Page 1

DESIGN STUDIO

A I R F I N A L J O U R N A L SIMONE

ROSE

LANIA

587506

SEMESTER 1, 2014 -THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE -PHILIP BELESKY AND BRAD ELIAS


SIMONE ROSE LANIA (587506) ABPL30048 STUDIO AIR SEMESTER 1, 2014 THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE

TUTORS: PHILIP BELESKY AND BRAD ELIAS 2


TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

5

PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION

6

PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN

28

PART C: DETAILED DESIGN

128

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“ARCHITECTURE

IS THE WILL OF AN EPOCH TRANSLATED INTO SPACE.”

- LUDWIG MIES VAN DER ROHE

ABOVE: PREVIOUS BOATHOUSE DESIGN COMPUTATION WORK FROM ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO WATER USING MIES VAN DER ROHE DESIGN PRINCIPLES.

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SIMONE ROSE LANIA CURRENTLY A 3RD YEAR STUDENT AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE, STUDYING THE BACHELOR OF ENVIRONMENTS, MAJORING IN ARCHITECTURE. MELBOURNE BORN, ITALIAN RAISED.

Design has always had an appeal to me. Even as a child I found enjoyment in creative, artistic pastimes. However what triggered my true interest in a design-based career was admiration of family members who worked in the design and construction industry. At the age of 15 I travelled to Adelaide to complete work experience at an architecture and interior design firm owned by my cousin. What I enjoyed most about this experience was venturing out of the office to meet with clients, visit sites and shop for product. I appreciated the fact that each day was different and that there was an abundance of opportunities within the profession at various scales. Later in my secondary studies I considered other professions, however architecture was always on the agenda. The multidisciplinary approach offered by the University of Melbourne in the Bachelor of Environments was ideal for a student like me, someone who hadn’t delved into artistic subjects in VCE, instead emerged in all other faculties. What I realise now after completing two years of the bachelor is that architecture is also right for me, as it is a career which integrates so many disciplines and requires skills in various areas. In my opinion, architecture is a vehicle for expression and an opportunity for the designer, the client or the city to present a message, create a persona, develop a culture and educate its viewers. In addition the ability to be responsible for a tangible object in which people can experience and the opportunity to make a mark on a city are exciting aspects of architecture, which drive my ambition to be successful in the industry. In the past 2 years of the bachelor I have been exposed to some digital design tools, including AutoCAD, Adobe Creative Suite, Google Sketchup and Rhino3D. I have used AutoCAD and the Adobe Creative Suite programs regularly in previous design studios and the elective subject Visual Communications. However, my exposure to Rhino3D in particular is limited to a workshop run by the University that I completed during the summer break. I am eager to develop my skills in Rhino3D and Grasshopper, as I believe that with a greater knowledge of these digital design tools, I will discover new and exciting methods of design. In addition, I believe computation is the gateway to envisioning innovative design ideas, which is necessary to achieve advanced architecture in the future.

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CONCEPTUALISATION

6


PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION

A.1 DESIGN FUTURING

9

A.2 DESIGN COMPUTATION

12

A.3 COMPOSITION/GENERATION

18

A.4 CONCLUSION

22

A.5 LEARNING OUTCOMES

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A.6 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

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01

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A.1

DESIGN FUTURING LAGI ENTRY ‘CALORIE PARK’ The LAGI entry, ‘Calorie Park’ delves into energy production beyond the traditional renewable energy resources by harvesting kinetic energy/’man power’ produced by humans whilst exercising using a micro-inverter technology.1 Nowadays exercise is an important part of one’s everyday routine and despite an abundance of fitness centres being developed there is a desire to exercise outdoors, emerged in the environment and at no cost. This project makes efficient use of the space as it creates a usable area that is reflective of the importance of exercise in society today and the desire to be fit, as well as producing electricity. People who value exercise and the well-being of the environment would be expected to use the installation on a regular basis.

humans. Therefore, the design provides a platform for activity, which is beneficial to human health, encourages social interaction and ultimately contributes to sustainable development of the city. There has also been consideration of the fact that there will be peak times of use for such a design and hence an alternate energy production mechanism needs to be employed during times of the day when human use is at its lowest. Solar panels have been incorporated into the exterior of the exercise pods in areas with the highest exposure to the noon sun. This strengthens the design by eliminating the potential for inefficiency in the event that human use was limited.2

The carbon neutral design is more than an installation - as well as being a popular past time, it is proven that exercise has positive effects on both physical and emotional health for

It is assumed that such a design would be appreciated for a long period of time, as unlike other installations, an individual can visit this interactive structure habitually. In addition, the design would appeal to a broad sample of people and it is expected that society’s interest in exercise will only escalate in the future.

1 “Calorie Park”, Morteza Karimi, Land Art Generator Initiative, accessed 10 March 2014, http:// landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/6713ke13/

2 “Calorie Park”, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/6713ke13/

02

01 Morteza Karimi, Calorie Park, 2012, digital design, Land Art Generator Initiative, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/6713ke13/#, (accessed 10 March 2014) 02 Morteza Karimi, Mechanical Energy, 2012, digital design, Land Art Generator Initiative, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/6713ke13/#, (accessed 10 March 2014)

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01 HYDROGENASE’, A PROPOSAL BY FRENCH ARCHITECTS VINCENT CALLEBAUT FOR ALGAE FARM TO RECYCLE CO2 FOR BIO-HYDROGEN AIRSHIP

02

10


A.1

DESIGN FUTURING PHOTOSYNTHESIS

USING

Photosynthetic organisms are capable of converting carbon dioxide to organic carbon and can affect atmospheric carbon content both directly and indirectly. Photosynthesis affects the climate in various ways, most importantly, it contributes to maintaining stable temperatures; cool enough for life to exist. This is due to the effect of photosynthesis on carbon dioxide levels, as carbon dioxide contributes to greenhouse gas, which is associated with the rising temperatures on earth. 1 Recent studies have found an opportunity to heighten the positive effects of photosynthesis on the planet and utilise this invaluable, natural process to harvest energy and rid of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that is negatively affecting the ozone layer. Through photosynthesis we are capable of collecting energy in an environmentally conscious, sustainable and economically feasible manner. The energy collected can then be fed into the city’s electricity grid and the demand for electricity produced via burning of fossil fuels and other carbon dioxide producing resources can be reduced. Potential dependence on photosynthesis as a source of electricity for an entire city is limited however, wide application of this energy harvesting system could have a considerable impact on energy production and in conjunction with other forms of renewable energy resources, contribute to achieving carbon neutrality.2 Cyanobacteria in particular perform a specialised version of photosynthesis, known as ‘oxygenic photosynthesis’ using two photochemical systems. This is the main process that provides energy to the entire biosphere of earth, evidently giving rise to the ozone layer that protects from solar ultraviolet radiation on earth.3 1 Reza Razighifard, Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis, (place of publication n/a: Wiley, 2013), 46-47 2 Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Mononian, “A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies”, Society for Cultural Exchange and Land Art Generator Initiative, 2012, 25 3 Razighifard, Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis, 49

CYANOBACTERIA

Blue-green algae is a favourable choice of cyanobacteria to fuel photosynthetic energy production as algae act as minute biological entities that transform carbon dioxide and sunlight into energy via photosynthetic processes, growing logarithmically whilst doing so. In addition they can grow directly on combustion gas containing 4-15% carbon dioxide and can be produced using wastewater.4 The opportunity to not only produce clean energy, but to also make use of water sources and carbon dioxide which would otherwise contaminate the atmosphere, is promising for humanity and is progressive towards sustainability. Furthermore the use of algae could assist in future development of a dual system, in which both electricity and biofuel are produced. This prospect is foreseeable as algae can produce a biobutanol known as ‘solalgal fuel’ as a by-product of photosynthesis. This product can be used in gas engines without engine modification and is a clean substitute for current fuels used in motor vehicles. Evidently such a system would be optimising use of dispensable product in various ways. 5 Whilst more traditional forms of renewable energy resources present higher conversion efficiencies, energy production via photosynthesis is an innovative opportunity to rid of pollutants in the atmosphere that previous ‘dirty’ energy production has created. Such a resource would also present opportunity to educate society about biological process and environmental conservation. We would therefore be acting retrospectively and proactively in our mission to create a cleaner planet and a more sustainable future.

4 Ferry and Mononian, “A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies”, 54 5 Ferry and Mononian, “A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies”, 52 01 Vincent Callebaut Architects, Algae Airships, date of image n/a, digital design, http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20130624-architecture-for-achanging-world 02 AlgaePARC, date of image n/a, photograph, http://www.alphagalileo.org/ ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=105680&CultureCode=en

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A CULTURE THE DESIGN OF COMPUTATION MUSEO DESIGN SOUMAYA

A.2

hem. In addition edge of structural a result of Mexico’s ions. For Fernando e challenge lies not or the engineering n of a culture of ects organise and ion to allow for new

nceived as an iconic o host one of the in the world, and ea of Mexico City. had never been resented various d construction was how to realise precedent or local and coordination of to its success, as were developed tric modelling and o design and model s. Museo Soumaya at represents the container for the oor plate responding on that floor. The he design process els, and the final nned to create design surface. d the digital model mns and horizontal surface. e interior finish and ex 3-D structure ting strut, as he local surface eam selected a freethe firm Geometrica o provide support

The Museo Soumaya in Mexico City, Mexico built in 2011 was designed by architects, Fernando Romero and Armando Ramos. This $70 million project is a prime example of the “blobby” forms which computational design has made realisable (The building geometry is exemplified in Figure 01). The design concept is based on a “container” that comprises the artwork. However, the design outcome was a result of utilising computation to explore design ideas both aesthetically and structurally. Without the use of parametric design, three-dimensional modelling and fabrication, formation and dynamic transformation of the design model would not have been possible. Evidently, such a complex shape and façade design would not have been realisable.1

01

The building façade is composed of hexagonal aluminium panels. Computational tools such as Gaussian analysis facilitated the design process by providing data required for resolution of issues regarding modification of hexagonal panel properties. In addition, parametric modelling techniques established by Gehry Technology were capable of dealing with the complexity of this façade design and determining panel size and configuration which was important in defining how the geometric data of the panels would be extracted and applied to the exterior surface 2 (Figure 02 and 03 are macroscopic representations of the panel configuration). Computation was not only essential in the design of the building exterior. Without

parametrics, prominent interior features such as ramps, internal structure and Fernando Romero and Armando the roof would not have been foreseeable as conventional two-dimensional Ramos of Fernando Romero EnterprisE drawings and design processes would not be able to represent such elements. (FREE) describe how the firm’s design What is interesting about this building is that collaboration between the for an iconic museum in Mexicoproject City,team was essential and computation was the vehicle in which this process which adopted complex computationalcould be facilitated. Even during the construction phase the entire project team continued to work in conjunction via a central, digital, threetechniques, required them to develop dimensional model. As a result precise information regarding the building was continuously accessible to all team members.3 The convergence of digitally an integrated and highly 02 collaborative based representation and production processes of designs is invaluable in approach to design; with a central digital providing information to a series of professions associated with the project. 3-D model being applied throughout This precedent exemplifies that use of digital modelling has broadened the scope of formal exploration in architecture and enhanced the construction phase. the design process as both design conceptualisation and design construction can now be more direct and intricate as the information can be extricated and modified with greater facility and speed.4

top: Facade layers from the interior: insulating durock, primary structure composed of bent oil-rigging structural tubes, triodesic secondary structure, waterproofing panels supported by the secondary structure, and the hexagonal panels supported by purlins mounted on the secondary structure.

ION

exico, 2011 the south facade.

