a film) Needing only a short exposure 12. (of a lens) Having a large aperture and therefore allowing short exposure times adverb /fast/ faster, comparative; fastest, superlative 1. At high speed he was driving too fast 2. Within a short time they think they're going to get rich fast 3. So as to be hard to move; firmly or securely the ship was held fast by the anchor chain 4. (of someone or something sleeping) So as to be hard to wake they were too fast asleep to reply verb fasted, past participle; fasted, past tense; fasting, present participle; fasts, 3rd person singular present 1. Abstain from all or some kinds of food or drink, esp. as a religious observance noun fasts, plural 1. An act or period of fasting

a five-day fast SYNONYMS adjective: quick, rapid, swift, speedy, firm noun: fasting adverb: quickly, quick, speedily, apace, rapidly, firmly, swiftly

fa·tal adjective /ˈfātl/ 1. Causing death a fatal accident 2. Leading to failure or disaster there were three fatal flaws in the strategy SYNONYMS adjective: mortal, deadly, fateful, lethal, deathly, pernicious, baneful

fate noun /fāt/ fates, plural 1. The development of events beyond a person's control, regarded as determined by a supernatural power fate decided his course for him his injury is a cruel twist of fate 2. The course of someone's life, or the outcome of a particular situation for someone or something, seen as beyond their control he suffered the same fate as his companion 3. The inescapable death of a person the guards led her to her fate 4. The three goddesses who preside over the birth and life of humans. Each person's destiny was thought of as a thread spun, measured, and cut by the three Fates, Clotho, Lachesis, and Atropos verb /fāt/ 1. Be destined to happen, turn out, or act in a particular way the regime was fated to end badly SYNONYMS verb: destine, preordain, ordain noun: destiny, lot, doom, fortune, kismet, portion, fatality, luck, predestination

fel·on noun /ˈfelən/ felons, plural 1. A person who has been convicted of a felony adjective /ˈfelən/ 1. Cruel; wicked the felon undermining hand of dark corruption SYNONYMS adjective: cruel, atrocious


myWords 57 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

noun: criminal, malefactor, outlaw

fi·as·co

fem·i·nist

noun /fēˈaskō/ fiascos, plural 1. A thing that is a complete failure, esp. in a ludicrous or humiliating way his plans turned into a fiasco

noun /ˈfemənist/ feminists, plural 1. A person who supports feminism adjective /ˈfemənist/ 1. Of, relating to, or supporting feminism feminist literature

SYNONYMS noun: failure, flop, washout, fizzle, frost

fil·i·bus·ter fe·ral adjective /ˈfi(ə)rəl/ /ˈferəl/ 1. (esp. of an animal) In a wild state, esp. after escape from captivity or domestication a feral cat 2. Resembling a wild animal a feral snarl SYNONYMS adjective: wild, savage, ferine, fierce, ferocious

fer·tile adjective /ˈfərtl/ 1. (of soil or land) Producing or capable of producing abundant vegetation or crops fields along the fertile flood plains of the river Germany in the 1920s and 30s was fertile ground for such ideas 2. (of a seed or egg) Capable of becoming a new individual 3. (of a person, animal, or plant) Able to conceive young or produce seed Barbara carefully calculated the period when she was most fertile 4. (of a person's mind or imagination) Producing many new and inventive ideas with ease 5. (of a situation or subject) Fruitful and productive in generating new ideas a series of fertile debates within the social sciences 6. (of nuclear material) Able to become fissile by the capture of neutrons SYNONYMS adjective: fruitful, prolific, fecund, productive, rich, fat, pregnant

fe·tus noun /ˈfētəs/ fetuses, plural; foetuses, plural 1. An unborn offspring of a mammal, in particular an unborn human baby more than eight weeks after conception SYNONYMS noun: foetus, embryo, germ

noun /ˈfiləˌbəstər/ filibusters, plural 1. An action such as a prolonged speech that obstructs progress in a legislative assembly while not technically contravening the required procedures it was defeated by a Senate filibuster in June 2. A person engaging in unauthorized warfare against a foreign country verb /ˈfiləˌbəstər/ filibustered, past participle; filibustered, past tense; filibustering, present participle; filibusters, 3rd person singular present 1. Act in an obstructive manner in a legislature, esp. by speaking at inordinate length several measures were killed by Republican filibustering 2. Obstruct (a measure) in such a way SYNONYMS noun: pirate, buccaneer, freebooter, corsair

firm adjective /fərm/ firmer, comparative; firmest, superlative 1. Having a solid, almost unyielding surface or structure the bed should be reasonably firm, but not too hard 2. Solidly in place and stable no building can stand without firm foundations he was unable to establish the store on a firm financial footing 3. Having steady but not excessive power or strength you need a firm grip on the steering 4. (of a person, action, or attitude) Showing resolute determination and strength of character he didn't like being firm with Larry, but he had to 5. Strongly felt and unlikely to change he retains a firm belief in the efficacy of prayer 6. (of a person) Steadfast and constant we became firm friends 7. Decided upon and fixed or definite she had no firm plans for the next day


58 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - F,f 8.

(of a currency, a commodity, or shares) Having a steady value or price that is more likely to rise than fall the dollar was firm against the yen

verb /fərm/ firmed, past participle; firmed, past tense; firming, present participle; firms, 3rd person singular present 1. Make (something) physically solid or resilient an exercise program designed to firm up muscle tone 2. Fix (a plant) securely in the soil 3. (of a price) Rise slightly to reach a level considered secure he believed house prices would firm by the end of the year 4. Make (an agreement or plan) explicit and definite archaeologists have now firmed up this new view adverb /fərm/ 1. In a resolute and determined manner she will stand firm against the government's proposal noun firms, plural 1. A business concern, esp. one involving a partnership of two or more people a law firm SYNONYMS adjective: steady, solid, strong, hard, steadfast, stable, fast, resolute, sturdy, stiff, tough, fixed, rigid, immovable verb: strengthen, consolidate, harden, fasten, solidify noun: company, concern, business, house, enterprise adverb: firmly, fixedly, fast, tight, hard

fis·cal adjective /ˈfiskəl/ 1. Of or relating to government revenue, esp. taxes monetary and fiscal policy 2. Of or relating to financial matters the domestic fiscal crisis 3. Used to denote a fiscal year the budget deficit for fiscal 1996 noun /ˈfiskəl/ fiscals, plural 1. A legal or treasury official in some countries SYNONYMS adjective: financial

flo·ra and fau·na idiom 1. The plants and animals of a specific region

The flora and fauna of South Florida are quite diverse, made up of microclimate environments called communities flora noun /ˈflôrə/ florae, plural; floras, plural 1. The plants of a particular region, habitat, or geological period the desert flora give way to oak woodlands the river's flora and fauna have been inventoried and protected 2. A treatise on or list of such plant life faua noun /ˈfônə/ /ˈfänə/ faunae, plural; faunas, plural 1. The animals of a particular region, habitat, or geological period the flora and fauna of Siberia islands that support one of the richest of all marine faunas 2. A book or other work describing or listing the animal life of a region SYNONYMS noun: organism

foul adjective /foul/ fouler, comparative; foulest, superlative 1. Offensive to the senses, esp. through having a disgusting smell or taste or being unpleasantly soiled a foul odor his foul breath 2. Very disagreeable or unpleasant the news had put Michelle in a foul mood 3. (of the weather) Wet and stormy 4. (of wind or tide) Opposed to one's desired course 5. Wicked or immoral murder most foul 6. (of language) Obscene or profane 7. Done contrary to the rules of a sport a foul tackle 8. Containing or charged with noxious matter; polluted foul, swampy water 9. Clogged or choked with the land was foul with weeds 10. (of a rope or anchor) Entangled 11. (of a ship's bottom) Encrusted with algae, barnacles, or other marine growth 12. (of a first copy or proof) Defaced by corrections noun /foul/ fouls, plural 1. (in sports) An unfair or invalid stroke or piece of play, esp. one involving interference with an opponent 2. A collision or entanglement in riding, rowing, or running 3. A disease in the feet of cattle


myWords 59 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

adverb /foul/ 1. Unfairly; contrary to the rules 2. (in sports) In foul territory if a batter hits a bunt foul with two strikes, he is out verb /foul/ fouled, past participle; fouled, past tense; fouling, present participle; fouls, 3rd person singular present 1. Make foul or dirty; pollute factories that fouled the atmosphere 2. Disgrace or dishonor 3. (of an animal) Make (something) dirty with excrement make sure that your pet never fouls the sidewalk 4. (of a person) Defecate involuntarily 5. (in sports) Commit a foul against (an opponent) 6. Hit a foul ball Carter fouled into the glove of Boggs 7. (of a ship) Collide with or interfere with the passage of (another) 8. Cause (a cable, anchor, or other object) to become entangled or jammed watch out for driftwood which might foul up the engine 9. Become entangled in this way SYNONYMS adjective: nasty, filthy, unclean, vile, squalid verb: soil, defile, pollute, sully, smirch, stain

frac·ture

4.

the movement had fractured without his leadership (of speech or a language) Broken

SYNONYMS verb: break, crack, smash, snap noun: break, rupture, split, breaking, breakage

frank adjective /fraNGk/ franker, comparative; frankest, superlative 1. Open, honest, and direct in speech or writing, esp. when dealing with unpalatable matters a long and frank discussion to be perfectly frank, I don't know 2. Open, sincere, or undisguised in manner or appearance Katherine saw her look at Sam with frank admiration 3. Unmistakable; obvious frank ulceration verb franked, past participle; franked, past tense; franking, present participle; franks, 3rd person singular present 1. Stamp an official mark on (a letter or parcel), esp. to indicate that postage has been paid or does not need to be paid 2. Sign (a letter or parcel) to ensure delivery free of charge 3. Facilitate or pay the passage of (someone) English will frank the traveler through most of North America

noun /ˈfrakCHər/ fractures, plural 1. The cracking or breaking of a hard object or material bone density testing can predict the risk for fracture 2. A crack or break in a hard object or material, typically a bone or a body of rock a fracture of the left leg 3. The physical appearance of a freshly broken rock or mineral, esp. as regards the shape of the surface formed 4. The replacement of a simple vowel by a diphthong owing to the influence of a following sound, typically a consonant 5. A diphthong substituted in this way

noun franks, plural 1. An official mark or signature on a letter or parcel, esp. to indicate that postage has been paid or does not need to be paid

verb /ˈfrakCHər/ fractured, past participle; fractured, past tense; fractures, 3rd person singular present; fracturing, present participle 1. Break or cause to break the stone has fractured ancient magmas fractured by the forces of wind and ice 2. Sustain a fracture of (a bone) she suffered a fractured skull 3. (with reference to an organization or other abstract thing) Split or fragment so as to no longer function or exist

verb /ˈfratərˌnīz/ fraternised, past participle; fraternised, past tense; fraternises, 3rd person singular present; fraternising, present participle; fraternized, past participle; fraternized, past tense; fraternizes, 3rd person singular present; fraternizing, present participle 1. Associate or form a friendship with someone, esp. when one is not supposed to she ignored Elisabeth's warning glare against fraternizing with the enemy

SYNONYMS adjective: candid, open, outspoken, straightforward, sincere, direct, honest, forthright, ingenuous, straight, open-hearted, downright, plain, single-hearted, unreserved, outright, genuine, overt verb: prepay, stamp

frat·er·nize


60 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - F,f

fraud·u·lent adjective /ˈfrôjələnt/ 1. Obtained, done by, or involving deception, esp. criminal deception the fraudulent copying of American software 2. Unjustifiably claiming or being credited with particular accomplishments or qualities he unmasked fraudulent psychics

1.

2. 3. 4.

SYNONYMS adjective: deceitful, dishonest, deceptive 5.

fri·vol·i·ty noun /friˈvälətē/ 1. Lack of seriousness; lightheartedness a night of fun and frivolity

Bring to completion or reality; achieve or realize (something desired, promised, or predicted) he wouldn't be able to fulfill his ambition to visit Naples Gain happiness or satisfaction by fully developing one's abilities or character Complete (a period of time or piece of work) Carry out (a task, duty, or role) as required, pledged, or expected some officials were dismissed because they could not fulfill their duties Satisfy or meet (a requirement or condition) goods must fulfill three basic conditions

SYNONYMS verb: fulfil, accomplish, carry out, perform, execute, implement, satisfy, realize, complete, fill, achieve

SYNONYMS noun: levity, flippancy, giddiness

fur·tive adjective /ˈfro͞ogəl/ 1. Sparing or economical with regard to money or food he led a remarkably frugal existence 2. Simple and plain and costing little a frugal meal

adjective /ˈfərtiv/ 1. Attempting to avoid notice or attention, typically because of guilt or a belief that discovery would lead to trouble; secretive they spent a furtive day together he stole a furtive glance at her 2. Suggestive of guilty nervousness the look in his eyes became furtive

SYNONYMS adjective: thrifty, economical, sparing, parsimonious, saving, economic, abstemious, spare, modest, provident

SYNONYMS adjective: stealthy, secret, surreptitious, privy, hidden, sneaky, occult, clandestine, underhand, sly, sneaking

fru·gal

frus·tra·tion noun /frəˈstrāSHən/ frustrations, plural 1. The feeling of being upset or annoyed, esp. because of inability to change or achieve something I sometimes feel like screaming with frustration 2. An event or circumstance that causes one to have such a feeling the inherent frustrations of assembly line work 3. The prevention of the progress, success, or fulfillment of something the frustration of their wishes SYNONYMS noun: disappointment, defeat

ful·fill verb /fo͝olˈfil/ fulfilled, past participle; fulfilled, past tense; fulfilling, present participle; fulfills, 3rd person singular present; fulfils, 3rd person singular present


myWords 61 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

G,g gain·say verb /ˌgānˈsā/ /ˈgānˌsā/ gainsaid, past participle; gainsaid, past tense; gainsaying, present participle; gainsays, 3rd person singular present 1. Deny or contradict (a fact or statement) the impact of the railroads cannot be gainsaid 2. Speak against or oppose (someone) SYNONYMS verb: deny, contradict, negate, disavow, disclaim, negative, repudiate, controvert noun: contradiction

noun: hazard, gambling, venture, risk, gaming

gar·ment noun /ˈgärmənt/ garments, plural 1. An item of clothing SYNONYMS verb: dress, garb, clothe, robe, habit, attire noun: dress, clothes, garb, raiment, clothing, apparel, costume, wear, vestment, attire, vesture

gauge gam·ble verb /ˈgambəl/ gambled, past participle; gambled, past tense; gambles, 3rd person singular present; gambling, present participle 1. Play games of chance for money; bet she was fond of gambling on cards and horses 2. Bet (a sum of money) in such a way he was gambling every penny he had on the spin of a wheel 3. Take risky action in the hope of a desired result the British could only gamble that something would turn up noun /ˈgambəl/ gambles, plural 1. An act of gambling; an enterprise undertaken or attempted with a risk of loss and a chance of profit or success SYNONYMS verb: stake, game, risk, venture, hazard, play

noun /gāj/ gages, plural; gauges, plural 1. An instrument or device for measuring the magnitude, amount, or contents of something, typically with a visual display of such information 2. A tool for checking whether something conforms to a desired dimension 3. A means of estimating something; a criterion or test emigration is perhaps the best gauge of public unease 4. The thickness, size, or capacity of something, esp. as a standard measure, in particular 5. The diameter of a string, fiber, tube, etc a fine 0.018-inch gauge wire 6. A measure of the diameter of a gun barrel, or of its ammunition, expressed as the number of spherical pieces of shot of the same diameter as the barrel that can be made from 1 pound (454 g) of lead a 12-gauge shotgun 7. The thickness of sheet metal or plastic 500-gauge polyethylene


62 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - G,g 8.

The distance between the rails of a line of railroad track the line was laid to a gauge of 2 ft. 9 in 9. The position of a sailing vessel to windward (weather gage) or leeward (lee gage) of another verb /gāj/ gaged, past participle; gaged, past tense; gages, 3rd person singular present; gaging, present participle; gauged, past participle; gauged, past tense; gauges, 3rd person singular present; gauging, present participle 1. Estimate or determine the magnitude, amount, or volume of astronomers can gauge the star's intrinsic brightness 2. Form a judgment or estimate of (a situation, mood, etc.) she is unable to gauge his mood 3. Measure the dimensions of (an object) with a gauge when dry, the assemblies can be gauged exactly and planed to width 4. Made in standard dimensions gauged sets of strings SYNONYMS verb: measure, gage, estimate, appraise, evaluate, assess noun: gage, measure, calibre, caliber, size, standard, meter

gen·er·ate verb /ˈjenəˌrāt/ generated, past participle; generated, past tense; generates, 3rd person singular present; generating, present participle 1. Cause (something, esp. an emotion or situation) to arise or come about changes that are likely to generate controversy generate more jobs in the economy 2. Produce (energy, esp. electricity) 3. Produce (a set or sequence of items) by performing specified mathematical or logical operations on an initial set 4. Produce (a sentence or other unit, esp. a wellformed one) by the application of a finite set of rules to lexical or other linguistic input 5. Form (a line, surface, or solid) by notionally moving a point, line, or surface SYNONYMS verb: produce, create, engender, breed, beget, cause, procreate, originate, make

gen·u·ine adjective /ˈjenyo͞oin/ 1. Truly what something is said to be; authentic each book is bound in genuine leather 2. (of a person, emotion, or action) Sincere she had no doubts as to whether Tom was genuine

a genuine attempt to delegate authority SYNONYMS adjective: true, real, authentic, sincere, honest, veritable, original, sterling, unfeigned, actual, pure

ger·und noun /ˈjerənd/ gerunds, plural 1. A form that is derived from a verb but that functions as a noun, in English ending in -ing, e.g., asking in do you mind my asking you? SYNONYMS noun: gerundive

glid·ing noun /ˈglīdiNG/ 1. The sport of flying in a glider SYNONYMS noun: glide

glos·sa·ry noun /ˈgläsərē/ /ˈglô-/ glossaries, plural 1. An alphabetical list of terms or words found in or relating to a specific subject, text, or dialect, with explanations; a brief dictionary SYNONYMS noun: vocabulary, lexicon, gloss, dictionary

grace·ful adjective /ˈgrāsfəl/ 1. Having or showing grace or elegance she was a tall girl, slender and graceful SYNONYMS adjective: elegant, charming

groan verb /grōn/ groaned, past participle; groaned, past tense; groaning, present participle; groans, 3rd person singular present 1. Make a deep inarticulate sound in response to pain or despair Marty groaned and pulled the blanket over his head 2. Say something in a despairing or miserable tone “Oh God!” I groaned 3. Complain; grumble they weremoaning and groaning about management


myWords 63 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

4.

5. 6.

(of a thing) Make a low creaking or moaning sound when pressure or weight is applied James slumped back into his chair, making it groan and bulge Be oppressed by families groaning under mortgage increases Be heavily loaded with tables groan with smoking joints of venison

noun /grōn/ groans, plural 1. A deep, inarticulate sound made in pain or despair 2. A complaint to listen with sincerity to everyone's moans and groans 3. A low creaking or moaning sound made by an object or device under pressure the protesting groan of timbers SYNONYMS verb: moan, wail noun: moan

gross adjective /grōs/ grosser, comparative; grossest, superlative 1. Unattractively large or bloated I feel fat, gross—even my legs feel flabby 2. Large-scale; not fine or detailed at the gross anatomical level 3. Complete; blatant a gross exaggeration 4. Vulgar; unrefined the duties we felt called upon to perform toward our inferiors were only gross, material ones 5. Very unpleasant; repulsive it's disgusting and gross, but it's a fact 6. (of income, profit, or interest) Without deduction of tax or other contributions; total the gross amount of the gift was $1,000 the current rate of interest is about 6.1 percent gross 7. (of weight) Including all contents, fittings, wrappings, or other variable items; overall a projected gross takeoff weight of 500,000 pounds 8. (of a score in golf) As actually played, without taking handicap into account adverb /grōs/ 1. Without tax or other contributions having been deducted verb /grōs/ grossed, past participle; grossed, past tense; grosses, 3rd person singular present; grossing, present participle 1. Produce or earn (an amount of money) as gross profit or income the film went on to gross $8 million in the U.S

noun /grōs/ grosses, plural 1. An amount equal to twelve dozen; 144 fifty-five gross of tins of processed milk 2. A gross profit or income the box-office grosses mounted SYNONYMS adjective: coarse, rude, thick, rough, fat noun: bulk

grouch noun /grouCH/ grouches, plural 1. A habitually grumpy person rock's foremost poet and ill-mannered grouch 2. A complaint or grumble my only real grouch was that the children's chorus was far less easy on the ear 3. A fit of grumbling or sulking he's in a thundering grouch verb /grouCH/ grouched, past participle; grouched, past tense; grouches, 3rd person singular present; grouching, present participle 1. Voice one's discontent in an ill-tempered manner; grumble there's not a lot to grouch about SYNONYMS verb: grumble, murmur, grouse, mutter, growl, repine, croak, nag, complain noun: grumbler

gruel·ing adjective /ˈgro͞oəliNG/ 1. Extremely tiring and demanding a grueling schedule SYNONYMS adjective: gruelling, trying, toilsome, exhausting noun: grueling

gym·na·si·um noun /jimˈnāzēəm/ gymnasia, plural; gymnasiums, plural 1. A room or building equipped for gymnastics, games, and other physical exercise 2. A school in Germany, Scandinavia, or central Europe that prepares pupils for university entrance SYNONYMS noun: gym


64 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - G,g


myWords 65 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

H,h hal·lu·ci·nate

haugh·ty

verb /həˈlo͞osənˌāt/ hallucinated, past participle; hallucinated, past tense; hallucinates, 3rd person singular present; hallucinating, present participle 1. Experience a seemingly real perception of something not actually present, typically as a result of a mental disorder or of taking drugs people sense themselves going mad and hallucinate about spiders 2. Experience a hallucination of (something) I don't care if they're hallucinating purple snakes

adjective /ˈhôtē/ haughtier, comparative; haughtiest, superlative 1. Arrogantly superior and disdainful a look of haughty disdain a haughty aristocrat

har·mo·ny noun /ˈhärmənē/ harmonies, plural 1. The combination of simultaneously sounded musical notes to produce chords and chord progressions having a pleasing effect four-part harmony in the barbershop style the note played on the fourth beat anticipates the harmony of the following bar 2. The study or composition of musical harmony 3. The quality of forming a pleasing and consistent whole delightful cities where old and new blend in harmony 4. An arrangement of the four Gospels, or of any parallel narratives, that presents a single continuous narrative text 5. Agreement or concord man and machine in perfect harmony SYNONYMS noun: concord, accord, unison, agreement, unity, consonance, tune, accordance, concert, concordance, keeping, union

SYNONYMS adjective: arrogant, proud, supercilious, lofty, lordly, uppish, conceited, overweening, imperious, snooty, overbearing, stuck-up, disdainful

her·mit noun /ˈhərmit/ hermits, plural 1. A person living in solitude as a religious discipline 2. Any person living in solitude or seeking to do so 3. A hummingbird found in the shady lower layers of tropical forests, foraging along a regular route SYNONYMS noun: recluse, anchorite, eremite, solitary, anchoret, ascetic

het·er·o·ge·ne·ous adjective /ˌhetərəˈjēnēəs/ 1. Diverse in character or content a large and heterogeneous collection 2. Of or denoting a process involving substances in different phases (solid, liquid, or gaseous) 3. Incommensurable through being of different kinds, degrees, or dimensions


66 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - H,h SYNONYMS adjective: miscellaneous, promiscuous

hoax noun /hōks/ hoaxes, plural 1. A humorous or malicious deception they recognized the plan as a hoax he was accused of making hoax calls verb /hōks/ hoaxed, past participle; hoaxed, past tense; hoaxes, 3rd person singular present; hoaxing, present participle 1. Deceive with a hoax SYNONYMS verb: cheat, swindle, bamboozle, deceive, fool, spoof, mystify noun: fraud, trick, deception, deceit, spoof

ho·mo·ge·ne·ous adjective /ˌhōməˈjēnēəs/ 1. Of the same kind; alike timbermen prefer to deal with homogeneous woods 2. Consisting of parts all of the same kind culturally speaking the farmers constitute an extremely homogeneous group 3. Containing terms all of the same degree SYNONYMS adjective: uniform, similar

hos·pi·tal·i·ty noun /ˌhäspiˈtalitē/ 1. The friendly and generous reception and entertainment of guests, visitors, or strangers adjective /ˌhäspiˈtalitē/ 1. Denoting a suite or room in a hotel where visitors are entertained, typically at a convention liquor flowed most freely in the hospitality suites of thirteen candidates 2. Relating to or denoting the business of housing or entertaining visitors the hospitality industry SYNONYMS noun: entertainment

hos·tage noun /ˈhästij/ hostages, plural 1. A person seized or held as security for the fulfillment of a condition the kidnapper had instructed the hostage's family to drop the ransom at noon

SYNONYMS noun: pledge, guarantee, pawn

hos·tile adjective /ˈhästl/ /ˈhäˌstīl/ 1. Unfriendly; antagonistic a hostile audience he wrote a ferociously hostile attack 2. Of or belonging to a military enemy hostile aircraft 3. Opposed people are very hostile to the idea 4. (of a takeover bid) Opposed by the company to be bought SYNONYMS adjective: inimical, unfriendly, adverse, enemy, antagonistic noun: enemy, foe, adversary, antagonist, opponent

hov·er verb /ˈhəvər/ hovered, past participle; hovered, past tense; hovering, present participle; hovers, 3rd person singular present 1. Remain in one place in the air army helicopters hovered overhead 2. Remain poised in one place, typically with slight but undirected movement her hand hovered over the console 3. (of a person) Wait or linger close at hand in a tentative or uncertain manner she hovered anxiously in the background 4. Remain at or near a particular level inflation will hover around the 4 percent mark 5. Remain in a state that is between two specified states or kinds of things his expression hovered between cynicism and puzzlement noun /ˈhəvər/ hovers, plural 1. An act of remaining in the air in one place SYNONYMS verb: soar, float

hue noun /(h)yo͞o/ hues, plural 1. A color or shade her face lost its golden hue verdigris is greenish-yellow in hue 2. The attribute of a color by virtue of which it is discernible as red, green, etc., and which is dependent on its dominant wavelength, and independent of intensity or lightness 3. Character; aspect men of all political hues submerged their feuds


myWords 67 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS verb: dye, colour, color noun: tint, colour, color, tinge, tincture, dye, shade, tone, nuance, paint

2.

3.

hu·man adjective /ˈ(h)yo͞omən/ 1. Of, relating to, or characteristic of people or human beings the human body the survival of the human race 2. Of or characteristic of people as opposed to God or animals or machines, esp. in being susceptible to weaknesses they are only human, and therefore mistakes do occur the risk of human error 3. Of or characteristic of people's better qualities, such as kindness or sensitivity the human side of politics is getting stronger 4. Of or belonging to the genus Homo noun /ˈ(h)yo͞omən/ humans, plural 1. A human being, esp. a person as distinguished from an animal or (in science fiction) an alien SYNONYMS adjective: humane noun: man, person, human being, individual, soul, mortal

hu·mid adjective /ˈ(h)yo͞omid/ 1. Marked by a relatively high level of water vapor in the atmosphere a hot and humid day SYNONYMS adjective: moist, damp, wet, dank, dabby, soggy, dewy, watery, clammy

hu·mil·i·ty noun /(h)yo͞oˈmilitē/ 1. A modest or low view of one's own importance; humbleness SYNONYMS noun: modesty, meekness, humbleness, lowliness, submission

hy·brid noun /ˈhīˌbrid/ hybrids, plural 1. A thing made by combining two different elements; a mixture the final text is a hybrid of the stage play and the film

4.

5.

The offspring of two plants or animals of different species or varieties, such as a mule (a hybrid of a donkey and a horse) a hybrid of wheat and rye offensive. A person of mixed racial or cultural origin A word formed from elements taken from different languages, for example television (tele- from Greek, vision from Latin) A hybrid car

adjective /ˈhīˌbrid/ 1. Of mixed character; composed of mixed parts Mexico's hybrid postconquest culture 2. Bred as a hybrid from different species or varieties a hybrid variety hybrid offspring

hy·gi·en·ic adjective /hīˈjenik/ /-ˈjē-/ 1. Conducive to maintaining health and preventing disease, esp. by being clean; sanitary hygienic conditions SYNONYMS adjective: sanitary, sanitarian, healthy

hyp·not·ic adjective /hipˈnätik/ 1. Of, producing, or relating to hypnosis a hypnotic state 2. Exerting a compelling, fascinating, or soporific effect her voice had a hypnotic quality 3. (of a drug) Sleep-inducing noun /hipˈnätik/ hypnotics, plural 1. A sleep-inducing drug 2. A person under or open to the influence of hypnotism SYNONYMS adjective: mesmeric, soporific noun: narcotic, soporific

hy·po·chon·dri·ac noun /ˌhīpəˈkändrēˌak/ hypochondriacs, plural 1. A person who is abnormally anxious about their health SYNONYMS noun: splenetic


68 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - H,h


myWords 69 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

I,i i·con noun /ˈīˌkän/ icons, plural; ikons, plural 1. A painting of Jesus Christ or another holy figure, typically in a traditional style on wood, venerated and used as an aid to devotion in the Byzantine and other Eastern Churches 2. A person or thing regarded as a representative symbol of something this iron-jawed icon of American manhood 3. A symbol or graphic representation on a video display terminal of a program, option, or window, esp. one of several for selection 4. A sign whose form directly reflects the thing it signifies, for example, the word snarl pronounced in a snarling way SYNONYMS noun: ikon, image

i·de·al·is·tic adjective /īˌdē(ə)ˈlistik/ 1. Characterized by idealism; unrealistically aiming for perfection idealistic young doctors who went to work for the rebels

i·den·ti·fy verb /īˈdentəˌfī/ identified, past participle; identified, past tense; identifies, 3rd person singular present; identifying, present participle 1. Establish or indicate who or what (someone or something) is the judge ordered that the girl not be identified

2.

3.

4.

5.

the contact would identify himself simply as Cobra Recognize or distinguish (esp. something considered worthy of attention) a system that ensures that the student's real needs are identified Associate (someone) closely with; regard (someone) as having strong links with he was equivocal about being identified too closely with the peace movement Equate (someone or something) with because of my upstate accent, people identified me with a homely farmer's wife Regard oneself as sharing the same characteristics or thinking as someone else I liked Fromm and identified with him

SYNONYMS verb: recognize

id·i·o·syn·cra·sy noun /ˌidēəˈsiNGkrəsē/ idiosyncrasies, plural 1. A mode of behavior or way of thought peculiar to an individual one of his little idiosyncrasies was always preferring to be in the car first 2. A distinctive or peculiar feature or characteristic of a place or thing the idiosyncrasies of the prison system 3. An abnormal physical reaction by an individual to a food or drug

id·i·ot noun /ˈidēət/ idiots, plural 1. A stupid person


70 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - I,i 2.

A mentally handicapped person

SYNONYMS adjective: idiotic noun: fool, imbecile, blockhead, dunce, nitwit, dolt, cretin

ig·nite verb /igˈnīt/ ignited, past participle; ignited, past tense; ignites, 3rd person singular present; igniting, present participle 1. Catch fire or cause to catch fire furniture can give off lethal fumes when it ignites sparks flew out and ignited the dry scrub 2. Arouse (an emotion) the words ignited new fury in him 3. Inflame or instigate (a situation) the controversial teaching is also expected to ignite the dormant confrontation SYNONYMS verb: kindle, fire, light, inflame, catch fire, burn, set on fire

im·i·tate verb /ˈimiˌtāt/ imitated, past participle; imitated, past tense; imitates, 3rd person singular present; imitating, present participle 1. Take or follow as a model his style was imitated by many other writers 2. Copy (a person's speech or mannerisms), esp. for comic effect she imitated my Scottish accent 3. Copy or simulate synthetic fabrics can now imitate everything from silk to rubber SYNONYMS verb: mimic, copy, ape, simulate, emulate, mime, mock, counterfeit

im·peach verb /imˈpēCH/ impeached, past participle; impeached, past tense; impeaches, 3rd person singular present; impeaching, present participle 1. Call into question the integrity or validity of (a practice) there is no basis to Searle's motion to impeach the verdict 2. Charge (the holder of a public office) with misconduct the governor served only one year before being impeached and convicted for fiscal fraud 3. Charge with treason or another crime against the state

SYNONYMS verb: accuse, inculpate, charge, arraign, incriminate, indict, question

im·pe·tus noun /ˈimpitəs/ impetuses, plural 1. The force or energy with which a body moves hit the booster coil before the flywheel loses all its impetus 2. The force that makes something happen or happen more quickly the crisis of the 1860s provided the original impetus for the settlements SYNONYMS noun: impulse, momentum, incentive, stimulus, impulsion, spur, drive

im·pose verb /imˈpōz/ imposed, past participle; imposed, past tense; imposes, 3rd person singular present; imposing, present participle 1. Force (something unwelcome or unfamiliar) to be accepted or put in place the decision was theirs and was not imposed on them by others 2. Forcibly put (a restriction) in place sanctions imposed on South Africa 3. Require (a duty, charge, or penalty) to be undertaken or paid 4. Exert firm control over something the director was unable to impose himself on the production 5. Take advantage of someone by demanding their attention or commitment she realized that she had imposed on Miss Hatherby's kindness 6. Arrange (pages of type) so that they will be in the correct order after printing and folding SYNONYMS verb: inflict

im·pos·ing adjective /imˈpōziNG/ 1. Grand and impressive in appearance an imposing 17th-century manor house SYNONYMS adjective: impressive, stately, grand, magnificent, majestic

im·prac·ti·cal adjective /imˈpraktikəl/ 1. (of an object or course of action) Not adapted for use or action; not sensible or realistic impractical high heels his impractical romanticism


myWords 71 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2.

3.

(of a person) Not skilled or interested in practical matters Paul was impractical and dreamy Impossible to do; impracticable

SYNONYMS adjective: unpractical, impracticable

im·pu·dent adjective /ˈimpyəd(ə)nt/ 1. Not showing due respect for another person; impertinent he could have strangled this impudent upstart SYNONYMS adjective: insolent, impertinent, shameless, barefaced, cheeky, bold, brazen, saucy, audacious, nervy, unblushing, pert, brassy, immodest

in·ad·vert·ent·ly adverb /ˌinədˈvərtntli/ 1. Without intention; accidentally his name had been inadvertently omitted from the list SYNONYMS adverb: unawares, accidentally

in·ap·pro·pri·ate adjective /ˌinəˈprōprē-it/ 1. Not suitable or proper in the circumstances there are penalties for inappropriate behavior it would be inappropriate for me to comment SYNONYMS adjective: improper, unsuitable, inapt, unbecoming, inept, unfit, incongruous, unapt, inadequate, inapposite, undue, inexpedient, unseemly

in·ar·tic·u·late adjective /ˌinärˈtikyəlit/ 1. Unable to speak distinctly or express oneself clearly he was inarticulate with abashment and regret 2. Not clearly expressed or pronounced inarticulate complaints of inadequate remuneration 3. Having no distinct meaning; unintelligible lurching up and down uttering inarticulate cries 4. Not expressed; unspoken mention of her mother filled her with inarticulate irritation 5. Without joints or articulations

6.