Parametric building design is the vehicle for the future of architecture as “smooth” architecture was overlooked in the past despite its connection with cultural and design discourse in other sectors of society.5 Museo Soumaya is an intriguing example of how the use of NURBS enabled by algorithmic centre: View of can the south design leadfacade to showing complex,67undulating and sinuous building forms which detail of aluminium hexagon cladding previously did not have the potential to be conceived, represented or developed. panels.

r columns of the e belt, seven steel e concrete core that

ay

n re

MUSEO SOUMAYA, MEXICO CITY

03

1 Fernando Romero and Armando Ramos, “Bridging a Culture - The Design of Museo Soumaya”, Architectural Design bottom: View of the Journal Article 08,completed 2013: 67 structure with 2shimmering aluminium hexagonRamos, “The Design of Museo Soumaya”, 68 Fernando Romero and Armando 3 Fernando Romero and Armando Ramos, “The Design of Museo Soumaya”, 69 cladding. 4 Branko Kolarevic, “Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing”, (New York and London, Spon Press, 2003), 6 5 Branko Kolarevic, “Architecture in the Digital Age”, 6 01, 02, 03 sourced from: Fernando Romero and Armando Ramos, “The Design of Museo Soumaya”, 67-69

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01

02

03 01 Foster + Partners, Projects: City Hall London, UK, 1998-2002, 2014, computation, Foster + Partners, http://www.fosterandpartners. com/projects/city-hall/, (accessed 18 March 2014) 02 Projects: City Hall London, UK, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/city-hall/ 03 14Projects: City Hall London, UK, http://www.fosterandpartners.com/projects/city-hall/ 04 London City Hall, date of image n/a, photograph, Vis[Le], http://visle-en-terrasse.blogspot.com.au/2012/02/london-city-hall.html, (accessed 20 March 2014)

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A.2

DESIGN COMPUTATION LONDON

CITY

HALL,

LONDON

London City Hall by Foster Associates was completed in 2003 and is an appropriate example of the use of computation to conduct energy and structural calculations, which then become the driving force in design generation. Through this parametric medium, generative variability is achievable in architectural design and tectonic and material creativity are stimulated.1 London City Hall demonstrates the affect of computing in a top-down design process. The building design was developed using a parametric control system, which created a custom model from which the architects could determine dimensions and experiment with design alternatives. The design process enabled synthesis of a functional, spatial, sculptural, structural and environmental form, which required consideration through a series of viewports that were made possible by computation tools.2 The final shape of the building is central to the axis leaning towards the sun as this design allowed for minimal surface area in the direction of the sun whilst maximising city views. In addition, air current movement and natural ventilation, which were measured by linking the digital model with a CNC machine influenced the building geometries (Figure 01 and 02 model the effect of these environmental aspects on the building form). It is evident that the primary shape was a design decision based not only on aesthetics, but also to maximise energy efficiency. Stimulation software for energy calculations was therefore closely associated with the design outcome. However, not only external design decisions were a result of computation, even the internal helical stair design has purpose beyond aesthetics. Computation was utilised to measure acoustics of the lobby area. The measurements collected influenced the staircase design as the feature traps sound and reduces echo within the space.3 Furthermore, experimentation was conducted through a series of fabrications to realise the final digital model. Digital materiality was important in the design development as it created links between the conception and final outcome. A series of prototyping through fabrication allowed for the realisation of tectonics and contributed to achieving a balance between interesting geometrical shapes and buildability4 (Figure 03 shows various prototypes created via fabrication). The use of quadrilaterals for the entire building facade was linked with buildability - in terms of economics and the concealment of structural members. This was impacted by computation and experimentation with geometries such as triangulation until a conceivable geometry was established.5 The final outcome is an interesting design that utilises computation in the design process. However, it is not entirely based on the programming to the extent that creative thought is lost in exuberant shapes which lack background meaning. London City Hall takes data from the surrounding context and environment and impinges this on the final geometric form via computation. It is therefore an embodiment of designer intellect combined with computerised algorithmic capabilities. In addition, it demonstrates the degree of parameters necessary in design and building development. 1 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London and New York: Routledge, 2014), 3-4 2 Alex Hogrefe, “Evaluating the Digital Design Process”, Bottom-up vs. Top-Down, 2010. 2 3 “Perfect Buildings: The Maths of Modern Architecture”, Marianne Freiberger, Plus Magazine, last modified 1 March 2007, http:// plus.maths.org/content/perfect-buildings-maths-modern-architecture 4 Hogrefe, “Evaluating the Digital Design Process”, 2 5 “Perfect Buildings: The Maths of Modern Architecture”, http://plus.maths.org/content/perfect-buildings-maths-modern-architecture

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A.2

DESIGN COMPUTATION SERPENTINE PAVILION, LONDON The Serpentine Museum, by Toyo Ito and Cecil Balmond in Kensington Gardens, London was built in 2002. It is an example of the use of procedural design and scripting as a means of research and design composition. This project is of interest as it marks the emergence of digital technologies to support design formation and the shift away from “compositional and representational theorising”.1 The 2002 Serpentine Museum is a powerful expression of the aesthetic and tectonic potentials allowed by algorithmic design via computation. The overall form of the pavilion design was derived from a cube created algorithmically and transformed through expansion and rotation (Figure 01 and 02 represent this concept in sketch form). This design outcome was established after experimentation with different shapes and algorithmic models that led to outcomes such as vortexes as opposed to the velocity based concept behind the final design2 (These models are represented in Figure 03 and 04). The façade design is an expression of many triangles and trapezoids developed via a series of intersecting lines, which differ in transparency and translucence to create an illusion of 1 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman, Theories of the Digital in Architecture, (London and New York: Routledge, 2014), 3-4 2 Cecil Balmonds Special Lecture at REsite, Czech Republic, 2013, online video, http://www.archdaily. com/419828/video-cecil-balmond-s-special-lecture-at-resite-2013/

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boundlessly repeating motion.3 The scale and materiality make the pattern relevant and turn the geometry into an animation by manipulating light and creating an internal shadow effect. The design follows preceding architectural theory of basic structural anatomy as a system of posts and beams, however computation presented an opportunity for this traditional framework to be challenged. Through parametric design the posts and beams could be distorted so that they became inclined and broken and the structure could be cascaded to create several overlaps. As a result the structure is not obvious, instead architecture and structure conjoin and harmonise in an “inseparable reading of space”.4 It is evident that computation in this project broadened the design process, allowing for experimentation with abstraction in a quick, easy and economical manner. In general, through algorithmic experimentation, the scope of a designer’s imagination can be broadened and design solutions achieved leading to the realisation of abstract digital models that are actually buildable. 3 “Serpentine Pavilion 2002”, Archello, accessed 18 March 2014, http://www.archello.com/en/project/ serpentine-pavilion-2002 4 Cecil Balmonds Special Lecture at REsite, http://www.archdaily.com/419828/video-cecil-balmond-sspecial-lecture-at-resite-2013/


01

03

02

04

05 01 Cecil Balmond, title n/a, 2013, computation, Arch Daily, http://www.archdaily.com/419828/video-cecil-balmond-s-special-lecture-at-resite-2013/, (accessed 18 March 2014) 02 Cecil Balmond, http://www.archdaily.com/419828/video-cecil-balmond-s-special-lecture-at-resite-2013/ 03 Cecil Balmond, http://www.archdaily.com/419828/video-cecil-balmond-s-special-lecture-at-resite-2013/ 04 Cecil Balmond, http://www.archdaily.com/419828/video-cecil-balmond-s-special-lecture-at-resite-2013/ 05 Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, 2002, Toyo Ito + Cecil Balmond +Arup, photograph, Arch Daily, http://www.archdaily.com/344319/serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2002-toyo-ito-cecil-balmond-arup/51423dcfb3fc4b43eb00005a_ serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2002-toyo-ito-cecil-balmond-arup_11-iii-jpg/, (accessed 18 March 2014)

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“YOU’VE GOT TO BUMBLE FORWARD INTO THE UNKNOWN” -FRANK GEHRY

18

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A.3

COMPOSITION/GENERATION FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON MUSEUM, PARIS Fondation Louis Vuitton por la création Museum is currently under construction in Paris. This museum for contemporary art, designed by Frank Gehry embraces the notion of embedded intelligence and self-optimising stimulation rules.1 This way of design has been criticised as a diversion from real, conceptual design objectives, which is degenerative to traditional compositional design. However, this project, despite utilising parametric tools for design generation, promotes computation in architecture as an integrated art form2. The construction is comprised of 19,000 fibre-cement panels and 3,500 curved glass façade sections all of which were parametrically enhanced to achieve explicit geometry. The unprecedented scale and particular curvature of the glass panels required the glass fabricator ‘Sunglass’, to use a parametric glass mould to achieve cylindrical geometry via bending of glass sheets. In order to achieve these parametric moulds Gehry Technologies established fabrication and geometric rules specifically for the model that included optimisations, 1 Tobias Nolte and Andrew Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton”, Architectural Design Magazine, 2014, 82 2 Brady Peters, “Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design Magazine, 2013, 15

which are new to “embedded generative intelligence and simulation”.3 It is evident that generative methods have progressed and are not only used for design experimentation. Nowadays, mechanical fabrication processes have a dramatic impact on the design geometry and validation requires analysis of numerous parameters for each element of assembly.4 Without algorithmic thinking, such a complex, curvilinear design would not be realisable and furthermore buildable.

Vuitton project demonstrates that despite the time consuming nature of extensive analyses enabled by generative design approaches; the use of such technology augments the designer’s intellect and creates the potential to seize the complexity of building a project and the parameters active in the building development.6

The majority of analyses conducted for the project were performed via generative exercises enabled by computation, however this design process was time consuming and hence in order to avoid this limitation the team implemented collaborative processes to offload work to alternate, low-demand machines. Ultimately a “private cloud” for generative geometry and optimisation was established to increase the efficiency of the process and determine material deformations.5 Hence, the Fondation Louis

The realisation of integrated models is essential in today’s industry. Seamless sharing of digital models is beneficial as it accelerates distribution of information, provides more direct accountability and simpler reporting.7 Overall, this project has an important role in architectural discourse as a precedent that promotes generative design and more specifically, the use of parametric modelling to enable concurrent design. Concurrent design facilitates optimisation of separate portions of the model simultaneously, which is central to architectural discourse and promising for the industry as a means of deploying surface analysis and optimisation methods in architectural constructability.

3 Nolte and Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton”, 2014, 84-85 4 Nolte and Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton”, 2014, 85 5 Nolte and Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton”, 2014, 86-87

6 Peters, “Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought”, 15 7 Nolte and Witt, “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton”, 2014, 88

01 The First Dramatic Images of New Parisian Landmark, 2014, photograph, Tootlafrance.ie, http://www.tootlafrance.ie/news/fondation-louisvuitton-the-first-dramatic-images-of-a-new-parisian-landmark, (accessed 22 March 2014) 02 Louis Vuitton Foundation for Creation, 2011, photograph, Delood, http://www.delood.com/specials/louis-vuitton-foundation-creation, (accessed 22 March 2014)

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A.3

COMPOSITION/GENERATION NATIONAL BANK OF KUWAIT HEADQUARTERS Fosters and Partner’s design proposal for the National Bank of Kuwait Headquarters in Kuwait, was generated by the Special Modelling Group (SMG) team at Fosters using parametric design. The use of parametric modelling tools from early stages in the design process enabled exploration of geometrical solutions as well as integration of performance parameters within the model.1

operational requirements.2 It is evident that the SMG embraced algorithmic thinking in the design process, as through the generation and synthesis of the generating code they were able to modify the model, exploring alternate design options and speculating additional design potentials. 3

The main parametric modelling software used for the design was Bentley Systems’ Generative Components (GC), which was supported with numerous scripted tools. Initially this software was used by the SMG to produce various models that were then developed further by the design team. In later stages of the design process, the model evolved to become a coherent geometry, which was aligned with performance parameters and considerate of environmental, structural, functional and

A main influence on the geometry of the design however was the local climate in Kuwait. Vertical structural shading fins shield the eastern and western façades whereas the north is open and exposed to sunlight and optimum views. A complete geometric description of the construction of the shading fins was contained in the parametric model, and engineering input was embedded via a data spreadsheet link. Via computation, the buildability of the fins could be determined by investigating curvature levels of elements and the degree of repetition to maintain the overall building