Denoting a brachiopod in which the valves of the shell have no hinge and are held together by muscles

SYNONYMS adjective: mute

in·au·gu·rate verb /inˈôg(y)əˌrāt/ inaugurated, past participle; inaugurated, past tense; inaugurates, 3rd person singular present; inaugurating, present participle 1. Begin or introduce (a system, policy, or period) he inaugurated a new policy of trade and exploration 2. Admit (someone) formally to public office the new president will be inaugurated on January 20 3. Mark the beginning or first public use of (an organization or project) the museum was inaugurated on September 12 SYNONYMS verb: open, initiate

in·ca·pac·i·ty noun /ˌinkəˈpasitē/ incapacities, plural 1. Physical or mental inability to do something or to manage one's affairs they can be fired only for incapacity or misbehavior 2. Legal disqualification they are not subject to any legal incapacity SYNONYMS noun: inability, disability, incapability, incompetence, inaptitude, inefficiency, disqualification

in·cen·tive noun /inˈsentiv/ incentives, plural 1. A thing that motivates or encourages one to do something there is no incentive for customers to conserve water 2. A payment or concession to stimulate greater output or investment tax incentives for investing in depressed areas incentive payments SYNONYMS adjective: encouraging, inflammatory, stimulant noun: stimulus, spur, inducement, impulse, incitement, motive, impetus, goad, fillip, motivation, stimulant, encouragement


72 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - I,i

in·cli·na·tion noun /ˌinkləˈnāSHən/ /ˌiNGklə-/ inclinations, plural 1. A person's natural tendency or urge to act or feel in a particular way; a disposition or propensity John was a scientist by training and inclination he was free to follow his inclinations 2. An interest in or liking for (something) Burger King and Wendy's didn't show any inclination to jump into a price war with McDonald's 3. A slope or slant changes in inclination of the line on the graph 4. A bending of the body or head in a bow the questioner's inclination of his head 5. The dip of a magnetic needle 6. The angle at which a straight line or plane is inclined to another 7. The angle between the orbital plane of a planet, comet, etc., and the ecliptic, or between the orbital plane of a satellite and the equatorial plane of its primary 8. The angle between the axis of an astronomical object and a fixed reference angle SYNONYMS noun: tendency, propensity, leaning, bias, proclivity, bent, disposition, tilt, incline, liking

in·cog·ni·to

all four prototype camcorders used special tapes and were incompatible with one another SYNONYMS adjective: inconsistent, irreconcilable, incongruous

in·debt·ed adjective /inˈdetid/ 1. Owing money heavily indebted countries 2. Owing gratitude for a service or favor I am indebted to her for her help in indexing my book SYNONYMS adjective: obliged, beholden, owing, grateful

in·dict·ment noun /inˈdītmənt/ indictments, plural 1. A formal charge or accusation of a serious crime an indictment for conspiracy 2. The action of indicting or being indicted the indictment of twelve people who had imported cocaine 3. A thing that serves to illustrate that a system or situation is bad and deserves to be condemned these rapidly escalating crime figures are an indictment of our society

adverb /ˌinkägˈnētō/ /inˈkägniˌtō/ 1. (of a person) Having one's true identity concealed in order to observe you have to be incognito he is now operating incognito

SYNONYMS noun: accusation, charge, impeachment, arraignment, prosecution

noun /ˌinkägˈnētō/ /inˈkägniˌtō/ incognitos, plural 1. An assumed or false identity

in·fant

SYNONYMS adjective: unknown

in·com·pat·i·ble adjective /ˌinkəmˈpatəbəl/ /ˌiNG-/ 1. (of two things) So opposed in character as to be incapable of existing together cleverness and femininity were seen as incompatible 2. (of two people) Unable to live together harmoniously 3. (of one thing or person) Not consistent or able to coexist with (another) long hours are simply incompatible with family life 4. (of equipment, machinery, computer programs, etc.) Not capable of being used in combination

noun /ˈinfənt/ infants, plural 1. A very young child or baby 2. Denoting something in an early stage of its development the infant science of bioelectrical medicine 3. A person who has not attained legal majority SYNONYMS adjective: infantile, childish noun: baby, child, babe, kid

in·fer·ence noun /ˈinf(ə)rəns/ inferences, plural 1. A conclusion reached on the basis of evidence and reasoning 2. The process of reaching such a conclusion his emphasis on order and health, and by inference cleanliness


myWords 73 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS noun: conclusion, deduction, illation, consequence

in·fi·nite adjective /ˈinfənit/ 1. Limitless or endless in space, extent, or size; impossible to measure or calculate the infinite mercy of God the infinite number of stars in the universe 2. Very great in amount or degree he bathed the wound with infinite care 3. Greater than any assignable quantity or countable number 4. (of a series) Able to be continued indefinitely noun /ˈinfənit/ 1. A space or quantity that is infinite 2. God SYNONYMS adjective: boundless, endless, unbounded, unlimited, limitless, illimitable, interminable, immeasurable, immense noun: infinity, god

in·gre·di·ent noun /inˈgrēdēənt/ /iNG-/ ingredients, plural 1. Any of the foods or substances that are combined to make a particular dish pork is an important ingredient in many stirfried dishes 2. A component part or element of something the affair contains all the ingredients of an insoluble mystery SYNONYMS noun: component, constituent, element

in·hab·it verb /inˈhabit/ inhabited, past participle; inhabited, past tense; inhabiting, present participle; inhabits, 3rd person singular present 1. (of a person, animal, or group) Live in or occupy (a place or environment) a bird that inhabits North America urban centers inhabited by more than 10 million people the loneliest inhabited place on Earth SYNONYMS verb: dwell, live, reside, occupy, populate, people, live in, abide, indwell, settle

in·hab·it·ant noun /inˈhabitnt/ inhabitants, plural

1. 2.

A person or animal that lives in or occupies a place A person who fulfills the requirements for legal residency

SYNONYMS noun: resident, dweller, denizen, habitant, occupant, inmate, occupier, tenant, citizen

in·her·ent adjective /inˈhi(ə)rənt/ /-ˈher-/ 1. Existing in something as a permanent, essential, or characteristic attribute any form of mountaineering has its inherent dangers the symbolism inherent in all folk tales 2. Vested in (someone) as a right or privilege the president's inherent foreign affairs power SYNONYMS adjective: innate, inborn, native, intrinsic

in·i·tial adjective /iˈniSHəl/ 1. Existing or occurring at the beginning our initial impression was favorable 2. (of a letter) At the beginning of a word noun /iˈniSHəl/ initials, plural 1. The first letter of a name or word, typically a person's name or a word forming part of a phrase they carved their initials into the tree trunk verb /iˈniSHəl/ initialed, past participle; initialed, past tense; initialing, present participle; initialled, past participle; initialled, past tense; initialling, present participle; initials, 3rd person singular present 1. Mark or sign (a document) with one's initials, esp. in order to authorize or validate it 2. Agree to or ratify (a treaty or contract) by signing it SYNONYMS adjective: primary, original, first, opening, inceptive, incipient, prime verb: paraph

in·no·cent adjective /ˈinəsənt/ 1. Not guilty of a crime or offense the arbitrary execution of an innocent man he was innocent of any fraud 2. Without; lacking a street quite innocent of bookstores 3. Without experience or knowledge of a man innocent of war's cruelties


74 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - I,i 4.

5. 6. 7.

Not responsible for or directly involved in an event yet suffering its consequences an innocent bystander Free from moral wrong; not corrupted an innocent child Simple; naive she is a poor, innocent young creature Not intended to cause harm or offense; harmless an innocent mistake

noun /ˈinəsənt/ innocents, plural 1. An innocent person, in particular 2. A pure, guileless, or naive person she was an innocent compared with this man 3. A person involved by chance in a situation, esp. a victim of crime or war they are prepared to kill or maim innocents in pursuit of a cause 4. The young children killed by Herod after the birth of Jesus (Matt. 2:16) SYNONYMS adjective: guiltless, harmless, naive, guileless, ingenuous, blameless, artless, pure, unsophisticated, simple, inoffensive

in·noc·u·ous adjective /iˈnäkyo͞oəs/ 1. Not harmful or offensive it was an innocuous question SYNONYMS adjective: innoxious, harmless, inoffensive, innocent

in·no·va·tion noun /ˌinəˈvāSHən/ innovations, plural 1. The action or process of innovating 2. A new method, idea, product, etc technological innovations designed to save energy SYNONYMS noun: novelty, newness

in·quir·y noun /inˈkwī(ə)rē/ /ˈinˌkwī(ə)rē/ /ˈinkwərē/ /ˈiNG-/ 1. An act of asking for information the deluge of phone inquiries after a crash they were following a definite line of inquiry 2. An official investigation SYNONYMS noun: investigation, enquiry, inquest, probe, inquisition, question, examination, interrogation, query, research, quest

in·quis·i·tive adjective /inˈkwizitiv/ /iNG-/ 1. Curious or inquiring he was very chatty and inquisitive about everything 2. Unduly curious about the affairs of others; prying I didn't want to seem inquisitive SYNONYMS adjective: curious, nosy, nosey, prying, inquiring

in·scrip·tion noun /inˈskripSHən/ inscriptions, plural 1. Words inscribed, as on a monument or in a book the inscription on her headstone 2. The action of inscribing something the inscription of memorable utterances on durable materials SYNONYMS noun: dedication, superscription, legend, lettering

in·sol·vent adjective /inˈsälvənt/ 1. Unable to pay debts owed the company became insolvent 2. Relating to insolvency insolvent liquidation noun /inˈsälvənt/ insolvents, plural 1. An insolvent person SYNONYMS adjective: bankrupt noun: bankrupt

in·tact adjective /inˈtakt/ 1. Not damaged or impaired in any way; complete the church was almost in ruins, but its tower remained intact SYNONYMS adjective: whole, untouched, unbroken, entire, unharmed, sound, safe, unimpaired

in·te·gral adjective /ˈintigrəl/ /inˈteg-/ 1. Necessary to make a whole complete; essential or fundamental games are an integral part of the school's curriculum


myWords 75 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2.

3.

4. 5.

systematic training should be integral to library management Included as part of the whole rather than supplied separately the unit comes complete with integral pump and heater Having or containing all parts that are necessary to be complete the first integral recording of the ten Mahler symphonies Of or denoted by an integer Involving only integers, esp. as coefficients of a function

noun /ˈintigrəl/ /inˈteg-/ integrals, plural 1. A function of which a given function is the derivative, i.e., which yields that function when differentiated, and which may express the area under the curve of a graph of the function 2. A function satisfying a given differential equation SYNONYMS adjective: whole, complete, entire, total, full, integrant

SYNONYMS noun: intention, purpose, aim, design, object, view, goal, thought, mind, end, objective, notion

in·ter·pret verb /inˈtərprit/ interpreted, past participle; interpreted, past tense; interpreting, present participle; interprets, 3rd person singular present 1. Explain the meaning of (information, words, or actions) the evidence is difficult to interpret 2. Translate orally the words of another person speaking a different language I agreed to interpret for Jean-Claude 3. Perform (a dramatic role or piece of music) in a particular way that conveys one's understanding of the creator's ideas 4. Understand (an action, mood, or way of behaving) as having a particular meaning or significance her self-confidence was often interpreted as brashness SYNONYMS verb: explain, construe, translate, read, expound, render

in·ten·si·ty noun /inˈtensitē/ intensities, plural 1. The quality of being intense gazing into her face with disconcerting intensity the pain grew in intensity 2. An instance or degree of this an intensity that frightened her 3. The measurable amount of a property, such as force, brightness, or a magnetic field hydrothermal processes of low intensity different light intensities SYNONYMS noun: strength, power, intension, force, violence, vehemence, severity

in·tra·ve·nous adjective /ˌintrəˈvēnəs/ 1. Existing or taking place within, or administered into, a vein or veins an intravenous drip

in·tri·cate adjective /ˈintrikit/ 1. Very complicated or detailed an intricate network of canals SYNONYMS adjective: complicated, involved, complex, involute, knotty, tricky, elaborate, tangly, mazy, tangled

in·tent noun /inˈtent/ intents, plural 1. Intention or purpose with alarm she realized his intent a real intent to cut back on social programs adjective /inˈtent/ 1. Resolved or determined to do (something) the administration was intent on achieving greater efficiency 2. Attentively occupied with Jill was intent on her gardening magazine 3. (esp. of a look) Showing earnest and eager attention a curiously intent look on her face

in·vert verb /inˈvərt/ inverted, past participle; inverted, past tense; inverting, present participle; inverts, 3rd person singular present 1. Put upside down or in the opposite position, order, or arrangement invert the mousse onto a serving plate 2. Modify (a phrase) by reversing the direction of pitch changes 3. Alter (an interval or triad) by changing the relative position of the notes in it 4. Subject to inversion; transform into its inverse


76 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - I,i noun /ˈinvərt/ inverts, plural 1. An arch constructed in an upside-down position to provide lateral support, e.g., in a tunnel 2. The concave lower surface of a sewer or drain 3. A person showing sexual inversion; a homosexual 4. A postage stamp printed with an error such that part of its design is upside down SYNONYMS verb: reverse, overturn, turn, upset

in·ves·ti·gate verb /inˈvestiˌgāt/ investigated, past participle; investigated, past tense; investigates, 3rd person singular present; investigating, present participle 1. Carry out a systematic or formal inquiry to discover and examine the facts of (an incident, allegation, etc.) so as to establish the truth police are investigating the alleged beating 2. Carry out research or study into (a subject, typically one in a scientific or academic field) so as to discover facts or information future studies will investigate whether longterm use of the drugs could prevent cancer 3. Make inquiries as to the character, activities, or background of (someone) everyone with a possible interest in your brother's death must be thoroughly investigated 4. Make a check to find out something when you didn't turn up, I thought I'd better come back to investigate SYNONYMS verb: examine, explore, inquire, search, study, research, look into, inspect, probe, scrutinize

in·voke verb /inˈvōk/ invoked, past participle; invoked, past tense; invokes, 3rd person singular present; invoking, present participle 1. Cite or appeal to (someone or something) as an authority for an action or in support of an argument the antiquated defense of insanity is rarely invoked today 2. Call on (a deity or spirit) in prayer, as a witness, or for inspiration 3. Call earnestly for she invoked his help against this attack 4. Summon (a spirit) by charms or incantation 5. Give rise to; evoke how could she explain how the accident happened without invoking his wrath? 6. Cause (a procedure) to be carried out

SYNONYMS verb: call, appeal

i·ron·ic adjective /īˈränik/ 1. Using or characterized by irony his mouth curved into an ironic smile 2. Happening in the opposite way to what is expected, and typically causing wry amusement because of this it was ironic that now that everybody had plenty of money for food, they couldn't obtain it because everything was rationed SYNONYMS adjective: ironical, derisive, quizzical

ir·rev·er·ence noun /iˈrev(ə)rəns/ irreverences, plural 1. A lack of respect for people or things that are generally taken seriously an attitude of irreverence toward politicians SYNONYMS noun: disrespect, impiety

ir·ri·gate verb /ˈirigāt/ irrigated, past participle; irrigated, past tense; irrigates, 3rd person singular present; irrigating, present participle 1. Supply water to (land or crops) to help growth, typically by means of channels 2. (of a river or stream) Supply (land) with water 3. Apply a continuous flow of water or liquid medication to (an organ or wound) SYNONYMS verb: water, wash

ir·ri·tate verb /ˈiriˌtāt/ irritated, past participle; irritated, past tense; irritates, 3rd person singular present; irritating, present participle 1. Make (someone) annoyed, impatient, or angry his tone irritated her his voice tends to irritate 2. Cause inflammation or other discomfort in (a part of the body) 3. Stimulate (an organism, cell, or organ) to produce an active response SYNONYMS verb: annoy, vex, provoke, nettle, exasperate, rile, anger, excite, tease


myWords 77 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

isth·mus noun /ˈisməs/ isthmi, plural; isthmuses, plural 1. A narrow strip of land with sea on either side, forming a link between two larger areas of land 2. A narrow organ, passage, or piece of tissue connecting two larger parts SYNONYMS noun: neck, strait


78 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - I,i


myWords 79 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

J,j jeop·ard·y noun /ˈjepərdē/ 1. Danger of loss, harm, or failure Michael's job was not in jeopardy 2. Danger arising from being on trial for a criminal offense SYNONYMS verb: jeopardize, jeopard, endanger noun: peril, hazard, danger, risk, menace, threat, chance

jo·vi·al adjective /ˈjōvēəl/ 1. Cheerful and friendly she was in a jovial mood SYNONYMS adjective: jolly, merry, cheerful, jocund, joyful, mirthful, blithe, cheery, joyous, lively, convivial, hilarious, bright, gleeful, happy, genial

ju·ris·dic·tion noun /ˌjo͝orisˈdikSHən/ jurisdictions, plural 1. The official power to make legal decisions and judgments federal courts had no jurisdiction over the case the District of Columbia was placed under the jurisdiction of Congress 2. The extent of this power the claim will be within the jurisdiction of the industrial tribunal 3. A system of law courts; a judicature in some jurisdictions there is a mandatory death sentence for murder

4.

The territory or sphere of activity over which the legal authority of a court or other institution extends several different tax jurisdictions

SYNONYMS noun: judicature, competence

ju·ve·nile adjective /ˈjo͞ovəˌnīl/ /-vənl/ 1. Of, for, or relating to young people juvenile crime 2. Childish; immature she's bored with my juvenile conversation 3. Of or denoting a theatrical or film role representing a young person the romantic juvenile lead 4. Of or relating to young birds or other animals noun /ˈjo͞ovəˌnīl/ /-vənl/ juveniles, plural 1. A young person 2. A person below the age at which ordinary criminal prosecution is possible (18 in most countries) 3. A young bird or other animal 4. An actor who plays juvenile roles SYNONYMS adjective: youthful, young, adolescent noun: stripling, youngster, adolescent, youth, lad, teenager


80 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - J,j


myWords 81 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

K,k kin·dling noun /ˈkindliNG/ 1. Easily combustible small sticks or twigs used for starting a fire 2. (in neurology) A process by which a seizure or other brain event is both initiated and its recurrence made more likely SYNONYMS noun: ignition

klep·to·ma·ni·a noun /ˌkleptəˈmānēə/ /-ˈmānyə/ 1. A recurrent urge to steal, typically without regard for need or profit


82 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - K,k


myWords 83 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

L,l la·gniappe noun /ˌlanˈyap/ /ˈlanˌyap/ lagniappes, plural 1. Something given as a bonus or extra gift

lair noun /le(ə)r/ lairs, plural 1. A wild animal's resting place, esp. one that is well hidden 2. A secret or private place in which a person seeks concealment or seclusion SYNONYMS noun: den, burrow, nest, hole, haunt, earth, cave

la·ment noun /ləˈment/ laments, plural 1. A passionate expression of grief or sorrow his mother's night-long laments for his father a song full of lament and sorrow 2. A song, piece of music, or poem expressing such emotions 3. An expression of regret or disappointment; a complaint there were constant laments about the conditions of employment verb /ləˈment/ lamented, past participle; lamented, past tense; lamenting, present participle; laments, 3rd person singular present 1. Mourn (a person's loss or death) he was lamenting the death of his infant daughter 2. Express one's deep grief about

3.

Express regret or disappointment over something considered unsatisfactory, unreasonable, or unfair she lamented the lack of shops in the town Thomas Jefferson later lamented, “Heaven remained silent.”

SYNONYMS verb: mourn, wail, moan, bewail, bemoan, weep, deplore, complain, regret, grieve noun: lamentation, wail, plaint, mourning, moan, elegy

lank·y adjective /ˈlaNGkē/ lankier, comparative; lankiest, superlative 1. (of a person) Ungracefully thin and tall SYNONYMS adjective: gangling, lank

la·tent adjective /ˈlātnt/ 1. (of a quality or state) Existing but not yet developed or manifest; hidden; concealed discovering her latent talent for diplomacy 2. (of a bud, resting stage, etc.) Lying dormant or hidden until circumstances are suitable for development or manifestation 3. (of a disease) In which the usual symptoms are not yet manifest 4. (of a microorganism, esp. a virus) Present in the body without causing disease, but capable of doing so at a later stage or when transmitted to another body


84 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - L,l SYNONYMS adjective: hidden, secret, occult, delitescent, ulterior, potential, dormant

lax adjective /laks/ laxer, comparative; laxest, superlative 1. Not sufficiently strict or severe lax security arrangements at the airport he'd been a bit lax about discipline in school lately 2. Careless why do software developers do little more than parrot their equally lax competitors? 3. (of the limbs or muscles) Relaxed 4. (of the bowels) Loose 5. (of a speech sound, esp. a vowel) Pronounced with the vocal muscles relaxed SYNONYMS adjective: loose, slack, limp, flabby, remiss noun: salmon

lean verb /lēn/ leaned, past participle; leaned, past tense; leaning, present participle; leans, 3rd person singular present; leant, past participle; leant, past tense 1. Be in or move into a sloping position he leaned back in his chair 2. Incline from the perpendicular and rest for support on or against (something) a man was leaning against the wall 3. Cause something to rest on or against he leaned his elbows on the table noun /lēn/ leans, plural 1. A deviation from the perpendicular; an inclination the vehicle has a definite lean to the left adjective /lēn/ leaner, comparative; leanest, superlative 1. (of a person or animal) Thin, esp. healthily so; having no superfluous fat his lean, muscular body 2. (of meat) Containing little fat lean bacon 3. (of an industry or company) Efficient and with no waste he made leaner government a campaign theme 4. (of an activity or a period of time) Offering little reward, substance, or nourishment; meager the lean winter months keep a small reserve to tide you over the lean years 5. (of a vaporized fuel mixture) Having a high proportion of air lean air-to-fuel ratios

noun /lēn/ 1. The lean part of meat SYNONYMS adjective: thin, meagre, meager, skinny, spare, gaunt, scraggy, slender, slim, lank, poor, scrawny verb: incline, rest, tilt, recline noun: inclination, tilt, gradient, incline, bias, tip

leg·end noun /ˈlejənd/ legends, plural 1. A traditional story sometimes popularly regarded as historical but unauthenticated the legend of King Arthur according to legend he banished all the snakes from Ireland 2. An extremely famous or notorious person, esp. in a particular field the man was a living legend a Wall Street legend 3. An inscription, esp. on a coin or medal 4. A caption a picture of a tiger with the legend “Go ahead, make my day.” 5. The wording on a map or diagram explaining the symbols used see legend under Fig. 1 6. The story of a saint's life the mosaics illustrate the legends of the saints adjective /ˈlejənd/ 1. Very well known his speed and ferocity in attack were legend SYNONYMS noun: fable, story, tale, inscription, myth

leg·is·la·tion noun /ˌlejəˈslāSHən/ 1. Laws, considered collectively tax legislation

leg·is·la·tive adjective /ˈlejəˌslātiv/ 1. Having the power to make laws the country's supreme legislative body 2. Of or relating to laws or the making of them legislative proposals 3. Of or relating to a legislature legislative elections SYNONYMS adjective: law-making noun: legislature

le·thal adjective /ˈlēTHəl/ 1. Sufficient to cause death


myWords 85 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2.

a lethal cocktail of alcohol and pills Harmful or destructive the Krakatoa eruption was the most lethal on record

1.

2.

SYNONYMS adjective: deadly, fatal, mortal, deathly, killing, pestilent, lethiferous, murderous 3.

let·tuce noun /ˈletis/ lettuces, plural 1. A cultivated plant of the daisy family, with edible leaves that are a usual ingredient of salads. Many varieties of lettuce have been developed with a range of form, texture, and color 2. Used in names of other plants with edible green leaves, e.g., lamb's lettuce, sea lettuce 3. Paper money; greenbacks SYNONYMS noun: salad

lev·i·ty

4. 5.

A published false statement that is damaging to a person's reputation; a written defamation The action or crime of publishing such a statement a councilor who sued two national newspapers for libel a libel action A false and malicious statement about a person A thing or circumstance that brings undeserved discredit on a person by misrepresentation (in admiralty and ecclesiastical law) A plaintiff's written declaration

verb /ˈlībəl/ libeled, past participle; libeled, past tense; libeling, present participle; libelled, past participle; libelled, past tense; libelling, present participle; libels, 3rd person singular present 1. Defame (someone) by publishing a libel she alleged the magazine had libeled her 2. Make a false and malicious statement about 3. (in admiralty and ecclesiastical law) Bring a suit against (someone)

noun /ˈlevətē/ levities, plural 1. Humor or frivolity, esp. the treatment of a serious matter with humor or in a manner lacking due respect as an attempt to introduce a note of levity, the words were a disastrous flop

SYNONYMS verb: slander, defame, calumniate, malign, traduce, vilify, asperse noun: slander, defamation, calumny, aspersion, scandal

SYNONYMS noun: frivolity, lightness, flippancy, giddiness

adjective /līT͟H/ lither, comparative; lithest, superlative 1. (esp. of a person's body) Thin, supple, and graceful

li·a·bil·i·ty noun /ˌlīəˈbilətē/ liabilities, plural 1. The state of being responsible for something, esp. by law the partners accept unlimited liability for any risks they undertake 2. A thing for which someone is responsible, esp. a debt or financial obligation valuing the company's liabilities and assets 3. A person or thing whose presence or behavior is likely to cause embarrassment or put one at a disadvantage he has become a political liability SYNONYMS noun: responsibility, onus, obligation, duty, accountability, charge

li·bel noun /ˈlībəl/ libels, plural

lithe

SYNONYMS adjective: lissome, lissom, supple, limber, lithesome, flexible, pliant, pliable, elastic, yielding, nimble, agile

loft noun /lôft/ /läft/ lofts, plural 1. A room or space directly under the roof of a house or other building, which may be used for accommodations or storage 2. A room or space over a stable or barn, used esp. for storing hay and straw the stable loft 3. A gallery in a church or hall a choir loft 4. A large, open area over a shop, warehouse, or factory, sometimes converted into living space 5. A pigeon house 6. Upward inclination given to the ball in a stroke


86 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - L,l 7.

8.

Backward slope of the head of a club, designed to give upward inclination to the ball The thickness of insulating matter in an object such as a sleeping bag or a padded coat

verb /lôft/ /läft/ lofted, past participle; lofted, past tense; lofting, present participle; lofts, 3rd person singular present 1. Kick, hit, or throw (a ball or missile) high up he lofted the ball over the infield 2. Give backward slope to the head of (a golf club) a lofted metal club SYNONYMS noun: attic, garret, dovecot

loft·y adjective /ˈlôftē/ /ˈläf-/ loftier, comparative; loftiest, superlative 1. Of imposing height the elegant square was shaded by lofty palms 2. Of a noble or exalted nature an extraordinary mixture of harsh reality and lofty ideals 3. Proud, aloof, or self-important lofty intellectual disdain 4. (of wool and other textiles) Thick and resilient SYNONYMS adjective: high, proud, sublime, exalted, noble, elevated, haughty, lordly, tall, arrogant, grand, supercilious

the jinns of Arabian lore baseball lore noun lores, plural 1. The surface on each side of a bird's head between the eye and the upper base of the beak, or between the eye and nostril in snakes SYNONYMS noun: knowledge, learning, science

lu·bri·cate verb /ˈlo͞obrəˌkāt/ lubricated, past participle; lubricated, past tense; lubricates, 3rd person singular present; lubricating, present participle 1. Apply a substance such as oil or grease to (an engine or component) to minimize friction and allow smooth movement remove the nut and lubricate the thread lubricating oils 2. Make (something) slippery or smooth by applying an oily substance 3. Make (a process) run smoothly the availability of credit lubricated the channels of trade 4. Make someone convivial, esp. with alcohol men lubricated with alcohol speak their true feelings SYNONYMS verb: grease, oil, smear, anoint

lu·cra·tive log·i·cal adjective /ˈläjikəl/ 1. Of or according to the rules of logic or formal argument a logical impossibility 2. Characterized by clear, sound reasoning the information is displayed in a simple and logical fashion 3. (of an action, development, decision, etc.) Natural or sensible given the circumstances it is a logical progression from the job before 4. Capable of clear rational thinking her logical mind SYNONYMS adjective: rational, logic, reasonable, consistent, tenable

lore noun /lôr/ 1. A body of traditions and knowledge on a subject or held by a particular group, typically passed from person to person by word of mouth

adjective /ˈlo͞okrətiv/ 1. Producing a great deal of profit a lucrative career as a stand-up comedian SYNONYMS adjective: profitable, gainful, remunerative, advantageous, paying, fat, beneficial

luke·warm adjective /ˈlo͞okˈwôrm/ 1. (of liquid or food that should be hot) Only moderately warm; tepid they drank bitter lukewarm coffee 2. (of a person, attitude, or action) Unenthusiastic the universities were lukewarm about the proposal from the start SYNONYMS adjective: tepid, indifferent, listless, warmish


myWords 87 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

M,m mag·ni·tude noun /ˈmagnəˌto͞od/ magnitudes, plural 1. The great size or extent of something they may feel discouraged at the magnitude of the task before them 2. Great importance events of tragic magnitude 3. Size electorates of less than average magnitude 4. A numerical quantity or value the magnitudes of all the economic variables could be determined 5. The degree of brightness of a star. The magnitude of an astronomical object is now reckoned as the negative logarithm of the brightness; a decrease of one magnitude represents an increase in brightness of 2.512 times. A star with an apparent magnitude of six is barely visible to the naked eye 6. The class into which a star falls by virtue of its brightness 7. A difference of one on a scale of brightness, treated as a unit of measurement SYNONYMS noun: size, importance, greatness, significance, consequence, moment, dimension, extent, largeness, value, bulk

ma·jor·i·ty noun /məˈjôrətē/ /-ˈjär-/ majorities, plural 1. The greater number in the majority of cases all will go smoothly it was a majority decision

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The number by which votes for one candidate in an election are more than those for all other candidates combined The number by which the votes for one party or candidate exceed those of the next in rank A party or group receiving the greater number of votes The age when a person is legally considered a full adult, in most contexts either 18 or 21 The rank or office of a major

SYNONYMS noun: plurality, most

mam·mal noun /ˈmaməl/ mammals, plural 1. A warm-blooded vertebrate animal of a class that is distinguished by the possession of hair or fur, the secretion of milk by females for the nourishment of the young, and (typically) the birth of live young SYNONYMS noun: mammalian

ma·neu·ver noun /məˈno͞ovər/ maneuvers, plural; manoeuvres, plural 1. A movement or series of moves requiring skill and care spectacular jumps and other daring maneuvers 2. A carefully planned scheme or action, esp. one involving deception shady financial maneuvers 3. The fact or process of taking such action


88 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - M,m

4.

the economic policy provided no room for maneuver A large-scale military exercise of troops, warships, and other forces the Russian vessel was on maneuvers

verb /məˈno͞ovər/ maneuvered, past participle; maneuvered, past tense; maneuvering, present participle; maneuvers, 3rd person singular present; manoeuvred, past participle; manoeuvred, past tense; manoeuvres, 3rd person singular present; manoeuvring, present participle 1. Perform or cause to perform a movement or series of moves requiring skill and care the truck was unable to maneuver comfortably in the narrow street I'm maneuvering a loaded tray around the floor 2. Carefully guide or manipulate (someone or something) in order to achieve an end they were maneuvering him into a betrayal of his countryman 3. Carefully manipulate a situation to achieve an end two decades of political maneuvering SYNONYMS verb: manoeuvre, jockey, handle, shunt noun: manoeuvre

ma·ni·a noun /ˈmānēə/ manias, plural 1. Mental illness marked by periods of great excitement, euphoria, delusions, and overactivity 2. An excessive enthusiasm or desire; an obsession he had a mania for automobiles SYNONYMS noun: craze, fad, rage, obsession, madness

man·i·fest adjective /ˈmanəˌfest/ 1. Clear or obvious to the eye or mind the system's manifest failings verb /ˈmanəˌfest/ manifested, past participle; manifested, past tense; manifesting, present participle; manifests, 3rd person singular present 1. Display or show (a quality or feeling) by one's acts or appearance; demonstrate Ray manifested signs of severe depression 2. Be evidence of; prove bad industrial relations are often manifested in disputes and strikes 3. (of an ailment) Become apparent through the appearance of symptoms a disorder that usually manifests in middle age

4.

(of a ghost or spirit) Appear one deity manifested in the form of a bird

noun manifests, plural A document giving comprehensive details of a ship and its cargo and other contents, passengers, and crew for the use of customs officers A list of passengers or cargo in an aircraft A list of the cars forming a freight train verb manifested, past participle; manifested, past tense; manifesting, present participle; manifests, 3rd person singular present 1. Record in such a manifest every passenger is manifested at the point of departure SYNONYMS adjective: obvious, evident, apparent, patent, plain, clear, visible, palpable, overt, transparent, distinct, unmistakable, perspicuous, explicit verb: show, demonstrate, evince, exhibit, display, reveal noun: manifesto

man·ner noun /ˈmanər/ manners, plural 1. A way in which a thing is done or happens taking notes in an unobtrusive manner 2. A style in literature or art a dramatic poem in the manner of Goethe 3. A semantic category of adverbs and adverbials that answer the question “how?” an adverb of manner 4. A kind or sort of what manner of man is he? 5. A person's outward bearing or way of behaving toward others his arrogance and pompous manner a shy and diffident manner 6. Polite or well-bred social behavior didn't your mother teach you any manners? 7. Social behavior or habits Tim apologized for his son's bad manners 8. The way a motor vehicle handles or performs I have no complaints about the performance or road manners SYNONYMS noun: way, mode, fashion, style, sort, form, method, behaviour, behavior, kind

man·u·script noun /ˈmanyəˌskript/ manuscripts, plural 1. A book, document, or piece of music written by hand rather than typed or printed an illuminated manuscript 2. An author's text that has not yet been published


myWords 89 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

preparing the final manuscript her autobiography remained in manuscript

1.

SYNONYMS noun: script, copy, handwriting

2.

mar·a·thon

3.

noun /ˈmarəˌTHän/ marathons, plural 1. A long-distance running race, strictly one of 26 miles and 385 yards (42.195 km) 2. A long-lasting or difficult task or operation of a specified kind the last leg of an interview marathon that began this summer 3. Of great duration or distance; very long marathon workdays

A person who is killed because of their religious or other beliefs saints, martyrs, and witnesses to the faith A person who displays or exaggerates their discomfort or distress in order to obtain sympathy or admiration she wanted to play the martyr A constant sufferer from (an ailment) I'm a martyr to migraines!

verb /ˈmärtər/ martyred, past participle; martyred, past tense; martyring, present participle; martyrs, 3rd person singular present 1. Kill (someone) because of their beliefs she was martyred for her faith 2. Cause great pain or distress to there was no need to martyr themselves again SYNONYMS verb: torment, martyrize, torture

mar·i·tal adjective /ˈmaritl/ 1. Of or relating to marriage or the relations between husband and wife marital fidelity SYNONYMS adjective: matrimonial, conjugal, connubial, married, nuptial, hymeneal, wedded

mar·i·time adjective /ˈmariˌtīm/ 1. Connected with the sea, esp. in relation to seafaring commercial or military activity a maritime museum maritime law 2. Living or found in or near the sea dolphins and other maritime mammals 3. Bordering on the sea two species of Diptera occur in the maritime Antarctic 4. Denoting a climate that is moist and temperate owing to the influence of the sea SYNONYMS adjective: marine, nautical, sea, naval, seaside, littoral

mar·tial adjective /ˈmärSHəl/ 1. Of or appropriate to war; warlike martial bravery SYNONYMS adjective: warlike, military, bellicose, soldierly

mar·tyr noun /ˈmärtər/ martyrs, plural

ma·ture adjective /məˈCHo͝or/ /-ˈt(y)o͝or/ maturer, comparative; maturest, superlative 1. Fully developed physically; full-grown she was now a mature woman owls are sexually mature at one year 2. Having reached an advanced stage of mental or emotional development characteristic of an adult a young man mature beyond his years 3. (of thought or planning) Careful and thorough on mature reflection he decided they should not go 4. Used euphemistically to describe someone as being middle-aged or old Miss Walker was a mature lady when she married 5. (of a style) Fully developed Van Gogh's mature work 6. (of a plant or planted area) Complete in natural development mature trees 7. (of certain foodstuffs or drinks) Ready for consumption 8. Denoting an economy, industry, or market that has developed to a point where substantial expansion and investment no longer takes place 9. (of a bill) Due for payment verb /məˈCHo͝or/ /-ˈt(y)o͝or/ matured, past participle; matured, past tense; matures, 3rd person singular present; maturing, present participle 1. (of a person or animal) Become physically mature children mature at different ages she matured into a woman 2. Develop fully the trees take at least thirty years to mature 3. (of a person) Reach an advanced stage of mental or emotional development


90 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - M,m

4.

5.

men mature as they grow older (with reference to certain foodstuffs or drinks) Become or cause to become ready for consumption leave the cheese to mature the Scotch is matured for a minimum of three years (of an insurance policy, security, etc.) Reach the end of its term and hence become payable

SYNONYMS adjective: ripe, mellow verb: ripen, mellow, maturate, season

mav·er·ick noun /ˈmav(ə)rik/ mavericks, plural 1. An unorthodox or independent-minded person a free-thinking maverick 2. A person who refuses to conform to a particular party or group the maverick Connecticut Republican 3. An unbranded calf or yearling adjective /ˈmav(ə)rik/ 1. Unorthodox a maverick detective

mead·ow noun /ˈmedō/ meadows, plural 1. A piece of grassland, esp. one used for hay 2. A piece of low ground near a river SYNONYMS noun: mead, lea, grassland, pasture, field, prairie

mea·ger adjective /ˈmēgər/ 1. (of something provided or available) Lacking in quantity or quality they were forced to supplement their meager earnings 2. (of a person or animal) Lean; thin SYNONYMS adjective: meagre, thin, scanty, lean, poor, spare, scant, skinny, skimpy, slender, scraggy, scarce, gaunt, scrawny, penurious

me·men·to noun /məˈmenˌtō/ mementoes, plural; mementos, plural 1. An object kept as a reminder or souvenir of a person or event you can purchase a memento of your visit

SYNONYMS noun: souvenir, remembrance, keepsake, token, reminder, memory, relic

mem·o·ry noun /ˈmem(ə)rē/ memories, plural 1. A person's power to remember things I've a great memory for faces my grandmother is losing her memory 2. The power of the mind to remember things the brain regions responsible for memory 3. The mind regarded as a store of things remembered he searched his memory frantically for an answer 4. The capacity of a substance to return to a previous state or condition after having been altered or deformed 5. Something remembered from the past; a recollection one of my earliest memories is of sitting on his knee the mind can bury all memory of traumatic abuse 6. The remembering or recollection of a dead person, esp. one who was popular or respected clubs devoted to the memory of Sherlock Holmes 7. The length of time over which people continue to remember a person or event the worst slump in recent memory 8. The part of a computer in which data or program instructions can be stored for retrieval 9. Capacity for storing information in this way the module provides 16Mb of memory SYNONYMS noun: remembrance, recollection, mind, reminiscence, souvenir, memento, keepsake, retention

men·tor noun /ˈmenˌtôr/ /-tər/ mentors, plural 1. An experienced and trusted adviser he was her friend and mentor until his death in 1915 2. An experienced person in a company, college, or school who trains and counsels new employees or students verb /ˈmenˌtôr/ /-tər/ mentored, past participle; mentored, past tense; mentoring, present participle; mentors, 3rd person singular present 1. Advise or train (someone, esp. a younger colleague)


myWords 91 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS noun: adviser, preceptor, monitor, counselor, tutor

mer·chan·dise noun /ˈmərCHənˌdīz/ /-ˌdīs/ 1. Goods to be bought and sold stores that offered an astonishing range of merchandise 1. Products used to promote a particular movie, popular music group, etc., or linked to a particular fictional character; merchandising verb /ˈmərCHənˌdīz/ merchandised, past participle; merchandised, past tense; merchandises, 3rd person singular present; merchandising, present participle; merchandized, past participle; merchandized, past tense; merchandizes, 3rd person singular present; merchandizing, present participle 1. Promote the sale of (goods), esp. by their presentation in retail outlets a new breakfast food can easily be merchandised 2. Advertise or publicize (an idea or person) they are merchandising “niceness” to children 3. Trade or traffic in (something), esp. inappropriately 4. Engage in the business of a merchant SYNONYMS verb: trade, deal, traffic, sell, market noun: goods, commodity, ware

mer·ry adjective /ˈmerē/ merrier, comparative; merriest, superlative 1. Cheerful and lively the narrow streets were dense with merry throngs of students a merry grin 2. (of an occasion or season) Characterized by festivity and rejoicing he wished me a merry Christmas 3. Slightly and good-humoredly drunk after the third bottle of beer he began to feel quite merry SYNONYMS adjective: jolly, cheerful, joyful, mirthful, happy, blithe, jocund, joyous, gleeful, jovial, glad, cheery, hilarious, lively, sprightly

met·ric adjective /ˈmetrik/ 1. Of or based on the meter as a unit of length; relating to the metric system all measurements are given in metric form 2. Using the metric system we should have gone metric years ago 3. Relating to or denoting a metric

noun /ˈmetrik/ metrics, plural 1. A system or standard of measurement 2. A binary function of a topological space that gives, for any two points of the space, a value equal to the distance between them, or to a value treated as analogous to distance for the purpose of analysis 3. Metric units, or the metric system it's easier to work in metric adjective 1. Relating to or composed in a poetic meter noun metrics, plural 1. The meter of a poem SYNONYMS adjective: metrical noun: metrics

mime noun /mīm/ mimes, plural 1. The theatrical technique of suggesting action, character, or emotion without words, using only gesture, expression, and movement 2. A theatrical performance or part of a performance using such a technique 3. An action or set of actions intended to convey the idea of another action or an idea or feeling he performed a brief mime of someone fencing 4. A practitioner of mime or a performer in a mime 5. (in ancient Greece and Rome) A simple farcical drama including mimicry verb /mīm/ mimed, past participle; mimed, past tense; mimes, 3rd person singular present; miming, present participle 1. Use gesture and movement without words in the acting of (a play or role) 2. Convey an impression of (an idea or feeling) by gesture and movement, without using words; mimic (an action or set of actions) in this way he stands up and mimes throwing a spear SYNONYMS verb: mimic, imitate noun: pantomime, mimic

min·i·a·ture adjective /ˈmin(ē)əCHər/ /-ˌCHo͝or/ 1. (esp. of a replica of something) Of a much smaller size than normal; very small children dressed as miniature adults noun /ˈmin(ē)əCHər/ miniatures, plural

/-ˌCHo͝or/


92 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - M,m 1. 2. 3. 4.

A thing that is much smaller than normal, esp. a small replica or model A plant or animal that is a smaller version of an existing variety or breed A very small and highly detailed portrait or other painting A picture or decorated letter in an illuminated manuscript

verb /ˈmin(ē)əCHər/ /-ˌCHo͝or/ miniatured, past participle; miniatured, past tense; miniatures, 3rd person singular present; miniaturing, present participle 1. Represent on a smaller scale; reduce to miniature dimensions SYNONYMS adjective: diminutive, small, tiny

min·i·mum noun /ˈminəməm/ minima, plural; minimums, plural 1. The least or smallest amount or quantity possible, attainable, or required technical difficulties have been kept to a minimum they checked passports with the minimum of fuss 2. The lowest or smallest amount of a varying quantity (e.g., temperature) allowed, attained, or recorded clients with a minimum of $500,000 to invest winter minima of -40 ° C have been recorded 3. A point at which a continuously varying quantity ceases to decrease and begins to increase; the value of a quantity at such a point 4. The smallest element in a set

adjective 1. (of an object) In pristine condition; as new a pair of speakers including stands, mint, $160 verb minted, past participle; minted, past tense; minting, present participle; mints, 3rd person singular present 1. Make (a coin) by stamping metal 2. Produce for the first time an example of newly minted technology SYNONYMS verb: coin, strike, invent noun: peppermint, spearmint

mo·lest verb /məˈlest/ molested, past participle; molested, past tense; molesting, present participle; molests, 3rd person singular present 1. Pester or harass (someone), typically in an aggressive or persistent manner the crowd was shouting abuse and molesting the two police officers 2. Assault or abuse (a person, esp. a woman or child) sexually SYNONYMS verb: annoy, bother, pester, trouble, harass, tease, importune, vex, persecute

mon·ar·chy

adjective /ˈminəməm/ 1. Smallest or lowest this can be done with the minimum amount of effort

noun /ˈmänərkē/ /ˈmänˌär-/ monarchies, plural 1. A form of government with a monarch at the head 2. A state that has a monarch 3. The monarch and royal family of a country the monarchy is the focus of loyalty and service

SYNONYMS adjective: minimal, least

mo·res

mint noun /mint/ mints, plural 1. An aromatic plant native to temperate regions of the Old World, several kinds of which are used as culinary herbs 2. The flavor of mint, esp. peppermint 3. A peppermint candy noun mints, plural 1. A place where money is coined, esp. under state authority 2. A vast sum of money the car doesn't cost a mint

noun (plural) /ˈmôrˌāz/ mores, plural 1. The essential or characteristic customs and conventions of a community an offense against social mores SYNONYMS noun: manners, morals, manner

mor·tal adjective /ˈmôrtl/ 1. (of a living human being, often in contrast to a divine being) Subject to death all men are mortal 2. Of or relating to humanity as subject to death the coffin held the mortal remains of her uncle


myWords 93 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

3.

Conceivable or imaginable punishment out of all mortal proportion to the offense 4. Causing or liable to cause death; fatal a mortal disease the scandal appeared to have struck a mortal blow to the government 5. (of a battle) Fought to the death from the outbuildings came the screams of men in mortal combat 6. (of an enemy or a state of hostility) Admitting or allowing no reconciliation until death 7. Denoting a grave sin that is regarded as depriving the soul of divine grace 8. (of a feeling, esp. fear) Very intense parents live in mortal fear of children's diseases 9. Very great he was in a mortal hurry 10. Long and tedious for three mortal days it rained noun /ˈmôrtl/ mortals, plural 1. A human being subject to death, often contrasted with a divine being 2. A person contrasted with others regarded as being of higher status or ability an ambassador had to live in a style that was not expected of lesser mortals SYNONYMS adjective: deadly, fatal, lethal, deathly, killing noun: human, man

mourn verb /môrn/ mourned, past participle; mourned, past tense; mourning, present participle; mourns, 3rd person singular present 1. Feel or show deep sorrow or regret for (someone or their death), typically by following conventions such as the wearing of black clothes Isabel mourned her husband she had to mourn for her friends who died in the accident 2. Feel regret or sadness about (the loss or disappearance of something) publishers mourned declining sales of hardback fiction SYNONYMS verb: lament, bewail, grieve, bemoan, weep, deplore, sorrow, wail, moan, regret


94 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - M,m


myWords 95 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

N,n na·ive adjective /nīˈēv/ naiver, comparative; naivest, superlative; naïver, comparative; naïvest, superlative 1. (of a person or action) Showing a lack of experience, wisdom, or judgment the rather naive young man had been totally misled 2. (of a person) Natural and unaffected; innocent Andy had a sweet, naive look when he smiled 3. Of or denoting art produced in a straightforward style that deliberately rejects sophisticated artistic techniques and has a bold directness resembling a child's work, typically in bright colors with little or no perspective SYNONYMS adjective: artless, simple, ingenuous, innocent, naif, unsophisticated, guileless, gullible, simplehearted

nar·cot·ic noun /närˈkätik/ narcotics, plural 1. A drug or other substance affecting mood or behavior and sold for nonmedical purposes, esp. an illegal one 2. A drug that relieves pain and induces drowsiness, stupor, or insensibility adjective /närˈkätik/ 1. Relating to or denoting narcotics or their effects or use the substance has a mild narcotic effect SYNONYMS adjective: soporific, opiate

noun: drug, dope, soporific, opiate

nar·rate verb /ˈnarˌāt/ narrated, past participle; narrated, past tense; narrates, 3rd person singular present; narrating, present participle 1. Give a spoken or written account of the voyages, festivities, and intrigues are narrated with unflagging gusto the tough-but-sensitive former bouncer narrates much of the story 2. Provide a spoken commentary to accompany (a movie, broadcast, piece of music, etc.) SYNONYMS verb: tell, relate, recount, report, recite, describe

nau·ti·cal adjective /ˈnôtikəl/ 1. Of or concerning sailors or navigation; maritime nautical charts SYNONYMS adjective: marine, maritime, naval, sea, seafaring, navigational

ne·go·ti·a·tion noun /nəˌgōSHēˈāSHən/ negotiations, plural 1. Discussion aimed at reaching an agreement a worldwide ban is currently under negotiation negotiations between unions and employers 2. The action or process of negotiating


96 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - N,n

3.

negotiation of the deals The action or process of transferring ownership of a document

SYNONYMS noun: parley, talk

noc·tur·nal adjective /näkˈtərnl/ 1. Done, occurring, or active at night most owls are nocturnal SYNONYMS adjective: nightly, night, overnight

neu·rot·ic adjective /n(y)o͝oˈrätik/ 1. Suffering from, caused by, or relating to neurosis 2. Abnormally sensitive, obsessive, or tense and anxious everyone was neurotic about burglars a neurotic obsession with neat handwriting noun /n(y)o͝oˈrätik/ neurotics, plural 1. A neurotic person SYNONYMS adjective: nervous

neu·tral adjective /ˈn(y)o͞otrəl/ 1. Not helping or supporting either of two opposing sides, esp. countries at war; impartial during the Second World War, Portugal was neutral 2. Belonging to an impartial party, country, or group on neutral ground 3. Unbiased; disinterested neutral, expert scientific advice 4. Having no strongly marked or positive characteristics or features the tone was neutral, devoid of sentiment a fairly neutral background will make any small splash of color stand out 5. Neither acid nor alkaline; having a pH of about 7 6. Electrically neither positive nor negative 1. 2.

3. 4. 5. 6.

noun /ˈn(y)o͞otrəl/ neutrals, plural An impartial and uninvolved country or person he acted as a neutral between the parties Sweden and its fellow neutrals An unbiased person A neutral color or shade, esp. light gray or beige A disengaged position of gears in which the engine is disconnected from the driven parts she slipped the gear into neutral An electrically neutral point, terminal, conductor, or wire

SYNONYMS adjective: neuter, indifferent, impartial

no·mad noun /ˈnōˌmad/ nomads, plural 1. A member of a people having no permanent abode, and who travel from place to place to find fresh pasture for their livestock 2. A person who does not stay long in the same place; a wanderer adjective /ˈnōˌmad/ 1. Relating to or characteristic of nomads SYNONYMS adjective: nomadic, migratory, migrant, wandering, vagrant noun: wanderer, rover, vagrant, migrant

nos·tal·gia noun /näˈstaljə/ /nə-/ nostalgias, plural 1. A sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations I was overcome with acute nostalgia for my days in college 2. The evocation of these feelings or tendencies, esp. in commercialized form an evening of TV nostalgia SYNONYMS noun: homesickness


myWords 97 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

O,o o·a·sis noun /ōˈāsis/ oases, plural 1. A fertile spot in a desert where water is found 2. A pleasant or peaceful area or period in the midst of a difficult, troubled, or hectic place or situation an oasis of calm in the center of the city 3. A type of rigid foam into which the stems of flowers can be secured in flower arranging

oath noun /ōTH/ oaths, plural 1. A solemn promise, often invoking a divine witness, regarding one's future action or behavior they took an oath of allegiance to the king 2. A sworn declaration that one will tell the truth, esp. in a court of law 3. A profane or offensive expression used to express anger or other strong emotions SYNONYMS verb: swear, take an oath noun: vow, curse, imprecation, adjuration, swearing, pledge, swear

o·be·di·ence noun /ōˈbēdēəns/ obediences, plural 1. Compliance with someone's wishes or orders or acknowledgment of their authority unquestioning obedience to the commander in chief 2. Submission to a law or rule obedience to moral standards

3.

Observance of a monastic rule vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience

SYNONYMS noun: submission, docility, submissiveness, compliance

o·bese adjective /ōˈbēs/ 1. Grossly fat or overweight SYNONYMS adjective: fat, corpulent, stout, plump, pursy, gross, portly

o·bey verb /ōˈbā/ obeyed, past participle; obeyed, past tense; obeying, present participle; obeys, 3rd person singular present 1. Comply with the command, direction, or request of (a person or a law); submit to the authority of I always obey my father 2. Carry out (a command or instruction) the officer was convicted for refusing to obey orders when the order was repeated, he refused to obey 3. Behave in accordance with (a general principle, natural law, etc.) the universe was complex but it obeyed certain rules SYNONYMS verb: comply, listen, follow


98 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - O,o

ob·jec·tive adjective /əbˈjektiv/ 1. (of a person or their judgment) Not influenced by personal feelings or opinions in considering and representing facts historians try to be objective and impartial 2. Not dependent on the mind for existence; actual a matter of objective fact 3. Of, relating to, or denoting a case of nouns and pronouns used as the object of a transitive verb or a preposition noun /əbˈjektiv/ objectives, plural 1. A thing aimed at or sought; a goal the system has achieved its objective 2. The objective case 3. The lens in a telescope or microscope nearest to the object observed SYNONYMS adjective: unbiased, impartial noun: aim, object, purpose, goal, target, end, intention, lens

3.

Overshadow none of this should obscure the skill, experience, and perseverance of the workers

SYNONYMS adjective: dim, dark, indistinct, vague, murky, abstruse, gloomy, somber, hazy, recondite, unknown verb: darken, dim, hide, conceal, cloud, overshadow, shade, bedim noun: darkness, night

ob·sti·nate adjective /ˈäbstənit/ 1. Stubbornly refusing to change one's opinion or chosen course of action, despite attempts to persuade one to do so 2. (of an unwelcome phenomenon or situation) Very difficult to change or overcome the obstinate problem of unemployment SYNONYMS adjective: stubborn, dogged, headstrong, obdurate, wilful, pertinacious, refractory, mulish, willful, persistent, stiff-necked, self-willed, opinionated, tenacious, pigheaded

ob·scene adjective /əbˈsēn/ 1. (of the portrayal or description of sexual matters) Offensive or disgusting by accepted standards of morality and decency obscene jokes obscene literature 2. Offensive to moral principles; repugnant using animals' skins for fur coats is obscene SYNONYMS adjective: bawdy, indecent, nasty, lewd, salacious, filthy, smutty, foul, ribald, scurrilous

ob·scure adjective /əbˈskyo͝or/ obscurer, comparative; obscurest, superlative 1. Not discovered or known about; uncertain his origins and parentage are obscure 2. Not clearly expressed or easily understood obscure references to Proust 3. Not important or well known an obscure religious sect 4. Hard to make out or define; vague I feel an obscure resentment 5. (of a color) Not sharply defined; dim or dingy verb /əbˈskyo͝or/ obscured, past participle; obscured, past tense; obscures, 3rd person singular present; obscuring, present participle 1. Keep from being seen; conceal gray clouds obscure the sun 2. Make unclear and difficult to understand the debate has become obscured by conflicting ideological perspectives

oc·cu·py verb /ˈäkyəˌpī/ occupied, past participle; occupied, past tense; occupies, 3rd person singular present; occupying, present participle 1. Reside or have one's place of business in (a building) the apartment she occupies in Manhattan 2. Fill or take up (a space or time) two long windows occupied almost the whole wall 3. Be situated in or at (a place or position in a system or hierarchy) on the corporate ladder, they occupy the lowest rungs 4. Hold (a position or job) 5. Fill or preoccupy (the mind or thoughts) her mind was occupied with alarming questions 6. Keep (someone) busy and active Sarah occupied herself taking the coffee cups over to the sink 7. Take control of (a place, esp. a country) by military conquest or settlement the region was occupied by Britain during World War I 8. Enter, take control of, and stay in (a building) illegally and often forcibly, esp. as a form of protest the workers occupied the factory SYNONYMS verb: take, seize, hold, inhabit


myWords 99 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

odd

o·mit

adjective /äd/ odder, comparative; oddest, superlative 1. Different from what is usual or expected; strange the neighbors thought him very odd it's odd that she didn't recognize me 2. (of whole numbers such as 3 and 5) Having one left over as a remainder when divided by two 3. (of things numbered consecutively) Represented or indicated by such a number he has come to us every odd year since 1981 4. In the region of or somewhat more than a particular number or quantity she looked younger than her fifty-odd years 5. Happening or occurring infrequently and irregularly; occasional neither did she want a secret affair, snatching odd moments together 6. Spare; unoccupied when you've got an odd five minutes, could I have a word? 7. Separated from a usual pair or set and therefore out of place or mismatched he's wearing odd socks

verb /ōˈmit/ omits, 3rd person singular present; omitted, past participle; omitted, past tense; omitting, present participle 1. Leave out or exclude (someone or something), either intentionally or forgetfully a significant detail was omitted from your story 2. Fail or neglect to do (something); leave undone the final rinse is omitted he modestly omits to mention that he was pole-vault champion

SYNONYMS adjective: strange, peculiar, weird, quaint, funny, singular, eccentric, outlandish, uneven noun: odds

ode noun /ōd/ odes, plural 1. A lyric poem in the form of an address to a particular subject, often elevated in style or manner and written in varied or irregular meter 2. A poem meant to be sung

o·men noun /ˈōmən/ omens, plural 1. An event regarded as a portent of good or evil the ghost's appearance was an ill omen a rise in imports might be an omen of recovery 2. Prophetic significance the raven seemed a bird of evil omen SYNONYMS verb: bode, portend, presage, prognosticate, augur, forebode, foretell, foreshadow, predict, betoken noun: sign, presage, portent, augury, token, foretoken, prognostic, prognostication, indication, auspice

SYNONYMS verb: leave out, neglect, miss, skip, miss out, overlook, drop

op·er·a·tion noun /ˌäpəˈrāSHən/ operations, plural 1. The fact or condition of functioning or being active the construction and operation of power stations some of these ideas could be put into operation 2. An active process; a discharge of a function the operations of the mind 3. A business organization; a company he reopened his operation under a different name 4. An activity in which such an organization is involved the company is selling most of its commercial banking operations 5. An act of surgery performed on a patient 6. A piece of organized and concerted activity involving a number of people, esp. members of the armed forces or the police a rescue operation military operations 7. Preceding a code name for such an activity Operation Desert Storm 8. A process in which a number, quantity, expression, etc., is altered or manipulated according to formal rules, such as those of addition, multiplication, and differentiation SYNONYMS adjective: working noun: action, working

o·pin·ion·at·ed adjective /əˈpinyəˌnātid/ 1. Conceitedly assertive and dogmatic in one's opinions an arrogant and opinionated man


100 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - O,o SYNONYMS adjective: obstinate, headstrong, stubborn, selfwilled, self-opinionated, willful, wilful, obdurate

op·pose verb /əˈpōz/ opposed, past participle; opposed, past tense; opposes, 3rd person singular present; opposing, present participle 1. Disapprove of and attempt to prevent, esp. by argument those of you who oppose capital punishment 2. Actively resist or refuse to comply with (a person or a system) off-roaders who adamantly opposed new trail restrictions 3. Compete against (someone) in a contest a candidate to oppose the leader in the presidential contest

1.

A spoken examination or test he was preparing for his orals a French oral

SYNONYMS adjective: verbal, vocal, nuncupative, spoken noun: viva voce, oral examination

or·nate adjective /ôrˈnāt/ 1. Made in an intricate shape or decorated with complex patterns an ornate wrought-iron railing 2. (of literary style) Using unusual words and complex constructions peculiarly ornate and metaphorical language 3. (of musical composition or performance) Using many ornaments such as grace notes and trills

SYNONYMS verb: resist, withstand

SYNONYMS adjective: florid

op·ti·mism

o·va·tion

noun /ˈäptəˌmizəm/ 1. Hopefulness and confidence about the future or the successful outcome of something the talks had been amicable, and there were grounds for optimism 2. The doctrine, esp. as set forth by Leibniz, that this world is the best of all possible worlds 3. The belief that good must ultimately prevail over evil in the universe

noun /ōˈvāSHən/ ovations, plural 1. A sustained and enthusiastic show of appreciation from an audience, esp. by means of applause the performance received a thundering ovation 2. A processional entrance into Rome by a victorious commander, of lesser honor than a triumph

SYNONYMS noun: hopefulness

o·ral adjective /ˈôrəl/ 1. By word of mouth; spoken rather than written they had reached an oral agreement 2. Relating to the transmission of information or literature by word of mouth rather than in writing oral literature 3. (of a society) Not having reached the stage of literacy 4. Of or relating to the mouth oral hygiene 5. Done or taken by the mouth oral contraceptives 6. Pronounced by the voice resonating in the mouth, as the vowels in English 7. (in Freudian theory) Relating to or denoting a stage of infantile psychosexual development in which the mouth is the main source of pleasure and the center of experience noun /ˈôrəl/ orals, plural

SYNONYMS noun: acclamation, cheering

o·ver·crowd verb /ˌōvərˈkroud/ overcrowded, past participle; overcrowded, past tense; overcrowding, present participle; overcrowds, 3rd person singular present 1. Fill (accommodations or a space) beyond what is usual or comfortable overcrowded dormitories trying to eliminate overcrowding in the downtown area 2. House (people or animals) in accommodations that are too confined SYNONYMS verb: crowd, congest, throng

o·vert adjective /ōˈvərt/ /ˈōvərt/ 1. Done or shown openly; plainly or readily apparent, not secret or hidden an overt act of aggression in untreated cases, overt psychosis may occur


myWords 101 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS adjective: open, patent, obvious, evident, plain, apparent, manifest, frank, public, clear, undisguised

o·ver·whelm verb /ˌōvərˈ(h)welm/ overwhelmed, past participle; overwhelmed, past tense; overwhelming, present participle; overwhelms, 3rd person singular present 1. Bury or drown beneath a huge mass the water flowed through to overwhelm the whole dam and the village beneath 2. Defeat completely his teams overwhelmed their opponents 3. Give too much of a thing to (someone); inundate they were overwhelmed by farewell messages 4. Have a strong emotional effect on I was overwhelmed with guilt 5. Be too strong for; overpower the wine doesn't overwhelm the flavor of the trout SYNONYMS verb: overpower, crush


102 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - O,o


myWords 103 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

P,p pam·phlet noun /ˈpamflit/ pamphlets, plural 1. A small booklet or leaflet containing information or arguments about a single subject verb /ˈpamflit/ pamphleted, past participle; pamphleted, past tense; pamphleting, present participle; pamphlets, 3rd person singular present 1. Distribute pamphlets to SYNONYMS noun: booklet, brochure, tract, leaflet

par·a·dox noun /ˈparəˌdäks/ paradoxes, plural 1. A statement or proposition that, despite sound (or apparently sound) reasoning from acceptable premises, leads to a conclusion that seems senseless, logically unacceptable, or self-contradictory a potentially serious conflict between quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity known as the information paradox 2. A seemingly absurd or self-contradictory statement or proposition that when investigated or explained may prove to be well founded or true in a paradox, he has discovered that stepping back from his job has increased the rewards he gleans from it 3. A situation, person, or thing that combines contradictory features or qualities the mingling of deciduous trees with elements of desert flora forms a fascinating ecological paradox

SYNONYMS noun: antinomy

par·al·lel adjective /ˈparəˌlel/ /-ləl/ 1. (of lines, planes, surfaces, or objects) Side by side and having the same distance continuously between them parallel lines never meet the road runs parallel to the Ottawa River 2. Occurring or existing at the same time or in a similar way; corresponding a parallel universe they shared an apartment in Dallas while establishing parallel careers 3. Involving the simultaneous performance of operations 4. Of or denoting electrical components or circuits connected to common points at each end, rather than one to another in sequence 5. Containing or denoting successive intervals of the same size in otherwise independent voices an answering phrase in parallel thirds 6. Characterized by parallelism a parallel structure of transitive clauses noun /ˈparəˌlel/ /-ləl/ parallels, plural 1. A person or thing that is similar or analogous to another a challenge that has no parallel in peacetime this century 2. A similarity he points to a parallel between biological evolution and cognitive development 3. A comparison he draws a parallel between personal destiny and social forces


104 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - P,p 4. 5. 6.

Each of the imaginary parallel circles of constant latitude on the earth's surface A corresponding line on a map Two parallel lines (ǁ) as a reference mark

verb /ˈparəˌlel/ /-ləl/ paralleled, past participle; paralleled, past tense; paralleling, present participle; parallels, 3rd person singular present 1. (of something extending in a line) Be side by side with (something extending in a line), always keeping the same distance a big concrete gutter that paralleled the road 2. Be similar or corresponding to (something) the lawlessness throughout officialdom was paralleled by an increase in lawlessness on the streets SYNONYMS adjective: collateral, analogous, similar, like verb: compare noun: comparison adverb: in parallel

par·don noun /ˈpärdn/ pardons, plural 1. The action of forgiving or being forgiven for an error or offense he obtained pardon for his sins 2. A remission of the legal consequences of an offense or conviction he offered a full pardon to five convicted men 3. An indulgence, as widely sold in medieval Europe verb /ˈpärdn/ pardoned, past participle; pardoned, past tense; pardoning, present participle; pardons, 3rd person singular present 1. Forgive or excuse (a person, error, or offense) I know Catherine will pardon me 2. Release (an offender) from the legal consequences of an offense or conviction, and often implicitly from blame he was pardoned for his treason 3. Used to indicate that the actions or thoughts of someone are justified or understandable given the circumstances one can be pardoned the suspicion that some of his errors were deliberate exclamation /ˈpärdn/ 1. A request to a speaker to repeat something because one did not hear or understand it “Pardon?” I said, cupping a hand to my ear SYNONYMS verb: forgive, excuse, remit, condone, absolve noun: forgiveness, remission, amnesty, condonation, absolution, excuse, mercy, indulgence

par·ish noun /ˈpariSH/ parishes, plural 1. (in the Christian Church) A small administrative district typically having its own church and a priest or pastor a parish church 2. (in Louisiana) A territorial division corresponding to a county in other states SYNONYMS adjective: parochial

par·i·ty noun /ˈparitē/ parities, plural 1. The state or condition of being equal, esp. regarding status or pay parity of incomes between rural workers and those in industrial occupations 2. The value of one currency in terms of another at an established exchange rate 3. A system of providing farmers with consistent purchasing power by regulating prices of farm products, usually with government price supports 4. (of a number) The fact of being even or odd 5. The property of a spatial wave equation that either remains the same (even parity) or changes sign (oddparity) under a given transformation 6. The value of a quantum number corresponding to this property 7. A function whose being even (or odd) provides a check on a set of binary values noun parities, plural 1. The fact or condition of having borne children 2. The number of children previously borne very high parity (six children or more) SYNONYMS noun: equality, par, sameness

par·tic·i·pate verb /pärˈtisəˌpāt/ participated, past participle; participated, past tense; participates, 3rd person singular present; participating, present participle 1. Take part thousands participated in a nationwide strike 2. Have or possess (a particular quality) both members participate of harmony SYNONYMS verb: partake, share, take part, enter


myWords 105 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

part·ner noun /ˈpärtnər/ partners, plural 1. A person who takes part in an undertaking with another or others, esp. in a business or company with shared risks and profits 2. Either of two people dancing together or playing a game or sport on the same side 3. Either member of a married couple or of an established unmarried couple she lived with her partner 4. A person with whom one has sex; a lover 5. A friendly form of address by one man to another how you doing, partner? 6. A timber framework secured to and strengthening the deck of a wooden ship around a hole for a mast verb /ˈpärtnər/ partnered, past participle; partnered, past tense; partnering, present participle; partners, 3rd person singular present 1. Be the partner of young farmers who partnered Isabel to the village dance 2. Associate as partners I never expected to partner with a man like you SYNONYMS noun: associate, mate, companion, fellow, consort, copartner, spouse

pa·tri·ot noun /ˈpātrēət/ patriots, plural 1. A person who vigorously supports their country and is prepared to defend it against enemies or detractors 2. An automated surface-to-air missile system designed for early detection and interception of missiles or aircraft 3. A missile deployed in this system

4.

5.

6.

A detachment of troops sent out to reconnoiter you couldn't go through the country without meeting an enemy patrol A routine operational voyage of a ship or aircraft a submarine patrol A unit of six to eight Girl Scouts or Boy Scouts forming part of a troop

verb /pəˈtrōl/ patrolled, past participle; patrolled, past tense; patrolling, present participle; patrols, 3rd person singular present 1. Keep watch over (an area) by regularly walking or traveling around or through it the garrison had to patrol the streets to maintain order pairs of men were patrolling on each side of the thoroughfare SYNONYMS noun: watch

pa·tron·age noun /ˈpatrənij/ /ˈpā-/ 1. The support given by a patron the arts could no longer depend on private patronage 2. The power to control appointments to office or the right to privileges recruits are selected on merit, not through political patronage 3. A patronizing or condescending manner a twang of self-satisfaction— even patronage—about him 4. The regular business given to a store, restaurant, or public service by a person or group the direct train link was ending because of poor patronage 5. (in ancient Rome) The rights and duties or the position of a patron SYNONYMS noun: protection, auspices, sponsorship

pa·trol noun /pəˈtrōl/ patrols, plural 1. A person or group of people sent to keep watch over an area, esp. a detachment of guards or police a police patrol stopped the man and searched him 2. The action of keeping watch over an area by walking or driving around it at regular intervals the policemen were on patrol when they were ordered to investigate the incident 3. An expedition to carry out reconnaissance we were ordered to investigate on a night patrol

pa·tron·ize verb /ˈpātrəˌnīz/ /ˈpa-/ patronised, past participle; patronised, past tense; patronises, 3rd person singular present; patronising, present participle; patronized, past participle; patronized, past tense; patronizes, 3rd person singular present; patronizing, present participle 1. Treat with an apparent kindness that betrays a feeling of superiority “She's a good-hearted girl,” he said in a patronizing voice she was determined not to be put down or patronized 2. Frequent (a store, theater, restaurant, or other establishment) as a customer


106 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - P,p

3.

restaurants remaining open in the evening were well patronized Give encouragement and financial support to (a person, esp. an artist, or a cause) local churches and voluntary organizations were patronized by the family

SYNONYMS verb: protect, support, favour, favor

3.

4.

5.

pe·cu·li·ar·i·ty noun /pəˌkyo͞olēˈaritē/ peculiarities, plural 1. An odd or unusual feature or habit for all his peculiarities, she finds his personality quite endearing 2. A characteristic or quality that is distinctive of a particular person or place his essays characterized decency as a British peculiarity 3. The quality or state of being peculiar the peculiarity of their upbringing SYNONYMS noun: singularity, oddity, particularity, speciality, feature, strangeness, characteristic, specialty

per·ceive verb /pərˈsēv/ perceived, past participle; perceived, past tense; perceives, 3rd person singular present; perceiving, present participle 1. Become aware or conscious of (something); come to realize or understand his mouth fell open as he perceived the truth he was quick to perceive that there was little future in such arguments 2. Become aware of (something) by the use of one of the senses, esp. that of sight he perceived the faintest of flushes creeping up her neck 3. Interpret or look on (someone or something) in a particular way; regard as if Guy does not perceive himself as disabled, nobody else should some geographers perceive hydrology to be a separate field of scientific inquiry SYNONYMS verb: see, understand, realize, sense, comprehend, notice, apprehend, feel, discern, observe, grasp

per·cep·tion noun /pərˈsepSHən/ perceptions, plural 1. The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses the normal limits to human perception 2. The state of being or process of becoming aware of something in such a way

the perception of pain A way of regarding, understanding, or interpreting something; a mental impression Hollywood's perception of the tastes of the American public we need to challenge many popular perceptions of old age Intuitive understanding and insight “He wouldn't have accepted,” said my mother with unusual perception The neurophysiological processes, including memory, by which an organism becomes aware of and interprets external stimuli

SYNONYMS noun: realization, understanding, comprehension, apprehension

pe·ri·od·ic adjective /ˌpi(ə)rēˈädik/ 1. Appearing or occurring at intervals the periodic visits she made to her father 2. Relating to the periodic table of the elements or the pattern of chemical properties that underlies it 3. Of or relating to a rhetorical period SYNONYMS adjective: periodical, recurrent, cyclic

per·son·nel noun (plural) /ˌpərsəˈnel/ personnel, plural 1. People employed in an organization or engaged in an organized undertaking such as military service compare with materiel many of the personnel involved require training sales personnel SYNONYMS noun: staff

per·tain verb /pərˈtān/ pertained, past participle; pertained, past tense; pertaining, present participle; pertains, 3rd person singular present 1. Be appropriate, related, or applicable matters pertaining to the organization of government 2. Belong to something as a part, appendage, or accessory the premises, stock, and all assets pertaining to the business 3. Be in effect or existence in a specified place or at a specified time their economic circumstances are vastly different from those which pertained in their land of origin


myWords 107 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS verb: appertain, belong, concern, refer, regard

per·vade verb /pərˈvād/ pervaded, past participle; pervaded, past tense; pervades, 3rd person singular present; pervading, present participle 1. (esp. of a smell) Spread through and be perceived in every part of a smell of stale cabbage pervaded the air 2. (of an influence, feeling, or quality) Be present and apparent throughout the sense of crisis that pervaded Europe in the 1930s SYNONYMS verb: permeate, penetrate, spread

per·vert verb /pərˈvərt/ perverted, past participle; perverted, past tense; perverting, present participle; perverts, 3rd person singular present 1. Alter (something) from its original course, meaning, or state to a distortion or corruption of what was first intended he was charged with conspiring to pervert the course of justice 2. Lead (someone) away from what is considered right, natural, or acceptable Hector is a man who is simply perverted by his time noun /ˈpərvərt/ perverts, plural 1. A person whose sexual behavior is regarded as abnormal and unacceptable SYNONYMS verb: distort, corrupt, garble, vitiate, debauch, deprave noun: apostate, renegade

pes·si·mism noun /ˈpesəˌmizəm/ 1. A tendency to see the worst aspect of things or believe that the worst will happen; a lack of hope or confidence in the future the dispute cast an air of deep pessimism over the future of the peace talks 2. A belief that this world is as bad as it could be or that evil will ultimately prevail over good

phar·ma·ceu·ti·cal adjective /ˌfärməˈso͞otikəl/ Of or relating to medicinal drugs, or their preparation, use, or sale

noun /ˌfärməˈso͞otikəl/ pharmaceuticals, plural 1. A compound manufactured for use as a medicinal drug 2. Companies manufacturing medicinal drugs SYNONYMS adjective: pharmaceutic noun: medicine, drug, medicament

phase noun /fāz/ phases, plural 1. A distinct period or stage in a process of change or forming part of something's development the final phases of the war phase two of the development is in progress 2. A stage in a person's psychological development, esp. a period of temporary unhappiness or difficulty during adolescence or a particular stage during childhood you are not obsessed, but you are going through a phase 3. Each of the aspects of the moon or a planet, according to the amount of its illumination, esp. the new moon, the first quarter, the full moon, and the last quarter 4. Each of the separate events in an eventing competition 5. A genetic or seasonal variety of an animal's coloration 6. A stage in the life cycle or annual cycle of an animal 7. A distinct and homogeneous form of matter (i.e., a particular solid, liquid, or gas) separated by its surface from other forms 8. The relationship in time between the successive states or cycles of an oscillating or repeating system (such as an alternating electric current or a light or sound wave) and either a fixed reference point or the states or cycles of another system with which it may or may not be in synchrony verb /fāz/ phased, past participle; phased, past tense; phases, 3rd person singular present; phasing, present participle 1. Carry out (something) in gradual stages the work is being phased over a number of years a phased withdrawal of troops 2. Introduce into (or withdraw from) use in gradual stages our armed forces policy was to be phased in over 10 years 3. Adjust the phase of (something), esp. so as to synchronize it with something else SYNONYMS noun: stage, period


108 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - P,p

pho·to·gen·ic adjective /ˌfōtəˈjenik/ 1. (esp. of a person) Looking attractive in photographs or on film a photogenic child 2. (of an organism or tissue) Producing or emitting light

phy·si·cian noun /fiˈziSHən/ physicians, plural 1. A person qualified to practice medicine 2. A healer physicians of the soul SYNONYMS noun: doctor, medic, medico, doc, healer

pil·grim noun /ˈpilgrəm/ pilgrims, plural 1. A person who journeys to a sacred place for religious reasons 2. A member of a group of English Puritans fleeing religious persecution who sailed in the Mayflower and founded the colony of Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620 3. A person who travels on long journeys 4. A person whose life is compared to a journey

2.

the alliance that played a pivotal role in the revolution Fixed on or as if on a pivot a sliding or pivotal motion

SYNONYMS adjective: central, cardinal, axial

plac·id adjective /ˈplasid/ 1. (of a person or animal) Not easily upset or excited this horse has a placid nature 2. (esp. of a place or stretch of water) Calm and peaceful, with little movement or activity the placid waters of a small lake SYNONYMS adjective: quiet, calm, peaceful, tranquil, serene, still, composed, restful, unruffled, sedate, pacific, quiescent, smooth, cool, halcyon, peaceable

plaid noun /plad/ plaids, plural 1. Checkered or tartan twilled cloth, typically made of wool 2. Any cloth with a tartan pattern 3. A long piece of plaid worn over the shoulder as part of Scottish Highland dress

verb /ˈpilgrəm/ pilgrimed, past participle; pilgrimed, past tense; pilgriming, present participle; pilgrims, 3rd person singular present 1. Travel or wander like a pilgrim

SYNONYMS adjective: chequered, checked noun: rug, tartan

SYNONYMS verb: pilgrimage noun: palmer, wayfarer, traveller, traveler

plan·et

pi·ous adjective /ˈpīəs/ 1. Devoutly religious 2. Making a hypocritical display of virtue there'll be no pious words said over her 3. (of a hope) Sincere but unlikely to be fulfilled 4. (of a deception) With good or religious intentions, whether professed or real 5. Dutiful or loyal, esp. toward one's parents SYNONYMS adjective: devout, religious, godly, prayerful, devotional

piv·ot·al adjective /ˈpivətl/ 1. Of crucial importance in relation to the development or success of something else

noun /ˈplanit/ planets, plural 1. A celestial body moving in an elliptical orbit around a star 2. The earth no generation has the right to pollute the planet 3. A celestial body distinguished from the fixed stars by having an apparent motion of its own (including the moon and sun), esp. with reference to its supposed influence on people and events

plau·si·ble adjective /ˈplôzəbəl/ 1. (of an argument or statement) Seeming reasonable or probable a plausible explanation it seems plausible that one of two things may happen 2. (of a person) Skilled at producing persuasive arguments, esp. ones intended to deceive a plausible liar


myWords 109 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS adjective: probable, likely, credible, believable, possible 5.

plea

6.

noun /plē/ pleas, plural 1. A request made in an urgent and emotional manner he made a dramatic plea for disarmament 2. A claim that a circumstance means that one should not be blamed for or should not be forced to do something her plea of a headache was not entirely false 3. A formal statement by or on behalf of a defendant or prisoner, stating guilt or innocence in response to a charge, offering an allegation of fact, or claiming that a point of law should apply he changed his plea to not guilty

7.