1 Dusanka Popovska, “Integrated Computational Design”, Architectural Design Magazine, 2013, 34

2 Popovska, “Integrated Computational Design”, 34 3 Brady Peters, “Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought”, Architectural Design Magazine, 2013, 10

shape.4 Hence, the writing and modification of algorithms enabled exploration and generation of architectural concepts in relation to element placement and configuration. Conclusively, in this design proposal the use of parametrically modelling is utilised to link the geometric relationships between design elements. Evidently, the process required for the creation of such a complex design is facilitated, as multiple variations of the building can be developed at a rational rate and rapidly fabricated for prototyping. Calculations such as wind, solar and acoustic analysis can also be aligned with the parametric model for further enhancement of the design. Ultimately, the prospects for architectural design are broadened and the potential to create, complex, stimulating and sustainable buildings is optimised through generative design and parametric modelling as an integrated art form. 4 Popovska, “Integrated Computational Design”, 35

01 Kuwait NBK Tower, date of image n/a, computation, Skyscraper City, http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1443000, (accessed 22 March 2014)

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A.4 CONCLUSION Parametric design represents an exciting, contemporary and innovative approach to architectural design, which I have not had the opportunity to explore in previous design studios or my university degree in general. I intend to utilise this topical technology to stimulate my design process and explore an alternate way of thinking about architecture and design. Whilst computational design shifts away from traditional design approaches, which I have become accustomed to in previous design studios, I intend on maintaining key concepts essential to a design however, through a digital medium. I aim to generate a design, which is respective of the site in Refshaleøen, Copenhagen and representative of its historical and geographical qualities to ensure that the design is unique to the site and embedded within its surroundings, as I believe it is important to engage the design within both the environmental and cultural context. In particular, I intend to incorporate energy calculations in my parametric modelling explorations to not only enhance my design process but to enlighten myself on the potential benefits computation has for delving into more sustainable and environmentally responsive architecture. I believe that this is crucial to creating a design which identifies with the LAGI brief. Hence, this factor is essential for the assignment however, more importantly is integral to my future as an architect in today’s society where environmentally savvy design is central to architectural discourse. Design generated by algorithmic thinking that incorporates environmental calculations has the potential to benefit both the environment and society as architecture envelops everyone who experiences it, whether they are engaged consciously or subconsciously. The LAGI is an opportunity to create architecture, which is responsive to the demand for not only renewable, clean energy sources but also a public space that connects society with this demand. This design approach is advantageous as by developing an architectural space that is shaped by environmental efficiency, users are immersed in the issue and more likely to take action in their daily life to promote the solution. A design approach stimulated by parametric modelling and scripting will allow for innovative boundaries to be overcome, as through the use of Grasshopper there is a myriad of creative opportunities to be explored. It will be possible to augment my intellect and envisage design possibilities, which previously may not have been imaginable due to static limitations. Furthermore the realisation of topologies will be conducive due to digression from convention. In addition rapid, precise prototyping via advanced fabrication technologies will enhance the design process by demonstrating the practicability of the digital model and the potential to achieve a highly refined, realisable design. Overall, the precedent projects analysed stimulate my intended design approach, as it is evident that through parametric design enabled by computation a connection can be formed between the architecture itself, those who experience it and the environment. Each of these precedents explores the use of computation in a unique manner however they all demonstrate the evolution of architecture and the potential to engage in architectural discourse through my own experience with computational design.

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A.5

LEARNING OUTCOMES The first few weeks of Studio Air have been pivotal in my study of architecture, forcing me to broaden the manner in which I assess design and enhance my knowledge and critical thinking skills. Prior to this subject, concepts such as computational design and generative design were unknown to me. I was aware of parametric design due to a brief introduction to Grasshopper in a Rhino workshop I attended, however, I was unacquainted with the extent to which it can be utilised and the outcomes that can be achieved by algorithms. The technical component of the subject thus far has been critical to my understanding of this. Weekly video tutorials and algorithmic sketchbook tasks have exposed me to various outcomes that can be achieved using Grasshopper. In addition, through exploration of these tasks I have recognised the basis from which prominent architecture throughout the world has been generated. Furthermore, through my study of precedents I expanded my knowledge on significant architecture throughout the world and key architectural practices that embody parametric design in their projects. Moreover, in my analysis of precedents I have learnt how computation can be utilised not only to generate designs but also to enhance the environmental and structural performance of them. What I found particularly interesting is that parametric modelling has benefits beyond the scope of the design itself. It has been used as a mechanism for achieving concurrent design and hence is an essential element of communication and management within a project between the professionals involved. Prior to this subject, my exposure to architectural discourse was minimal. By reading and reviewing architectural literature I have been enlightened on the debate concerning computational design and been encouraged to form my own opinion on the issue. Generally, I am an open-minded person who will support both sides of an argument hence it was difficult to act opinionatedly. What I have learnt through my introduction to algorithmic thinking, which I believe is essential to the debate, is that parametric design although computer generated, does not render the human mind redundant. A designer’s perceptions and intelligence remain encapsulated in the design, as they are the ones who modify the model to meet their aesthetic and functional expectations. The learning experiences in regards to architectural computing that I have had in the beginning of this subject would have been useful in enhancing my designs in previous design studios. Through the use of computational design I could have explored design solutions, which were not foreseeable two-dimensionally. Furthermore it is now apparent to me, that conducting rapid prototyping via fabrication technologies would be an efficient way to test the structural stability of design ideas. In addition, the exploration of architectural literature and knowledge of precedents could have been used as sources of inspiration for my design concepts. Overall, I believe that my experience learning about the theory of architectural computing has shifted my perspectives on architecture. I now assess the built environment beyond the aesthetics and function. I expect that this will be influential when I begin designing parametrically and I am intrigued by the opportunity to discover and develop new, creative prospects.

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A.6 APPENDIX

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES The weekly algorithmic tasks extended on the material demonstrated in the video tutorials and hence were important in synthesising the content presented. By implementing the algorithmic thinking to a specific task outlined by the tutors I was able to develop a familiarisation with the components and explore the possibilities of parametric modelling through trial and error and manipulation. As well as watching the prescribed video tutorials, I watched additional videos online to enhance my understanding of Grasshopper components, which were introduced and in some cases develop on these components. In addition, on some occasions I met with my peers to complete algorithmic tasks along side one another. This was a valuable experience as we were exposed to a broader scope of outcomes as well as issues other people faced. Researching precedents and delving into architectural discourse extended upon the knowledge obtained via the video tutorials. Through the literature I was able to put the algorithmic tasks into context, recognising how building forms derive from and are enhanced by parametric modelling. On the converse, the algorithmic tasks allowed me to put in perspective the extent of algorithm required to achieve complex precedent designs that I examined. The sketches included are an amalgamation of the basic principles of Grasshopper learnt in the past, initial weeks of the subject including, lofting, data matching and pattern creation. These principles will provide a strong basis for the upcoming design process.

24


A.6

APPENDIX

GRIDSHELL Figure 01 represents a gridshell that was inspired by that of Matsy Smart Geometry. The Gridshell was ultimately achieved using the geodesic component, however in order to reach this output a series of basic Grasshopper components needed to be employed. Potentially, this algorithm could be engaged in the LAGI design to create a precise and stimulating, lattice like structure.

01

DATA GEOMETRY Figure 02 represents a generative design, which reflects data relating to wind movement and wind speed in Copenhagen. This lofted geometry demonstrates how data input in parametric modelling can create interesting forms, which are responsive to the site context. Therefore, this algorithmic sketch touches on the ability to use algorithmic thinking as a means for creating environmentally responsive architecture. This is a particularly critical aspect of parametric modelling in a project such as the LAGI where the environmental performance is pivotal to the concept and overall success of the design. Evidently by using data relevant to Refshaleøen, Copenhagen as algorithmic inputs, I intend on generating stimulating, meaningful geometries to shape an overall site relevant design.

02

25


A

REFERENCES TEXT

1. “Calorie Park”, Morteza Karimi, Land Art Generator Initiative, accessed 10 March 2014, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/6713ke13/ 2. Cecil Balmonds Special Lecture at REsite, Czech Republic, 2013, online video, http://www.archdaily.com/419828/video-cecilbalmond-s-special-lecture-at-resite-2 3. Ferry, Robert and Mononian, Elizabeth. “A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Technologies”. Society for Cultural Exchange and Land Art Generator Initiative, 2012: 5-52 4. Hogrefe, Alex. “Evaluating the Digital Design Process”, Bottom-up vs. Top-Down, 2010: 2 5. Kolarevic, Branko. “Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing”. London and New York: Spon Press, 2003 6. Nolte, Tobias and Witt, Andrew. “Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton”. Architectural Design Magazine, 2014: 82-88 7. Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert. “Theories of the Digital in Architecture”. London and New York: Routledge, 2014 8. “Perfect Buildings: The Maths of Modern Architecture”, Marianne Freiberger, Plus Magazine, last modified 1 March 2007, http://plus. maths.org/content/perfect-buildings-maths-modern-architecture 9. Peters, Brady. “Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought”. Architectural Design Magazine, 2013: 10-15 10. Popovska, Dusanka. “Integrated Computational Design”, Architectural Design Magazine, 2013: 34 -35 11. Reza Razighifard. Natural and Artificial Photosynthesis, Place of publication n/a: Wiley, 2013 12. Romero, Fernando and Ramos, Armando. “Bridging a Culture - The Design of Museo Soumaya”. Architectural Design Journal Article 08, 2013: 67-69 13. “Serpentine Pavilion 2002”, Archello, accessed 18 March 2014, http://www.archello.com/en/project/serpentine-pavilion-2002

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A

REFERENCES IMAGES

1. AlgaePARC, date of image n/a, photograph, http://www.alphagalileo.org/ViewItem.aspx?ItemId=105680&CultureCode=en, (accessed 27 March 2014) 2. Cecil Balmond, title n/a, 2013, computation, Arch Daily, http://www.archdaily.com/419828/video-cecil-balmond-s-special-lectureat-resite-2013/, (accessed 18 March 2014) 3. Fernando Romero and Armando Ramos, “The Design of Museo Soumaya�, 67-69 4. Foster + Partners Projects: City Hall London, UK, 1998-2002, 2014, computation, Foster + Partners, http://www.fosterandpartners. com/projects/city-hall/, (accessed 18 March 2014) 5. Kuwait NBK Tower, date of image n/a, computation, Skyscraper City, http://www.skyscrapercity.com/showthread.php?t=1443000, (accessed 22 March 2014) 6. London City Hall, date of image n/a, photograph, Vis[Le], http://visle-en-terrasse.blogspot.com.au/2012/02/london-city-hall.html, (accessed 20 March 2014) 7. Louis Vuitton Foundation for Creation, 2011, photograph, Delood, http://www.delood.com/specials/louis-vuitton-foundation-creation, (accessed 22 March 2014) 8. Morteza Karimi, Mechanical Energy, 2012, digital design, Land Art Generator Initiative, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/6713ke13/#, (accessed 10 March 2014) 9. Morteza Karimi, Calorie Park, 2012, digital design, Land Art Generator Initiative, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/6713ke13/#, (accessed 10 March 2014) 10. Serpentine Gallery Pavilion, 2002, Toyo Ito + Cecil Balmond + Arup, photograph, Arch Daily, http://www.archdaily.com/344319/ serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2002-toyo-ito-cecil-balmond-arup/51423dcfb3fc4b43eb00005a_serpentine-gallery-pavilion-2002-toyoito-cecil-balmond-arup_11-iii-jpg/, (accessed 18 March 2014) 11. The First Dramatic Images of New Parisian Landmark, 2014, photograph, Tootlafrance.ie, http://www.tootlafrance.ie/news/fondationlouis-vuitton-the-first-dramatic-images-of-a-new-parisian-landmark, (accessed 22 March 2014) 12. Vincent Callebaut Architects, Algae Airships, date of image n/a, digital design,

http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20130624-

architecture-for-a-changing-world, (accessed 27 March 2014)

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CRITERIA DESIGN

28


PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN

B.1 RESEARCH FIELD

30

B.2 CASE STUDY 1.0

38

B.3 CASE STUDY 2.0

44

B.4 TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT

54

B.5 TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES

86

B.6 TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL

104

B.7 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

118

B.8 APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

122

29


B.1

RESEARCH FIELDS GEOMETRY

30


31


B.1

RESEARCH FIELDS GEOMETRY

Geometry has always been pivotal in architectural discourse, constituting the basis for architectural design process and acting as an architectural language in the form of descriptive geometry rules. However, it is evident that recently computational design and digital fabrication technologies have redeveloped the role of geometry in architecture and expanded the possibilities presented by topology and parametric design.1 The exploration of new geometries beyond Euclidean, developed by parametric design has expanded the expression of architectural form.2 In particular, the onset of computational design has led to the advent of free-form shapes, which has influenced the development of more complex geometry in architectural design.3 Such geometric form would not have achievable without ‘parametricism’. The shift in contemporary architecture has reiterated the importance of geometry and changed the way in which architectural design is represented digitally, whereby “explicit geometric notion” is replaced by “instrumental geometric relationships”. As a result there is a transition from designing a specific building shape, to developing geometric relationships responsive to variables, expressions, conditional statements and scripts through a parametric design medium.4 According to the founders of “SmartGeometry” - a computational design research and development group – construct geometry has previously been hindered by “bland planar and orthogonal minimalism”, which result from the use of conventional computerised design which is limiting to architectural language due to predetermined libraries of architectural elements. They argue that, through computational design there is an opportunity to understand geometry as more than an experiential medium and achieve “formal resolution of competing forces and requirements” through complex geometry. In addition, SmartGeometry believe that through parametrically designed geometry, there is a gateway to architecture that is structurally efficient and environmentally sensitive.5 This is evident in projects such as London City Hall by Foster and Partners. Hence, it is apparent that geometry has the potential to inform not only more stimulating generative approaches for architecture but also design that is more “construction aware for the whole design team” by enabling a digitally encompassed work-flow from initial design to final fabrication.6 This is an important point to consider in regards to the LAGI design, as it is important that the installation is responsive to the environment and emerged in the site context. The exploration of geometry generated by environmental data - incorporated into the digital model through algorithms, will be essential to deriving a stimulating and efficient design. The advent of parametric design enables significantly more abstract constructs and provides an opportunity for the designer to define their own architectural vocabulary through a thorough understanding of geometric and algorithmic notions.7 Architectural geometry is an important field of research, which seeks to implement this algorithmic solution to close gaps between arbitrary geometry and complex geometry. In addition, it aims to develop upon instruments for generating digital models that are shaped by algorithmic input related to materials, manufacturing technologies and structural properties. Whilst the development of construction-aware design tools is challenging, the benefits are significant and rationalisation is facilitated, hence design prospects for the future are enhanced.

32

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Helmut Pottmann, “Architectural Geometry as Design Knowledge”, AD Magazine Volume 80, Issue 4 (2010): 74 Dennis R Shelden and Andrew J Witt, “Continuity and Rupture”, AD Magazine Volume 81, Issue 4 (2011): 37 Pottmann, “Architectural Geometry as Decision Knowledge” 74 Achim Menges, “Instrumental Geometry”, AD Magazine Volume 76, Issue 2(2006): 43 Menges, “Instrumental Geometry”, 43 Pottmann, “Architectural Geometry as Design Knowledge”, 77 Menges, “Instrumental Geometry”, 44


01 GREEN VOID LAVA

01 Green Void, date of image n/a, photograph, Lava Net, http://www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/green-void/ (accessed 31 March 2014)

33


01

02

03

34


B.1

RESEARCH FIELD FRANK GEHRY CASE STUDIES SINGLE CURVED SURFACES

GUGGENHEIM MUSEUM, BILBAO

Frank Gehry was one of the first architects to explore free-form surfaces in his designs hence, he has had a significant impact of architectural geometry research. He implemented developable surfaces know as ‘single-curved surfaces’ which can be unravelled successfully, without stretching or tearing, into a planar form. He therefore developed significant potential for design, which would otherwise not have been realisable, through this fabrication method.

The Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, Spain was built between October 1993 and 1997 and is an embodiment of how the advent of computational design has allowed for the generation and realisation of free-form architectural geometry.

Single-curved panels are a significant concept in architectural discourse concerning the evolution of architectural geometry due to the advent of computational design. The single-curved surfaces used by Gehry in the design for various projects including, the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao, the Experience Music Project in Seattle and the Walt Disney Concert Hall in LA, are “characterised by a family of straight lines, along each of which they possess a constant tangent plane”. This has been developed upon in recent research, whereby free-form surfaces are converged with quadrilateral meshes with planar faces. This technique facilitates rationalisation as the subdivision and optimisation generative approach provides direct modelling that considers constructability.1 1 Helmut Pottmann, “Architectural Geometry as Design Knowledge”, AD Magazine Volume 80, Issue 4 (2010): 74

CATIA, an advanced software previously developed for the aerospace industry, was used by Gehry to deal with the mathematical complexity of his design and translate his design concept into a buildable structure.1 This software has since been used by Gehry Technologies to realise various complex geometries in architecture including that of the Fondation Louis Vuitton Museum currently being constructed in Paris. The complex geometric arrangement of the Guggenheim Museum attributes to the essence of the building both internally and externally and the connection between the two through curved volumes and large glass curtain walls. The variety of volumes and perspectives generates an efficient exhibition space for works at various scales. 2 Evidently, the overall geometry enhanced by computational design provides benefits in regards to functionality and the overall impression of the building on its users. 1 “The Construction”, FMGB Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa, Guggenheim Bilbao, last modified 2014, http:// www.guggenheim-bilbao.es/en/the-building/the-construction/ 2 “Inside the Museum”, FMGB Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa, Guggenheim Bilbao, last modified 2014, http:// www.guggenheim-bilbao.es/en/the-building/inside-the-museum/

04 01 02 03 04

Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Spain, November 6 2010, photograph, HD Wallpapers, http://www.hdwallpapers.in/guggenheim_museum_bilbao_spain-wallpapers.html, (accessed 31 March 2014) The facade of the Experience Music Project where it meets the Science Fiction Museum in Seattle, WA, date of image n/a, photograph, Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/1061598, (accessed 31 March 2014) Los Angeles. The Walt Disney Concert Hall., May 1 2012, photograph, BCBL, http://bigcitiesbrightlights.wordpress.com/2012/05/01/los-angeles-the-walt-disney-concert-hall/, (accessed 31 March 2014) Guggenheim Bilbao, date of image n/a, sketch drawing, Guggenheim Bilbao, http://www.guggenheim-bilbao.es/en/the-building/the-architect/, (accessed 1 April 2014)

35


B.1

RESEARCH FIELDS VOLDATDOM, SKYLAR TIBBETS + SJET

The VoltaDom is an by Skylar Tibbits for installation is featured use of computational

installation developed by SJET, founded the 150th FAST Arts Festival.1 The on the MIT campus and emulates the design to develop complex geometry.

Numerous vaults comprise this installation and are reminiscent of the vaulted ceilings in notable cathedrals key to architectural history.2 Therefore the complex geometry employs traditional geometric concepts however, develops upon these through computation to create a contemporary equivalent and overall abstract geometry It is evident that this project demonstrates a new form of experimental structure, which is developed by computer coding and realised by advanced digital fabrication technologies.

“surface panel” through intensification of depth in a vaulted surface, which is enhanced by a double-curve and is reasonable to fabricate. This is enabled through conversion of the vaulted surfaces into buildable strips, which allows for more efficient fabrication and assembly, compared to the simple process of rolling out sheets of material. 3 The VoltaDom is a stimulating precedent in regards to the abstract re-invention of traditional architectural geometric configurations through parametric design. It offers a broad scope of insight into geometric development and manipulation through Grasshopper. In particular, the idea of surface panelling evident in this model builds upon the original concept of ‘single curved surfaces’ explore by Frank Gehry and is an interesting notion for exploration in regards to the LAGI design.

1 “VoltaDom Installation Skylar Tibbits + SJET”, eVolo, Lidijia Grozdanic, published November 22 2011, http:// www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/

There are two Grasshopper definitions associated with the algorithm required for the development of such a form as the VoltaDom - one to develop the cone surfaces and configuration and one to convert the configuration into a series of vaults.

2 “VoltaDom Installation Skylar Tibbits + SJET”, http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylartibbits-sjet/

3 “VoltaDom Installation Skylar Tibbits + SJET”, http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylartibbits-sjet/

The installation is an attempt to extend on the concept of an architectural

36


01

Both Grasshopper definitions were explored in ‘Part B.2 Case Study 1.0’. By changing existing parameters and imputing additional component options manipulation of the model was achieved, producing various unforeseen outcomes, which challenged the capabilities of the definition and were both successful and unsuccessful in producing a range of thought-provoking outcomes. In Matrix 1 the components within the algorithms remained constant however, the parameter values were altered to achieve variation in the model. Hence, the ‘species’ was the parameter being changed and the iterations differed in response to the shift in parameter value. The extent of deviations from the model due to the parameter change varied considerably, however the change of value was in set increments to achieve more logical and controlled results. Initially parameters were changed individually in specific increments however; in order to establish more diverse outcomes, substantial changes in value were investigated. In addition all parameters were collectively changed to produce a more dramatic shift in the model

02

(this is shown in perspective view in the ‘Combination’ row). In Matrix 2, the model was manipulated in an alternative manner, by breaking the definition and changing component options. The input of three-dimensional surface geometry - which was substituted for the cone components, uncovered latent potential in the model. In addition a supplementary cull pattern component was added and a panel connected to produce differing patterns. Hence, three-dimensional surface geometry was the ‘species’ in Matrix 2 and the cull pattern - created by inputting ‘true’ and ‘false’ in a specific sequence, generated differing iterations. The two matrices demonstrate different techniques in manipulation of a grasshopper definition and hence produce a series of unique iterations, which change the model dramatically, to the extent that the original model is unrecognisable. This presents vast potential for the LAGI design through the use of Grasshopper and the broad scope of parameters and components that can be connected with basic surface geometry to produce abstract forms and configurations.

01 and 02 VoltaDom, date of image n/a, photograph, eVolo, http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/ (accessed 31 March 2014)

37


B.2

CASE STUDY 1.0 - MATRIX 1 ORIGINAL MODEL 10.0

12.0

1.0

3.0

5.0

0.85

0.75

0.65

0.7

0.8

0.9

8.00 1.00 0.85 0.70

10.0 3.00 0.75 0.80

12.0 5.00 0.65 0.90

38

COMBINATION

HEIGHT

RADIUS

SEED

POINTS

8.0


OUTLIER/EXTREME CHANGE 14.0

16.0

50.0

7.0

9.0

15.0

0.55

0.45

0.15

1.0

2.0

4.0

14.0 7.00 0.55 1.00

16.0 9.00 0.45 2.00

50.0 35.0 0.15 4.00

39


B.2

CULL PATTERING

CASE STUDY 1.0 - MATRIX 2

40

CONE WITH CULL BASE AND HEIGHT

SPHERE WITH CULL BASE

TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE

FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE

FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE


THREE DIMENSIONAL GEOMETRY CYLINDER WITH CULL BASE AND HEIGHT

CYLINDER WITH CULL BASE AND RADIUS

TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE

FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE

FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE

FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

41


B.2

CASE STUDY 1.0 VOLTADOM DEFINITION SUCCESSFUL OUTCOMES [01] COMBINATION

8.00 1.00 0.85 0.70

[02] SPHERE WITH CULL BASE

I T E R A T I O N

0 1

A N D

0 2

Iteration 01 and 02 represent configurations of basic geometric shapes. Iteration 01 is a slight variation from the VoltaDom definition, and has been selected due to the potential it offers to develop an abstract geometry by impinging this configuration of basic geometries onto a planar surface. The sequence is distinguished from the sequence of geometric variations within its species as the amount of points is feasible to imprint a recognisable pattern onto a surface, hence is more practical in regards to fabrication Iteration 02 diverts further from the VoltaDom model and hence presents additional possibilities. The sphere configuration could also be imprinted into a planer surface however; alternatively there is an opportunity to derive a design from a sequence of interlocking spheres. Therefore there is potential to create a series of spaces or a unified whole. The basic sphere provides maximum surface area which is a positive attribute in relation to the LAGI design where the efficiency of the design is significantly effected by the amount of energy it is capable of producing. Both of these iterations present a broad scope of opportunity in regards to the collaboration of geometric form to generate more complex, abstract geometry. In addition, the potential to develop a contemporary, parametric version of a traditional architectural form is evident.

TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

42


[03] CYLINDER WITH CULL BASE AND HEIGHT

I T E R A T I O N 0 3

A N D

0 4

Iteration 03 and 04 demonstrate that despite use of the same basic geometric form - in this case, a cylinder the outcomes can differ significantly and hence the potential influence on the design from such iterations is quite vast.

FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

[04] CYLINDER WITH CULL BASE AND RADIUS

Iteration 03 is distinguished as a more successful outcome within the sequence as a range of differing volumes were produced. The dissimilarity of height creates variation in the model, which is a point of interest. This concept of height variation and sense of strata in geometry is a substantial notion for the LAGI design, as it produces a range of thresholds for human involvement within the installation and a series of levels at which energy can be harnessed. Iteration 04 demonstrates geometric size variation on the horizontal axis as opposed to vertically, as in iteration 03. This establishes geometry within geometry, which is a stimulating concept and creates a potential to derive more abstract form from the way the cylindrical ‘rings’ interlock and overlap. The division of space created by the geometry reiterates the notion of developing a series of spaces within a whole, which could be implemented in the LAGI design to vary the way in which the installation is used by establishing physical, continuous boundaries, which intersect with other boundaries, ultimately creating a complex, functional and entertaining space for users.

TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE

43


02

03

04

01 44

01 Gary Annett Photography, AAMI Park Melbourne, architectural photography, http://garyannettphotography.com/blog/aami-park-melbourne/ (accessed 8 April 2014) 02, 03, 04 Cox Architecture, title of image n/a, digital drawing, http://www.australiandesignreview.com/architecture/1798-melbourne-rectangular-stadium (accessed 8 April 2014) 05 Luminova, AAMI Park, photograph, http://www.luminova.net/projects/aami-park (accessed 8 April 2014)


B.3

CASE STUDY 2.0 AAMI PARK, MELBOURNE AAMI Park also known as Melbourne Rectangular Stadium, designed by Cox Architecture in collaboration with Arup Associates, was completed in May 2010.1 “The client’s functional brief for the stadium was to provide a facility for 4 separate football codes with spectator seating as close to the action as possible”. Cox Architecture explored this brief through their concept of a ‘seating bowl’, which they articulated through a series of bays. The articulation was in order to enhance the theatrics and engagement, as Cox perceived these factors as vital to creating memorable events.2

is a representation of the potential of technology as a medium for collaboration between the architect, engineer and builder.6 In particular, through the use of a DesignLink computational framework, the structural design team was capable of investigating geometric design options in an efficient manner, allowing greater dedication of time to evaluating design options, which ultimately led to a more refined and effective design. In addition, DesignLink was utilised as a visual communicative medium for “simultaneous interpretation of performance indicators” by various professionals involved in the project. 7

This project demonstrates integration between architecture and engineering in that the entirety of the design is purposeful and “optimised for its specific application”.3 The bioframe structure is a pivotal element of the design that is based on inherent structural efficacies of Buckminster Fuller geodesic dome. The bioframe gives a strong sense of identity to the stadium and in conjunction with the triangular panelised façade cladding; develops sculpturally organic and overall bold architecture.4

Evidently, parametric modeling was a significant contributor to meeting the client brief as well as embodying the architectural design concept in the outcome. In particular, parametric modeling allowed for efficient extrapolation of geodesic principles to design each nodal point within the structure based on the load it carries in order to ensure that all roof elements contribute to load transfer to the supports. This is integral to the development of the bioframe structure, which is critical to the overall design concept.

In initial design stages Cox Architects worked in collaboration with RMIT University’s Spatial Information Architecture Laboratory to explore design concepts using Catia. Furthermore, parametric modeling through Bentley’s Generative Components software, was utilised after the conceptual stage to ensure the design outcome was a representation of architectural intent, structural requirements and optimization of each member and connection.5 Hence, the design 1 “About AAMI Park”, AAMI Park, accessed 8 April 2014, http://www.aamipark.com.au/about/history/ 2 “AAMI Park”, Cox Architecture, accessed 8 April 2014, http://www.coxarchitecture.com.au/#/project/11615 3 “AAMI Park”, Quentin Seik, MIMOA, accessed 8 April 2014, http://www.mimoa.eu/projects/Australia/ Melbourne/AAMI%20Park 4 “About AAMI Park”, http://www.aamipark.com.au/about/history/ 5 James Merlino, “AAMI Park Melbourne”, The Arup Journal, Isssue 10 (2010), 8-9

05

Ultimately Cox Architecture was successful in achieving a bold, sculptural look, which embodies function and structure in its aesthetic properties to optimise the stadium performance and visitor experience. Its success is recognized by various notable organisations, and as result it has won approximately twenty-two awards in the design and construction industries.8

6 “AAMI Park”, Melbourne Design Awards, accessed 8 April 2014, http://melbournedesignawards.com.au/ mda2010/entry_details_v03.asp?ID=3371&Category_ID=4554 7 Dominique Hozler and Steven Downing, “Optioneering”, AD Magazine Volume 80, Issue 4 (2010), 61 8 “AAMI Park wins at world stadium awards”, Architecture AU, accessed 8 April 2014, http://architectureau. com/articles/aami-park-wins-world-stadium-award/

45


E X P L O R I N G T H E W A Y W E E X P R E S S G E O M E T R Y I N A R C H I T E C T U R E T H R O U G H O U T H I S T O R Y T O T O D A Y

46

01


B.3

CASE STUDY 2.0 GEODESIC DOME

B U C K M I N S T E R

F U L L E R

P R I N C I P L E

The ‘Geodesic Dome’ was a break through in post World War II architecture, as there was a high demand in mass production and the ability to pre-fabricate architecture, to a degree. This idea of the geodesic dome, was based on the concept, thought about by Buckminster Fuller, of fold away architetcure that was easy to transport, and create shelter for those who were homeless after the wrath of WWII. The partial spherical structure is laced with an array of triangulation patterning, which are

designed to distribute stress accross the structure. This form of architetcural deisgn was created well before the introduction of computational platforms and programs, and demonstrates a strong attention to detail in regards to the rigidity and effectiveness of the geodesic steel structure. The structure has then been laced with a thin layer of epoxy sheeting, that acts as an environmental barrier. In a sense, it take the idea of a tent to a whole new level.

01 Installation of Magnesium Framed Geodesic Dome, 1949, photography, http://designmuseum.org/design/r-buckminster-fuller, (accessed 29 April 2014) 02 Melbourne Rectangular Stadium, ohotography, http://www.australiandesignreview.com/architecture/1798-melbourne-rectangular-stadium, (accessed 29 April 2014)

47


48


B.3

CASE STUDY 2.0 REVERSE ENGINEERING GEOMETRY OF AAMI PARK

P S E U D O

C O D E

ATTEMPT TO CREATE A SERIES OF SPHERES ALONG A RECTANGULAR OUTLINE: Create basic outline in rhino and then select points of curves. Divide and explode to break it up into groups from which spheres can be adjusted accordingly. ACHIEVING VOLUME: Once points or curves are divided and exploded, put into a list command to and find a way to specify groups and values. We plan to connect this to a sphere and attach number sliders to facilitate change and adjustment of shape sizes, and then loft or bake to see what kind of shape is achieved. HOLLOW: Create a surface through a brep or mesh and explode or split and delete overlapping sections. Then experiment with boolean tool or perhaps creating shapes within the existing spheres and delete those shapes to hollow out the 3D surfaces. PANELS: Look at triangulation and Voronoi components.

49


01

S T E P

1

The stadium is basically a series of spheres which overlap, change in volume and follow a rectangular layout. Therefore, to create the basic outline for the spheres to follow, a rectangular 2D outline was created on rhino and using the “fillet” command, the points of the corners were rounded to match the circular edges of the final form.

02

S T E P

This curve was then selected in grasshopper, divided and exploded. This was done so spheres (when created) could be adjusted and change in volume in groups rather than as a whole to match the changes seen in the form for AAMI Park.

03

S T E P

3

The original ‘set curve’ and geometry of the stadiums overall shape was then offset to create a boundary for the internal ‘intersecting’ curve to follow.

50

2

04

S T E P

4

The geometry (the spheres), were then trimmed with the intersecting form, and this created the overall form for the stadium. This idea of a shell like structure that followed the parameter of the stadiums oval/rectangular form, was achived through subtracting the inner ‘trimmed’ part of the sphere.


B.3

CASE STUDY 2.0 REENGINEERING GEOMETRY OF AAMI PARK

05

S T E P

5

After trimming the surface to create the shell structure, we resorted to creating a ‘Brep’ with the geometry, in order to enable the meshing functions. Lastly, we meshed the edges in order to create a surface that resembled that demonstrated in the AAMI PARK stadium itself. 51


B.3

CASE STUDY 2.0 REENGINEERING GEOMETRY OF AAMI PARK

O U T C O M E

&

F U R T H E R

E X P L O R A T I O N

Towards the end of the Reverse Engineering exercise, and as a way of testing the possibilites of such a structure, we began thinking about how we would create a surface that would be able to explore the notion of panelling. M A N I P U L A T I O N So, in response, we looked at the notion of creating a series of contours, defined by the shell like structure, which we decided to explode into a series of points that would, in turn, open up an array of possibilities which we could translate into the iterations. I T E R A T I O N

52

S T A G E


G R A S S H O P P E R

I D E A S

F O R

D E F I N T I I O N

I T E R A T I O N

Using these divided contours, we would like to explore the notion of extrusion, possibility relating that to the data we obtained earlier and within ‘Part A’ -which was concerned with the wind rose diagrams of the copenhagen site, which responds directly to the LAGI brief. Playing with surfaces and the idea of motion through form shall be explored to see if we can create a humble, kinetic design that surrenders itself to nature by using the 2012 winning Lagi competition entry, Scene-Sensor, as a key precedent. We would also like to re-explore gridshells to see if any interesting forms and patterns can be created from using data and diagrams to convert a conceptual idea into a logical, mathematical and energy based design. Our process will explore from previous weeks work, material qualitative data and incorporated and manipulated We are looking forward error’ and exploring the

new possibilities by building on such as inspiration gained from diagrams, and see if it can be through the re-engineered definition. to the prospect of ‘trial and enless limits of grasshopper.

06 S T E P

6

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TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT LAGI SITE ANALYSIS SITE

FEATURES

The LAGI of large of public liveability

AND

BRIEF

REQUIREMENTS

competition provides a platform for the development scale clean energy resources through the medium installations, which attempt to enhance community as well as stimulating economic development.1

The selected site for the 2014 LAGI competition is Copenhagen also known as Refshaleøen, which is currently on target to becoming carbon neutral by 2025, hence the first capital worldwide to achieve carbon neutrality2. Therefore, it is an appropriate site to establish public artwork that has positive ecological impacts throughout its life cycle and contributes to public amenities. Refshaleøen is a manmade island, which was previously a shipyard however nowadays it features craft facilities, markets, warehouses and is generally an important area to the cultural and recreational sector of the city. The design site boundary is basically an empty site, however partially incorporates the Sender Hoved pier, which is currently an old landfill.3 The sea proximity in addition to the site’s historical context generate an opportunistic basis in regards to the development of energy harnessing design, which marries environmental initiatives and culture. In addition it offers a valuable historical and environmental context that prompts the development of a site responsive, efficient design.