SYNONYMS noun: excuse, pretext, appeal, request, pretence, petition, entreaty, supplication

pledge noun /plej/ pledges, plural 1. A solemn promise or undertaking the conference ended with a joint pledge to limit pollution 2. A promise of a donation to charity the company's pledge of 10% of profits to environmental concerns 3. A solemn undertaking to abstain from alcohol she persuaded Arthur to take the pledge 4. A thing that is given as security for the fulfillment of a contract or the payment of a debt and is liable to forfeiture in the event of failure 5. A thing given as a token of love, favor, or loyalty 6. A person who has promised to join a fraternity or sorority 7. The drinking to a person's health; a toast verb /plej/ pledged, past participle; pledged, past tense; pledges, 3rd person singular present; pledging, present participle 1. Commit (a person or organization) by a solemn promise the government pledged itself to deal with environmental problems 2. Formally declare or promise that something is or will be the case the president pledged that 20,000 government buildings would have solar roofs 3. Solemnly undertake to do something they pledged to continue the campaign for funding 4. Undertake formally to give

Japan pledged $100 million in humanitarian aid to pledge allegiance Give as security on a loan the creditor to whom the land is pledged Promise to join (a fraternity or sorority) Francie and I pledged the same sorority Drink to the health of

SYNONYMS verb: pawn, promise, mortgage, impawn, undertake, plight, vow noun: promise, pawn, guarantee, gage, vow, undertaking, security, surety, guaranty

pol·ish verb /ˈpäliSH/ polished, past participle; polished, past tense; polishes, 3rd person singular present; polishing, present participle 1. Make the surface of (something) smooth and shiny by rubbing it she unloaded the dishwasher and polished the glasses 2. Improve, refine, or add the finishing touches to he's got to polish up his French for his job noun /ˈpäliSH/ 1. A substance used to give something a smooth and shiny surface when rubbed in furniture polish 2. An act of rubbing something to give it a shiny surface I could give the cabinet a polish 3. Smoothness or glossiness produced by rubbing or friction the machine refines the shape of the stone and gives it polish 4. Refinement or elegance in a person or thing his poetry has clarity and polish SYNONYMS verb: burnish, furbish, gloss, glaze noun: lustre, luster, gloss, refinement, varnish, burnish

pol·lute verb /pəˈlo͞ot/ polluted, past participle; polluted, past tense; pollutes, 3rd person singular present; polluting, present participle 1. Contaminate (water, air, or a place) with harmful or poisonous substances the explosion polluted the town with dioxin exposure to polluted air 2. Defile; corrupt a society polluted by racism SYNONYMS verb: defile, contaminate, soil, foul, taint, profane, smirch, befoul, desecrate


110 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - P,p

pol·y·glot

pre·cise·ly

adjective /ˈpäliˌglät/ 1. Knowing or using several languages a polyglot career woman 2. (of a book) Having the text translated into several languages polyglot and bilingual technical dictionaries noun /ˈpäliˌglät/ polyglots, plural 1. A person who knows and is able to use several languages

adverb /priˈsīslē/ 1. In exact terms; without vagueness the guidelines are precisely defined 2. Exactly (used to emphasize the complete accuracy or truth of a statement) at 2:00 precisely, the phone rang kids will love it precisely because it will irritate their parents 3. Used as a reply to assert emphatic agreement with or confirmation of a statement “You mean it was a conspiracy?” “Precisely.”

SYNONYMS adjective: multilingual

SYNONYMS adverb: exactly, just, accurately, right, sharp

pos·se

pre·ci·sion

noun /ˈpäsē/ posses, plural 1. A body of men, typically armed, summoned by a sheriff to enforce the law 2. The body of men in a county whom the sheriff could summon to enforce the law 3. A group of people who have a common characteristic, occupation, or purpose he pompously led around a posse of medical students 4. A gang of youths involved in (usually drugrelated) crime 5. A group of people who socialize together, esp. to go to clubs or raves

noun /priˈsiZHən/ precisions, plural 1. The quality, condition, or fact of being exact and accurate the deal was planned and executed with military precision 2. Marked by or adapted for accuracy and exactness a precision instrument 3. Refinement in a measurement, calculation, or specification, esp. as represented by the number of digits given this has brought an unprecedented degree of precision to the business of dating rocks a precision of six decimal figures

pov·er·ty

SYNONYMS noun: accuracy, exactness, exactitude, preciseness, nicety, punctuality, minuteness, fidelity, strictness

noun /ˈpävərtē/ 1. The state of being extremely poor thousands of families are living in abject poverty 2. The state of being inferior in quality or insufficient in amount the poverty of her imagination 3. The renunciation of the right to individual ownership of property as part of a religious vow SYNONYMS noun: destitution, want, penury, indigence, need, poorness, misery, pauperism, privation, lack, beggary, scarcity, necessity, distress

prai·rie noun /ˈpre(ə)rē/ prairies, plural 1. A large open area of grassland, esp. in the Mississippi River valley 2. A steam locomotive of 2-6-2 wheel arrangement SYNONYMS noun: grassland, meadow

pre·clude verb /priˈklo͞od/ precluded, past participle; precluded, past tense; precludes, 3rd person singular present; precluding, present participle 1. Prevent from happening; make impossible the secret nature of his work precluded official recognition 2. (of a situation or condition) Prevent someone from doing something his difficulties preclude him from leading a normal life SYNONYMS verb: prevent, debar, hinder, exclude, avert, prohibit

pre·dict verb /priˈdikt/ predicted, past participle; predicted, past tense; predicting, present participle; predicts, 3rd person singular present


myWords 111 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

1.

Say or estimate that (a specified thing) will happen in the future or will be a consequence of something it is too early to predict a result he predicts that the trend will continue the predicted growth is 47 percent

pre·scribe

SYNONYMS adjective: better, preferential

verb /priˈskrīb/ prescribed, past participle; prescribed, past tense; prescribes, 3rd person singular present; prescribing, present participle 1. (of a medical practitioner) Advise and authorize the use of (a medicine or treatment) for someone, esp. in writing Dr. Greene prescribed magnesium sulfate the doctor prescribed her a drug called amantadine 2. Recommend (a substance or action) as something beneficial marriage is often prescribed as a universal remedy 3. State authoritatively or as a rule that (an action or procedure) should be carried out rules prescribing five acts for a play are purely arbitrary doing things in the prescribed manner

prej·u·dice

SYNONYMS verb: order, ordain, enjoin, appoint, dictate, direct, command

SYNONYMS verb: foretell, prophesy, prognosticate, forecast, presage, augur, divine, bode, forebode, foresee

pref·er·a·ble adjective /ˈpref(ə)rəbəl/ 1. More desirable or suitable lower interest rates were preferable to higher ones

noun /ˈprejədəs/ prejudices, plural 1. Preconceived opinion that is not based on reason or actual experience English prejudice against foreigners anti-Jewish prejudices 2. Dislike, hostility, or unjust behavior formed on such a basis accusations of racial prejudice 3. Harm or injury that results or may result from some action or judgment prejudice resulting from delay in the institution of the proceedings verb /ˈprejədəs/ prejudiced, past participle; prejudiced, past tense; prejudices, 3rd person singular present; prejudicing, present participle 1. Give rise to prejudice in (someone); make biased the statement might prejudice the jury 2. Cause harm to (a state of affairs) delay is likely to prejudice the child's welfare SYNONYMS verb: harm, injure, bias, damage noun: bias, preconception, detriment, prepossession, harm, injury, damage, partiality

pre·text noun /ˈprēˌtekst/ pretexts, plural 1. A reason given in justification of a course of action that is not the real reason the rebels had the perfect pretext for making their move SYNONYMS noun: excuse, pretence, pretense, plea

pre·var·i·cate verb /priˈvariˌkāt/ prevaricated, past participle; prevaricated, past tense; prevaricates, 3rd person singular present; prevaricating, present participle 1. Speak or act in an evasive way he seemed to prevaricate when journalists asked pointed questions SYNONYMS verb: evade, equivocate, lie

pri·or prej·u·diced adjective /ˈprejədəst/ 1. Having or showing a dislike or distrust that is derived from prejudice; bigoted people are prejudiced against us prejudiced views SYNONYMS adjective: biased, partial, biased

adjective /ˈprīər/ 1. Existing or coming before in time, order, or importance he has a prior engagement this evening noun /ˈprīər/ priors, plural 1. A previous criminal conviction 2. he had no juvenile record, no priors noun priors, plural


112 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - P,p 1.

2. 3.

A man who is head of a house or group of houses of certain religious orders, in particular The man next in rank below an abbot The head of a house of friars

SYNONYMS adjective: previous, former, antecedent, anterior, foregoing, preceding noun: abbot adverb: previously, before

priv·i·lege noun /ˈpriv(ə)lij/ privileges, plural 1. A special right, advantage, or immunity granted or available only to a particular person or group of people education is a right, not a privilege he has been accustomed all his life to wealth and privilege 2. Something regarded as a rare opportunity and bringing particular pleasure I have the privilege of awarding you this scholarship 3. (in a parliamentary context) The right to say or write something without the risk of incurring punishment or legal action for defamation 4. The right of a lawyer or official to refuse to divulge confidential information 5. A grant to an individual, corporation, or place of special rights or immunities, esp. in the form of a franchise or monopoly verb /ˈpriv(ə)lij/ privileged, past participle; privileged, past tense; privileges, 3rd person singular present; privileging, present participle 1. Grant a privilege or privileges to English inheritance law privileged the eldest son 2. Exempt (someone) from a liability or obligation to which others are subject SYNONYMS verb: privelege noun: prerogative, privelege, charter, franchise, right

probe noun /prōb/ probes, plural 1. A blunt-ended surgical instrument used for exploring a wound or part of the body 2. A small device, esp. an electrode, used for measuring, testing, or obtaining information 3. A projecting device for engaging in a drogue, either on an aircraft for use in inflight refueling or on a spacecraft for use in docking with another craft

4.

5.

An unmanned exploratory spacecraft designed to transmit information about its environment An investigation into a crime or other matter a probe into the maritime industry by the FBI

verb /prōb/ probed, past participle; probed, past tense; probes, 3rd person singular present; probing, present participle 1. Physically explore or examine (something) with the hands or an instrument researchers probing the digestive glands of mollusks 2. Seek to uncover information about someone or something he began to probe into Donald's whereabouts police are probing another murder SYNONYMS verb: explore, sound, search, investigate noun: investigation, inquiry, sound, examination

pro·ces·sion noun /prəˈseSHən/ processions, plural 1. A number of people or vehicles moving forward in an orderly fashion, esp. as part of a ceremony or festival a funeral procession 2. The action of moving forward in such a way the fully robed civic dignitaries walk in procession 3. A relentless succession of people or things his path was paved by a procession of industry executives 4. The emanation of the Holy Spirit SYNONYMS verb: process noun: train, cortege, parade

pro·cras·ti·nate verb /prəˈkrastəˌnāt/ /prō-/ procrastinated, past participle; procrastinated, past tense; procrastinates, 3rd person singular present; procrastinating, present participle 1. Delay or postpone action; put off doing something it won't be this price for long, so don't procrastinate SYNONYMS verb: delay, postpone, defer, put off, linger, adjourn, tarry, temporize

pro·fu·sion noun /prəˈfyo͞oZHən/ /prō-/ profusions, plural 1. An abundance or large quantity of something a rich profusion of wildflowers


myWords 113 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

the foxgloves growing in profusion among the ferns SYNONYMS noun: abundance, plenty, affluence, exuberance, wealth, prodigality, opulence, richness, redundancy, exuberancy

SYNONYMS adjective: programme, programmatic verb: programme, schedule, plan noun: programme, schedule, scheme, plan, project, bill, show

pro·mote pro·gram noun /ˈprōˌgram/ /-grəm/ programmes, plural; programs, plural 1. A planned series of future events, items, or performances a weekly program of films the program includes Dvorak's New World symphony 2. A set of related measures, events, or activities with a particular long-term aim the nuclear power program 3. A sheet or booklet giving details of items or performers at an event or performance a theater program 4. A presentation or item on radio or television, esp. one broadcast regularly between stated times a nature program 5. A radio or television service or station providing a regular succession of programs on a particular frequency; a channel 6. A series of coded software instructions to control the operation of a computer or other machine verb /ˈprōˌgram/ /-grəm/ programed, past participle; programed, past tense; programing, present participle; programmed, past participle; programmed, past tense; programmes, 3rd person singular present; programming, present participle; programs, 3rd person singular present 1. Provide (a computer or other machine) with coded instructions for the automatic performance of a particular task it is a simple matter to program the computer to recognize such symbols 2. Input (instructions for the automatic performance of a task) into a computer or other machine simply program in your desired volume level 3. Cause (a person or animal) to behave in a predetermined way all members of a particular species are programmed to build nests in the same way 4. Arrange according to a plan or schedule we learn how to program our own lives consciously 5. Schedule (an item) within a framework the next stage of the treaty is programmed for 1996 6. Broadcast (an item) the station does not program enough contemporary works

verb /prəˈmōt/ promoted, past participle; promoted, past tense; promotes, 3rd person singular present; promoting, present participle 1. Further the progress of (something, esp. a cause, venture, or aim); support or actively encourage some regulation is still required to promote competition 2. Give publicity to (a product, organization, or venture) so as to increase sales or public awareness they are using famous personalities to promote the library nationally 3. Act as a promoter of (a catalyst) 4. Advance or raise (someone) to a higher position or rank she was promoted to general manager 5. Transfer (a sports team) to a higher division of a league they were promoted from the Third Division last season 6. Exchange (a pawn) for a more powerful piece of the same color, typically a queen, as part of the move in which it reaches the opponent's end of the board 7. Enable (a relatively low card) to win a trick by playing off the higher ones first SYNONYMS verb: advance, further, raise, boost

pro·pri·e·tor noun /p(r)əˈprīətər/ proprietors, plural 1. The owner of a business 2. A holder of property SYNONYMS noun: owner, possessor, holder, master, landlord, proprietary

pro·to·col noun /ˈprōtəˌkôl/ /-ˌkäl/ protocols, plural 1. The official procedure or system of rules governing affairs of state or diplomatic occasions protocol forbids the prince from making any public statement in his defense 2. The accepted or established code of procedure or behavior in any group, organization, or situation


114 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - P,p

3. 4.

5.

6. 7.

what is the protocol at a conference if one's neighbor dozes off during the speeches? A set of rules governing the exchange or transmission of data electronically between devices The original draft of a diplomatic document, esp. of the terms of a treaty agreed to in conference and signed by the parties An amendment or addition to a treaty or convention a protocol to the treaty allowed for this Danish referendum A formal or official record of scientific experimental observations A procedure for carrying out a scientific experiment or a course of medical treatment

SYNONYMS verb: minute, record noun: minutes, record

pro·ver·bi·al adjective /prəˈvərbēəl/ 1. (of a word or phrase) Referred to in a proverb or idiom I'm going to stick out like the proverbial sore thumb 2. Well known, esp. so as to be stereotypical the Welsh people, whose hospitality is proverbial

prox·y noun /ˈpräksē/ proxies, plural 1. The authority to represent someone else, esp. in voting they may register to vote by proxy 2. A person authorized to act on behalf of another 3. A document authorizing a person to vote on another's behalf 4. A figure that can be used to represent the value of something in a calculation the use of a U.S. wealth measure as a proxy for the true worldwide measure SYNONYMS noun: deputy, representative, agent, substitute, procuration, warrant, attorney, commission, power of attorney

pru·dence noun /ˈpro͞odns/ prudences, plural 1. The quality of being prudent; cautiousness we need to exercise prudence in such important matters

SYNONYMS noun: caution, discretion, wariness, circumspection, chariness, precaution, providence, wisdom, care

pseu·do·nym noun /ˈso͞odn-im/ pseudonyms, plural 1. A fictitious name, esp. one used by an author SYNONYMS noun: alias, pen name, anonym, nom de plume

psy·chic adjective /ˈsīkik/ 1. Relating to or denoting faculties or phenomena that are apparently inexplicable by natural laws, esp. involving telepathy or clairvoyance psychic powers 2. (of a person) Appearing or considered to have powers of telepathy or clairvoyance I could sense it—I must be psychic 3. Of or relating to the soul or mind he dulled his psychic pain with gin 4. Denoting a bid that deliberately misrepresents the bidder's hand, in order to mislead the opponents noun /ˈsīkik/ psychics, plural 1. A person considered or claiming to have psychic powers; a medium 2. The study of psychic phenomena SYNONYMS adjective: psychical, mental, spiritual noun: medium

psy·chol·o·gy noun /sīˈkäləjē/ psychologies, plural 1. The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, esp. those affecting behavior in a given context 2. The mental characteristics or attitude of a person or group the psychology of Americans in the 1920s 3. The mental and emotional factors governing a situation or activity the psychology of interpersonal relationships SYNONYMS noun: psychics

pu·ber·ty noun /ˈpyo͞obərtē/ 1. The period during which adolescents reach sexual maturity and become capable of reproduction


myWords 115 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS noun: adolescence, pubescence

pun noun /pən/ puns, plural 1. A joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word or the fact that there are words that sound alike but have different meanings the pigs were a squeal (if you'll forgive the pun) verb /pən/ punned, past participle; punned, past tense; punning, present participle; puns, 3rd person singular present 1. Make a joke exploiting the different possible meanings of a word his first puzzle punned on composers, with answers like “Handel with care” and “Haydn go seek” a punning riddle SYNONYMS noun: wordplay, quibble, quirk, play on words, paronomasia

pur·sue verb /pərˈso͞o/ pursued, past participle; pursued, past tense; pursues, 3rd person singular present; pursuing, present participle 1. Follow (someone or something) in order to catch or attack them the officer pursued the van a heavily indebted businessman was being pursued by creditors 2. Seek to form a sexual relationship with (someone) in a persistent way Sophie was being pursued by a number of men 3. Seek to attain or accomplish (a goal), esp. over a long period should people pursue their own happiness at the expense of others? 4. (of something unpleasant) Persistently afflict (someone) mercy lasts as long as sin pursues man 5. (of a person or way) Continue or proceed along (a path or route) the road pursued a straight course over the scrubland 6. Engage in (an activity or course of action) Andrew was determined to pursue a computer career the council decided not to pursue an appeal 7. Continue to investigate, explore, or discuss (a topic, idea, or argument) we shall not pursue the matter any further SYNONYMS verb: follow, chase, hunt, prosecute, track

pu·trid adjective /ˈpyo͞otrid/ 1. (of organic matter) Decaying or rotting and emitting a fetid smell 2. Of or characteristic of rotting matter the putrid smells from the slaughterhouses 3. Very unpleasant; repulsive the cocktail is a putrid pink color SYNONYMS adjective: rotten, bad, foul, stinking


116 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - P,p


myWords 117 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Q,q quar·ter·back noun /ˈkwôrtərˌbak/ quarterbacks, plural 1. A player positioned behind the center who directs a team's offensive play 2. A person who directs or coordinates an operation or project verb /ˈkwôrtərˌbak/ quarterbacked, past participle; quarterbacked, past tense; quarterbacking, present participle; quarterbacks, 3rd person singular present 1. Play as a quarterback for (a particular team) 2. Direct or coordinate (an operation or project) SYNONYMS noun: back

quench verb /kwenCH/ quenched, past participle; quenched, past tense; quenches, 3rd person singular present; quenching, present participle 1. Satisfy (one's thirst) by drinking 2. Satisfy (a desire) he only pursued her to quench an aching need 3. Extinguish (a fire) firemen hauled on hoses in a desperate bid to quench the flames 4. Stifle or suppress (a feeling) fury rose in him, but he quenched it 5. Rapidly cool (red-hot metal or other material), esp. in cold water or oil 6. Suppress or damp (an effect such as luminescence, or an oscillation or discharge) noun /kwenCH/ quenches, plural 1. An act of quenching something very hot

SYNONYMS verb: extinguish, slake, put out, suppress, douse

quest noun /kwest/ quests, plural 1. A long or arduous search for something the quest for a reliable vaccine has intensified 2. (in medieval romance) An expedition made by a knight to accomplish a prescribed task verb /kwest/ quested, past participle; quested, past tense; questing, present participle; quests, 3rd person singular present 1. Search for something he was a real scientist, questing after truth 2. Search for; seek out SYNONYMS verb: search, seek, look for, seek after noun: search, investigation, research, hunt, pursuit, inquiry, inquest

quo·rum noun /ˈkwôrəm/ quorums, plural 1. The minimum number of members of an assembly or society that must be present at any of its meetings to make the proceedings of that meeting valid

quote verb /kwōt/ quoted, past participle;

quoted, past tense;


118 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - Q,q quotes, 3rd person singular present; quoting, present participle 1. Repeat or copy out (a group of words from a text or speech), typically with an indication that one is not the original author or speaker he quoted a passage from the Psalms “The stream mysterious glides beneath,” Melinda quoted when we told her this she said, and I quote, “Phooey!” 2. Repeat a passage from (a work or author) or statement by (someone) the prime minister was quoted as saying that he would resist all attempts to “sabotage” his government he quoted Shakespeare, Goethe, and other poets 3. Mention or refer to (someone or something) to provide evidence or authority for a statement, argument, or opinion they won't be here at all in three years time— you can quote me on that 4. Put forward or describe someone or something as being heavy teaching loads are often quoted as a bad influence on research 5. Give someone (the estimated price of a job or service) the agent quoted a fare of $180 6. Give (a company) a quotation or listing on a stock exchange an organization that is quoted on the Stock Exchange noun /kwōt/ quotes, plural 1. A quotation from a text or speech a quote from Wordsworth 2. A quotation giving the estimated cost for a particular job or service quotes from different insurance companies 3. A price offered by a broker for the sale or purchase of a stock or other security 4. A quotation or listing of a company on a stock exchange 5. Quotation marks SYNONYMS verb: cite, adduce noun: quotation, citation, excerption


myWords 119 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

R,r ra·dar noun /ˈrāˌdär/ radars, plural 1. A system for detecting the presence, direction, distance, and speed of aircraft, ships, and other objects, by sending out pulses of high-frequency electromagnetic waves that are reflected off the object back to the source 2. An apparatus used for this SYNONYMS noun: radiolocation, radiolocator

ra·di·ant adjective /ˈrādēənt/ 1. Sending out light; shining or glowing brightly a bird with radiant green and red plumage 2. (of a person or their expression) Clearly emanating great joy, love, or health she gave him a radiant smile 3. (of an emotion or quality) Emanating powerfully from someone or something; very intense or conspicuous he praised her radiant self-confidence 4. (of heat) Transmitted by radiation, rather than conduction or convection 5. (of an appliance) Designed to emit such energy, esp. for cooking or heating noun /ˈrādēənt/ radiants, plural 1. A point or object from which light or heat radiates, esp. a heating element in an electric or gas heater SYNONYMS adjective: shining, bright, brilliant, luminous, resplendent, effulgent, refulgent, beaming

ra·di·us noun /ˈrādēəs/ radii, plural; radiuses, plural 1. A straight line from the center to the circumference of a circle or sphere 2. A radial line from the focus to any point of a curve 3. The length of the radius of a circle or sphere 4. A specified distance from a center in all directions there are plenty of local pubs within a twomile radius 5. The thicker and shorter of the two bones in the human forearm 6. The corresponding bone in a vertebrate's foreleg or a bird's wing 7. (in an echinoderm or coelenterate) Any of the primary axes of radial symmetry 8. Any of the main veins in an insect's wing SYNONYMS noun: ray

ran·som noun /ˈransəm/ ransoms, plural 1. A sum of money or other payment demanded or paid for the release of a prisoner 2. The holding or freeing of a prisoner in return for payment of such money the capture and ransom of the king verb /ˈransəm/ ransomed, past participle; ransomed, past tense; ransoming, present participle; ransoms, 3rd person singular present 1. Obtain the release of (a prisoner) by making a payment demanded


120 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - R,r

2.

3.

the lord was captured in war and had to be ransomed Hold (a prisoner) and demand payment for their release mercenaries burned the village and ransomed the inhabitants Release (a prisoner) after receiving payment

SYNONYMS verb: redeem noun: redemption

4. 5.

6. 7. 8.

ra·tion·al·ize verb /ˈraSHənlˌīz/ /ˈraSHnəˌlīz/ rationalised, past participle; rationalised, past tense; rationalises, 3rd person singular present; rationalising, present participle; rationalized, past participle; rationalized, past tense; rationalizes, 3rd person singular present; rationalizing, present participle 1. Attempt to explain or justify (one's own or another's behavior or attitude) with logical, plausible reasons, even if these are not true or appropriate she couldn't rationalize her urge to return to the cottage 2. Make (a company, process, or industry) more efficient by reorganizing it in such a way as to dispense with unnecessary personnel or equipment his success was due primarily to his ability to rationalize production 3. Convert (a function or expression) to a rational form SYNONYMS verb: streamline

re·al·tor noun /ˈrē(ə)ltər/ /-ˌtôr/ /ˈrē(ə)lətər/ realtors, plural 1. A person who acts as an agent for the sale and purchase of buildings and land; a real estate agent SYNONYMS noun: estate agent, real estate agent

re·cep·tion noun /riˈsepSHən/ receptions, plural 1. The action or process of receiving something sent, given, or inflicted the reception of impulses from other neurons the reception of the sacrament 2. The way in which a person or group of people reacts to someone or something the proposal continued to get a lukewarm reception on Wall Street 3. The receiving of broadcast signals

9.

a microchip that will allow parents to block reception of violent programs The quality of this I had to put up with poor radio reception The action of admitting someone to a place, group, or institution or the process of being admitted their reception into the Church The formal or ceremonious welcoming of a guest his reception by the Prime Minister An act of catching the ball A formal social occasion held to welcome someone or to celebrate a particular event a wedding reception The area in a hotel, office, or other establishment where guests and visitors are greeted and dealt with the reception desk

SYNONYMS noun: acceptance, welcome, receipt, receiving

re·cess noun /ˈrēˌses/ /riˈses/ recesses, plural 1. A small space created by building part of a wall further back from the rest a table set into a recess 2. A hollow space inside something the concrete block has a recess in its base 3. A remote, secluded, or secret place the recesses of the silent pine forest the dark recesses of his soul 4. A period of time when the proceedings of a parliament, committee, court of law, or other official body are temporarily suspended talks resumed after a month's recess the Senate was in recess 5. A break between school classes the mid-morning recess verb /ˈrēˌses/ /riˈses/ recessed, past participle; recessed, past tense; recesses, 3rd person singular present; recessing, present participle 1. Attach (a fixture) by setting it back into the wall or surface to which it is fixed recessed ceiling lights 2. (of formal proceedings) Be temporarily suspended the talks recessed at 2:15 3. Suspend (such proceedings) temporarily 4. (of an official body) Suspend its proceedings for a period of time SYNONYMS noun: vacation, intermission, break, rest, niche, alcove

rec·luse noun /ˈrekˌlo͞os/ recluses, plural

/riˈklo͞os/

/ˈrekˌlo͞oz/


myWords 121 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

1.

A person who lives a solitary life and tends to avoid other people

adjective /ˈrekˌlo͞os/ /riˈklo͞os/ 1. Favoring a solitary life

/ˈrekˌlo͞oz/

2.

the man who refereed the World Cup final Act as referee to referee a split between deficit hawks and doves the only journal that publishes refereed articles

SYNONYMS adjective: solitary, lonely, secluded, lone, retired, retiring noun: hermit, anchorite, solitary, eremite, anchoret

SYNONYMS verb: umpire, judge, arbitrate noun: umpire, arbiter, judge, arbitrator

re·cur

re·flect

verb /riˈkər/ recurred, past participle; recurred, past tense; recurring, present participle; recurs, 3rd person singular present 1. Occur again, periodically, or repeatedly when the symptoms recurred, the doctor diagnosed something different a recurring theme 2. (of a thought, image, or memory) Come back to one's mind Steve's words kept recurring to him 3. Go back to (something) in thought or speech the book remained a favorite and she constantly recurred to it

verb /riˈflekt/ reflected, past participle; reflected, past tense; reflecting, present participle; reflects, 3rd person singular present 1. (of a surface or body) Throw back (heat, light, or sound) without absorbing it when the sun's rays hit the earth a lot of the heat is reflected back into space his eyes gleamed in the reflected light 2. (of a mirror or shiny surface) Show an image of he could see himself reflected in Keith's mirrored glasses 3. Embody or represent (something) in a faithful or appropriate way stocks are priced at a level that reflects a company's prospects schools should reflect cultural differences 4. (of an action or situation) Bring (credit or discredit) to the relevant parties the main contract is progressing well, which reflects great credit on those involved 5. Bring about a good or bad impression of the incident reflects badly on the operating practices of the airlines 6. Think deeply or carefully about he reflected with sadness on the unhappiness of his marriage Charles reflected that maybe there was hope for the family after all 7. Make disparaging remarks about

SYNONYMS verb: return, repeat

re·en·ter verb /ˌrēˈentər/ 1. Enter (something) again women who wish to reenter the labor market

ref·er·ee noun /ˌrefəˈrē/ referees, plural 1. An official who watches a game or match closely to ensure that the rules are adhered to and (in some sports) to arbitrate on matters arising from the play 2. A person whose opinion or judgment is sought in some connection, or who is referred to for a decision in a dispute 3. A person willing to testify in writing about the character or ability of someone, esp. an applicant for a job 4. A person appointed to examine and assess for publication a scientific or other academic work verb /ˌrefəˈrē/ refereed, past participle; refereed, past tense; refereeing, present participle; refereereed, past participle; refereereed, past tense; refereereeing, present participle; refereerees, 3rd person singular present; referees, 3rd person singular present 1. Officiate as referee at (a game or match)

SYNONYMS verb: think, meditate, ponder, mirror, consider, contemplate, reverberate

re·frain verb /riˈfrān/ refrained, past participle; refrained, past tense; refraining, present participle; refrains, 3rd person singular present 1. Stop oneself from doing something she refrained from comment noun refrains, plural 1. A repeated line or number of lines in a poem or song, typically at the end of each verse 2. The musical accompaniment for such a line or number of lines


122 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - R,r 3.

A comment or complaint that is often repeated “Poor Tom” had become the constant refrain of his friends

SYNONYMS verb: abstain, forbear, hold back, restrain noun: chorus, burden, tag, undersong

re·gal adjective /ˈrēgəl/ 1. Of, resembling, or fit for a monarch, esp. in being magnificent or dignified regal authority her regal bearing SYNONYMS adjective: royal, kingly, princely, majestic

reg·is·trar noun /ˈrejəˌsträr/ registrars, plural 1. An official responsible for keeping a register or official records the registrar of births and deaths 2. An official in a college or university who is responsible for keeping student records SYNONYMS noun: recorder, archivist

re·hearse verb /riˈhərs/ rehearsed, past participle; rehearsed, past tense; rehearses, 3rd person singular present; rehearsing, present participle 1. Practice (a play, piece of music, or other work) for later public performance we were rehearsing a play she was rehearsing for her world tour 2. Supervise (a performer or group) that is practicing in this way he listened to Charlie rehearsing the band 3. Mentally prepare or recite (words one intends to say) he had rehearsed a thousand fine phrases 4. State (a list of points, esp. those that have been made many times before); enumerate criticisms of factory farming have been rehearsed often enough SYNONYMS verb: repeat, recite

2. 3.

Queen Elizabeth reigns over the UK the Nashville sound will reign supreme once again (of a quality or condition) Prevail; predominate confusion reigned (of a sports player or team) Currently hold a particular title

noun /rān/ reigns, plural 1. The period during which a sovereign rules the original chapel was built in the reign of Charles I 2. The period of prevalence or domination of a specified thing these historic seconds inaugurated the reign of negative political advertising 3. The period during which an athlete or team holds a specified title SYNONYMS verb: rule, prevail, dominate, govern, predominate, domineer noun: rule, dominion, government, domination

rein noun /rān/ reins, plural 1. A long, narrow strap attached at one end to a horse's bit, typically used in pairs to guide or check a horse while riding or driving 2. The power to direct and control 3. management is criticized for its unwillingness to let go of the reins of an organization and delegate routine tasks verb /rān/ reined, past participle; reined, past tense; reining, present participle; reins, 3rd person singular present 1. Cause (a horse) to stop or slow down by pulling on its reins he reined in his horse and waited for her 2. Cause (a horse) to change direction by pulling on its reins he reined the mare's head about and rode off 3. Keep under control; restrain with an effort, she reined back her impatience critics noted the failure of the administration to rein in public spending SYNONYMS verb: control, restrain, curb, bridle noun: bridle, curb

re·live reign verb /rān/ reigned, past participle; reigned, past tense; reigning, present participle; reigns, 3rd person singular present 1. Hold royal office; rule as king or queen

verb /rēˈliv/ /ˈrē-/ relived, past participle; relived, past tense; relives, 3rd person singular present; reliving, present participle


myWords 123 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

1.