BRIEF

INFLUENCE

ON

DESIGN

INTENTIONS

Forming a connection between clean energy sources and society is key to achieving sustainability, as by immersing people in these designs they are being educated and sensitized to the idea on energy and resource generation and consumption. This is a key goal that the design proposal will seek to achieve. Furthermore, the opportunities for design are endless and the prospect of creating a sculptural form that challenges the mind of visitors is stimulating. It is anticipated that the development of a three-dimensional sculptural form, which harnesses energy from nature to then be transformed into electrical power and transmitted to power the city will be challenging. However, the ability to embrace parametric design to artfully achieve this non-greenhouse polluting installation is a novel and intriguing experience. 1 Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, “What is LAGI?”, Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen 2014 Design Guidelines, 2014, 4 2 City of Copenhagen, “Copenhagen Carbon Neutral 2025”, Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen 2014 Design Guidelines, 2014, 3 3 Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, “LAGI 2014 Design Site: Refshaleøen”, Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen 2014 Design Guidelines, 2014, 5

01 Artist n/a, “Refshaleøen”, Refshaleøen, authors n/a, (Sammen Om Byen, place and date of publication n/a), 1, photograph

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TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT 2012 LAGI COMPETITION WINNER ‘SCENE SENSOR - CROSSING SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL FLOWS’

01

03

01, 02 and 03 James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze, Scene Sensor, 2012, digital design, Land Art Generator Initiative, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ap347043/#, (accessed 18 April 2014)

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‘SCENE SENSOR - CROSSING SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL FLOWS’

02

The 2012 winning LAGI entry “Scene Sensor” harnesses wind flows through the tidal artery of the Fresh Kills site in New York in combination with pedestrian flows to establish a mirror window which is ultimately a reflection of the landscape back to the landscape. The contrast established between the flow of human and ecological energies, both of which have previously transformed the site, have been converged in this design as a means of generating an architectural landscape. This is based on the notion of sensing the scene of visible and invisible forces, hence the name “Scene Sensor”.1 The combination of human and the environmental force is a thought-

provoking prospect, which generates ideas in relation to a design proposal for the 2014 LAGI competition based on kinetic energy fuelled by both human and environmental systems. This addresses the goal of immersing humans in the design in order to solicit contemplation in regards to energy and resource generation and consumption. The design is therefore aligned with previous study and research into wind data in Copenhagen as well as the potentials of kinetic energy produced by human movement as a large-scale energy resource. Furthermore, the use of wind is the intended principle energy source for the design as it is strongly correlated with the site context and Copenhagen’s overall environmental conditions.

1 “Scene Sensor”, James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze, Land Art Generator Initiative, accessed 18 April 2014, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ap347043/#

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TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT

M I D E D G E

S U V D I V I S I O N

I N N E R

P O L Y G O N S

The Grasshopper plugin ‘Weaverbird’ was adopted as a means of exploring mesh capabilities in the AAMI Park reverse engineering definition. Through this plugin a range of textural surfaces and surface patterning outcomes can be achieved that are not attainable through standard Grasshopper components. Despite using geometry as the underlying research field for design, it is evident that textural quality and patterning can assist 58

in the development of a visual response to energy harnessing in the design and a means for human interaction. Such features in combination with motivating geometry will also enhance the overall aesthetic of the design and create a point of interest for installation visitors. Manipulation of the model via weaverbird components stimulated ideas in regards to generating a sense of movement and tactility in the design via textural surfaces

B E V E L

M E S H

E D G E S

W I N D O W

and material capabilities. Furthermore it was established that whilst some patterns are intriguing and thought provoking their potential for application is limited as it was detected that fabrication would be unrealistic. Whilst the AAMI park geometry has been used as the main geometry for the manipulation activity, the application of the weaverbird components can be applied to various geometric outcomes obtained in the manipulation of the reverse engineering definition.


AAMI PARK REVERSE ENGINEERING ITERATIONS E X P L O R I N G T H E C A P A B I L I T I E S O F T H E W E A V E R B I R D P L U G I N

M I D E D G E

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TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT MATRICES EXPLANATION

G E O M E T R Y 2.0 E V A L U A T I N G M A T R I X ARRAY TRANSFORMATIONS

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F I E L D S


THE THE

ITERATIONS IN MATRIX 1.0 WERE DEVELOPED AAMI PARK REVERSE ENGINEERING DEFINITION AS M

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UTILISING A BASIS.

0

The iterations in Matrix 1.0 were developed via experimentation with the ‘array’ components. These components were incorporated into the definition as a medium for exploring the arrangement of the form and were successful in evolving the original stadium of spheres to produce various abstract configurations in which the original model is unapparent. Three species of iterations were producing using the ‘polar array’, ‘rectangular array’, and ‘curve array’. In addition key parameters in the definition were manipulated to produce diversified iterations. The altered parameters include, the number of points, which affected the number of spheres along the curve and the radius of these spheres. Furthermore, a number slider was connected to the point array component and this parameter was shifted to enhance variation. The number of points explored in the iterations was 5, 10 and 20. As the number of points increased, the density of the iteration increased producing more complex iterations. The radius manipulation ranged from 1 to 3. The definitions with a radius equal to 3 produced a spare iteration compared to that of radius equal to 1 - this factor was key to the differentiation of spatial configuration within the model. The greatest variation was achieved in the curve array iterations; furthermore these iterations were most successful in regards to stimulating design ideas and their potential for adaptation to meet the design brief. The curve used for these iterations was not conceptual however, the potential to base the parametric model on a meaningful curve that is design related and site responsive is apparent. It is evident that overall the outcomes presented by this matrix are valuable and thought provoking in regards to development of design ideas and have the potential to stimulate intriguing ideas in combination with experimentation explored in other matrices to produce interesting design brief responses.

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AAMI PARK REVERSE ENGINEERING ITERATIONS 1 . 0

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B.4

TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT THE THE

ITERATIONS IN MATRIX 3.0 WERE DEVELOPED AAMI PARK REVERSE ENGINEERING DEFINITION AS

M

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In Matrix 2.0 the ideologies incorporated within the evaluating fields definitions were introduced, through this we were able to explore the lengths of manipulation in regards to varying forms. This particular matrix pushed the limits of the reengineered model further, striving away from the original ‘repetitive’ linked structure, and towards an exploration of warped iterations. The first series of iterations were produced continuing on with the notion of ‘spheres’, yet distancing them from the original ‘Voltadom’ based definition that was explored in Part B.2 and B.3, by inputting a graph controller, and using the various controllers to warp the structure. The second row explores the outcomes of switching the sphere geometry to a ‘cone’, and this allowed us to explore the discrepancies of having a different geometry that drives the outcomes. Lastly, we reverted back to the spheres, although focused on inputting the wind rose data, that is site specific to the LAGI Copenhagen site for 2014. The outcomes resembled Aami stadium through the strong emphases on repeated forms, unlike the previous iterations that were focused on the idea of singular forms. Some of the key parameters and ‘various controllers’ that were used to alter the forms, included the number of points, which affected the amount of spheres or cones that were present along the base curve and the radius of the geometries. One other main factor, which altered the appearances, was the graph controller, which enabled us to alter the nature and path of the model as well as a b-factor (which was attached to the graph controller), and this altered the height and elevation of the geometry. Most of the iterations in row 1 and 2, explored the notion of minimising the number of points, and in turn they are ranging mainly from 2 – 5. Although, the last row is site specific to the data derived from the month that the data was taken from (July – December; therefore they range from 7 – 12, in consecutive order). The most interesting variations we derived from the introduction of the cone geometry, as these iterations explored the idea of wind, which was one of the conditions of the site that we are interested in adapting to our design throughout the later stages of the project. However, numerous sphere experimentations triggered our creative intuitions, and lead us to consider how they would adapt to the LAGI site in the future and through further manipulation.

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UTILISING A BASIS.


MATRICES EXPLANATION

G E O M E T R Y 2.0 E V A L U A T I N G

F I E L D S

M A T R I X EVALUATING FIELDS AND GRAPH CONTROLLER

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THE THE M

ITERATIONS IN MATRIX 3.0 WERE DEVELOPED AAMI PARK REVERSE ENGINEERING DEFINITION AS A

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Matrix 3.0 worked mainly on conceptualising matrix 2.0 and 3.0 to meet the LAGI Brief through making a connection between design and the environment, and to the located site in Copenhagen specifically. To address the brief's need for an energy source to be incorporated into the design, Copenhagen wind data was used to trigger form and iterations by using wind graph shapes as a starting 'curve' for both the 'array' and 'graph controller' grasshopper definitions built on from the reverse engineering process. Points and sliders were adjusted to meet data collected, such as Copenhagen wind calm and speed from different time periods, including this very month, April 2014. For example, the month April from which data was collected was created as a 'number slider' with the number four. April was recorded with a wind calm of 7.3% and an average speed of 10.6 mph. Such numerical values were transferred into logical grasshopper data to create sketches and iterations. Inspired by previous precedents such as the Dragon Skin Pavilion and the ITKE Pavilion, consideration of material quality and behaviour was incorporated and iterated based on Matrix 1.0. A graph displaying steel stress and strain properties was directly traced and used as a base curve which was plugged into Matrix 1.0 array definitions. Data based on steel stress and strains were incorporated into number sliders to adjust and iterate forms. This data was based upon a tension test of a steel specimen with an original diameter of 0.502 inches and a gauge length of 2.00 in. A stressstrain diagram presented the modulus of elasticity, yield stress, ultimate stress and rupture stress. Values stated in the data table such as a 1.50 load (kip)

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.

UTILISING A BASIS.

0 creating a 0.0005 elongation (inches) were used as starting points and adjustments for 'number sliders'. In the Matrix 3.0 'array' definitions and iterations mainly spheres were used striving back to the 'repetitive' linked structure seen in Aami Park and Matrix 1.0. By incorporating wind and material data a variety of iterations were produced that were able to contain both conceptual and logical meaning and data. As Matrix 2.0 pushed the limits of the reversed engineered model further from matrix 1.0, matrix 3.0 even further extended possibilities of form and iterations. Expanding on from the notion of 'spheres' and the 'Voltadom' based definition previously explored, in Matrix 2.0 a graph controller was used to warp structure. Once again Copenhagen wind data and graph shapes were used as base curves and slider numbers to produce a series of iterations. Spheres were used to trigger geometric forms based along curves of wind graph outlines that created a range and variety of abstract, conceptual forms which relate to the LAGI brief in terms of connection to the site and the use of an energy source, thus iterations being based on kinetic energy. To offer further variety to the iterations as a whole, Matrix 3.0 also incorporated the 'Gridshell' definition from Part B 2 and 3 into the reengineered definition. By using the 'explode tree' command, points along the shape of the Aami Park final result were selected to form a series of horizontal arcs which were adjusted through the use of number sliders and changing in points along the original Aami Park form. By doing so, an interesting small collection of curved, twisting forms were produced which could be interesting if further developed in regards to wind and the LAGI site.