Live through (an experience or feeling, esp. an unpleasant one) again in one's imagination or memory he broke down sobbing as he relived the attack

9.

10. SYNONYMS verb: revive 11.

ren·o·vate verb /ˈrenəˌvāt/ renovated, past participle; renovated, past tense; renovates, 3rd person singular present; renovating, present participle 1. Restore (something old, esp. a building) to a good state of repair the old school has been tastefully renovated as a private house 2. Refresh; reinvigorate a little warm nourishment renovated him for a short time SYNONYMS verb: renew, restore, recondition, repair, refurbish, mend

rep·re·sent verb /ˌrepriˈzent/ represented, past participle; represented, past tense; representing, present participle; represents, 3rd person singular present 1. Be entitled or appointed to act or speak for (someone), esp. in an official capacity for purposes of litigation, an infant can and must be represented by an adult 2. (of a competitor) Participate in a sports event or other competition on behalf of (one's club, town, region, or country) Owens represented the U.S 3. Be an elected member of a legislature for (a particular constituency, party, or group) she became the first woman to represent her district 4. Act as a substitute for (someone), esp. on an official or ceremonial occasion the president was represented by the secretary of state 5. Constitute; amount to this figure represents eleven percent of the company's total sales 6. Be a specimen or example of; typify twenty parents, picked to represent a cross section of rural life 7. (of a group or type of person or thing) Be present or found in something, esp. to a particular degree abstraction is well represented in this exhibition 8. Depict (a particular subject) in a picture or other work of art santos are small wooden figures representing saints

12. 13.

14.

Describe or depict (someone or something) as being of a certain nature; portray in a particular way the young were consistently represented as being in need of protection (of a sign or symbol) Have a particular signification; stand for the numbers 1–10 represent the letters A–Z Be a symbol or embodiment of (a particular quality or thing) the three heads of Cerberus represent the past, present, and future Play the part of (someone) in a theatrical production State or point out (something) clearly it was represented to him that she would be an unsuitable wife Allege; claim the vendors have represented that such information is accurate

SYNONYMS verb: depict, show, portray, present, describe, picture

rep·re·sen·ta·tive adjective /ˌrepriˈzentətiv/ 1. Typical of a class, group, or body of opinion these courses are representative of those taken by most Harvard undergraduates 2. Containing typical examples of many or all types a representative sample of young people in the South 3. (of a legislative or deliberative assembly) Consisting of people chosen to act and speak on behalf of a wider group 4. (of a government or political system) Based on representation of the people by such deputies free elections and representative democracy 5. Serving as a portrayal or symbol of something the show should be more representative of how women really are 6. (of art) Representational the bust involves a high degree of representative abstraction 7. Of or relating to mental representation noun /ˌrepriˈzentətiv/ representatives, plural 1. A person chosen or appointed to act or speak for another or others, in particular 2. An agent of a firm who travels to potential clients to sell its products 3. An employee of a travel company who looks after the needs of its vacationing clients 4. A person chosen or elected to speak and act on behalf of others in a legislative assembly or deliberative body 5. A delegate who attends a conference, negotiations, legal hearing, etc., so as to


124 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - R,r

6. 7.

represent the interests of another person or group A person who takes the place of another on a ceremonial or official occasion An example of a class or group fossil representatives of lampreys and hagfishes

SYNONYMS adjective: typical noun: deputy, agent, delegate, proxy, spokesman, exponent

re·serve verb /riˈzərv/ reserved, past participle; reserved, past tense; reserves, 3rd person singular present; reserving, present participle 1. Refrain from using or disposing of (something); retain for future use roll out half the dough and reserve the other half 2. Arrange for (a room, seat, ticket, etc.) to be kept for the use of a particular person and not given to anyone else a place was reserved for her in the front row 3. Retain or hold (an entitlement to something), esp. by formal or legal stipulation the editor reserves the right to edit letters 4. Refrain from delivering (a judgment or decision) immediately or without due consideration or evidence I'll reserve my views on his ability until he's played again 5. Use or engage in something only in or at (a particular circumstance or time) Japanese food has been presented as expensive and reserved for special occasions 6. (in church use) Retain (a portion of the consecrated elements) after mass for communion of the sick or as a focus for devotion noun /riˈzərv/ reserves, plural 1. A supply of a commodity not needed for immediate use but available if required Australia has major coal, gas, and uranium reserves 2. A force or body of troops kept back from action to reinforce or protect others, or additional to the regular forces and available in an emergency 3. A member of the military reserve 4. An extra player who is a possible substitute in a team 5. The second-string team 6. Funds kept available by a bank, company, or government the foreign exchange reserves 7. A part of a company's profits added to capital rather than paid as a dividend 8. A place set aside for special use, in particular 9. An area of land set aside for occupation by an indigenous people

10. A protected area for wildlife 11. A lack of warmth or openness in manner or expression she smiled and some of her natural reserve melted 12. Qualification or doubt attached to some statement or claim she trusted him without reserve 13. (in the decoration of ceramics or textiles) An area that still has the original color of the material or the color of the background SYNONYMS adjective: spare, standby, reserved, alternate verb: book, keep, retain, save noun: reservation, stock, store, restraint

re·side verb /riˈzīd/ resided, past participle; resided, past tense; resides, 3rd person singular present; residing, present participle 1. Have one's permanent home in a particular place people who work in the city actually reside in neighboring towns 2. Be situated the paintings now reside on the walls of a restaurant 3. (of power or a right) Belong by right to a person or body legislative powers reside with the federal assembly 4. (of a quality) Be present or inherent in something the meaning of an utterance does not wholly reside in the semantic meaning SYNONYMS verb: live, dwell, inhabit, abide, stay, lodge

re·sort noun /riˈzôrt/ resorts, plural 1. A place that is a popular destination for vacations or recreation, or which is frequented for a particular purpose a seaside resort a health resort 2. The tendency of a place to be frequented by many people places of public resort 3. The action of turning to and adopting a strategy or course of action, esp. a disagreeable or undesirable one, so as to resolve a difficult situation Germany and Italy tried to resolve their economic and social failures by resort to fascism 4. A strategy or course of action that may be adopted in a difficult situation her only resort is surgery


myWords 125 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

verb /riˈzôrt/ resorted, past participle; resorted, past tense; resorting, present participle; resorts, 3rd person singular present 1. Turn to and adopt (a strategy or course of action, esp. a disagreeable or undesirable one) so as to resolve a difficult situation the duke was prepared to resort to force if negotiation failed 2. Go often or in large numbers to local authorities have a duty to provide adequate sites for gypsies “residing in or resorting to” their areas SYNONYMS noun: recourse, refuge, resource

re·tail noun /ˈrēˌtāl/ retails, plural 1. The sale of goods to the public in relatively small quantities for use or consumption rather than for resale the product's retail price adverb /ˈrēˌtāl/ 1. Being sold in such a way it is not yet available retail verb /ˈrēˌtāl/ retailed, past participle; retailed, past tense; retailing, present participle; retails, 3rd person singular present 1. Sell (goods) to the public in such a way the difficulties in retailing the new products 2. (of goods) Be sold in this way for (a specified price) the product retails for around $20 3. Recount or relate details of (a story or event) to others his inimitable way of retailing a diverting anecdote SYNONYMS verb: peddle

re·verse verb /riˈvərs/ reversed, past participle; reversed, past tense; reverses, 3rd person singular present; reversing, present participle 1. Move backward the truck reversed into the back of a bus 2. Cause (a vehicle) to move backward I got in the car, reversed it and drove it up the driveway 3. Turn (something) the other way around or up or inside out a reversed S-shape 4. Make (something) the opposite of what it was the damage done to the ozone layer may be reversed

5.

6.

7. 8.

Exchange (the position or function) of two people or things the experimenter and the subject reversed roles and the experiment was repeated Revoke or annul (a judgment, sentence, or decree made by a lower court or authority) the court reversed his conviction (of an engine) Work in a contrary direction the ship's engines reversed and cut out altogether Make (type or a design) print as white in a block of solid color or a halftone their press ads had a headline reversed out of the illustration

adjective /riˈvərs/ 1. Going in or turned toward the direction opposite to that previously stated the trend appears to be going in the reverse direction 2. Operating, behaving, or ordered in a way contrary or opposite to that which is usual or expected here are the results in reverse order 3. (of a voltage applied to a semiconductor junction) In the direction that does not allow significant current to flow 4. Denoting a fault or faulting in which a relative downward movement occurred in the strata situated on the underside of the fault plane noun /riˈvərs/ reverses, plural 1. A complete change of direction or action the growth actuates a reverse of photosynthesis 2. Reverse gear on a motor vehicle; the position of a gear lever or selector corresponding to this 3. The opposite or contrary to that previously stated he didn't feel homesick—quite the reverse 4. An adverse change of fortune; a setback or defeat the team suffered its heaviest reverse of the season 5. A play in which the ballcarrier reverses the direction of attack by lateraling or handling the ball to a teammate moving in the opposite direction 6. The opposite side or face to the observer the address is given on the reverse of this leaflet 7. A left-hand page of an open book, or the back of a loose document 8. The side of a coin or medal bearing the value or secondary design 9. The design or inscription on this side SYNONYMS adjective: converse, opposite, contrary, inverse, counter, opposed, adverse, opponent, inverted verb: invert, revoke, cancel, repeal, turn noun: defeat, back, opposite, contrary


126 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - R,r

rit·u·al

ros·ter

noun /ˈriCHo͞oəl/ rituals, plural 1. A religious or solemn ceremony consisting of a series of actions performed according to a prescribed order the ancient rituals of Christian worship the role of ritual in religion 2. A prescribed order of performing such a ceremony, esp. one characteristic of a particular religion or church 3. A series of actions or type of behavior regularly and invariably followed by someone her visits to Joy became a ritual

noun /ˈrästər/ /ˈrô-/ rosters, plural 1. A list or plan showing turns of duty or leave for individuals or groups in an organization next week's duty roster 2. A list of members of a team or organization, in particular of athletes available for team selection

adjective /ˈriCHo͞oəl/ 1. Of, relating to, or done as a religious or solemn rite ritual burial 2. (of an action) Arising from convention or habit the players gathered for the ritual pregame huddle SYNONYMS adjective: ceremonial, ritualistic, sacral noun: rite, ceremony, ceremonial, observance, ordinance

ro·bust adjective /rōˈbəst/ /ˈrōˌbəst/ robuster, comparative; robustest, superlative 1. (of a person, animal, or plant) Strong and healthy; vigorous the Caplans are a robust, healthy lot 2. (of an object) Sturdy in construction a robust metal cabinet 3. (of a process or system, esp. an economic one) Able to withstand or overcome adverse conditions California's robust property market 4. (of an intellectual approach or the person taking or expressing it) Not perturbed by or attending to subtleties or difficulties; uncompromising and forceful the country's decision to bow to UN pressure was preceded by a robust defense of its policies he took quite a robust view of my case 5. (of action) Involving physical force or energy a robust game of rugby 6. (of wine or food) Strong and rich in flavor or smell SYNONYMS adjective: sturdy, strong, lusty, stout, vigorous, hale, tough, stalwart, powerful, hefty, sound, hard, hearty, healthy, burly

verb /ˈrästər/ /ˈrô-/ rostered, past participle; rostered, past tense; rostering, present participle; rosters, 3rd person singular present 1. Assign according to a duty roster the locomotive is rostered for service on Sunday SYNONYMS noun: list, rota, schedule, register, roll

rot·ten adjective /ˈrätn/ rottener, comparative; rottenest, superlative 1. Suffering from decay rotten eggs the supporting beams were rotten 2. Morally, socially, or politically corrupt he believed that the whole art business was rotten 3. Very bad she was a rotten cook 4. Extremely unpleasant it's rotten for you having to cope on your own 5. Unwell she tried to tell me she felt rotten adverb /ˈrätn/ 1. To an extreme degree; very much your mother said that I spoiled you rotten SYNONYMS adjective: putrid, bad, corrupt, addle, foul, decayed

rue verb /ro͞o/ rued, past participle; rued, past tense; rueing, present participle; rues, 3rd person singular present; ruing, present participle 1. Bitterly regret (something one has done or allowed to happen) Ferguson will rue the day he turned down that offer she might live to rue this impetuous decision noun /ro͞o/ 1. Repentance; regret with rue my heart is laden 2. Compassion; pity tears of pitying rue


myWords 127 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

noun rues, plural 1. A perennial evergreen shrub with bitter strong-scented lobed leaves that are used in herbal medicine 2. Used in names of other plants that resemble rue, esp. in leaf shape, e.g., goat'srue, meadow rue, wallrue SYNONYMS verb: regret, repent, deplore, lament, grieve, mourn, sorrow noun: repentance, regret, remorse, contrition, penitence, pity, compunction, sorrow

rus·tic adjective /ˈrəstik/ 1. Having a simplicity and charm that is considered typical of the countryside bare plaster walls and a terra-cotta floor give a rustic feel 2. derogatory. Lacking the sophistication of the city; backward and provincial you are a rustic halfwit 3. Constructed or made in a plain and simple fashion, in particular 4. Made of untrimmed branches or rough timber a rustic oak bench 5. With rough-hewn or roughened surface or with deeply sunk joints a rustic bridge 6. Denoting freely formed lettering, esp. a relatively informal style of handwritten Roman capital letter noun /ˈrəstik/ rustics, plural derogatory. An unsophisticated country person

ruth·less adjective /ˈro͞oTHləs/ 1. Having or showing no pity or compassion for others a ruthless manipulator SYNONYMS adjective: merciless, pitiless, cruel, unmerciful, remorseless, relentless, heartless, grim, unrelenting, uncharitable, hard-hearted


128 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - R,r


myWords 129 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

S,s sa·cred adjective /ˈsākrid/ 1. Connected with God (or the gods) or dedicated to a religious purpose and so deserving veneration sacred rites the site at Eleusis is sacred to Demeter 2. Religious rather than secular sacred music 3. (of writing or text) Embodying the laws or doctrines of a religion a sacred Hindu text 4. Regarded with great respect and reverence by a particular religion, group, or individual an animal sacred to Mexican culture 5. Sacrosanct to a police officer nothing is sacred SYNONYMS adjective: holy, saintly, sacrosanct, saint, sanctified, religious, sainted

san·i·tar·y adjective /ˈsaniˌterē/ 1. Of or relating to the conditions that affect hygiene and health, esp. the supply of sewage facilities and clean drinking water a sanitary engineer 2. Hygienic and clean the most convenient and sanitary way to get rid of food waste from your kitchen SYNONYMS adjective: hygienic, sanitarian, health

san·i·ty noun /ˈsanitē/

1. 2.

The ability to think and behave in a normal and rational manner; sound mental health I began to doubt my own sanity Reasonable and rational behavior

sar·casm noun /ˈsärˌkazəm/ sarcasms, plural 1. The use of irony to mock or convey contempt his voice, hardened by sarcasm, could not hide his resentment SYNONYMS noun: irony

sat·el·lite noun /ˈsatlˌīt/ satellites, plural 1. An artificial body placed in orbit around the earth or moon or another planet in order to collect information or for communication 2. Transmitted by satellite; using or relating to satellite technology satellite broadcasting 3. Satellite television a news service on satellite 4. A celestial body orbiting the earth or another planet 5. Something that is separated from or on the periphery of something else but is nevertheless dependent on or controlled by it satellite offices in London and New York 6. A small country or state politically or economically dependent on another 7. A portion of the DNA of a genome with repeating base sequences and of different density from the main sequence


130 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - S,s SYNONYMS noun: moon, sputnik

sa·tir·i·cal adjective /səˈti(ə)rikəl/ 1. Containing or using satire a New York-based satirical magazine 2. (of a person or their behavior) Sarcastic, critical, and mocking another's weaknesses SYNONYMS adjective: satiric

scar·ci·ty noun /ˈskersitē/ scarcities, plural 1. The state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage a time of scarcity the growing scarcity of resources SYNONYMS noun: shortage, lack, dearth, want, deficiency, scarceness, paucity, poverty, need, rarity, privation, shortcoming, famine, scantiness

1.

Write a script for (a play, movie, or broadcast)

noun scripts, plural 1. A doctor's prescription SYNONYMS noun: handwriting, writing, manuscript, scenario

sculp·ture noun /ˈskəlpCHər/ sculptures, plural 1. The art of making two- or three-dimensional representative or abstract forms, esp. by carving stone or wood or by casting metal or plaster 2. A work of such a kind a bronze sculpture a collection of sculpture 3. Raised or sunken patterns or texture on the surface of a shell, pollen grain, cuticle, or other biological specimen

adjective /ˈskôrnfəl/ 1. Feeling or expressing contempt or derision the justices have been scornful of the government's conduct scornful laughter

verb /ˈskəlpCHər/ sculptured, past participle; sculptured, past tense; sculptures, 3rd person singular present; sculpturing, present participle 1. Make or represent (a form) by carving, casting, or other shaping techniques the choir stalls were each carefully sculptured 2. Form, shape, or mark as if by sculpture, esp. with strong, smooth curves he had an aquiline nose and sculptured lips

SYNONYMS adjective: contemptuous, disdainful, sniffy, supercilious

SYNONYMS verb: carve, sculpt, sculp, chisel, engrave, model noun: statue, carving, statuary, sculpt

script

seize

scorn·ful

noun /skript/ scripts, plural 1. Handwriting as distinct from print; written characters her neat, tidy script 2. Printed type imitating handwriting 3. Writing using a particular alphabet Russian script 4. The written text of a play, movie, or broadcast 5. An automated series of instructions carried out in a specific order 6. The social role or behavior appropriate to particular situations that an individual absorbs through cultural influences and association with others verb /skript/ scripted, past participle; scripted, past tense; scripting, present participle; scripts, 3rd person singular present

verb /sēz/ seized, past participle; seized, past tense; seizes, 3rd person singular present; seizing, present participle 1. Take hold of suddenly and forcibly she jumped up and seized his arm she seized hold of the door handle 2. Capture (a place) using force army rebels seized an air force base 3. Assume (power or control) by force the current president seized power in a coup 4. (of the police or another authority) Take possession of (something) by warrant or legal right; confiscate; impound police have seized 726 lb of cocaine 5. Take (an opportunity or initiative) eagerly and decisively he seized his chance to attack as Delaney hesitated 6. (of a feeling or pain) Affect (someone) suddenly or acutely he was seized by the most dreadful fear


myWords 131 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

7.

8.

9.

10. 11.

12. 13.

Strongly appeal to or attract (the imagination or attention) the story of the king's escape seized the public imagination Understand (something) quickly or clearly he always strains to seize the most somber truths (of a machine with moving parts or a moving part in a machine) Become stuck or jammed the engine seized up after only three weeks Be in legal possession of the court is currently seized of custody applications Have or receive freehold possession of (property) any person who is seized of land has a protected interest in that land Be aware or informed of the judge was fully seized of the point Fasten or attach (someone or something) to something by binding with turns of rope

SYNONYMS verb: catch, grasp, grab, take, capture, apprehend, grip, clutch, impound, arrest

se·mes·ter noun /səˈmestər/ semesters, plural 1. A half-year term in a school or college, typically lasting fifteen to eighteen weeks SYNONYMS adjective: terminal noun: term, half-year, half, session

sen·a·tor noun /ˈsenitər/ senators, plural 1. A member of a senate

sep·a·rate adjective /ˈsep(ə)rit/ 1. Forming or viewed as a unit apart or by itself this raises two separate issues he regards the study of literature as quite separate from life 2. Not joined or touching physically hostels with separate quarters for men and women 3. Different; distinct melt the white and dark chocolate in separate bowls verb /ˈsepəˌrāt/ separated, past participle; separated, past tense; separates, 3rd person singular present; separating, present participle 1. Cause to move or be apart police were trying to separate two rioting mobs

they were separated by the war Form a distinction or boundary between (people, places, or things) only a footpath separated their garden from the shore six years separated the two brothers 3. Become detached or disconnected the second stage of the rocket failed to separate 4. Leave another person's company they separated at the corner, agreeing to meet within two hours 5. Stop living together as a couple after her parents separated, she was brought up by her mother her parents are separated 6. Discharge or dismiss (someone) from service or employment this year one million veterans will be separated from the service 7. Divide or cause to divide into constituent or distinct elements the milk had separated into curds and whey separate the eggs and beat the yolks 8. Extract or remove for use or rejection the skins are separated from the juice before fermentation we need to separate fact from speculation 9. Distinguish between; consider individually we cannot separate his thinking from his activity 10. (of a factor or quality) Distinguish (someone or something) from others his position separates him from those who might share his interests 11. Make something form, or view something as, a unit apart or by itself the organ loft separating off the choir 2.

noun separates, plural 1. Things forming units by themselves, in particular 2. Individual items of clothing, such as skirts, jackets, or pants, suitable for wearing in different combinations 3. The self-contained, freestanding components of a sound-reproduction system 4. Portions into which a soil, sediment, etc., can be sorted according to particle size, mineral composition, or other criteria SYNONYMS adjective: detached, distinct, individual, discrete, several, particular, special, segregate, different, separated verb: divide, part, sever, segregate, detach, disjoin, disunite, dissociate, sunder, isolate, divorce, split noun: reprint

se·rene adjective /səˈrēn/ serener, comparative; serenest, superlative 1. Calm, peaceful, and untroubled; tranquil


132 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - S,s

2.

her eyes were closed and she looked very serene serene certainty (in a title) Used as a term of respect for members of some European royal families His Serene Highness

noun /səˈrēn/ 1. An expanse of clear sky or calm sea not a cloud obscured the deep serene SYNONYMS adjective: calm, tranquil, clear, placid, quiet, composed, still, sedate, peaceful noun: serenity

ser·mon noun /ˈsərmən/ sermons, plural 1. A talk on a religious or moral subject, esp. one given during a church service and based on a passage from the Bible 2. A printed transcript of such a talk a volume of sermons 3. A long or tedious piece of admonition or reproof; a lecture SYNONYMS verb: sermonize, preach noun: homily, lecture, preaching, preachment, exhortation

set·tler noun /ˈsetl-ər/ /ˈsetlər/ settlers, plural 1. A person who settles in an area, typically one with no or few previous inhabitants SYNONYMS noun: colonist, colonizer

se·vere adjective /səˈvi(ə)r/ severer, comparative; severest, superlative 1. (of something bad or undesirable) Very great; intense a severe shortage of technicians a severe attack of asthma damage is not too severe 2. Demanding great ability, skill, or resilience a severe test of stamina 3. Strict or harsh the charges would have warranted a severe sentence he is unusually severe on what he regards as tendentious pseudo-learning 4. Very plain in style or appearance she wore another severe suit, gray this time

SYNONYMS adjective: hard, strict, austere, stern, rigorous, harsh, rigid, stringent, heavy, tough, stiff, grim, strong, serious, grave, sharp

shade noun /SHād/ shades, plural 1. Comparative darkness and coolness caused by shelter from direct sunlight sitting in the shade this area will be in shade for much of the day 2. The darker part of a picture 3. A shadow or area of darkness the shades of evening drew on 4. A position of relative inferiority or obscurity her elegant pink and black ensemble would put most outfits in the shade 5. A portrait in silhouette 6. A color, esp. with regard to how light or dark it is or as distinguished from one nearly like it various shades of blue Maria's eyes darkened in shade 7. A slight degree of difference between colors 8. A slightly differing variety of something politicians of all shades of opinion 9. A slight amount of something there is a shade of wistfulness in his rejection 10. A lampshade 11. A screen or blind on a window 12. An eyeshade 13. Sunglasses 14. A ghost 15. The underworld; Hades verb /SHād/ shaded, past participle; shaded, past tense; shades, 3rd person singular present; shading, present participle 1. Screen from direct light she shaded her eyes against the sun 2. Cover, moderate, or exclude the light of he shaded the flashlight with his hand 3. Darken or color (an illustration or diagram) with parallel pencil lines or a block of color she shaded in the outline of a chimney 4. (of a color or something colored) Gradually change into another color the sky shaded from turquoise to night blue 5. Make a slight reduction in the amount, rate, or price of banks may shade the margin over base rate they charge customers SYNONYMS verb: shadow, overshadow, darken, obscure noun: shadow, ghost, nuance, tint

shriek verb /SHrēk/ shrieked, past participle;

shrieked, past tense;


myWords 133 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

shrieking, present participle; shrieks, 3rd person singular present 1. Utter a high-pitched piercing sound or words, esp. as an expression of terror, pain, or excitement the audience shrieked with laughter “There it is!” she shrieked she was shrieking abuse at a taxi driver 2. (of something inanimate) Make a highpitched screeching sound the wheels shrieked as the car sped away 3. Be very obvious or strikingly discordant the patterned carpets shrieked at Betsy from the shabby store noun /SHrēk/ shrieks, plural 1. A high-pitched piercing cry or sound; a scream shrieks of laughter SYNONYMS verb: scream, screech, squall, yell, squeal, shout, bawl noun: scream, screech, yell, cry, squeal, shout, squall

3. 4.

A casket containing sacred relics; a reliquary A niche or enclosure containing a religious statue or other object

verb /SHrīn/ shrined, past participle; shrined, past tense; shrines, 3rd person singular present; shrining, present participle 1. Enshrine SYNONYMS noun: sanctuary, temple

sib·ling noun /ˈsibliNG/ siblings, plural 1. Each of two or more children or offspring having one or both parents in common; a brother or sister SYNONYMS noun: brother, sister

sig·na·ture shrill adjective /SHril/ 1. (of a voice or sound) High-pitched and piercing a shrill laugh 2. offensive. (esp. of a complaint or demand) Loud and forceful a concession to their shrill demands verb /SHril/ shrilled, past participle; shrilled, past tense; shrilling, present participle; shrills, 3rd person singular present 1. Make a shrill noise a piercing whistle shrilled through the night air 2. Speak or cry with a shrill voice “For God's sake!” shrilled Jan noun /SHril/ shrills, plural 1. A shrill sound or cry the rising shrill of women's voices

shrine noun /SHrīn/ shrines, plural 1. A place regarded as holy because of its associations with a divinity or a sacred person or relic, typically marked by a building or other construction 2. A place associated with or containing memorabilia of a particular revered person or thing her grave has become a shrine for fans from all over the world

noun /ˈsignəCHər/ /-ˌCHo͝or/ signatures, plural 1. A person's name written in a distinctive way as a form of identification in authorizing a check or document or concluding a letter 2. The action of signing a document the license was sent to the customer for signature 3. A distinctive pattern, product, or characteristic by which someone or something can be identified the chef produced the pâté that was his signature his signature dish 4. A letter or figure printed at the foot of one or more pages of each sheet of a book as a guide in binding 5. A printed sheet after being folded to form a group of pages 6. The part of a medical prescription that gives instructions about the use of the medicine or drug prescribed SYNONYMS noun: subscription

sig·ni·fy verb /ˈsignəˌfī/ signified, past participle; signified, past tense; signifies, 3rd person singular present; signifying, present participle 1. Be an indication of this decision signified a fundamental change in their priorities 2. Be a symbol of; have as meaning the church used this image to signify the Holy Trinity


134 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - S,s 3.

4. 5.

(of a person) Indicate or declare (a feeling or intention) signify your agreement by signing the letter below Be of importance the locked door doesn't necessarily signify (among black Americans) Exchange boasts or insults as a game or ritual

SYNONYMS verb: denote, mean, indicate, import, imply, designate, mark

sim·i·lar adjective /ˈsimələr/ 1. Resembling without being identical a soft cheese similar to Brie northern India and similar areas 2. (of geometric figures) Having the same shape, with the same angles and proportions, though not necessarily of the same size noun /ˈsimələr/ similars, plural 1. A person or thing similar to another 2. A substance that produces effects resembling the symptoms of particular diseases (the basis of homeopathic treatment) the principle of treatment by similars SYNONYMS adjective: like, alike, analogous, equal, akin, kindred, suchlike, same, such, parallel, identical

ski·ing noun /ˈskēiNG/ 1. The action of traveling over snow on skis, esp. as a sport or recreation. Competitive skiing falls into two categories: Nordic (cross-country racing, jumping, and biathlon) and Alpine (downhill or straight racing, and slalom racing around a series of markers) SYNONYMS noun: ski

skim verb /skim/ skimmed, past participle; skimmed, past tense; skimming, present participle; skims, 3rd person singular present 1. Remove (a substance) from the surface of a liquid as the scum rises, skim it off 2. Remove a substance from the surface of (a liquid) bring to the boil, then skim it to remove any foam 3. Steal or embezzle (money), esp. in small amounts over a period of time

4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

she was skimming money from the household kitty Fraudulently copy (credit or debit card details) with a card swipe or other device Go or move quickly and lightly over or on a surface or through the air he let his fingers skim across her shoulders Pass over (a surface), nearly or lightly touching it in the process we stood on the bridge, watching swallows skimming the water Throw (a flat stone) low over an expanse of water so that it bounces on the surface several times Read (something) quickly or cursorily so as to note only the important points he sat down and skimmed the report she skimmed through the newspaper Deal with or treat (a subject) briefly or superficially

noun /skim/ skims, plural 1. A thin layer of a substance on the surface of a liquid a skim of ice 2. An act of reading something quickly or superficially a quick skim through the pamphlet SYNONYMS noun: scum

slack adjective /slak/ 1. Not taut or held tightly in position; loose a slack rope her mouth went slack 2. (of business) Characterized by a lack of work or activity; quiet business was rather slack 3. Slow or sluggish they were working at a slack pace 4. Having or showing laziness or negligence slack accounting procedures 5. (of a tide) Neither ebbing nor flowing soon the water will become slack, and the tide will turn noun /slak/ slacks, plural 1. The part of a rope or line that is not held taut; the loose or unused part I picked up the rod and wound in the slack 2. Casual trousers 3. A spell of inactivity or laziness he slept deeply, refreshed by a little slack in the daily routine verb /slak/ slacked, past participle; slacked, past tense; slacking, present participle; slacks, 3rd person singular present 1. Loosen (something, esp. a rope)


myWords 135 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

2.

3. 4.

5. 6.

Reduce the intensity or speed of (something); slacken the horse slacked his pace Decrease in quantity or intensity the flow of blood slacked off Work slowly or lazily she reprimanded her girls if they were slacking Slow down the animal doesn't slack up until he reaches the trees Slake (lime)

adverb /slak/ 1. Loosely their heads were hanging slack in attitudes of despair noun 1. Coal dust or small pieces of coal SYNONYMS adjective: lax, loose, sluggish, slow, remiss, limp, languid, flabby verb: slacken, relax

slen·der adjective /ˈslendər/ slenderer, comparative; slenderest, superlative 1. (of a person or part of the body) Gracefully thin her slender neck 2. (esp. of a rod or stem) Of small girth or breadth slender iron railings 3. (of something abstract) Barely sufficient in amount or basis a slender majority of four SYNONYMS adjective: slim, thin, slight, tenuous, svelte, fine, delicate, small

slip·per·y adjective /ˈslipərē/ slipperier, comparative; slipperiest, superlative 1. (of a surface or object) Difficult to hold firmly or stand on because it is smooth, wet, or slimy slippery ice her hand was slippery with sweat 2. (of a person) Evasive and unpredictable; not to be relied on Martin's a slippery customer 3. (of a word or concept) Elusive in meaning because changing according to one's point of view the word “intended” is a decidedly slippery one SYNONYMS adjective: slippy, slick, lubricous, greasy, glib, slimy

soc·cer noun /ˈsäkər/ 1. A game played by two teams of eleven players with a round ball that may not be touched with the hands or arms during play except by the goalkeepers. The object of the game is to score goals by kicking or heading the ball into the opponents' goal SYNONYMS adjective: football noun: football, footer

so·phis·ti·cate verb /səˈfistəˌkāt/ sophisticated, past participle; sophisticated, past tense; sophisticates, 3rd person singular present; sophisticating, present participle 1. Cause (a person or their thoughts, attitudes, and expectations) to become less simple or straightforward through education or experience readers who have been sophisticated by modern literary practice 2. Develop (something such as a piece of equipment or a technique) into a more complex form functions that other software applications have sophisticated 3. Talk or reason in an impressively complex and educated manner 4. Mislead or corrupt (a person, an argument, the mind, etc.) by sophistry books of casuistry, which sophisticate the understanding and defile the heart adjective /səˈfistəˌkāt/ 1. Sophisticated

/-kit/

noun /səˈfistəˌkāt/ /-kit/ sophisticates, plural 1. A person with much worldly experience and knowledge of fashion and culture he is still the butt of jokes made by New York sophisticates

so·phis·ti·cat·ed adjective /səˈfistiˌkātid/ 1. (of a machine, system, or technique) Developed to a high degree of complexity highly sophisticated computer systems 2. (of a person or their thoughts, reactions, and understanding) Aware of and able to interpret complex issues; subtle discussion and reflection are necessary for a sophisticated response to a text 3. Having, revealing, or proceeding from a great deal of worldly experience and knowledge of fashion and culture a chic, sophisticated woman a young man with sophisticated tastes


136 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - S,s 4.

Appealing to people with such knowledge of experience a sophisticated restaurant

6.

SYNONYMS adjective: refined 7.

soph·o·more noun /ˈsäf(ə)ˌmôr/ sophomores, plural 1. A second-year college or high school student

sou·ve·nir noun /ˌso͞ovəˈni(ə)r/ souvenirs, plural 1. A thing that is kept as a reminder of a person, place, or event verb /ˌso͞ovəˈni(ə)r/ souvenired, past participle; souvenired, past tense; souveniring, present participle; souvenirs, 3rd person singular present 1. Take as a memento many parts of the aircraft have been souvenired SYNONYMS noun: keepsake, remembrance, memento, token, memory, recollection

Spar·tan adjective /ˈspärtn/ 1. Of or relating to Sparta in ancient Greece 2. Showing the indifference to comfort or luxury traditionally associated with ancient Sparta spartan but adequate rooms noun /ˈspärtn/ Spartans, plural 1. A citizen of Sparta

spe·cif·ic adjective /spəˈsifik/ 1. Clearly defined or identified increasing the electricity supply only until it met specific development needs 2. Precise and clear in making statements or issuing instructions when ordering goods be specific 3. Belonging or relating uniquely to a particular subject information needs are often very specific to companies and individuals 4. Of, relating to, or connected with species or a species 5. (of a duty or a tax) Levied at a fixed rate per physical unit of the thing taxed, regardless of its price

Of or denoting a number equal to the ratio of the value of some property of a given substance to the value of the same property of some other substance used as a reference, such as water, or of a vacuum, under equivalent conditions Of or denoting a physical quantity expressed in terms of a unit mass, volume, or other measure, in order to give a value independent of the properties or scale of the particular system studied

noun /spəˈsifik/ specifics, plural 1. A medicine or remedy effective in treating a particular disease or part of the body 2. A precise detail he worked through the specifics of the contract SYNONYMS adjective: particular, special, peculiar, definite, especial

spec·u·late verb /ˈspekyəˌlāt/ speculated, past participle; speculated, past tense; speculates, 3rd person singular present; speculating, present participle 1. Form a theory or conjecture about a subject without firm evidence my colleagues speculate about my private life observers speculated that the authorities wished to improve their image 2. Invest in stocks, property, or other ventures in the hope of gain but with the risk of loss he didn't look as though he had the money to speculate in stocks SYNONYMS verb: meditate, contemplate, ponder, cogitate, muse, think, gamble

spo·rad·ic adjective /spəˈradik/ 1. Occurring at irregular intervals or only in a few places; scattered or isolated sporadic fighting broke out SYNONYMS adjective: occasional

sprin·kler noun /ˈspriNGk(ə)lər/ sprinklers, plural 1. A device that sprays water 2. A device used for watering lawns 3. An automatic fire extinguisher installed in the ceilings of a building


myWords 137 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS noun: sprayer

stale adjective /stāl/ staler, comparative; stalest, superlative 1. (of food) No longer fresh and pleasant to eat; hard, musty, or dry stale bread 2. No longer new and interesting or exciting their marriage had gone stale 3. (of a person) No longer able to perform well or creatively because of having done something for too long a top executive tends to get stale 4. (of a check or legal claim) Invalid because out of date verb /stāl/ staled, past participle; staled, past tense; stales, 3rd person singular present; staling, present participle 1. Make or become stale verb staled, past participle; staled, past tense; stales, 3rd person singular present; staling, present participle 1. (of an animal, esp. a horse) Urinate SYNONYMS adjective: musty

stalk noun /stôk/ stalks, plural 1. The main stem of a herbaceous plant he chewed a stalk of grass 2. The slender attachment or support of a leaf, flower, or fruit the acorns grow on stalks 3. A similar support for a sessile animal, or for an organ in an animal 4. A slender support or stem of something drinking glasses with long stalks verb stalked, past participle; stalked, past tense; stalking, present participle; stalks, 3rd person singular present 1. Pursue or approach stealthily a cat stalking a bird 2. Harass or persecute (someone) with unwanted and obsessive attention for five years she was stalked by a man who would taunt and threaten her 3. Move silently or threateningly through (a place) the tiger stalks the jungle fear stalked the camp 4. Stride somewhere in a proud, stiff, or angry manner

without another word she turned and stalked out noun 1. A stealthy pursuit of someone or something 2. A stiff, striding gait SYNONYMS noun: stem, haulm, shank

stalk·er noun /ˈstôkər/ stalkers, plural 1. A person who stealthily hunts or pursues an animal or another person 2. A person who harasses or persecutes someone with unwanted and obsessive attention

state·ly adjective /ˈstātlē/ statelier, comparative; stateliest, superlative 1. Having a dignified, unhurried, and grand manner; majestic in manner and appearance a stately procession his tall and stately wife SYNONYMS adjective: majestic, noble, grand, magnificent, dignified, sublime, august, imposing, lofty, proud, splendid, lordly, grandiose

sta·tis·tics noun (plural) /stəˈtistiks/ 1. The practice or science of collecting and analyzing numerical data in large quantities, esp. for the purpose of inferring proportions in a whole from those in a representative sample SYNONYMS noun: statistic

stat·ue noun /ˈstaCHo͞o/ statues, plural 1. A carved or cast figure of a person or animal, esp. one that is life-size or larger SYNONYMS noun: sculpture, image, figure, statuary

stew·ard·ess noun /ˈst(y)o͞oərdis/ stewardesses, plural 1. A woman who is employed to provide meals for and otherwise look after the passengers on a ship or aircraft


138 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - S,s SYNONYMS noun: hostess, air hostess

stig·ma noun /ˈstigmə/ stigmas, plural; stigmata, plural 1. A mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person the stigma of mental disorder to be a nonreader carries a social stigma 2. (in Christian tradition) Marks corresponding to those left on Jesus’ body by the Crucifixion, said to have been impressed by divine favor on the bodies of St. Francis of Assisi and others 3. A visible sign or characteristic of a disease 4. A mark or spot on the skin 5. (in a flower) The part of a pistil that receives the pollen during pollination SYNONYMS noun: hostess, air hostess

stock noun /stäk/ stocks, plural 1. The goods or merchandise kept on the premises of a business or warehouse and available for sale or distribution the store has a very low turnover of stock buy now, while stocks last! stock shortages 2. A supply or quantity of something accumulated or available for future use I need to replenish my stock of wine fish stocks are being dangerously depleted 3. Farm animals such as cattle, pigs, and sheep, bred and kept for their meat or milk; livestock 4. Photographic film that has not been exposed or processed 5. (in some card games) The cards that have not yet been dealt, left on the table to be drawn 6. The capital raised by a business or corporation through the issue and subscription of shares between 1982 and 1986, the value of the company's stock rose by 86% 7. A portion of this as held by an individual or group as an investment she owned $3000 worth of stock 8. The shares of a particular company, type of company, or industry blue-chip stocks 9. Securities issued by the government in fixed units with a fixed rate of interest government gilt-edged stock 10. A person's reputation or popularity I felt I was right, but my stock was low with this establishment 11. Liquid made by cooking bones, meat, fish, or vegetables slowly in water, used as a basis for the preparation of soup, gravy, or sauces

a pint of chicken stock 12. The raw material from which a specified commodity can be manufactured the fat can be used as soap stock 13. A person's ancestry or line of descent her mother was of French stock both of them came from peasant stock 14. A breed, variety, or population of an animal or plant 15. The trunk or woody stem of a living tree or shrub, esp. one into which a graft (scion) is inserted 16. The perennial part of a herbaceous plant, esp. a rhizome 17. A herbaceous European plant that is widely cultivated for its fragrant flowers, which are typically lilac, pink, or white 18. An instrument of punishment consisting of an adjustable wooden structure with holes for securing a person's feet and hands, in which criminals were locked and exposed to public ridicule or assault 19. The part of a rifle or other firearm to which the barrel and firing mechanism are attached, held against one's shoulder when firing the gun 20. The crosspiece of an anchor 21. The handle of something such as a whip or fishing rod 22. A band of white material tied like a cravat and worn as a part of formal horse-riding dress 23. A piece of black material worn under a clerical collar 24. A frame used to support a ship or boat out of water, esp. when under construction adjective /stäk/ 1. (of a product or type of product) Usually kept in stock and thus regularly available for sale 25 percent off stock items 2. (of a phrase or expression) So regularly used as to be automatic or hackneyed “Two weeks” was the stock reply 3. Denoting a conventional character type or situation that recurs in a particular genre of literature, theater, or film the stock characters in every cowboy movie 4. Denoting or relating to cinematic footage that can be regularly used in different productions, typically that of outdoor scenes used to add realism to a production shot in an indoor set verb /stäk/ stocked, past participle; stocked, past tense; stocking, present participle; stocks, 3rd person singular present 1. Have or keep a supply of (a particular product or type or product) available for sale most supermarkets now stock a range of organic produce 2. Provide or fill with goods, items, or a supply of something I must stock up the fridge a well-stocked store


myWords 139 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

3.

4.

Amass supplies of something, typically for a particular occasion or purpose I'm stocking up for Christmas you'd better stock up with fuel Fit (a rifle or other firearm) with a stock

SYNONYMS adjective: ordinary verb: supply, provide, store, furnish noun: store, broth

stock·hold·er noun /ˈstäkˌhōldər/ stockholders, plural 1. A shareholder SYNONYMS noun: shareholder

stoop verb /sto͞op/ stooped, past participle; stooped, past tense; stooping, present participle; stoops, 3rd person singular present 1. Bend one's head or body forward and downward he stooped down and reached toward the coin Linda stooped to pick up the bottles the man stoops his head 2. Have the head and shoulders habitually bent forward he tends to stoop when he walks a thin, stooping figure 3. (of a bird of prey) Swoop down on a quarry 4. Lower one's moral standards so far as to do something reprehensible Craig wouldn't stoop to thieving she was unwilling to believe that anyone could stoop so low as to steal from a dead woman 5. Condescend to do something noun /sto͞op/ stoops, plural 1. A posture in which the head and shoulders are habitually bent forward a tall, thin man with a stoop 2. The downward swoop of a bird of prey noun stoops, plural 1. A porch with steps in front of a house or other building SYNONYMS verb: bend, bow, incline noun: slouch

strap noun /strap/ straps, plural 1. A strip of leather, cloth, or other flexible material, often with a buckle, used to fasten, secure, or carry something or to hold on to something her bra strap the strap of his shoulder bag 2. A strip of metal, often hinged, used to fasten or secure something 3. Punishment by beating with a strip of leather verb /strap/ strapped, past participle; strapped, past tense; strapping, present participle; straps, 3rd person singular present 1. Fasten or secure in a specified place or position with a strap or seat belt I had to strap the bag to my bicycle the children were strapped into their car seats 2. Beat (someone) with a strip of leather I expected when my dad walked in that he'd strap him SYNONYMS noun: belt, band

stray verb /strā/ straied, past participle; straied, past tense; strayed, past participle; strayed, past tense; straying, present participle; strays, 3rd person singular present 1. Move without a specific purpose or by mistake, esp. so as to get lost or arrive somewhere where one should not be I strayed a few blocks in the wrong direction the military arrested anyone who strayed into the exclusion zone 2. Move so as to escape from control or leave the place where one should be dog owners are urged not to allow their dogs to stray I appear to have strayed a long way from our original topic 3. (of the eyes or a hand) Move idly or casually in a specified direction her eyes strayed to the telephone 4. (of a person who is married or in a long-term relationship) Be unfaithful men who stray are seen as more exciting and desirable 5. Wander or roam in a specified direction over these mounds the Kurdish shepherd strays adjective /strā/ 1. Not in the right place; not where it should be or where other items of the same kind are he pushed a few stray hairs from her face 2. Appearing somewhere by chance or accident; not part of a general pattern or plan


140 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - S,s

3. 4.

she was killed by a stray bullet (of a domestic animal) Having no home or having wandered away from home stray dogs (of a physical quantity) Arising as a consequence of the laws of physics, not by deliberate design, and usually having a detrimental effect on the operation or efficiency of equipment stray capacitance

noun /strā/ strays, plural 1. A stray person or thing, esp. a domestic animal 2. Electrical phenomena interfering with radio reception SYNONYMS adjective: lost, errant, strayed verb: wander, go astray, rove, get lost, roam

strength·en verb /ˈstreNG(k)THən/ /ˈstren-/ strengthened, past participle; strengthened, past tense; strengthening, present participle; strengthens, 3rd person singular present 1. Make or become stronger he advises an application of fluoride to strengthen the teeth the wind won't strengthen until after dark SYNONYMS verb: fortify, reinforce, consolidate, intensify, invigorate, confirm

suave adjective /swäv/ suaver, comparative; suavest, superlative 1. (esp. of a man) Charming, confident, and elegant all the waiters were suave and deferential SYNONYMS adjective: bland, smooth, polite, affable, courteous, gentle, kind, sweet

sub·mis·sive adjective /səbˈmisiv/ 1. Ready to conform to the authority or will of others; meekly obedient or passive SYNONYMS adjective: meek, obedient, humble, docile, tame, dutiful, amenable, tractable, compliant, subservient

sub·se·quent adjective /ˈsəbsəkwənt/ 1. Coming after something in time; following

2.

the theory was developed subsequent to the earthquake of 1906 (of a stream or valley) Having a direction or character determined by the resistance to erosion of the underlying rock, and typically following the strike of the strata

SYNONYMS adjective: following, next, sequent, after, posterior, ulterior, ensuing, successive, succeeding

sub·stan·tial adjective /səbˈstanCHəl/ 1. Of considerable importance, size, or worth a substantial amount of cash 2. Strongly built or made a row of substantial Victorian villas 3. (of a meal) Large and filling 4. Important in material or social terms; wealthy a substantial Devon family 5. Concerning the essentials of something there was substantial agreement on changing policies 6. Real and tangible rather than imaginary spirits are shadowy, human beings substantial SYNONYMS adjective: considerable, solid, material, real, essential

sub·sti·tute noun /ˈsəbstiˌt(y)o͞ot/ substitutes, plural 1. A person or thing acting or serving in place of another soy milk is used as a substitute for dairy milk 2. A sports player nominated as eligible to replace another after a game has begun 3. A person or thing that becomes the object of love or other emotion deprived of its natural outlet a father substitute verb /ˈsəbstiˌt(y)o͞ot/ substituted, past participle; substituted, past tense; substitutes, 3rd person singular present; substituting, present participle 1. Use or add in place of dried rosemary can be substituted for the fresh herb 2. Act or serve as a substitute I found someone to substitute for me 3. Replace (someone or something) with another customs officers substituted the drugs with another substance this was substituted by a new clause 4. Replace (a sports player) with a substitute during a contest


myWords 141 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

5. 6.

he was substituted for Nichols in the fifth inning Replace (an atom or group in a molecule, esp. a hydrogen atom) with another (of a compound) In which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by other atoms or groups a substituted alkaloid

SYNONYMS adjective: standby, spare, surrogate verb: replace, supersede, supplant, displace, exchange, change noun: surrogate, deputy, replacement, substitution, proxy, ersatz

suck·le verb /ˈsəkəl/ suckled, past participle; suckled, past tense; suckles, 3rd person singular present; suckling, present participle 1. Feed (a baby or young animal) from the breast or teat a mother pig suckling a huge litter 2. (of a baby or young animal) Feed by sucking the breast or teat the infant's biological need to suckle SYNONYMS verb: nurse, breast-feed noun: nursing

suf·fice verb /səˈfīs/ sufficed, past participle; sufficed, past tense; suffices, 3rd person singular present; sufficing, present participle 1. Be enough or adequate a quick look should suffice two examples should suffice to prove the contention 2. Meet the needs of simple mediocrity cannot suffice them SYNONYMS verb: satisfy, be sufficient, last, be enough

suf·fi·cient determiner /səˈfiSHənt/ 1. Enough; adequate a small income that was sufficient for her needs they had sufficient resources to survive SYNONYMS adjective: adequate, enough, ample, satisfactory noun: enough, fill, sufficiency

sum·ma·ry noun /ˈsəmərē/ summaries, plural 1. A brief statement or account of the main points of something a summary of Chapter Three adjective /ˈsəmərē/ 1. Dispensing with needless details or formalities; brief summary financial statements 2. (of a judicial process) Conducted without the customary legal formalities summary arrest 3. (of a conviction) Made by a judge or magistrate without a jury SYNONYMS adjective: concise, short, succinct, brief, compendious noun: abstract, resume, synopsis, digest, precis, compendium, abridgement, epitome, abridgment, outline, recapitulation, brief, conspectus

sun·dry adjective /ˈsəndrē/ 1. Of various kinds; several lemon rind and sundry herbs noun (plural) /ˈsəndrē/ 1. Various items not important enough to be mentioned individually a drugstore selling magazines, newspapers, and sundries SYNONYMS adjective: various, different, varied, diverse, several, divers, miscellaneous, variant, manifold

su·per·fi·cial adjective /ˌso͞opərˈfiSHəl/ 1. Existing or occurring at or on the surface the building suffered only superficial damage 2. Situated or occurring on the skin or immediately beneath it the superficial muscle groups 3. Appearing to be true or real only until examined more closely the resemblance between the breeds is superficial 4. Not thorough, deep, or complete; cursory he had only the most superficial knowledge of foreign countries 5. Not having or showing any depth of character or understanding perhaps I was a superficial person SYNONYMS adjective: shallow, perfunctory, cursory, skindeep, sketchy, facile, surface, external


142 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - S,s

sur·ly adjective /ˈsərlē/ surlier, comparative; surliest, superlative 1. Bad-tempered and unfriendly he left with a surly expression SYNONYMS adjective: morose, gruff, sullen, sulky

2.

3.

A quality in a work of fiction that arouses excited expectation or uncertainty about what may happen a tale of mystery and suspense a suspense novel The temporary cessation or suspension of something

SYNONYMS noun: uncertainty, incertitude, suspension

sur·prise noun /sə(r)ˈprīz/ surprises, plural 1. An unexpected or astonishing event, fact, or thing the announcement was a complete surprise 2. A feeling of mild astonishment or shock caused by something unexpected much to her surprise, she'd missed him 3. Denoting something made, done, or happening unexpectedly a surprise attack 4. Denoting a class of complex methods of change-ringing surprise major verb /sə(r)ˈprīz/ surprised, past participle; surprised, past tense; surprises, 3rd person singular present; surprising, present participle 1. (of something unexpected) Cause (someone) to feel mild astonishment or shock I was surprised at his statement Joe was surprised that he enjoyed the journey she was surprised to learn that he was forty 2. Capture, attack, or discover suddenly and unexpectedly; catch unawares he surprised a gang stealing scrap metal SYNONYMS adjective: sudden, unexpected, unlooked-for, abrupt, snap verb: astonish, amaze, astound, startle noun: astonishment, amazement, wonder, wonderment

sur·rep·ti·tious adjective /ˌsərəpˈtiSHəs/ 1. Kept secret, esp. because it would not be approved of they carried on a surreptitious affair SYNONYMS adjective: secret, furtive, stealthy, clandestine, underhand, undercover, hole-and-corner, occult, sneaking, hidden

sus·pense noun /səˈspens/ 1. A state or feeling of excited or anxious uncertainty about what may happen come on, Fran, don't keep me in suspense!

svelte adjective /svelt/ /sfelt/ 1. (of a person) Slender and elegant SYNONYMS adjective: slender, slim, willowy, jimp

sym·bol noun /ˈsimbəl/ symbols, plural 1. A thing that represents or stands for something else, esp. a material object representing something abstract the limousine was another symbol of his wealth and authority 2. A mark or character used as a conventional representation of an object, function, or process, e.g., the letter or letters standing for a chemical element or a character in musical notation 3. A shape or sign used to represent something such as an organization, e.g., a red cross or a Star of David verb /ˈsimbəl/ symboled, past participle; symboled, past tense; symboling, present participle; symbolled, past participle; symbolled, past tense; symbolling, present participle; symbols, 3rd person singular present 1. Symbolize SYNONYMS noun: sign, emblem, token, mark, badge, ensign, character

symp·tom noun /ˈsim(p)təm/ symptoms, plural 1. A physical or mental feature that is regarded as indicating a condition of disease, particularly such a feature that is apparent to the patient dental problems may be a symptom of other illness 2. A sign of the existence of something, esp. of an undesirable situation the government was plagued by leaks— a symptom of divisions and poor morale


myWords 143 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

SYNONYMS noun: sign, indication, mark, token, diagnostic

syn·o·nym noun /ˈsinəˌnim/ SYNONYMS, plural 1. A word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language, for example shut is a synonym of close 2. A person or thing so closely associated with a particular quality or idea that the mention of their name calls it to mind the Victorian age is a synonym for sexual puritanism 3. A taxonomic name that has the same application as another, esp. one that has been superseded and is no longer valid


144 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - S,s


myWords 145 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

T,t tac·it

te·lep·a·thy

adjective /ˈtasit/ 1. Understood or implied without being stated your silence may be taken to mean tacit agreement

noun /təˈlepəTHē/ 1. The supposed communication of thoughts or ideas by means other than the known senses

SYNONYMS adjective: silent, implicit, mum, mute, implied

tend

taut adjective /tôt/ tauter, comparative; tautest, superlative 1. Stretched or pulled tight; not slack the fabric stays taut without adhesive 2. (esp. of muscles or nerves) Tense; not relaxed 3. (of writing, music, etc.) Concise and controlled a taut text of only a hundred and twenty pages 4. (of a ship) Having a disciplined and efficient crew SYNONYMS adjective: tight, tense, strained

tech·ni·cian noun /tekˈniSHən/ technicians, plural 1. A person employed to look after technical equipment or do practical work in a laboratory 2. An expert in the practical application of a science 3. A person skilled in the technique of an art or craft SYNONYMS noun: engineer

verb /tend/ tended, past participle; tended, past tense; tending, present participle; tends, 3rd person singular present 1. Regularly or frequently behave in a particular way or have a certain characteristic written language tends to be formal her hair tended to come loose 2. Be liable to possess or display (a particular characteristic) Walter tended toward corpulence 3. Go or move in a particular direction the road tends west around small mountains 4. Approach (a quantity or limit) the Fourier coefficients tend to zero verb tended, past participle; tended, past tense; tending, present participle; tends, 3rd person singular present 1. Care for or look after; give one's attention to Viola tended plants on the roof for two or three months he tended to business 2. Direct or manage; work in I've been tending bar at the airport lounge 3. Wait on as an attendant or servant SYNONYMS verb: look after, nurse, attend, incline


146 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - T,t

tep·id adjective /ˈtepid/ 1. (esp. of a liquid) Only slightly warm; lukewarm 2. Showing little enthusiasm the applause was tepid

1.

2.

SYNONYMS adjective: lukewarm, warmish

3.

the·ol·o·gy

4.

noun /THēˈäləjē/ theologies, plural 1. The study of the nature of God and religious belief 2. Religious beliefs and theory when systematically developed Augustine assimilated Roman ideals into Christian theology a willingness to tolerate new theologies SYNONYMS noun: divinity

the·sis noun /ˈTHēsis/ theses, plural 1. A statement or theory that is put forward as a premise to be maintained or proved his central thesis is that psychological life is not part of the material world 2. (in Hegelian philosophy) A proposition forming the first stage in the process of dialectical reasoning 3. A long essay or dissertation involving personal research, written by a candidate for a college degree a doctoral thesis 4. An unstressed syllable or part of a metrical foot in Greek or Latin verse SYNONYMS noun: dissertation

thor·ough·ly adverb /ˈTHərōlē/ 1. In a thorough manner he searched the house thoroughly 2. Very much; greatly I thoroughly enjoyed the day she was soon thoroughly bored SYNONYMS adverb: completely, fully, quite, utterly, entirely, wholly, altogether, perfectly

threat noun /THret/ threats, plural

A statement of an intention to inflict pain, injury, damage, or other hostile action on someone in retribution for something done or not done members of her family have received death threats A menace of bodily harm, such as may restrain a person's freedom of action A person or thing likely to cause damage or danger hurricane damage poses a major threat to many coastal communities The possibility of trouble, danger, or ruin the company faces the threat of bankruptcy thousands of railroad jobs came under threat

SYNONYMS noun: menace, danger, intimidation, impendence

through·out adverb /THro͞oˈout/ 1. All the way through, in particular 2. In every part of (a place or object) it had repercussions throughout Europe the house is in good order throughout 3. From beginning to end of (an event or period of time) the Church of which she was a faithful member throughout her life both sets of parents retained a smiling dignity throughout SYNONYMS preposition: through, during adverb: entirely, everywhere, completely, quite, all over, through

tight adjective /tīt/ tighter, comparative; tightest, superlative 1. Fixed, fastened, or closed firmly; hard to move, undo, or open she twisted her handkerchief into a tight knot 2. (of clothes or shoes) Close-fitting, esp. uncomfortably so the dress was too tight for her 3. (of a grip) Very firm so as not to let go she released her tight hold on the dog presidential advisers keep a tight grip on domestic policy 4. (of a ship, building, or object) Well sealed against something such as water or air a light-tight container 5. (of a formation or a group of people or things) Closely or densely packed together he levered the bishop out from a tight knot of clerical wives 6. (of a community or other group of people) Having close relations; secretive the tenants were far too tight to let anyone know 7. (of a rope, fabric, or surface) Stretched so as to leave no slack; not loose


myWords 147 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

8.

9.

10. 11.

12.

13. 14.

15. 16.

17. 18.

the drawcord pulls tight (of a part of the body or a bodily sensation) Feeling painful and constricted, as a result of anxiety or illness there was a tight feeling in his gut (of appearance or manner) Tense, irritated, or angry she gave him a tight smi (of a rule, policy, or form of control) Strictly imposed security was tight at yesterday's ceremony (of a game or contest) With evenly matched competitors; very close he won in a tight finish (of a written work or form) Concise, condensed, or well structured a tight argument (of an organization or group of people) Disciplined or professional; well coordinated the vocalists are strong, and the band is tight (of an area or space) Having or allowing little room for maneuver a tight parking spot it was a tight squeeze in the tiny vestibule (of a bend, turn, or angle) Changing direction sharply; having a short radius (of money or time) Limited or restricted David was out of work and money was tight an ability to work to tight deadlines (of a person) Not willing to spend or give much money; stingy Drunk later, at the club, he got tight on brandy

adverb /tīt/ 1. Very firmly, closely, or tensely he went downstairs, holding tight to the banisters SYNONYMS adjective: taut, close, narrow, tense adverb: tightly, fast, closely

trade·mark noun /ˈtrādˌmärk/ trademarks, plural 1. A symbol, word, or words legally registered or established by use as representing a company or product 2. A distinctive characteristic or object it had all the trademarks of a Mafia hit verb /ˈtrādˌmärk/ trademarked, past participle; trademarked, past tense; trademarking, present participle; trademarks, 3rd person singular present 1. Provide with a trademark they are counterfeiting trademarked goods 2. Identify (a habit, quality, or way of life) as typical of someone his trademarked grandiose style SYNONYMS noun: brand

tran·script noun /ˈtranˌskript/ transcripts, plural 1. A written or printed version of material originally presented in another medium 2. A length of RNA or DNA that has been transcribed respectively from a DNA or RNA template 3. An official record of a student's work, showing courses taken and grades achieved SYNONYMS noun: copy, transcription, duplicate, replica, reproduction

trans·fu·sion noun /transˈfyo͞oZHən/ transfusions, plural 1. An act of transfusing donated blood, blood products, or other fluid into the circulatory system of a person or animal

tran·sient adjective /ˈtranSHənt/ /-ZHənt/ /-zēənt/ 1. Lasting only for a short time; impermanent a transient cold spell 2. Staying or working in a place for only a short time the transient nature of the labor force in catering noun /ˈtranSHənt/ /-ZHənt/ /-zēənt/ transients, plural 1. A person who is staying or working in a place for only a short time 2. A momentary variation in current, voltage, or frequency SYNONYMS adjective: transitory, passing, fleeting, temporary, momentary, impermanent, evanescent, fugacious, ephemeral, fugitive, perishable

tread verb /tred/ treading, present participle; treads, 3rd person singular present; trod, past participle; trod, past tense; trodden, past participle 1. Walk in a specified way he trod lightly, trying to make as little contact with the mud as possible the administration had to tread carefully so as not to offend the judiciary 2. Set one's foot down on top of 3. Walk on or along shoppers will soon be treading the floors of the new shopping mall 4. Press down into the ground or another surface with the feet


148 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - T,t

5.

food and cigarette butts had been trodden into the carpet Crush or flatten something with the feet the snow had been trodden down by the horses she stood on the floor of trodden earth

noun /tred/ treads, plural 1. A manner or the sound of someone walking I heard the heavy tread of Dad's boots 2. The top surface of a step or stair 3. The thick molded part of a vehicle tire that grips the road 4. The part of a wheel that touches the ground or rail 5. The upper surface of a railroad track, in contact with the wheels 6. The part of the sole of a shoe that rests on the ground SYNONYMS verb: step, walk, trample noun: step, pace, gait, footstep, walk, footfall

trend noun /trend/ trends, plural 1. A general direction in which something is developing or changing an upward trend in sales and profit margins 2. A fashion the latest trends in modern dance verb /trend/ trended, past participle; trended, past tense; trending, present participle; trends, 3rd person singular present 1. (esp. of geographical features) Bend or turn away in a specified direction the Richelieu River trending southward to Lake Champlain 2. Change or develop in a general direction unemployment has been trending upward SYNONYMS verb: tend, incline noun: tendency, drift, course, run, direction, set, tenor, way, current, movement

tres·pass verb /ˈtrespəs/ /-ˌpas/ trespassed, past participle; trespassed, past tense; trespasses, 3rd person singular present; trespassing, present participle 1. Enter the owner's land or property without permission there is no excuse for trespassing on railroad property 2. Make unfair claims on or take advantage of (something) she really must not trespass on his hospitality

3.

Commit an offense against (a person or a set of rules) a man who had trespassed against Judaic law

noun /ˈtrespəs/ /-ˌpas/ trespasses, plural 1. Entry to a person's land or property without their permission the defendants were guilty of trespass a mass trespass on the hills 2. A sin; an offense the worst trespass against the goddess Venus is to see her naked and asleep SYNONYMS verb: transgress, infringe, sin, offend noun: transgression, offence, offense, sin, wrongdoing, violation, misdemeanour, misdemeanor, infringement, delinquency, crime

tri·bu·nal noun /trīˈbyo͞onl/ /trə-/ tribunals, plural 1. A court of justice an international war crimes tribunal 2. A seat or bench for a judge or judges SYNONYMS noun: court, bench, law court, court of justice, judicature

trite adjective /trīt/ triter, comparative; tritest, superlative 1. (of a remark, opinion, or idea) Overused and consequently of little import; lacking originality or freshness this point may now seem obvious and trite SYNONYMS adjective: hackneyed, banal, commonplace, trivial, threadbare, well-worn, corny, platitudinous, stale

triv·i·al adjective /ˈtrivēəl/ 1. Of little value or importance huge fines were imposed for trivial offenses trivial details 2. (of a person) Concerned only with trifling or unimportant things 3. Denoting a subgroup that either contains only the identity element or is identical with the given group SYNONYMS adjective: trifling, insignificant, petty, negligible, unimportant, paltry, small, nugatory, piddling, fiddling, banal, trite


myWords 149 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

tro·phy noun /ˈtrōfē/ trophies, plural 1. A cup or other decorative object awarded as a prize for a victory or success 2. A souvenir of an achievement, esp. a part of an animal taken when hunting 3. (in ancient Greece or Rome) The weapons and other spoils of a defeated army set up as a memorial of victory 4. A representation of such a memorial; an ornamental group of symbolic objects arranged for display SYNONYMS noun: prize, spoil, booty

tu·i·tion noun /t(y)o͞oˈiSHən/ tuitions, plural 1. A sum of money charged for teaching or instruction by a school, college, or university I'm not paying next year's tuition 2. Teaching or instruction, esp. of individual pupils or small groups private tuition in French SYNONYMS noun: instruction, teaching, education, schooling, training

turn·out noun /ˈtərnˌout/ turnouts, plural 1. The number of people attending or taking part in an event, esp. the number of people voting in an election 2. A turn in a road 3. A point at which a railroad track diverges 4. A widened place in a road for cars to pass each other or park temporarily 5. A carriage or other horse-drawn vehicle with its horse or horses 6. The way in which a person or thing is equipped or dressed his turnout was exceedingly elegant 7. The ability to rotate the legs outward at the hips

SYNONYMS noun: turnpike road

tu·tor noun /ˈt(y)o͞otər/ tutors, plural 1. A private teacher, typically one who teaches a single student or a very small group 2. A university or college teacher responsible for the teaching and supervision of assigned students 3. An assistant lecturer in a college or university verb /ˈt(y)o͞otər/ tutored, past participle; tutored, past tense; tutoring, present participle; tutors, 3rd person singular present 1. Act as a tutor to (a single student or a very small group) his children were privately tutored 2. Work as a tutor SYNONYMS verb: teach, instruct, educate, coach, train, school noun: teacher, coach, instructor, guardian, educator

tux·e·do noun /təkˈsēdō/ tuxedoes, plural; tuxedos, plural 1. A man's dinner jacket 2. A suit of formal evening clothes including such a jacket SYNONYMS noun: dinner jacket, tux

type·set verb /ˈtīpˌset/ typeset, past participle; typeset, past tense; typesets, 3rd person singular present; typesetting, present participle 1. Arrange or generate the type for (a piece of text to be printed) SYNONYMS noun: typesetting

turn·pike

ty·pog·ra·phy

noun /ˈtərnˌpīk/ turnpikes, plural 1. An expressway, esp. one on which a toll is charged 2. A toll gate 3. A road on which a toll was collected at such a gate 4. A spiked barrier fixed in or across a road or passage as a defense against sudden attack

noun /tīˈpägrəfē/ 1. The art or process of setting and arranging types and printing from them 2. The style and appearance of printed matter SYNONYMS noun: printing


150 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - T,t


myWords 151 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

U,u ul·ti·mate·ly adverb /ˈəltəmitlē/ 1. Finally; in the end the largest firms may ultimately become unstoppable 2. At the most basic level ultimately he has only himself to blame SYNONYMS adverb: finally, eventually, in the end, lastly, at last, after all, in the long run

um·brel·la noun /ˌəmˈbrelə/ umbrellas, plural 1. A device consisting of a circular canopy of cloth on a folding metal frame supported by a central rod, used as protection against rain or sometimes sun 2. A protecting force or influence the American nuclear umbrella over the west 3. A screen of fighter aircraft or antiaircraft artillery 4. A thing that includes or contains many different elements or parts an umbrella organization 5. The gelatinous disk of a jellyfish, which it contracts and expands to move through the water SYNONYMS noun: brolly, parasol, sunshade

um·pire noun /ˈəmˌpī(ə)r/ umpires, plural

1.

2.

(in some sports) An official who watches a game or match closely to enforce the rules and arbitrate on matters arising from the play A person chosen to arbitrate between contending parties

verb /ˈəmˌpī(ə)r/ umpired, past participle; umpired, past tense; umpires, 3rd person singular present; umpiring, present participle 1. Act as an umpire 2. Act as umpire in (a game or match) SYNONYMS verb: referee, arbitrate, judge, adjudicate noun: referee, judge, arbiter, arbitrator

u·nan·i·mous adjective /yo͞oˈnanəməs/ 1. (of two or more people) Fully in agreement the doctors were unanimous in their diagnoses 2. (of an opinion, decision, or vote) Held or carried by everyone involved SYNONYMS adjective: solid, consentaneous, consentient

un·in·ten·tion·al adjective /ˌəninˈtenCHənl/ 1. Not done on purpose the translation added a layer of unintentional comedy


152 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - U,u SYNONYMS adjective: involuntary, unwitting, inadvertent, unintended, unconscious, unpremeditated, unmeant, undersigned

un·just adjective /ˌənˈjəst/ unjuster, comparative; unjustest, superlative 1. Not based on or behaving according to what is morally right and fair resistance to unjust laws SYNONYMS adjective: unfair, inequitable, wrongful, iniquitous, wrong, unrighteous

ur·ban adjective /ˈərbən/ 1. In, relating to, or characteristic of a city or town the urban population 2. Denoting or relating to popular dance music of black origin a party that features the best in urban music 3. Denoting popular black culture in general SYNONYMS adjective: municipal, town, civic, city

ur·bane adjective /ˌərˈbān/ 1. (of a person, esp. a man) Suave, courteous, and refined in manner SYNONYMS adjective: polite, courteous, courtly, mannerly, affable, civil, genteel


myWords 153 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

V,v va·cate verb /ˈvāˌkāt/ vacated, past participle; vacated, past tense; vacates, 3rd person singular present; vacating, present participle 1. Leave (a place that one previously occupied) rooms must be vacated by noon on the last day of your vacation 2. Give up (a position or office) he will vacate a job in government sales 3. Cancel or annul (a judgment, contract, or charge) SYNONYMS verb: leave, quit, evacuate, empty, abandon, clear, void

va·ca·tion noun /vāˈkāSHən/ /və-/ vacations, plural 1. An extended period of recreation, esp. one spent away from home or in traveling he took a vacation in the south of France people come here on vacation a vacation home 2. A fixed holiday period between terms in schools and law courts 3. The action of leaving something one previously occupied his marriage was the reason for the vacation of his fellowship verb /vāˈkāSHən/ /və-/ vacationed, past participle; vacationed, past tense; vacationing, present participle; vacations, 3rd person singular present 1. Take a vacation I was vacationing in Europe with my family

SYNONYMS adjective: holiday verb: holiday noun: holiday, recess, leave, holidays

vain adjective /vān/ vainer, comparative; vainest, superlative 1. Having or showing an excessively high opinion of one's appearance, abilities, or worth their flattery made him vain 2. Producing no result; useless a vain attempt to tidy up the room the vain hope of finding work 3. Having no meaning or likelihood of fulfillment a vain boast SYNONYMS adjective: futile, useless, unavailing, idle, conceited, empty, vainglorious, fruitless

van·dal·ize verb /ˈvandlˌīz/ vandalised, past participle; vandalised, past tense; vandalises, 3rd person singular present; vandalising, present participle; vandalized, past participle; vandalized, past tense; vandalizes, 3rd person singular present; vandalizing, present participle 1. Deliberately destroy or damage (public or private property) stations have been wrecked and vandalized beyond recognition


154 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - V,v

van·ish verb /ˈvaniSH/ vanished, past participle; vanished, past tense; vanishes, 3rd person singular present; vanishing, present participle 1. Disappear suddenly and completely Mary vanished without a trace 2. Gradually cease to exist the days of the extended family are vanishing 3. Become zero SYNONYMS verb: disappear, evanesce, evaporate

2. 3.

4.

5.

6.

var·y verb /ˈve(ə)rē/ varied, past participle; varied, past tense; varies, 3rd person singular present; varying, present participle 1. Differ in size, amount, degree, or nature from something else of the same general class the properties vary in price varying degrees of success 2. Change from one condition, form, or state to another your skin's moisture content varies according to climatic conditions 3. Introduce modifications or changes into (something) so as to make it different or less uniform he tried to vary his diet SYNONYMS verb: change, alter, differ, diversify, shift, modify

ve·hi·cle noun /ˈvēəkəl/ /ˈvēˌhikəl/ vehicles, plural 1. A thing used for transporting people or goods, esp. on land, such as a car, truck, or cart 2. A thing used to express, embody, or fulfill something I use paint as a vehicle for my ideas 3. A substance that facilitates the use of a drug, pigment, or other material mixed with it 4. The figurative language used in a metaphor, as distinct from the metaphor's subject 5. A film, television program, song, etc., that is intended to display the leading performer to the best advantage SYNONYMS verb: transport, convey noun: medium, conveyance, car, carriage

vein noun /vān/ veins, plural 1. Any of the tubes forming part of the blood circulation system of the body, carrying in

7.

8.