B.4

TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT MATRICES EXPLANATION

G E O M E T R Y 3.0 C O N C E P T U A L

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AAMI PARK REVERSE ENGINEERING ITERATIONS 3 . 0 E X P L O R I N G E V A L U A T I N G F I E L D S A N D G R A P H C O N T R O L L E R W I T H C O N C E P T U A L

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AAMI PARK REVERSE ENGINEERING ITERATIONS 3 . 0 E X P L O R I N G E V A L U A T I N G F I E L D S A N D G R A P H C O N T R O L L E R W I T H C O N C E P T U A L

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I T E R A T I O N c R I T E R I A

S E L E C T I O N

SEARCH PROCESSES INVOLCE TWO STEPS: (1) PRODUCING CANDIDATE SOLUTIONS FOR CONSIDERATION, AND (2) CHOOSING THE ‘RIGHT’ SOLUTION FOR FURTHER CONSIDERATION AND DEVELOPMENT. KALAY, YEHUDA E. (2004). ARCHITECTURE’S NEW MEDIA: PRINCIPLES, THEORIES, AND METHODS OF COMPUTERAIDED DESIGN (CAMBRIDGE, MA: MIT PRESS), PP. 5-25

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TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT KALAY’S SEARCH TECHNIQUES C O N N E C T I O N

W I T H

The successes of matrices 1.0 and 2.0 were established and further developed in matrix 3.0 through the integration of meaningful data and conceptual ideas to generate iterations which are more highly correlated with the design brief and site context. In Kalay’s reading relating to “search” techniques, analysis is advocated as a means of revealing the constraints on accomplishing goals. Through team communication a collation of opinions was obtained with a general consensus that the design goal is to create an installation, which has energy harvesting capabilities. Furthermore, a design that relates to the specific site context is desired. As a result iterations were selected and developed further through incorporation of data relating to the chosen energy source – kinetic energy derived from wind force. Kalay suggests that analysis exposes constraints, which may limit the ability to achieve such goals, and that subsequent actions need to be devised to ensure the goal is met. In relation to this project, development of the iterations through Rhino and Grasshopper is achievable however a constraint in achieving the overall goal is limited by fabrication. It was evident that despite the conceptual complexity and intriguing nature of various iterations, their practicability and buildability is limited. In some cases this rendered them unachievable or unworthy of consideration as in order to make them realisable the key essence and point of interest would be lost. The notion of generative design enabled by Grasshopper was vital to this realisation as we were able to easily and efficiently recognize the potentials for fabrication of the developed model through this visual

K A L A Y ‘ S

P R I N C I P L E S

medium. Therefore Grasshopper ultimately allowed for an efficient trial and error process to establish constraints and attempt overcoming these constraints through parametric manipulation of the model. Kalay establishes that search processes involve two stages – “producing candidate solutions for consideration… and choosing the right solution for consideration and development. Furthermore, he explores the notions of ‘depthfirst’, ‘breathfirst’ and ‘bestfirst’. Depthfirst involves exploration of a candidate solution, which presents considerable potential before exploration of alternative candidate solutions. Whereas, breathfirst develops several ways in which a candidate solution can be explored before any of the ways is followed through. On the other hand, ‘bestfirst’ evaluates all available candidate solutions and the most promising is selected for further exploration. A couple of these notions have been considered and explored to a certain degree in relation to the project. In terms of depthfirst, the brief was visually linked with the design and the potential to further meet the brief was established. In practice we developed various iterations of one form to establish its strengths and weaknesses and test its potentials before moving on to another. Whilst breathfirst was explored by dividing the iterations and producing varying results which were then combined to create logical solutions and conclusions. This lead to selecting a final few that were further developed to establish their potentials for fabrication. It is intended that ‘bestfirst’ be explored in later stages of the design process as will further ideas suggested by Kalay in regards to “search” techniques when refining the design.

All information sourced for text above is from - Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 5-25

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TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT E V A L U A T I N G

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C O N E S

After analyzing and exploring the potentials of the outcomes from the iteration process, we decided to further realize this variation of the cone geometry in the evaluating fields definition. Our first attempt at enhancing this geometry and further developing it, was by inputting the data, which was site specific to the 2014 LAGI Copenhagen site, and in particularly the data from April. This included the wind speed, the month and the calm of the wind. By inputting this data, the form became much more elongated, compared to the previous geometry that was spread out and flatter in form. This outcome triggered thoughts of how it may interact with the site in a more sculptural way, and the undulating interweaving surfaces could possibly explore the potential of wind movement, and the filtering of wind as it enters the structure and exits. When preparing the files for fabrication, there was a need to panel the surface and triangulate it, so, we had to alter the degree of segments that would be used to create the form. This was achieved by using ‘U Value’ and ‘V Value’ number sliders, which were attached to the mesh surface. We plan to test this prototype model, using a wind force and various materialities in order to assess the limits of the structure and the way in which it interacts under wind pressure and different circumstances.

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SELECTED ITERATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT E V A L U A T I N G E V A L U A T I N G

F I E L D S

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After analyzing and exploring the potentials of the outcomes from the iteration process, we decided to further realise this variation of the sphere geometry in the evaluating fields definition. We first approached these 2 geometries, and explored the thoughts of creating individual pod like structures that would be scattered along the LAGI site, and interact with each other. Although, we took an alternative route, and decided to loft the 2 forms together, to create a sense of flow that would react with the ideas of wind and flow. After lofting the forms, we decided to enhance this geometry by inputting the same data, which was site specific to the 2014 LAGI Copenhagen site, and in particularly the data from April. This included the wind speed, the month and the calm of the wind. By inputting this data, the form became much more elongated, just like the cone experiment in the previous iteration development. Again we explored this notion of undulating surfaces that would in some way or another explore the idea of flow and filtering of wind within the site. When preparing the files for fabrication, once again, there was a need to panel the surface and triangulate it, so, we had to alter the degree of segments that would be used to create the form. This was achieved by using ‘U Value’ and ‘V Value’ number sliders, which were attached to the mesh surface. There was a need to slightly simplify the curves of this structure, when preparing it for FabLab, and in a sense, this was a main constraint of fabrication. Although seeing as it is a prototype, we plan to test this model using a wind force and various materialities, in order to assess the limits of the structure and the way in which it interacts under wind pressure and different circumstances.

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TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT A R R A Y

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Through analysis of the iterations produced via manipulation of the reverse engineering definition, it was noted that the curve array species in Matrix 2.0 was particularly successful in terms of stimulating design response ideas and presenting opportunities for further development, which could be explored via prototyping. The development of individual geometries in an interesting configuration was achieved in the first iteration of the species and triggered an idea of pod-like structures, which could be dispersed on the LAGI site in an enticing and meaningful configuration. These pods present an opportunity for the development of individual ‘hubs’ that have the potential for variation and furthermore differentiated design, structure, features or use. The idea is that the pods would interact with each other and a connection between each would be established however they could also function independently.

PTS RAD NUM I T E R A T I O N

A R R A Y U S I N G W I N D C U R V E

In the original iteration the parametric model was driven by a non-conceptual curve, hence in order to create a response which was engrained in the site context and receptive to site conditions, the input curve was derived from a wind speed curve of a wind data graph that related to average wind speed in Copenhagen. Not only the shape, but the position of the curve in relation to the pods resulted in varying configurations.

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SELECTED ITERATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT A R R A Y A R R A Y

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For the purposes of prototyping, individual pod-like structures produced by the definition were extracted and focused on for fabrication. In order to create a buildable model the surface was panelled. Two variations of the pod design were developed, one with rectangular panelling and the other with triangular panelling. Panelling is an imperative tool in order to achieve a developable model however, more importantly panelling created an additional feature on the geometry, which has the potential to drive energy production and stimulate human interaction. It is intended that the panels alternate – some operable and others non-operable. The operable panels have the potential to move dynamically, not only utilising wind energy as a source for the movement by also capturing this energy for harvesting. We intend to test this concept using wind force to access its limits and establish the manner in which such an idea would react to wind pressure and varying wind circumstances such as direction, speed and strength. In Part A kinetic energy was investigated as a source for energy generation and hence we intend to explore the idea of operable panels as an interactive feature, which humans could control and exert force upon in order to produce useable energy. In addition, human tactility is a key concept as it is imperative that installation visitors can be immersed in the design and interact with it. The idea of pods is opportunistic as it enables exploration of a design, which humans can interact with in various ways due to the notion of separate and independent yet interrelated structures that could be of different materiality, features and functions.

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TECHNIQUE DEVELOPMENT SELECTED ITERATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT C O P E N H A G E N

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The outline of a Copenhagen wind diagram was used as a base curve for sketches. Using the 'Graph Mapper/ Bezier Curve' warped spherical shapes were created. This variation of the wind data sketches was selected to be further considered. This was due to the iteration creating a form which may be usefully adapted to the LAGI site. It's envisioned that the extending curves could be used as sculptural arms reaching throughout the site to different points allowing freedom of space in between, which would be useful as the site is predicated to be a growing urban area. This would therefore allow the design to connect to the site as a whole yet simultaneously allowing for growth and development within and around the sculptural/architectural structure.

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Furthermore, the fact that the form is derived from Copenhagen wind data and graphs addresses the LAGI brief in terms of creating a connection to the environment and the specific site, as considering an energy source to trigger design, in this case that being kinetic energy. The sculptural arms and the changes in volume, direction and twisting literally visualises wind and air movement. Therefore, through the form and perhaps based on materials used wind could be used to flow through these arms and adapt the facade/surfaces in relation to wind load and direction, and may even trigger subtle and controlled movement of the structure itself. This would create an ever-changing design that collaborates with nature and the site specificcally,


This form could produce kinetic energy as well as embrace it from a visual point of view. The sculptural arms could be used as pipes of some sort to allow wind to be captured and flow through them. Points where the sculpture ends, shifts, opens, or rotates may be used as energy producing stations that capture the wind that flows through the pipe arms. The orientation of the arms and 'points of distribution' could be determined by site location. General direction of heavy wind flows and wave currents from the water around the site could determine opening points. These locations of heavy wind loads may also be blocked through the arms to encourage people movement in wind calm areas triggering people movement with the wind as opposed to against it.

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TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPING PROTOTYPE # 1 - WIND INFLUENCED GEOMETRY These intertwining oblong pod structures that were lofted together using the parameters of grasshopper have been prototyped both physically and digitally. The physical triangulated fabrication model was achieved through a combination of exploding the original digital model into individual components, and then joining them into segments that would facilitate buildability. This outcome was laid out, using the FabLab template file, and sent in for fabrication. The model was fabricated in various materials including 3.0mm Boxboard, 290GSM Ivory Card and 300GSM Black Card as a means of simulating the materiality required to build such a design. Again, the fabrication of the ‘intertwining pods’ prototype was successful in highlighting the strengths and weakness of the model and hence which aspects of the design require further development and overall improvement. This prototyped model was successful in achieving an understanding of our digital model in a tangible form, as it highlighted the ability to effectively fabricate and construct curvature in an efficient manner via parametric modelling and laser cutting. One major setback of this fabrication model, was that there were many setbacks regarding the efficiency of the process, concerned with building the actual model. There were considerable negative qualities in regards to the interlocking of the developable strips created for the purposes of fabrication. This was detrimental to the overall precision of the model’s geometry. Therefore, we weren’t able to achieve a ‘true’ representation of the form. Due to out limited knowledge when it came to creating an efficiently unrolled model, this caused a degree of misunderstanding when it came to realising the laser cut outcome. A main issue, once again, were the tabs that we created in the rhino platform, as we didn’t achieve correct placement, which in turn affected the accuracy of edges in the model itself.

In conclusion, we came to the realisation that the curvature of the geometry, required that the tabs span the entire length of the strip and hence be of scale and flexibility capable of maintaining a connection. Evidently, we came to the conclusion, as a group, that we needed to refine the accuracy and effectiveness of unrolling, in particularly through the process of tabbing. This will create a much more efficient model making process, and thereby inform a more cleancut outcome, depending on the selected materiality. Once again, the 1mm boxboard stimulated the behaviour of a timber material as it was quite rigid and caused a minor setback, when trying to create heavily curved forms. They were almost segmented and created an edge surface, as opposed to a singular curved surface. This, in a sense, caused a minor discrepancy, as the fabricated prototype diverged from the digital prototype. In contrast to the Boxboard, the Ivory Card prototype was too fragile and hence had to be abandoned due to the inability to construct a sturdy form. The rigidity was also limiting in that the operable panels were not as dynamic as intended due to the strength of the material and fabrication method. Hence when tested in accordance to wind load the prototype was only slighting responsive. This is not ideal, as in terms of the design the panels need to respond to wind forces enough to produce kinetic energy, which we are exploring as a main attribute of the site. The indented positioning and orientation of the structure on the site will be assumed by the greatest exposure to wind load, which is explored further in site analysis.

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PROTOTYPE # 1 - WIND INFLUENCED GEOMETRY

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This intertwining cone like structure was manipulated through the introduction of a graph controller, in the grasshopper platform. This digital model was then unrolled successfully, though exploding the original digital model into individual segments and then joining into larger segments in order enhance buildability. This outcome was then laid out, using the FabLab template file, and sent in for fabrication. The model was fabricated in various materials including 3.0mm Boxboard, 290GSM Ivory Card and 300GSM Black Card as a means of simulating the materiality required to build such a design. The fabrication of the ‘intertwining pods’ prototype was successful in highlighting the strengths and weakness of the model and hence which aspects of the design require further development and overall improvement. Although, once fabricated, this prototyped model was not successful in achieving an understanding of our digital model in a tangible form, as it highlighted the weakness of effectively fabricating the intertwining curvature in an efficient manner via parametric modelling and laser cutting. There were considerable negative qualities in regards to the interlocking of the developable segments created for the purposes of fabrication. This was detrimental to the overall precision of the model’s geometry. Therefore, we weren’t able to construct and achieve a ‘true’ representation of the form. Due to our limited knowledge when it came to creating an efficiently unrolled model, this caused some misunderstanding when it came to realising the laser cut outcome. A main issue, once again, were the tabs that we created in the rhino platform, and hence correct placement was not achieved, which in turn affected the accuracy of edges in the model itself.