9.

most cases oxygen-depleted blood toward the heart (in general and figurative use) A blood vessel he felt the adrenaline course through his veins (in plants) A slender rib running through a leaf or bract, typically dividing or branching, and containing a vascular bundle (in insects) A hardened branching rib that forms part of the supporting framework of a wing, consisting of an extension of the tracheal system; a nervure A fracture in rock containing a deposit of minerals or ore and typically having an extensive course underground A streak or stripe of a different color in wood, marble, cheese, etc A body of subsurface water, esp. as considered a source or potential source of water for a well or wells and thought of as flowing in a channel A source of a specified quality or other abstract resource he managed to tap into the thick vein of discontent to his own advantage A distinctive quality, style, or tendency he closes his article in a somewhat humorous vein

SYNONYMS verb: grain noun: lode, streak, vena

vest·ment noun /ˈves(t)mənt/ vestments, plural 1. A chasuble or other robe worn by the clergy or choristers during services 2. A garment, esp. a ceremonial or official robe SYNONYMS noun: dress, raiment, garment

ve·to noun /ˈvētō/ vetoes, plural 1. A constitutional right to reject a decision or proposal made by a law-making body the legislature would have a veto over appointments to key posts 2. Such a rejection 3. A prohibition his veto on our drinking after the meal was annoying verb /ˈvētō/ vetoed, past participle; vetoed, past tense; vetoes, 3rd person singular present; vetoing, present participle 1. Exercise a veto against (a decision or proposal made by a law-making body) the president vetoed the bill 2. Refuse to accept or allow


myWords 155 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

the film star often has a right to veto the pictures used for publicity SYNONYMS verb: ban, prohibit noun: prohibition

vi·cin·i·ty noun /vəˈsinətē/ vicinities, plural 1. The area near or surrounding a particular place the number of people living in the immediate vicinity was small 2. Proximity in space or relationship the abundance and vicinity of country seats SYNONYMS noun: neighbourhood, neighborhood, nearness, vicinage, proximity, propinquity, closeness, adjacency, environs, surroundings, neighbourship, neighborship

vir·gin noun /ˈvərjən/ virgins, plural 1. A person, typically a woman, who has never had sexual intercourse 2. A naive, innocent, or inexperienced person, esp. in a particular context a political virgin 3. The mother of Jesus; the Virgin Mary 4. A woman who has taken a vow to remain a virgin 5. The zodiacal sign or constellation Virgo 6. A female insect that produces eggs without being fertilized adjective /ˈvərjən/ 1. Being, relating to, or appropriate for a virgin his virgin bride 2. Not yet touched, used, or exploited acres of virgin forests virgin snow 3. (of clay) Not yet fired 4. (of wool) Not yet, or only once, spun or woven 5. (of olive oil) Obtained from the first pressing of olives 6. (of metal) Made from ore by smelting SYNONYMS adjective: virginal, maiden, chaste, pure, intact noun: maiden, maid

vis·i·bil·i·ty noun /ˌvizəˈbilitē/ 1. The state of being able to see or be seen a reduction in police presence and visibility on the streets

2.

3.

The distance one can see as determined by light and weather conditions visibility was down to 15 yards The degree to which something has attracted general attention; prominence the issue began to lose its visibility

SYNONYMS noun: sight

vi·tal adjective /ˈvītl/ 1. Absolutely necessary or important; essential secrecy is of vital importance it is vital that the system is regularly maintained 2. Indispensable to the continuance of life the vital organs 3. Full of energy; lively a beautiful, vital girl 4. Fatal the wound is vital noun /ˈvītl/ vitals, plural 1. The body's important internal organs, esp. the gut or the genitalia SYNONYMS adjective: essential

vo·ca·tion noun /vōˈkāSHən/ vocations, plural 1. A strong feeling of suitability for a particular career or occupation not all of us have a vocation to be nurses or doctors 2. A person's employment or main occupation, esp. regarded as particularly worthy and requiring great dedication her vocation as a poet 3. A trade or profession SYNONYMS noun: calling, profession, occupation, trade, metier, avocation, career, business, call

vow noun /vou/ vows, plural 1. A solemn promise 2. A set of such promises committing one to a prescribed role, calling, or course of action, typically to marriage or a monastic career verb /vou/ vowed, past participle; vowed, past tense; vowing, present participle; vows, 3rd person singular present 1. Solemnly promise to do a specified thing


156 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - V,v

2.

he vowed that his government would not tolerate a repeat of the disorder one fan vowed, “I'll picket every home game.” Dedicate to someone or something, esp. a deity I vowed myself to this enterprise

SYNONYMS verb: swear, promise, pledge, take an oath noun: oath, pledge, promise, sacrament

vul·gar adjective /ˈvəlgər/ 1. Lacking sophistication or good taste; unrefined the vulgar trappings of wealth 2. Making explicit and offensive reference to sex or bodily functions; coarse and rude a vulgar joke 3. Characteristic of or belonging to the masses SYNONYMS adjective: common, coarse, rude, gross, low, rough, plebeian


myWords 157 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

W,w wage noun /wāj/ wages, plural 1. A fixed regular payment, typically paid on a daily or weekly basis, made by an employer to an employee, esp. to a manual or unskilled worker we were struggling to get better wages 2. The part of total production that is the return to labor as earned income as distinct from the remuneration received by capital as unearned income 3. The result or effect of doing something considered wrong or unwise the wages of sin is death verb /wāj/ waged, past participle; waged, past tense; wages, 3rd person singular present; waging, present participle 1. Carry on (a war or campaign) it is necessary to destroy their capacity to wage war SYNONYMS verb: keep, conduct noun: pay, salary, wages, reward, stipend, hire, remuneration, earnings, fee

her tuition fees would be waived SYNONYMS verb: relinquish, renounce, abdicate, give up, forgo, abandon, resign

wal·rus noun /ˈwôlrəs/ /ˈwä-/ walruses, plural 1. A large gregarious marine mammal related to the eared seals, having two large downwardpointing tusks and found in the Arctic Ocean SYNONYMS noun: morse, sea horse, sea cow

wan·der·ing adjective /ˈwändəriNG/ 1. Traveling aimlessly from place to place; itinerant a wandering preacher SYNONYMS adjective: errant, vagrant, stray, strolling, rambling, roving, itinerant, vagabond, nomadic noun: peregrination, rove, ramble, travelling

waive verb /wāv/ waived, past participle; waived, past tense; waives, 3rd person singular present; waiving, present participle 1. Refrain from insisting on or using (a right or claim) he will waive all rights to the money 2. Refrain from applying or enforcing (a rule, restriction, or fee)

war·like adjective /ˈwôrˌlīk/ 1. Disposed toward or threatening war; hostile a warlike clan 2. (of plans, preparations, or munitions) Directed toward or prepared for war


158 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - W,w SYNONYMS adjective: martial, bellicose, militant, combative, military, pugnacious

war·rant noun /ˈwôrənt/ /ˈwä-/ warrants, plural 1. A document issued by a legal or government official authorizing the police or some other body to make an arrest, search premises, or carry out some other action relating to the administration of justice magistrates issued a warrant for his arrest an extradition warrant 2. A document that entitles the holder to receive goods, money, or services we'll issue you with a travel warrant 3. A negotiable security allowing the holder to buy shares at a specified price at or before some future date 4. 5.

Justification or authority for an action, belief, or feeling there is no warrant for this assumption An official certificate of appointment issued to an officer of lower rank than a commissioned officer

verb /ˈwôrənt/ /ˈwä-/ warranted, past participle; warranted, past tense; warranting, present participle; warrants, 3rd person singular present 1. Justify or necessitate (a certain course of action) that offense is serious enough to warrant a court marshal 2. Officially affirm or guarantee the vendor warrants the accuracy of the report SYNONYMS verb: guarantee, justify, authorize, vouch, ensure, avouch, authorise, insure, assure, vindicate noun: warranty, authorization, guarantee, authority

wave verb /wāv/ waved, past participle; waved, past tense; waves, 3rd person singular present; waving, present participle 1. Move one's hand to and fro in greeting or as a signal he waved to me from the train 2. Move (one's hand or arm, or something held in one's hand) to and fro he waved a sheaf of papers in the air 3. Move to and fro with a swaying or undulating motion while remaining fixed to one point the flag waved in the wind 4. Convey (a greeting or other message) by moving one's hand or something held in it to and fro

5. 6.

7.

we waved our farewells she waved him goodbye Instruct (someone) to move in a particular direction by moving one's hand he waved her back Style (hair) so that it curls slightly her hair had been carefully waved for the evening (of hair) Grow with a slight curl thick, waving gray hair sprouted back from his forehead

noun /wāv/ waves, plural 1. A long body of water curling into an arched form and breaking on the shore 2. A ridge of water between two depressions in open water gulls and cormorants bobbed on the waves 3. A shape seen as comparable to a breaking wave a wave of treetops stretched to the horizon 4. An effect resembling a moving wave produced by successive sections of the crowd in a stadium standing up, raising their arms, lowering them, and sitting down again 5. The sea 6. An intense burst of a particular feeling or emotion horror came over me in waves a new wave of apprehension assailed her 7. A sudden occurrence of or increase in a specified phenomenon a wave of strikes had effectively paralyzed the government 8. A gesture or signal made by moving one's hand to and fro he gave a little wave and walked off 9. A slightly curling lock of hair his hair was drying in unruly waves 10. A tendency to curl in a person's hair her hair has a slight natural wave 11. A periodic disturbance of the particles of a substance that may be propagated without net movement of the particles, such as in the passage of undulating motion, heat, or sound 12. A single curve in the course of this motion 13. A similar variation of an electromagnetic field in the propagation of light or other radiation through a medium or vacuum SYNONYMS verb: swing, flutter, brandish, undulate, sway, flap, curl noun: billow

weak·en verb /ˈwēkən/ weakened, past participle; weakened, past tense; weakening, present participle; weakens, 3rd person singular present 1. Make or become weaker in power, resolve, or physical strength fault lines had weakened and shattered the rocks


myWords 159 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

his resistance had weakened

width

SYNONYMS adjective: weakly

noun /widTH/ /witTH/ widths, plural 1. The measurement or extent of something from side to side the yard was about seven feet in width the shoe comes in a variety of widths 2. A piece of something at its full extent from side to side a single width of hardboard 3. The sideways extent of a swimming pool as a measure of the distance swum 4. The quality of covering or accepting a broad range of things; scope the width of experience required for these positions

wick·ed

SYNONYMS noun: breadth, latitude, broadness, amplitude, wideness

SYNONYMS verb: enfeeble, debilitate, enervate, relax, reduce, attenuate, impair, fail

weak·ling noun /ˈwēkliNG/ weaklings, plural 1. A person or animal that is physically weak and frail 2. An ineffectual or cowardly person

adjective /ˈwikid/ wickeder, comparative; wickedest, superlative 1. Evil or morally wrong a wicked and unscrupulous politician 2. Intended to or capable of harming someone or something he should be punished for his wicked driving 3. Extremely unpleasant despite the sun, the wind outside was wicked 4. Playfully mischievous Ben has a wicked sense of humor 5. Excellent; wonderful Sophie makes wicked cakes 6. Very; extremely he runs wicked fast SYNONYMS adjective: evil, bad, vicious, nefarious, nasty, naughty, malicious, sinful

wid·en verb /ˈwīdn/ widened, past participle; widened, past tense; widening, present participle; widens, 3rd person singular present 1. Make or become wider the incentive to dredge and widen the river his grin widened the lane widened out into a small clearing SYNONYMS verb: broaden, expand, dilate, extend, enlarge, amplify, spread, stretch, splay

wit noun /wit/ wits, plural 1. Mental sharpness and inventiveness; keen intelligence he does not lack perception or native wit 2. The intelligence required for normal activity; basic human intelligence he needed all his wits to figure out the way back 3. A natural aptitude for using words and ideas in a quick and inventive way to create humor a player with a sharp tongue and a quick wit 4. A person who has such an aptitude she is such a wit verb wist, past participle; wist, past tense; witting, present participle; wot, 3rd person singular present 1. Have knowledge I addressed a few words to the lady you wot of I wot that but too well 2. That is to say (used to make clearer or more specific something already said or referred to) the textbooks show an irritating parochialism, to wit an almost total exclusion of papers not in English SYNONYMS verb: know, ken, wot noun: intellect, mind, intelligence, nous, sense, understanding

wide·spread adjective /ˈwīdˈspred/ 1. Found or distributed over a large area or number of people there was widespread support for the war SYNONYMS adjective: prevalent, extensive, rife, common

womb noun /wo͞om/ wombs, plural 1. The uterus 2. A place of origination and development the womb of evil


160 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - W,w SYNONYMS noun: uterus, matrix, belly

worn-out adjective /worn-out / 1. (of a person or animal) Extremely tired; exhausted you look worn out 2. Damaged or shabby to the point of being no longer usable worn-out shoes 3. (of an idea, method, or system) Used so often or existing for so long as to be considered valueless he portrayed the Democrats as the party of worn-out ideas SYNONYMS adjective: threadbare

wrecked adjective /rekt/ 1. Having been wrecked an old wrecked barge lay upside down a wrecked marriage 2. Under the influence of or suffering the effects of drugs or alcohol they got wrecked on tequila


myWords 161 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Y,y yearn

6.

verb /yərn/ yearned, past participle; yearned, past tense; yearning, present participle; yearns, 3rd person singular present 1. Have an intense feeling of loss or lack and longing for something they yearned to go home 2. Be filled with compassion or warm feeling no fellow spirit yearned toward her

7.

SYNONYMS verb: long, pine, hanker, crave, aspire, desire, languish noun: yearning, thirst

yield verb /yēld/ yielded, past participle; yielded, past tense; yielding, present participle; yields, 3rd person singular present 1. Produce or provide (a natural, agricultural, or industrial product) the land yields grapes and tobacco 2. (of an action or process) Produce or deliver (a result or gain) this method yields the same results 3. (of a financial or commercial process or transaction) Generate (a specified financial return) such investments yield direct cash returns 4. Give way to arguments, demands, or pressure the Western powers now yielded when they should have resisted he yielded to the demands of his partners 5. Relinquish possession of (something); give (something) up they might yield up their secrets they are forced to yield ground

8. 9.

Cease to argue about I yielded the point (esp. in a legislature) Allow another the right to speak in a debate I yield to the gentleman from Kentucky Give right of way to other traffic (of a mass or structure) Give way under force or pressure he reeled into the house as the door yielded

noun /yēld/ yields, plural 1. The full amount of an agricultural or industrial product the milk yield was poor 2. The amount of money brought in, e.g., interest from an investment or revenue from a tax; return an annual dividend yield of 20 percent 3. The amount obtained from a process or reaction relative to the theoretical maximum amount obtainable 4. (of a nuclear weapon) The force in tons or kilotons of TNT required to produce an equivalent explosion yields ranging from five kilotons to 100 tons SYNONYMS verb: give, surrender, give in, produce, bear noun: crop, harvest, output, produce, product, production, proceeds, income


162 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - Y,y


myWords 163 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Z,z zeal noun /zēl/ 1. Great energy or enthusiasm in pursuit of a cause or an objective his zeal for privatization Laura brought a missionary zeal to her work SYNONYMS noun: ardour, ardor, fervor, fervour, enthusiasm, eagerness, fervency

ze·nith noun /ˈzēniTH/ zeniths, plural 1. The highest point reached by a celestial or other object the sun was well past the zenith the missile reached its zenith and fell 2. The point in the sky or celestial sphere directly above an observer 3. The time at which something is most powerful or successful under Justinian, the Byzantine Empire reached its zenith of influence SYNONYMS noun: acme, vertex, heyday, meridian, peak, summit, pinnacle, top, culmination, climax, apex, height, apogee

zoo noun /zo͞o/ zoos, plural 1. An establishment that maintains a collection of wild animals, typically in a park or gardens, for study, conservation, or display to the public

2.

A situation characterized by confusion and disorder it's a zoo in the lobby

SYNONYMS noun: zoological garden, menagerie


164 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS the Words - Z,z


the Appendix


myWords 167 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Pronunciation Guidelines VOWELS IPA

CONSONANTS

NOAD Examples

IPA

NOAD

Examples

æ

a

cat

ᴄʜ

church

e

ā

day

h

h

hat

ɛr

e(ə)r

hair

hw

(h)w

which

ɑ

ä

father

j

judge

ɑr

är

arm

x

ᴋʜ

ɛ

e

let

ɬ

i

ē

see

g

g

game, tag, regal

ɪr

i(ə)r

here

ŋ

ɴɢ

thing, monkey

ɪ

i

pit

ʃ

ʜ

ī

by

θ

ᴛʜ

thin, beneath

ɑ

ä

pot

ð

ᴛʜ

this, breathe

o

ō

no

j

y

yes

ɔ

ô

caught

ʒ

ᴢʜ

vision, garage

ɔr

ôr

north

The following letters have the same values in all systems listed: b, d, f, k, l, m, n, p, r1, s, t, v, w, z.

loch (Scottish), Buch (German) llan (Welsh)

ship, dish, ration

force

or ɔɪ

oi

noise

o͝o

took

ᴜr

o͝or

tour

IPA

NOAD

u

o͞o

soon

ˋa

ˈa

primary (tonic) stress

aᴜ

ou

out

ˊa

ˌa

secondary stress

ʌ

ə

cut

a

tertiary stress

ɜr

ər

word

ə

ə

about

ɪ, ə

ə, i

rabbit

ɚ

ər

butter

ju

yo͞o

view

STRESS Examples


168 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS Appendix - Pronunciation Guidelines


myWords 169 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Quick AtoZ Words List This quick list provides an index for the words of this textbook, along each word’s Persian equal and pronunciation spell. Words are ordered alphabetically.

‫جاه طلب‬

Aberrant

/ˈabərənt/ or /əˈber-/

‫نابجا‬

Ambitious

/amˈbiSHəs/

Aborigines

/ˌabəˈrijənē/

‫بومی‬

Amendment

/əˈmen(d)mənt/

Abortion

/əˈbôrSHən/

‫سقط جنین‬

Amnesty

/ˈamnistē/

Abstruse

/abˈstro͞os/

Androgynous

/anˈdräjənəs/

Abusive

/əˈbyo͞osiv/ or /-ziv/

Anomaly

/əˈnäməlē/

Accord

/əˈkôrd/

Anonymous

/əˈnänəməs/

‫ناشناس‬

Anthology

/anˈTHäləjē/

‫گلچین ادبی‬

Antithesis

/anˈtiTHəsis/

‫ضد و نقیض‬

Antithetical

/ˌantəˈTHetikəl/

Antonym

/ˈantəˌnim/

Anxious

/ˈaNG(k)SHəs/

Apathy

/ˈapəTHē/

Apogee

/ˈapəjē/

Appeal

/əˈpēl/

Applause

/əˈplôz/

Appreciate

/əˈprēSHēˌāt/

‫قدردانی‬

Aptitude

/ˈaptiˌt(y)o͞od/

‫استعداد‬

Arbitrary

/ˈärbiˌtrerē/

Ardent

/ˈärdnt/

‫تند و تیز‬

Ardor

/ˈärdər/

‫تب و تاب‬

Arid

/ˈarid/

Arrogant

/ˈarəgənt/

Artifact

/ˈärtəˌfakt/

‫دستسازه‬

Ashtray

/ˈaSHˌtrā/

‫خاکستردان‬

Aspirant

/ˈaspərənt/ or /əˈspī-/

Assemble

/əˈsembəl/

‫سوار کردن‬

Assertive

/əˈsərtiv/

‫ادعا کننده‬

Acknowledge

/akˈnälij/

Acoustics

/əˈko͞ostik/

‫پیچیده‬ ‫دشنام‬ ‫موافقت‬ ‫اذعان‬ ‫وابسته به شنوایی‬

Acquisition

/ˌakwəˈziSHən/

‫جمع آوری‬

Acrimonious

/ˌakrəˈmōnēəs/

‫تند و زننده‬

Acrophobia

/ˌakrəˈfōbēə/

Adhesive

/adˈhēsiv/ or /-ziv/

Advocate

/ˈadvəkit/

Affair

/əˈfe(ə)r/

‫ترس از بلندی‬ ‫چسب‬ ‫ وکیل مدافع‬،‫مدافع‬ ‫رابطه‬ ‫مﺤبت‬

Affection

/əˈfekSHən/

Affidavit

/ˌafiˈdāvit/

‫استشهاد‬

Affiliation

/əˌfilēˈāSHən/

‫وابستگی‬

Affix

/əˈfiks/

Affront

/əˈfrənt/

‫بی ﺣرمتی‬

Agenda

/əˈjendə/

‫دستور کار‬

Aggravate

/ˈagrəˌvāt/

‫بدتر کردن‬

Aggregate

noun /ˈagrigit/ verb /-ˌgāt/

Alike

/əˈlīk/

Allure

/əˈlo͝or/

‫اضافه نمودن‬

‫شدن‬/‫ جمع کردن‬،‫مجموع‬ ‫یکسان‬ ‫بطمع انداختن‬

Altruism

/ˈaltro͞oˌizəm/

‫نوع دوستی‬

Aluminum

/əˈlo͞omənəm/

‫آلومینیوم‬

Ambiguous

/amˈbigyo͞oəs/

‫مبهم‬

‫ متمم‬،‫اصالح‬ ‫عفو عمومی‬ ‫دارای ویژگی های هر دو‬ ‫جنس‬ ‫خالف قاعده‬

‫متضاد‬ ‫متضاد معنایی‬ ‫عﺼبی‬ ‫بی عالقگی‬ ‫اوج‬ ‫درخواست‬ ‫تشویق و تمجید‬

‫دلخواه و اختیاری‬

‫خشک و بایر‬ ‫مغرور‬

‫ آرزومند‬،‫جویا‬


170 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS Appendix - Quick AtoZ Words List

Asset

/ˈaset/

Assuage

/əˈswāj/

Assurance

/əˈSHo͝orəns/

Astonish

/əˈstäniSH/

Astound

/əˈstound/

Attitude

/ˈatiˌt(y)o͞od/

Attract

/əˈtrakt/

Augment

noun /ˈôgˌment/ or /-mənt/ verb /ôgˈment/

Augury

/ˈôgyərē/

Auspice

/ˈôspis/

Authentic

/ôˈTHentik/

Authoritarian

/əˌTHôriˈte(ə)rēən/ or /ôˌTHär-/

Authoritative

/əˈTHôriˌtātiv/ or /əˈTHär-/

Autonomy

/ôˈtänəmē/

Avert

/əˈvərt/

Axiom

/ˈaksēəm/

Baffle

/ˈbafəl/

Banal

/ˈbānl/ or /bəˈnal/ or /-ˈnäl/

Barbaric

/bärˈbarik/

‫دارایی‬

Bogus

/ˈbōgəs/

‫ساختگی‬

‫آرام کردن‬

Bonus

/ˈbōnəs/

‫جایزه‬

Bounce

/bouns/

‫گزاف گویی‬

Brash

/braSH/

‫ عجول و بی پروا‬،‫تند وتیز‬

Breadth

/bredTH/

‫عرض‬

‫گرایش‬

Brevity

/ˈbrevitē/

‫اختﺼار‬

‫جذب‬

Broach

/brōCH/

Brochure

/brōˈSHo͝or/

Browse

/brouz/

‫مرور کردن‬

Brusque

/brəsk/

‫ بی ادب‬،‫خشن‬

Bucolic

/byo͞oˈkälik/

‫روستایی‬

Bulwark

/ˈbo͝olˌwərk/

‫ﺣﺼار و خاکریز‬

Bureau

/ˈbyo͝orō/

‫دفتر‬

Busboy

/ˈbəsˌboi/

‫ پیشخدمت‬،‫پادو‬

Cache

/kaSH/

Cadre

/ˈkadrē/ or /ˈkäd-/ or /-ˌrā/

Campsite

/ˈkampˌsīt/

‫اردوگاه‬

Candid

/ˈkandid/

‫بی پرده‬

Candidate

/ˈkandiˌdāt/ or /-dit/

Candor

/ˈkandər/ or /-ˌdôr/

Canine

/ˈkāˌnīn/

‫سگی‬

Capital

/ˈkapitl/

‫سرمایه‬

Capricious

/kəˈpriSHəs/ or /-ˈprē-/

Cash

/kaSH/

‫پول نقد‬

Casual

/ˈkaZHo͞oəl/

‫معمولی‬

Casualty

/ˈkaZH(o͞o)əltē/

Catalog

/ˈkatlˌôg/ or /-ˌäg/

‫کاتالوگ‬

Catch

/kaCH/ or /keCH/

‫گرفتن‬

Category

/ˈkatəˌgôrē/

Catholic

/ˈkaTH(ə)lik/

Caustic

/ˈkôstik/

Celestial

/səˈlesCHəl/

Celibate

/ˈseləbət/

Ceramic

/səˈramik/

‫سرامیک‬

Chagrin

/SHəˈgrin/

‫ سرافکندگی‬،‫غم وغﺼه‬

Chaos

/ˈkāˌäs/

Chauvinism

/ˈSHōvəˌnizəm/

Chauvinist

/ˈSHōvənist/

‫اطمینان‬ ‫متعجب ساختن‬ ‫مبهوت کردن‬

‫افزودن‬

‫برای نخستین بار باز کردن‬ ‫بروشور‬

‫شگون‬ ‫توجهات‬ ‫ اصل‬،‫معتبر‬ ‫خودکامه‬ ‫معتبر‬ ‫خودمختاری‬ ‫بر گرداندن‬ ‫اصل بدیهی‬ ‫دست پاچه کردن‬ ‫پیش پا افتاده‬ ‫وﺣشیانه‬

Baroque

/bəˈrōk/

‫باروک‬

Barren

/ˈbarən/

‫ سترون‬،‫بایر‬ ‫اساسی‬

Basic

/ˈbāsik/

Believable

/biˈlēvəbəl/

Beneficiary

/ˌbenəˈfiSHēˌerē/

Berserk

/bərˈzərk/ or /-ˈsərk/

Bevy

/ˈbevē/

‫دسته‬

Bias

/ˈbīəs/

‫تعﺼب‬

Bigot

/ˈbigət/

‫طرفدار‬

Bilateral

/bīˈlatərəl/

‫دو طرفه‬

Biography

/bīˈägrəfē/

‫بیوگرافی‬

Biology

/bīˈäləjē/

Bipartisan

/bīˈpärtəzən/

Bisect

/bīˈsekt/ or /ˈbīˌsekt/

Bitter

/ˈbitər/

Biweekly

/bīˈwēklē/

Bizarre

/biˈzär/

Blasphemy

/ˈblasfəmē/

‫ توهین به مقدسات‬،‫کفر‬

Blatant

/ˈblātnt/

‫ بیشرمانه‬،‫پر سر و صدا‬

‫باورکردنی‬ ‫ذینفع‬ ‫ شوریده‬،‫از جا دررفته‬

‫زیست شناسی‬ ‫دوﺣزبی‬ ‫دو بخش کردن‬ ‫ زننده‬،‫تلخ‬ ‫هفته ای دوبار‬ ‫غریب و عجیب‬

‫نهانگاه‬ ‫کادر‬

‫نامزد‬ ‫ رک گویی‬،‫خلوص‬

‫دمدمی مزاج‬

‫ تلفات جنگی‬،‫سانﺤه‬

‫رده‬ ‫ کاتولیک‬،‫جهانی‬ ‫ سوزآور‬،‫تند‬ ‫آسمانی‬ ‫مجرد‬

‫آشوب‬ ‫تعﺼب در وطن پرستی‬ ‫میهن پرست متعﺼب‬


myWords 171 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Clandestine

/klanˈdestən/ or /-ˌtīn/ or /-ˌtēn/ or /ˈklandəs-/

Clash

/klaSH/

‫برخورد‬

Clergyman

/ˈklərjēmən/

‫روﺣانی‬

Clientele

/ˌklīənˈtel/ or /ˌklē-/

Climax

/ˈklīˌmaks/

Cling

/kliNG/

Cocktail

/ˈkäkˌtāl/

Coerce

/kōˈərs/

Collision

/kəˈliZHən/

Collocation

/ˌkäləˈkāSHən/

‫نظم‬

Comatose

/ˈkōməˌtōs/ or /ˈkämə-/

‫کما‬

Commerce

/ˈkämərs/

Commoner

/ˈkämənər/

Commonplace

/ˈkämənˌplās/

Communal

/kəˈmyo͞onl/ or /ˈkämyənəl/

Commuter

/kəˈmyo͞otər/

Compassionate

/kəmˈpaSHənət/

Compel

/kəmˈpel/

‫مخفی‬

Credential

/krəˈdenCHəl/

‫ سند‬،‫اعتبارنامه‬

Credibility

/ˌkredəˈbilitē/

‫اعتبار‬

Crux

/krəks/ or /kro͝oks/

Cryptic

/ˈkriptik/

Curt

/kərt/

‫اجمالی‬

Cyclical

/ˈsīklik(ə)l/ or /ˈsik-/

‫ادواری‬

Cynical

/ˈsinikəl/

Czar

/zär/ or /(t)sär/

Dais

/ˈdāis/ or /ˈdī-/

Damn

/dam/

‫لعنتی‬

Damp

/damp/

‫نمناک‬

Dearth

/dərTH/

‫کمبود‬

Debate

/diˈbāt/

‫مناظره‬

Debt

/det/

Decadence

/ˈdekədəns/

Decay

/diˈkā/

Deceitful

/diˈsētfəl/

Deception

/diˈsepSHən/

‫فریب‬

Decline

/diˈklīn/

‫کاهش‬

Decorous

/ˈdekərəs/ or /diˈkôrəs/

‫مودب‬

Decrepit

/diˈkrepit/

Deduction

/diˈdəkSHən/

Defect

/ˈdēˌfekt/

Defer

/diˈfər/

Deficit

/ˈdefəsit/

Deify

/ˈdēəˌfī/

Deign

/dān/

Delegate

/ˈdeligit/

Delete

/diˈlēt/

Delusion

/diˈlo͞oZHən/

Den

/den/

Denote

/diˈnōt/

Deposit

/diˈpäzit/

‫دفع کردن‬

Depression

/diˈpreSHən/

‫افسردگی‬

Derisive

/diˈrīsiv/

Deserter

/dəˈzərtər/

Deviate

/ˈdēvēˌāt/

Devote

/diˈvōt/

Devout

/diˈvout/

‫معما‬ ‫مرموز‬

‫مشتریان‬ ‫اوج‬ ‫ وفاداری‬،‫پیوستن‬ ‫بدگمان نسبت به بشر‬

‫کوکتل‬ ‫تزار‬

‫بزور وادار کردن‬ ‫سکوی مخﺼوص‬

‫برخورد‬

‫تجارت‬ ‫روستایی‬ ‫عادی‬ ‫همگانی‬ ‫رفت و آمد روزانه‬ ‫مهربان‬ ‫وادار کردن‬ ‫مرکب‬

Composed

/kəmˈpōzd/

Concise

/kənˈsīs/

Condemn

/kənˈdem/

Condescend

/ˌkändəˈsend/

Condominium

/ˌkändəˈminēəm/

Confiscate

/ˈkänfəˌskāt/

Conform

/kənˈfôrm/

‫تایید کردن‬

Congenital

/kənˈjenətl/

‫مادر زادی‬

Consequence

/ˈkänsikwəns/ or /ˌkwens/

Convene

/kənˈvēn/

Conversation

/ˌkänvərˈsāSHən/

‫گفتگو‬

Conveyance

/kənˈvāəns/

‫انتقال‬

‫مختﺼر‬ ‫مﺤکوم کردن‬ ‫تمکین کردن‬ ‫مالکیت مشترک‬ ‫مﺼادره کردن‬

‫ پیآمد‬،‫نتیجه‬ ‫گرد امدن‬

‫مﺤکوم‬

Convict

/kənˈvikt/

Corollary

/ˈkôrəˌlerē/ or /ˈkärə-/

Corps

/kôr/

Corroborate

/kəˈräbəˌrāt/

‫تایید کردن‬

Cosmology

/käzˈmäləjē/

‫کیهان شناسی‬

Cosmopolitan

/ˌkäzməˈpälitn/

‫بین المللی‬

Counterpart

/ˈkountərˌpärt/

‫همتا‬

Crank

/kraNGk/

‫نتیجه‬ ‫سپاه‬

‫خم‬

‫دین‬ ‫انﺤطاط‬ ‫پوسیدگی‬ ‫مکار‬

‫ فرسوده‬،‫ضعیف و ناتوان‬ ‫کسر‬ ‫نقﺺ‬ ‫تسلیم شدن‬ ‫کمبود‬ ‫پرستیدن‬ ‫تمکین کردن‬ ‫نماینده‬ ‫ﺣذف کردن‬ ‫توهم‬ ‫کمینگاه‬ ‫داللت کردن‬

‫استهزاءآمیز‬ ‫فراری‬ ‫منﺤرف شدن‬ ‫وقف کردن‬ ‫دیندار‬


172 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS Appendix - Quick AtoZ Words List

Dexterity

/dekˈsteritē/

‫مهارت‬

Eliminate

/iˈliməˌnāt/

‫از بین بردن‬

Diagnosis

/ˌdīəgˈnōsis/

‫تشخیﺺ‬

Emanate

/ˈeməˌnāt/

‫بیرون آمدن‬

Dialogue

/ˈdīəˌläg/ or /-ˌlôg/

Embarrass

/emˈbarəs/

Diametrically

/ˌdīəˈmetrik(ə)lē/

Ember

/ˈembər/

Dice

/dīs/

‫تاس‬

Emit

/iˈmit/

Didactic

/dīˈdaktik/

‫ادبی‬

Empathy

/ˈempəTHē/

Digital

/ˈdijitl/

Enact

/enˈakt/

Dignify

/ˈdignəˌfī/

Enclose

/enˈklōz/

‫در اغوش گرفتن‬

Din

/din/

‫صدای بلند‬

Engulf

/enˈgəlf/

‫فراگرفتن‬

Dine

/dīn/

‫ناهار خوردن‬

Enhance

/enˈhans/

Diplomatic

/ˌdipləˈmatik/

Enigma

/iˈnigmə/

Dire

/dīr/

Enthusiastic

/enˌTHo͞ozēˈastik/

‫مشتاق‬

Disability

/ˌdisəˈbilitē/

Epic

/ˈepik/

‫ﺣماسه‬

Disadvantage

/ˌdisədˈvantij/

Epilogue

/ˈepəˌlôg/ or /-ˌläg/

Disavow

/ˌdisəˈvou/

Epitaph

/ˈepiˌtaf/

Discretion

/disˈkreSHən/

‫صالﺣدید‬

Epoch

/ˈepək/

Disenfranchise

/ˌdisenˈfranCHīz/

‫ﺣقوق خود مﺤروم‬

Erotic

/iˈrätik/

‫اروتیک‬

Dissent

/diˈsent/

Esteem

/iˈstēm/

‫عزت‬

Dissertation

/ˌdisərˈtāSHən/

Estimate

/ˈestəˌmāt/

Distrust

/disˈtrəst/

‫بدگمان‬

Eternal

/iˈtərnl/

Diurnal

/dīˈərnl/

‫روزانه‬

Ethics

/ˈeTHiks/

‫اخالقیات‬

Division

/diˈviZHən/

‫تقسیم‬

Ethnic

/ˈeTHnik/

‫قومی‬

Document

/ˈdäkyəmənt/

Etiquette

/ˈetikit/ or /-ˌket/

Dogmatic

/dôgˈmatik/

Eulogize

/ˈyo͞oləˌjīz/

Eurodollar

/ˈyərōˌdälər/ or /ˈyo͝orō-/

‫گفتگو‬ (‫کامال )متضاد‬

‫دیجیتال‬ ‫شان و مقام دادن به‬

‫دیپلماتیک‬ ‫وخیم‬ ‫ناتوانی‬ ‫ضرر‬ ‫رد کردن‬

‫دگراندیشی‬ ‫پایان نامه‬

‫سند‬ ‫جزمی‬ ‫ابله‬

‫شرمسار شدن‬ ‫اخگر‬ ‫نشر کردن‬ ‫تلقینی‬ ‫تﺼویب کردن‬

‫بهبود دادن‬ ‫معما‬

‫خاتمه‬ ‫مزار نوشته‬ ‫عﺼر‬

‫تخمین‬ ‫ابدی‬

‫آیین معاشرت‬ ‫ستودن‬

Dolt

/dōlt/

Donate

/ˈdōnāt/ or /dōˈnāt/

‫بخشیدن‬

Evasive

/iˈvāsiv/

Dormant

/ˈdôrmənt/

‫خوابیده‬

Eventual

/iˈvenCHo͞oəl/

‫مشروط‬

Doubtful

/ˈdoutfəl/

‫مشکوک‬

Everlasting

/ˌevərˈlastiNG/

‫جاودانه‬

Drawback

/ˈdrôˌbak/

‫اشکال‬

Exaggerate

/igˈzajəˌrāt/

‫غلو کردن‬

Dreadful

/ˈdredfəl/

Excuse

/ikˈskyo͞oz/

‫معذور داشتن‬

Dubious

/ˈd(y)o͞obēəs/

Exempt

/igˈzem(p)t/

‫معاف‬

Dull

/dəl/

Exhausting

/igˈzôstiNG/

‫طاقت فرسا‬

Dusk

/dəsk/

Expertise

/ˌekspərˈtēz/ or /-ˈtēs/

Eccentric

/ikˈsentrik/

‫غیرعادی‬

Explicit

/ikˈsplisit/

‫به صراﺣت‬

Edifice

/ˈedəfis/

‫عمارت‬

Exploit

/ikˈsploit/

‫رفتار‬

Eel

/ēl/

Expressly

/ikˈstiNG(k)t/

‫صراﺣتا‬

Effigy

/ˈefijē/

Extinct

/ikˈstiNG(k)t/

‫منقرض شدن‬

Elaborate

/iˈlab(ə)rit/

Extinguish

/ikˈstiNGgwiSH/

Elective

/iˈlektiv/

Extracurricular

/ˌekstrəkəˈrikyələr/

‫وﺣشتناک‬ ‫مشکوک‬ ‫کند‬ ‫هنگام غروب‬

‫مارماهی‬ ‫تمثال‬ ‫استادانه درست شده‬ ‫انتخابی‬

‫دالر اروپایی‬ ‫گریزان‬

‫مهارت‬

‫خاموش کردن‬ ‫فوق برنامه‬


myWords 173 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

‫خارج از قلمرو چیزی‬

Extraneous

/ikˈstrānēəs/

Fad

/fad/

Faith

/fāTH/

Fanatic

/fəˈnatik/

Farthest

/ˈfärT͟Hist/

Fast

/fast/

‫روزه‬

Fatal

/ˈfātl/

‫مرگبار‬

Fate

/fāt/

Felon

/ˈfelən/

Feminist

/ˈfemənist/

Feral

/ˈfi(ə)rəl/ or /ˈferəl/

Fertile

/ˈfərtl/

Fetus

/ˈfētəs/

Fiasco

/fēˈaskō/

Filibuster

/ˈfiləˌbəstər/

Firm

/fərm/

Fiscal

/ˈfiskəl/

Flora and Fauna

/ˈflôrə-and-ˈfônə/ or /ˈfänə/

Foul

/foul/

Fracture

/ˈfrakCHər/

Frank

/fraNGk/

Fraternize

/ˈfratərˌnīz/

Fraudulent

/ˈfrôjələnt/

‫متقلب‬

Frivolity

/friˈvälətē/

Frugal

‫بزرگ‬

Gross

/grōs/

Grouch

/grouCH/

Grueling

/ˈgro͞oəliNG/

‫افراطی‬

Gymnasium

/jimˈnāzēəm/

‫ورزشگاه‬

‫دورترین‬

Hallucinate

/həˈlo͞osənˌāt/

‫هذیان گفتن‬

Harmony

/ˈhärmənē/

Haughty

/ˈhôtē/

Hermit

/ˈhərmit/

Heterogeneous

/ˌhetərəˈjēnēəs/

Hoax

/hōks/

Homogeneous

/ˌhōməˈjēnēəs/

‫بارور‬

Hospitality

/ˌhäspiˈtalitē/

‫جنین‬

Hostage

/ˈhästij/

Hostile

/ˈhästl/ or /ˈhäˌstīl/

Hover

/ˈhəvər/

‫شناور بودن‬

Hue

/(h)yo͞o/

‫رنگ‬

Human

/ˈ(h)yo͞omən/

‫ ��نسانی‬،‫انسان‬

Humid

/ˈ(h)yo͞omid/

‫مرطوب‬

Humility

/(h)yo͞oˈmilitē/

‫فروتنی‬

Hybrid

/ˈhīˌbrid/

‫رک‬

Hygienic

/hīˈjenik/ or /-ˈjē-/

‫دوست بودن‬

Hypnotic

/hipˈnätik/

Hypochondriac

/ˌhīpəˈkändrēˌak/

‫بیهودگی‬

Icon

/ˈīˌkän/

/ˈfro͞ogəl/

‫با صرفه‬

Idealistic

/īˌdē(ə)ˈlistik/

‫آرمان گرا‬

Frustration

/frəˈstrāSHən/

‫نا امیدی‬

Identify

/īˈdentəˌfī/

‫شناسایی‬

Fulfill

/fo͝olˈfil/

Idiosyncrasy

/ˌidēəˈsiNGkrəsē/

Furtive

/ˈfərtiv/

Idiot

/ˈidēət/

‫آدم سفیه و اﺣمق‬

Gainsay

/ˌgānˈsā/ or /ˈgānˌsā/

Ignite

/igˈnīt/

‫روشن کردن‬

Gamble

/ˈgambəl/

Imitate

/ˈimiˌtāt/

Garment

/ˈgärmənt/

‫پوشاک‬

Impeach

/imˈpēCH/

Gauge

/gāj/

‫اندازه‬

Impetus

/ˈimpitəs/

Generate

/ˈjenəˌrāt/

‫تولید‬

Impose

/imˈpōz/

Genuine

/ˈjenyo͞oin/

Imposing

/imˈpōziNG/

Gerund

/ˈjerənd/

Impractical

/imˈpraktikəl/

‫غیر عملی‬

Gliding

/ˈglīdiNG/

Impudent

/ˈimpyəd(ə)nt/

‫گستاخ‬

Glossary

/ˈgläsərē/ or /ˈglô-/

‫واژه نامه‬

Inadvertently

/ˌinədˈvərtntli/

‫سهوا‬

Graceful

/ˈgrāsfəl/

‫دلپذیر‬

Inappropriate

/ˌinəˈprōprē-it/

‫نامناسب‬

Groan

/grōn/

Inarticulate

/ˌinärˈtikyəlit/

‫هوس‬ ‫باور و ایمان‬

‫سرنوشت‬ ‫جنایت کار‬ ‫طرفدار ﺣقوق زنان‬ ‫وﺣشی‬

‫شکست مفتضﺤانه‬ ‫اطاله کالم‬ ‫مﺤکم‬ ‫مالی‬ ‫گیاهان و جانوران‬ ‫ناپاک‬ ‫شکستگی‬

‫برآورده کردن‬ ‫دزدکی‬ ‫انکار و مخالفت کردن‬ ‫قمار‬

‫واقعی‬ ‫اسم مﺼدر‬ ‫گالیدر سواری‬

‫ناله و شکایت‬

‫لجاجت و بدخلقی‬ ‫خسته کننده‬

‫هارمونی‬ ‫متکبر و پرافاده‬ ‫زاهد گوشه نشین‬ ‫ناهمگون‬ ‫شوخی فریب آمیز‬ ‫همگون‬ ‫مهمان نوازی‬ ‫گروگان‬ ‫دشمن‬

‫دوگانه‬ ‫بهداشتی‬ ‫ هیپنوتیزم‬،‫خواب آور‬ ‫ترس از بیمار شدن‬ ‫شمایل‬

‫ طبیعت ویژه‬،‫فردیت‬

‫تقلید کردن‬ ‫عیب جویی کردن‬ ‫انگیزه‬ ‫تﺤمیل کردن‬ ‫با ابهت‬

‫ درست ادا نشده‬،‫ناگفته‬


174 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS Appendix - Quick AtoZ Words List

Inaugurate

/inˈôg(y)əˌrāt/

Incapacity

/ˌinkəˈpasitē/

Incentive

/inˈsentiv/

Inclination

/ˌinkləˈnāSHən/ or /ˌiNGklə-/

Incognito

/ˌinkägˈnētō/ or /inˈkägniˌtō/

Incompatible

/ˌinkəmˈpatəbəl/ or /ˌiNG-/

Indebted

/inˈdetid/

Indictment

/inˈdītmənt/

Infant

/ˈinfənt/

Inference

/ˈinf(ə)rəns/

Infinite

/ˈinfənit/

Ingredient

/inˈgrēdēənt/ or /iNG/

Inhabit

/inˈhabit/

Inhabitant

/inˈhabitnt/

Inherent

/inˈhi(ə)rənt/ or /ˈher-/

Initial

‫گشودن‬

‫خطر‬

Jeopardy

/ˈjepərdē/

Jovial

/ˈjōvēəl/

‫انگیزه‬

Jurisdiction

/ˌjo͝orisˈdikSHən/

‫تمایل‬

Juvenile

/ˈjo͞ovəˌnīl/ or /-vənl/

‫ناشناس‬

Kindling

/ˈkindliNG/

Kleptomania

/ˌkleptəˈmānēə/ or /ˈmānyə/

Lagniappe

/ˌlanˈyap/ or /ˈlanˌyap/

Lair

/le(ə)r/

Lament

/ləˈment/

‫ضجه و زاری کردن‬

‫استنتاج‬

Lanky

/ˈlaNGkē/

‫دراز و باریک‬

‫نامﺤدود‬

Latent

/ˈlātnt/

‫جزء ترکیب‬

Lax

/laks/

‫سهل انگار‬

‫ساکن شدن‬

Lean

/lēn/

‫تکیه کردن‬

‫ساکن‬

Legend

/ˈlejənd/

‫ذاتی‬

Legislation

/ˌlejəˈslāSHən/

/iˈniSHəl/

‫ابتدایی‬

Legislative

/ˈlejəˌslātiv/

Innocent

/ˈinəsənt/

‫بی گناه‬

Lethal

/ˈlēTHəl/

Innocuous

/iˈnäkyo͞oəs/

‫بی ضرر‬

Lettuce

/ˈletis/

Innovation

/ˌinəˈvāSHən/

Levity

/ˈlevətē/

/inˈkwī(ə)rē/ or /ˈinˌkwī(ə)rē/ or /ˈinkwərē/ or /ˈiNG-/

Liability

/ˌlīəˈbilətē/

Inquiry

Libel

/ˈlībəl/

Inquisitive

/inˈkwizitiv/ or /iNG/

Lithe

/līT͟H/

Inscription

/inˈskripSHən/

Loft

/lôft/ or /läft/

‫اتاق زیر شیروانی‬

Insolvent

/inˈsälvənt/

Lofty

/ˈlôftē/ or /ˈläf-/

‫ عالی رتبه‬،‫ارجمند‬

Intact

/inˈtakt/

Logical

/ˈläjikəl/

Integral

/ˈintigrəl/ or /inˈteg-/

Lore

/lôr/

Intensity

/inˈtensitē/

‫شدت‬

Lubricate

/ˈlo͞obrəˌkāt/

Intent

/inˈtent/

‫قﺼد‬

Lucrative

/ˈlo͞okrətiv/

Interpret

/inˈtərprit/

‫تفسیر کردن‬

Lukewarm

/ˈlo͞okˈwôrm/

Intravenous

/ˌintrəˈvēnəs/

‫داخل وریدی‬

Magnitude

/ˈmagnəˌto͞od/

Intricate

/ˈintrikit/

Majority

/məˈjôrətē/ or /-ˈjär-/

Invert

/inˈvərt/

Mammal

/ˈmaməl/

Investigate

/inˈvestiˌgāt/

Maneuver

/məˈno͞ovər/

Mania

/ˈmānēə/

Manifest

/ˈmanəˌfest/

Manner

/ˈmanər/

Manuscript

/ˈmanyəˌskript/

Marathon

/ˈmarəˌTHän/

Marital

/ˈmaritl/

‫ناتوانی و عجز‬

‫نا سازگار‬ ‫بدهکار‬ ‫اتهام‬ ‫ سال‬٧ ‫کودک کمتر از‬

‫ابداع‬

‫طرب انگیز‬ ‫صالﺣیت‬ ‫نوجوان‬ (‫چوب سفید )اصطالح‬ ‫عالقمند به دزدی‬ ‫اشانتیون‬ ‫کنام‬

‫پنهان‬

‫افسانه‬ ‫قانون‬ ‫قانون گذار‬ ‫مرگبار‬ ‫کاهو‬ ‫سبک سری‬ ‫ الزام‬،‫مسئوليت‬

‫تﺤقیق‬

‫پی جو و کنجکاو‬ ‫ نوشته خطی‬،‫کتیبه‬ ‫ناتوان در پرداخت بدهی‬ ‫دست نخورده‬ ‫انتگرال‬

‫پیچیده‬ ‫معکوس کردن‬ ‫تﺤقیق‬

Invoke

/inˈvōk/

‫با التماس خواستن‬

Ironic

/īˈränik/

‫کنایه دار‬

Irreverence

/iˈrev(ə)rəns/

‫هتک ﺣرمت‬

Irrigate

/ˈirigāt/

‫آبیاری کردن‬

Irritate

/ˈiriˌtāt/

‫آزردن‬

Isthmus

/ˈisməs/

‫باریکه‬

‫افترا‬ ‫الغر اندام‬

‫منطقی‬ ‫فرهنگ نزادی‬ ‫فرهنگ یک نژاد‬ ‫سودمند‬ ‫ولرم‬ ‫بزرگی‬ ‫اکثریت‬ ‫پستاندار‬ ‫مانور‬ ‫شیدایی‬ ‫ بیانیه‬،‫مانیفست‬ ‫روش‬ ‫نسخه خطی‬ ‫ماراتون‬ ‫تاهل‬


myWords 175 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Maritime

/ˈmariˌtīm/

‫دریایی‬

Obscene

/əbˈsēn/

Martial

/ˈmärSHəl/

‫نظامی‬

Obscure

/əbˈskyo͝or/

Martyr

/ˈmärtər/

Obstinate

/ˈäbstənit/

Mature

/məˈCHo͝or/ or /ˈt(y)o͝or/

Occupy

/ˈäkyəˌpī/

Maverick

/ˈmav(ə)rik/

‫ تک رو‬،‫آدم بی سرپرست‬

Odd

/äd/

‫ غیرعادی‬،‫عجیب‬

Meadow

/ˈmedō/

‫علفزار‬

Ode

/ōd/

‫قطعه شعر بزمﻰ‬

Meager

/ˈmēgər/

‫ناچیز‬

Omen

/ˈōmən/

Memento

/məˈmenˌtō/

‫یادآور‬

Omit

/ōˈmit/

Memory

/ˈmem(ə)rē/

‫خاطره‬

Operation

/ˌäpəˈrāSHən/

Mentor

/ˈmenˌtôr/ or /-tər/

Opinionated

/əˈpinyəˌnātid/

Merchandise

noun /ˈmərCHənˌdīz/ or /-ˌdīs/ verb /ˈmərCHənˌdīz/

Oppose

/əˈpōz/

Optimism

/ˈäptəˌmizəm/

Merry

/ˈmerē/

Oral

/ˈôrəl/

Metric

/ˈmetrik/

Ornate

/ôrˈnāt/

Mime

/mīm/

Ovation

/ōˈvāSHən/

Miniature

/ˈmin(ē)əCHər/ or /ˌCHo͝or/

Overcrowd

/ˌōvərˈkroud/

Minimum

/ˈminəməm/

‫کمینه‬

Overt

/ōˈvərt/ or /ˈōvərt/

Mint

/mint/

‫نعناع‬

Overwhelm

/ˌōvərˈ(h)welm/

Molest

/məˈlest/

Pamphlet

/ˈpamflit/

‫جزوه‬

Monarchy

/ˈmänərkē/ or /ˈmänˌär-/

Paradox

/ˈparəˌdäks/

‫اضداد‬

Mores

/ˈmôrˌāz/

Parallel

/ˈparəˌlel/ or /-ləl/

‫موازی‬

Mortal

/ˈmôrtl/

Pardon

/ˈpärdn/

Mourn

/môrn/

Parish

/ˈpariSH/

Naïve

/nīˈēv/

Parity

/ˈparitē/

Narcotic

/närˈkätik/

Participate

/pärˈtisəˌpāt/

Narrate

/ˈnarˌāt/

Partner

/ˈpärtnər/

Nautical

/ˈnôtikəl/

Patriot

/ˈpātrēət/

Negotiation

/nəˌgōSHēˈāSHən/

Patrol

/pəˈtrōl/

Neurotic

/n(y)o͝oˈrätik/

Patronage

/ˈpatrənij/ or /ˈpā-/

Neutral

/ˈn(y)o͞otrəl/

Patronize

/ˈpātrəˌnīz/ or /ˈpa-/

Nocturnal

/näkˈtərnl/

Peculiarity

/pəˌkyo͞olēˈaritē/

Nomad

/ˈnōˌmad/

Perceive

/pərˈsēv/

Nostalgia

/näˈstaljə/ or /nə-/

Perception

/pərˈsepSHən/

‫ادراک‬

Oasis

/ōˈāsis/

Periodic

/ˌpi(ə)rēˈädik/

‫متناوب‬

Oath

/ōTH/

Personnel

/ˌpərsəˈnel/

Obedience

/ōˈbēdēəns/

Pertain

/pərˈtān/

‫مربوط بودن‬

Obese

/ōˈbēs/

Pervade

/pərˈvād/

‫ نفوذ کردن‬،‫پخش شدن‬

Obey

/ōˈbā/

Pervert

/pərˈvərt/

‫منﺤرف کردن‬

Objective

/əbˈjektiv/

Pessimism

/ˈpesəˌmizəm/

‫شهید‬ ‫بالغ‬

‫مربی‬

‫کاال‬

‫شادکام‬ ‫مربوط به سیستم متری‬ ‫مقلد‬ ‫مینیاتور‬

‫آزار رساندن‬ ‫پادشاهی‬ ‫رسوم‬ ‫فانی‬ ‫گریه کردن‬ ‫خام و ساده دل‬ ‫ماده مخدر‬ ‫داستان سرایی‬ ‫دریایی‬ ‫گفتگو‬ ‫دچار ااختالل عﺼبی‬ ‫بی طرف‬ ‫شبگرد‬ ‫چادرنشین‬ ‫ ﺣسرت گذشته‬،‫نوستالژی‬ ‫واﺣه‬ ‫سوگند‬ ‫فرمانبرداری‬ ‫چاق‬ ‫اطاعت کردن‬ ‫هدف‬

‫ناپسند‬ ‫ مشکوک‬،‫مبهم‬ ‫لجوج و کلهشق‬ ‫اشغال کردن‬

‫فال‬ ‫از قلم انداختن‬ ‫عملیات‬ ‫خودسر و خودرای‬ ‫مخالفت‬ ‫خوشبینی‬ ‫دهانی‬ ‫بیش از ﺣد آراسته‬ ‫شادی و سرور عمومی‬ ‫ازدﺣام بیش از ﺣد‬ ‫آشکار و واضح‬ ‫پایمال کردن‬

‫بخشش‬ ‫اهل مﺤله‬ ‫برابری‬ ‫مشارکت کردن‬ ‫شریک‬ ‫میهندوست‬ ‫گشتزنی‬ ‫ﺣمایت‬ ‫تشویق کردن‬ ‫صفت عجیب و غریب‬ ‫درک کردن‬

‫پرسنل‬

‫بدبینی‬


176 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS Appendix - Quick AtoZ Words List

‫دارویی‬

Pharmaceutical

/ˌfärməˈso͞otikəl/

Phase

/fāz/

Photogenic

/ˌfōtəˈjenik/

Physician

/fiˈziSHən/

Pilgrim

/ˈpilgrəm/

Pious

/ˈpīəs/

Pivotal

/ˈpivətl/

Placid

/ˈplasid/

Plaid

/plad/

Planet

/ˈplanit/

Plausible

/ˈplôzəbəl/

Plea

/plē/

Pledge

/plej/

Polish

/ˈpäliSH/

Pollute

/pəˈlo͞ot/

Polyglot

/ˈpäliˌglät/

Posse

/ˈpäsē/

Poverty

/ˈpävərtē/

‫فقر‬

Prairie

/ˈpre(ə)rē/

‫چمنزار‬

‫ضرب المثلی‬

Proverbial

/prəˈvərbēəl/

Proxy

/ˈpräksē/

‫نماینده‬

Prudence

/ˈpro͞odns/

‫اﺣتیاط‬

Pseudonym

/ˈso͞odn-im/

Psychic

/ˈsīkik/

‫واسط روﺣی‬

Psychology

/sīˈkäləjē/

‫روان شناسی‬

Puberty

/ˈpyo͞obərtē/

Pun

/pən/

Pursue

/pərˈso͞o/

Putrid

/ˈpyo͞otrid/

Quarterback

/ˈkwôrtərˌbak/

Quench

/kwenCH/

Quest

/kwest/

Quorum

/ˈkwôrəm/

‫ناپاک کردن‬

Quote

/kwōt/

‫چند زبانی‬

Radar

/ˈrāˌdär/

Radiant

/ˈrādēənt/

Radius

/ˈrādēəs/

Ransom

/ˈransəm/

Rationalize

/ˈraSHənlˌīz/ or /ˈraSHnəˌlīz/

Realtor

/ˈrē(ə)ltər/ or /-ˌtôr/ or /ˈrē(ə)lətər/

Reception

/riˈsepSHən/

Recess

/ˈrēˌses/ or /riˈses/

Recluse

/ or /riˈklo͞os/ or /ˈrekˌlo͞oz/

Recur

/riˈkər/

Reenter

/ˌrēˈentər/

Referee

/ˌrefəˈrē/

‫داور‬

Reflect

/riˈflekt/

‫منعکس کردن‬

Refrain

/riˈfrān/

‫ منع کردن‬،‫خوداری کردن‬

Regal

/ˈrēgəl/

Registrar

/ˈrejəˌsträr/

Rehearse

/riˈhərs/

Reign

/rān/

‫سلطنت‬

Rein

/rān/

‫زمام و افسار‬

Relieve

/rēˈliv/ or /ˈrē-/

‫فاز‬ ‫خوش عکس‬ ‫پزشک‬ ‫زائر‬ ‫وارسته و زاهد‬ ‫مﺤوری‬ ‫آرام‬ ‫پارچه چهارخانه‬ ‫سیاره‬ ‫ مﺤتمل‬،‫پذیرفتنی‬ ‫دادخواست‬ ‫تعهد و التزام‬ ‫پرداخت کردن‬

‫قدرت قانونی‬

Precisely

/priˈsīslē/

‫دقیقا‬

Precision

/priˈsiZHən/

‫دقت‬

Preclude

/priˈklo͞od/

Predict

/priˈdikt/

Preferable

/ˈpref(ə)rəbəl/

Prejudice

/ˈprejədəs/

Prejudiced

/ˈprejədəst/

Prescribe

/priˈskrīb/

Pretext

/ˈprēˌtekst/

Prevaricate

/priˈvariˌkāt/

Prior

/ˈprīər/

Privilege

/ˈpriv(ə)lij/

‫پیشگیری کردن‬ ‫پیش بینی‬ ‫مرجح‬ ‫ غرض ورزی‬،‫تعﺼب‬ ‫متعﺼب‬ ‫تجویز‬ ‫عذر و بهانه‬ ‫دوپهلو ﺣرف زدن‬ ‫قبلی‬ ‫برتری‬ ‫کاوشگر‬

Probe

/prōb/

Procession

/prəˈseSHən/

‫دسته راه انداختن‬

Procrastinate

/prəˈkrastəˌnāt/ or /prō-/

‫به تاخیر انداختن‬

Profusion

/prəˈfyo͞oZHən/ or /prō-/

‫اسراف‬

Program

/ˈprōˌgram/ or /grəm/

‫برنامه‬

Renovate

/ˈrenəˌvāt/

Promote

/prəˈmōt/

‫ترفیع‬

Represent

/ˌrepriˈzent/

Proprietor

/p(r)əˈprīətər/

Representative

/ˌrepriˈzentətiv/

Protocol

/ˈprōtəˌkôl/ or /-ˌkäl/

Reserve

/riˈzərv/

‫مالک‬ ‫پروتکل‬

‫اسم مستعار‬

‫بلوغ‬ ‫جناس‬ ‫دنبال کردن‬ ‫متعفن‬ ‫بازیکن خط ﺣمله‬ ‫فرو نشاندن‬ ‫جستجو‬ ‫ﺣد نﺼاب‬ ‫نقل قول کردن‬ ‫رادار‬ ‫تابناک و درخشنده‬ ‫شعاع‬ ‫خون بها‬ ‫بااستدالل عقلی توجیه کردن‬ ‫دالل معامالت ملکی‬ ‫پذیرایی کردن‬ ‫ تورفتگﻰ‬،‫تورفتگﻰ در دیوار‬ ‫گوشه نشین‬ ‫دور زدن‬ ‫ورود دوباره‬

‫شاهوار‬ ‫ثبت کننده‬ ‫تمرین کردن‬

‫ تسلی دادن‬،‫آرام ساختن‬ ‫تعمیر کردن‬ ‫نمایاندن‬ ‫نماینده‬ ‫ذخیره‬


myWords 177 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

Reside

/riˈzīd/

Resort

/riˈzôrt/

Retail

/ˈrēˌtāl/

Reverse

/riˈvərs/

Ritual

/ˈriCHo͞oəl/

Robust

/rōˈbəst/ or /ˈrōˌbəst/

Roster

/ˈrästər/ or /ˈrô-/

Rotten

/ˈrätn/

Rue

/ro͞o/

Rustic

/ˈrəstik/

Ruthless

/ˈro͞oTHləs/

Sacred

/ˈsākrid/

Sanitary

/ˈsaniˌterē/

Sanity

/ˈsanitē/

Sarcasm

/ˈsärˌkazəm/

Satellite

/ˈsatlˌīt/

Satirical

/səˈti(ə)rikəl/

Scarcity

‫اقامت‬

‫مورد توجه سطﺤی قرار‬

Skim

/skim/

Slack

/slak/

Slender

/ˈslendər/

Slippery

/ˈslipərē/

Soccer

/ˈsäkər/

Sophisticate

/səˈfistəˌkāt/

Sophisticated

/səˈfistiˌkātid/

Sophomore

/ˈsäf(ə)ˌmôr/

Souvenir

/ˌso͞ovəˈni(ə)r/

‫روستایی‬

Spartan

/ˈspärtn/

‫ظالم‬

Specific

/spəˈsifik/

Speculate

/ˈspekyəˌlāt/

Sporadic

/spəˈradik/

‫سالمت عقل‬

Sprinkler

/ˈspriNGk(ə)lər/

‫طعنه و کنایه‬

Stale

/stāl/

‫ماهواره‬

Stalk

/stôk/

‫هزلی‬

Stalker

/ˈstôkər/

/ˈskersitē/

‫کمیابی‬

Stately

/ˈstātlē/

‫با شکوه‬

Scornful

/ˈskôrnfəl/

‫اهانت آمیز‬

Statistics

/stəˈtistiks/

‫علم آمار‬

Script

/skript/

‫ دستخط‬،‫خط‬

Statue

/ˈstaCHo͞o/

‫تندیس‬

Sculpture

/ˈskəlpCHər/

‫مجسمه سازی‬

Stewardess

/ˈst(y)o͞oərdis/

Seize

/sēz/

Stigma

/ˈstigmə/

Semester

/səˈmestər/

‫نیمسال تﺤﺼیلی‬

Stock

/stäk/

‫موجودی‬

Senator

/ˈsenitər/

‫عضو مجلس سنا‬

Stockholder

/ˈstäkˌhōldər/

���سهامدار‬

Separate

/ˈsep(ə)rit/

‫جدا کردن‬

Stoop

/sto͞op/

‫ خضوع‬،‫خم شدن‬

Serene

/səˈrēn/

‫آرام و ساکت‬

Strap

/strap/

‫با تسمه بستن‬

Sermon

/ˈsərmən/

‫خطبه‬

Stray

/strā/

‫ولگردی‬

Settler

/ˈsetl-ər/ or /ˈsetlər/

‫مهاجر‬

Strengthen

/ˈstreNG(k)THən/ or /ˈstren-/

‫تقویت‬

Severe

/səˈvi(ə)r/

‫شدید‬

Suave

/swäv/

‫مودب‬

Shade

/SHād/

‫سایه‬

Submissive

/səbˈmisiv/

Shriek

/SHrēk/

‫جیغ زدن‬

Subsequent

/ˈsəbsəkwənt/

Shrill

/SHril/

‫صدای خیلی زیر‬

Substantial

/səbˈstanCHəl/

Shrine

/SHrīn/

Substitute

/ˈsəbstiˌt(y)o͞ot/

Sibling

/ˈsibliNG/

‫برادر یا خواهر‬

Suckle

/ˈsəkəl/

‫شیردادن از پستان‬

Signature

/ˈsignəCHər/ or /ˌCHo͝or/

‫امضا‬

Suffice

/səˈfīs/

‫کفایت کردن‬

Signify

/ˈsignəˌfī/

‫داللت کردن بر‬

Sufficient

/səˈfiSHənt/

Similar

/ˈsimələr/

‫مشابه‬

Summary

/ˈsəmərē/

‫خالصه‬

Skiing

/ˈskēiNG/

‫اسکی کردن‬

Sundry

/ˈsəndrē/

‫ متفرقه‬،‫گوناگون‬

‫ تفریﺤگاه و‬،‫پناهگاه‬ ‫استراﺣتگاه‬ ‫خرده فروشی‬ ‫معکوس‬ ‫مراسم مذبی‬ ‫تنومند‬ ‫سیاهه وظایف‬ ‫فاسد‬ ‫پشیمانی و افسوس‬

‫مقدس‬ ‫بهداشتی‬

‫ضبط کردن‬

‫زیارتگاه‬

‫گرفتن‬ ‫شل‬ ‫بلند و باریک‬ ‫لغزان‬ ‫فوتبال‬ ‫سفسطه کردن‬ ‫پیشرفته‬ ‫مشکل پیچیده‬ ‫یادگار و سوغات‬ ‫آدم دلیر و با انضباط‬ ‫خاص‬ ‫اندیشیدن‬ ‫پراکنده‬ ‫آب پاش‬ ‫بیات‬ ‫کمین کردن‬ ‫تعقیب کننده‬

‫مهماندار هواپیما‬ ‫نشانه و عالمت بیماری‬

‫ سلطهپذیر‬،‫مطیع‬ ‫ پیرو‬،‫متعاقب‬ ‫ مهم و ذاتی‬،‫قابل توجه‬ ‫جانشین‬

‫کافی‬


178 PRACTICAL WORDS for ENGLISH LEARNERS Appendix - Quick AtoZ Words List

‫سطﺤی‬

Typography

/tīˈpägrəfē/

‫فن چاپ‬

Ultimately

/ˈəltəmitlē/

‫در نهایت‬

Umbrella

/ˌəmˈbrelə/

‫چتر‬

Umpire

/ˈəmˌpī(ə)r/

‫داور‬

Unanimous

/yo͞oˈnanəməs/

Unintentional

/ˌəninˈtenCHənl/

‫نماد‬

Unjust

/ˌənˈjəst/

‫نشانه و عالمت‬

Urban

/ˈərbən/

Urbane

/ˌərˈbān/

‫مودبانه‬

Vacate

/ˈvāˌkāt/

‫خالی کردن‬

Vacation

/vāˈkāSHən/ or /və-/

Vain

/vān/

Vandalize

/ˈvandlˌīz/

Vanish

/ˈvaniSH/

‫ناپدید شدن‬

Vary

/ˈve(ə)rē/

‫تغییر کردن‬

Vehicle

/ˈvēəkəl/ or /ˈvēˌhikəl/

Vein

/vān/

Vestment

/ˈves(t)mənt/

Veto

/ˈvētō/

Vicinity

/vəˈsinətē/

Virgin

/ˈvərjən/

Visibility

/ˌvizəˈbilitē/

Vital

/ˈvītl/

Vocation

/vōˈkāSHən/

Vow

/vou/

‫وعده و پیمان‬

Vulgar

/ˈvəlgər/

‫مبتذل و پست‬

Wage

/wāj/

Waive

/wāv/

Walrus

/ˈwôlrəs/ or /ˈwä-/

Wandering

/ˈwändəriNG/

Warlike

/ˈwôrˌlīk/

Warrant

/ˈwôrənt/ or /ˈwä-/

Wave

/wāv/

Weaken

/ˈwēkən/

Weakling

/ˈwēkliNG/

Wicked

/ˈwikid/

‫ نابکار‬،‫شریر‬

Widen

/ˈwīdn/

‫عریض کردن‬

Widespread

/ˈwīdˈspred/

Superficial

/ˌso͞opərˈfiSHəl/

Surly

/ˈsərlē/

Surprise

/sə(r)ˈprīz/

Surreptitious

/ˌsərəpˈtiSHəs/

Suspense

/səˈspens/

Svelte

/svelt/ or /sfelt/

Symbol

/ˈsimbəl/

Symptom

/ˈsim(p)təm/

Synonym

/ˈsinəˌnim/

Tacit

/ˈtasit/

Taut

/tôt/

Technician

/tekˈniSHən/

Telepathy

/təˈlepəTHē/

Tend

/tend/

Tepid

/ˈtepid/

Theology

/THēˈäləjē/

Thesis

/ˈTHēsis/

‫پایان نامه‬

Thoroughly

/ˈTHərōlē/

‫بطور کامل‬

Threat

/THret/

Throughout

/THro͞oˈout/

Tight

/tīt/

Trademark

/ˈtrādˌmärk/

Transcript

/ˈtranˌskript/

Transfusion

/transˈfyo͞oZHən/

‫انتقال خون‬

Transient

/ˈtranSHənt/ or /ZHənt/ or /-zēənt/

‫گذرا‬

Tread

/tred/

Trend

/trend/

Trespass

/ˈtrespəs/ or /-ˌpas/

Tribunal

/trīˈbyo͞onl/ or /trə-/

Trite

/trīt/

Trivial

/ˈtrivēəl/

Trophy

/ˈtrōfē/

Tuition

/t(y)o͞oˈiSHən/

Turnout

/ˈtərnˌout/

Turnpike

/ˈtərnˌpīk/

Tutor

/ˈt(y)o͞otər/

Tuxedo

/təkˈsēdō/

Typeset

/ˈtīpˌset/

‫ گستاخ‬،‫با ترشرویی‬ ‫تعجب‬ ‫مﺤرمانه و پنهان‬ ‫در ﺣال تعلیق‬ ‫باریک و ظریف‬

‫ هممعنی‬،‫مترادف‬ ‫ضمنی‬ ‫مﺤکم بسته شده‬ ‫تکنسین‬ ‫ارتباط افکار با یکدیگر‬ ‫ نگهداری‬،‫گرایش داشتن‬

‫متفق القول‬ ‫ناخواسته‬ ‫غیرعادالنه‬ ‫شهری‬

‫ تعطیالت‬،‫مرخﺼی‬ ‫بیهوده‬ ‫خرابکاری کردن‬

‫کردن‬ ‫ولرم‬ ‫الهیات‬

‫تهدید‬ ‫سرتاسر‬ ‫ سفت‬،‫تنگ‬ ‫نشان تجارتی‬ ‫رونوشت‬

‫ گام گذاشتن‬،‫راه رفتن‬ ‫گرایش‬ ‫تجاوز کردن‬ ‫مﺤکمه‬ ‫ مبتذل‬،‫پیشپا افتاده‬ ‫ بدیهی‬،‫جزئی و ناقابل‬ ‫جایزه‬ ‫ﺣق التدریس‬ ‫ مشارکت کنندگان‬،‫پیچ جاده‬ ‫در انتخابات‬ ‫ شاهراه‬،‫عوارضی‬ ‫معلم خﺼوصی‬ ‫لباس مخﺼوص مهمانی‬ ‫ﺣروف چینی‬

‫وسیله نقلیه‬ ‫سیاهرگ‬ ‫لباس سمی کشیش‬ ‫رد یا نفﻰ یا منع یک مقام‬ ‫رسمﻰ‬ ‫ نزدیکی‬،‫مجاورت‬ ‫باکره‬ ‫قابلیت دیدن‬ ‫ﺣیاتی‬ ‫ﺣرفه‬

‫ دستمزد‬،‫کارمزد‬ ‫از قانون مستثنی کردن‬ ‫گراز ماهی‬ ‫سرگردان‬ ‫ جنگی‬،‫نظامی‬ ‫ مجوز‬،‫اجازه قانونی‬ ‫موج‬ ‫ضعیف شدن‬ ‫کم بنیه‬

‫گسترده‬


myWords 179 from dççÖäÉ Dictionary

‫پهنا‬

Width

/widTH/ or /witTH/

Wit

/wit/

Womb

/wo͞om/

Worn-out

/wôrn/ - /out/

Wrecked

/rekt/

‫ اوراق‬،‫خراب شده‬

Yearn

/yərn/

‫مشتاق بودن‬

Yield

/yēld/

‫بازدهی‬

Zeal

/zēl/

‫ ضوق‬،‫جانفشانی‬

Zenith

/ˈzēniTH/

‫ سمتالراس‬،‫اوج‬

Zoo

/zo͞o/

‫ بذلهگویی‬،‫لطافت طبع‬ ‫رﺣم‬ ‫ زهوار در‬، ‫خسته و کوفته‬ ‫رفته‬

‫باغ وﺣش‬



myWords from Google Dictionary [REVISION 1.0]