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TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES PROTOTYPE #2 - INTERTWINING PODS

UNSUCCESSFUL MODEL MAKING PROCESS

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TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES UNROLLING OPTION #1

‘POD’ MODEL

UNROLLING OPTION #2

To stay true to computational design, selected iterations were prototyped specifically from the 3D modelling program Grasshopper. Iterations were simplified to allow the unrolling of the shape and the physical construction of the prototypes to be a logical process. The process of model making directly from a computational based process and program offers a method of both simplification and increased difficulty. Trial and error was a re-occurring theme during the fabrication process. A combination of Grasshopper and Rhino was used to unroll and tab shapes to send to the University of 92

Melbourne FabLab. It was this process that was time consuming as opposed to the model making itself. A variety of plug-ins were tested to unroll shapes in Grasshopper, which were both successful and unsuccessful in achieving desirable outcomes. Therefore, when entering into Part C, unrolling using Grasshopper needs to be further practised and successfully used as it is a far more efficient process as opposed to exploding a panelled form and grouping sections in Rhino which are then unrolled strip by strip.


FABRICATION AND ASSEMBLY LAYOUTS PROBLEMATIC ‘SEAM’ PIECES MOST EFFECTIVE UNROLLING AND TABS FOR PROTOTYPING

In regards to both real life construction processes and studio projects, the process of building a design is expensive. Therefore, in both scenarios the organisation of how to build a form in a cost efficient manner is vital. Decisions must be made that will justify both the amount of money spent and structural integrity.

was maximised in order to reduce material wastage. Main problems with assembly layout files were more so due to factors such as tabs being too small to be successfully joined, therefore having to adjust and re-send files to FabLab, which is inefficient in terms of both time and cost.

For example, although the card cutter is cheaper, the laser cutter was used as it was less likely to rip fragile, small-scaled pieces. Also, the amount of unrolled pieces to fit per sheet sent to FabLab

Scale was also a constant issue during the assembly layout stage, as prototypes were unrolled at a scale far too small, making a few printed versions to small too physically cut, join and hold together. 93


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TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPES PROTOTYPE #3 - HABITABLE, ENERGY HARVESTING PODS The habitable and energy harvesting pods concept was prototyped via both digital and tangible fabrication. This was achieved through panelling the model in Grasshopper and then decomposing the panelled model into developable strips in Rhino, these were then sent to the ‘FabLab’ to be laser cut. The model was fabricated in various materials including 3.0mm Boxboard, 290GSM Ivory Card and 300GSM Black Card as a means of simulating the materiality required to build such a design. The fabrication of the ‘pod’ prototype was successful in highlighting the strengths and weakness of the model and hence which aspects of the design require further development and overall improvement. This initial prototyping experiment was efficacious in terms of achieving a semi-spherical shape, highlighting the ability to effectively fabricate and construct curvature in an efficient manner via parametric modelling and laser cutting. However, despite this strength there were considerable negative qualities in regards to the interlocking of the developable strips created for the purposes of fabrication. This was detrimental to the overall precision of the model’s geometry. The process of trial and error was a familiar concept in terms of building this prototype; with error mainly a result of inexperience in the process of unrolling and sending to the FabLab. A key issue was the development of tabs as a means of connecting the developable strips to generate a cohesive form. A critical error in the Boxboard fabrication process was that the prototype was sent to the fab lab with discontinuous tabs, hence during the construction process there were excessive gaps between the strips, which compromised the form. It therefore became apparent that due to the curvature of the semi-spherical geometry, thus developable strips, the tabs needed to span the entire length of the strip and hence be of scale and flexibility capable of maintaining a connection. This error was accounted for in the Black Card prototype and hence the process of fixing strips together was more efficient and precise. The Boxboard rigidity was also limiting in that the operable panels were not as dynamic as intended due to the strength of the material and fabrication method. Hence when tested in accordance to wind load the prototype was only slighting responsive. This is not ideal, as in terms of the design the panels need to respond to wind forces enough to produce kinetic energy,

which can then be harvested. This was a valuable weakness as it led to the realisation that a hinging system would be a more ideal and sophisticated away of achieving the desired outcome. In terms of materiality, Boxboard simulated the behaviour of a timber material in that it was quite rigid and did not adapt to the fluidity of the curvature, which is viewed as a both a strength and weakness. In contrast to the Boxboard, the Ivory Card prototype was too fragile and hence had to be abandoned due to the inability to construct a sturdy form. In order to experiment with a more flexible material than Boxboard the additional Black Card prototype was developed. This assisted in establishing a material that achieved a balance of stability and flexibility in order to survive the process of laser cutting and joining as well as moving in accordance to wind load. The Black card simulates a more malleable material such as thin aluminium sheeting and hence is successful in representing a more fluid, dynamic and operable structure that is a key element of the design intent. The use of card materials for prototyping was strenuous as it lead to deriving an interesting form from the prototypes – one in which the internal façade of the semi-sphere represented a system of weaving and interlocking in the Boxboard case, and patterning in the Black Card case. This was an interesting concept for development in terms of how the design’s elements interconnect and prevent structural collapse. However, the connection system lead to a slight enlargement and change in the shape, which resulted in inability to connect the top and bottom unrolled ‘seam’ sections of the semi-sphere due to differing scales. Hence the fabricated prototype diverged from the digital prototype. The lack of a base element in particular limited the ability for structure to sit in place and hence this aspect of design needs to be further experimented with and refined in the final design. Overall, it was evident through this prototyping process that the connection method needs to be refined to achieve a more eloquent model which represents connection in the real, built form of the design according to the selected materiality. The indented positioning and orientation of the pods on the site will be assumed by the greatest exposure to wind load, which is explored further in site analysis.

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TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPING PROTOTYPE EXPERIMENTATION S I M U L A T I N G

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In order to test the performance of the prototypes in response to wind force, which is integral to the energy producing aspect of the design, pressurised air was blown onto the prototype in an attempt to simulate movement of the operable panels. In regards to the Boxboard pod prototype, the experimentation was unsuccessful with minimal movement of panels in response to air pressure. This highlighted that the operable panel connection needed to be more flexible in order to achieve a greater range of movement in the panels. This was reiterated in experimentation with the Black Card prototype as the lightweight and flexible nature of the material was capable of dynamic movement hence, the panels

were considerably responsive to the air pressure. In addition, due to an interest in the way in which wind flows throughout and around the pods, experimentation with flour and air pressure was conducted as a means of creating a visual representation of this wind pathway. This experimentation was efficient in demonstrating the way in which wind would travel within and past the pods - a key element in regards to the experiential qualities of the design. As a result the experimentation process was a success and provided an indication that through further material refinement there is considerable potential for the design concept to be functional and energy efficient as well as conceptually rich.

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TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPING DIGITAL PROTOTYPE # 1.0

Ways to fabricate iteration 1.0 model have been speculated and briefly explored. It was noted that the original form is perhaps too complex and detailed to physically model, therefore, points of distribution and radius factors were adjusted to try to simplify the form whilst still maintaining its integrity. Each architectural arm may be unrolled individually and fabricated using a light, flexible material, such as ivory card. By creating the spheres from which the form is based around through the use of boxboard or perspex the geometric shapes could be unrolled into a net and have slots cut into them from which the arms could be placed in for both stability and to achieve the shape. If fabricated wind tests may be conducted to test wind flow through the form to see how the shape may warp/alter under wind pressure. This iteration has potential to meet the brief through it's connection to wind, which may be used a kinetic energy source, and its direct relation to the site. This iteration specifically envisions sculptural arms reaching throughout the landscape, intertwining with nature. These arms may also act as some sort of shelter or pavilion to incorporate human interaction with the design.

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DIGITAL PROTOTYPE # 2.0

Iteration 2.0 uses a Copenhagen wind data map from the month of March 2014 as a base curve for this 'graph controller' sketch. Iteration 2.0 addresses the brief in the same way that iteration 1.0 uses wind data to create a design that connects to the site, the need for an energy production to influence and be a factor of design. It may potentially use kinetic energy by collecting travelling wind through openings in its curvilinear form and using that wind to generate a power source. The interesting shapely form communicates the potential for a structure that could work in a range of ways, such as a system of dispersed pods or as a single homogenous form, therefore, making this iteration flexible to build ideas upon. If fabricated, tests may be conducted to see how different wind pressures would flow in and around the sculpture. To explore how iteration 2.0 could be fabricated the form was adjusted through the grasshopper definition. By using an interpolate curve, lofting, setting the loft to a brep, then adding a mesh and lists, the original form was transferred into a surface that has potential to be unrolled into sections/strips, successfully sent to the FabLab, and constructed in a manageable and logical manner.

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TECHNIQUE PROTOTYPING DIGITAL PROTOTYPE # 3.0

Iteration 3.0 incorporates a ‘Gridshell’ into the Aami Stadium reverse-engineered defintion. The shape was formed using a series of points into a ‘three point arc ‘command. This form triggers the thought of wind capture, travel and disposal, therefore displaying potential to use the arc as a sculpture which produces kinetic energy. To push iteration 3.0 further, an attempt to turn the arc into a tube-like sculpture took place. This tubed curvilinear from may spread throughout the site, potentially along areas of waterfront, reflecting the shape of waves and wind movement. This however, showed a twist in the curve itself, preventing the form from being successfully developed into an unrolled and fabrciated shape. Attempts to simplify the arc, mesh and triangulate the mesh to rid the twist were also unsuccessful. This tube-like arc form may be formed into a pavilion to act as shelter and as a viewing platfrom to the water surrounding much of the sites perimeter. It may also act as a wind tunnel of some sort to produce kinetic energy. This shape has potential to be elongated, stretched and modified in the relation to site and wind data, such as using the curve of the arc to follow wind paths of the site.

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TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL SITE CONTEXT FOR LAGI 2014

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The site located within the Danish city of Copenhagen, and also known as ‘‘Refshaleøen’, encompasses an array of scenic views which overlook the water and force one to explore the horizon line which lays in the background. The open plan landscape, causes a sense of constraint in regards to the limitless possibilites that are available for a design proposal.. In a sense, it is the site attributes which have caused us to reconsider the layout and overall motive of out proposal.

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In order to give our concept a sense of purpose and connection to the site, we thought it was imperative to explore the specifics in regards to the wind direction and force, as this is the chosen form of energy that will be fueling our design. It is this research, as well as the experimentation undertaken in the previous stages of fabrication and prototyping, that will allow us to connect our design to the site, making it an encompassing and informative proposal.


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C O P E N H A G E N D E N M A R K There are many industrial installations within this site, in particularly along the west and south parameters of the ‘Refshaleøen’ area, especially the shipyard itself.1 As a result of a range of Wind tests that were conducted , it was discovered that there is a point of initiation in regards to the south and south-west areas of the site, and due to the large scale area and open water front, there is a general divergence of wind paths2. These wind paths are defined by their origin along the south and south-west directions of the site. (Refer to the Wind Flow diagram below)

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1 Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, “A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Resources”, Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen 2014 Design Guidelines, 2014 2 Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, “A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Resources”, Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen 2014 Design Guidelines, 2014

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01 Artist n/a, LAGI Site, photograph, Land Art Generator Initiative, http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/about-the-2014-competition/ (accessed 18 April 2014) 02 LAGI SITE LMS > Land Art Generator Initiative > Site Photos 03 LAGI SITE LMS > Land Art Generator Initiative > Site Photos

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After thorough exploration and deliberation, based on various experiments and prototyping methods, we have unanimously decided to continue on with the pod experimentation. Refshaleøen, Copenhagen is a cultural hub poised to be an important area for new development within the city. The environmental context of the site, and its place in Copenhagen’s future has informed our overall design proposal. This proposal titled ‘Habitable and Energy Harvesting Pods’, aims to explore the dispersion of pods within the LAGI site. 106

These kinetic pods will be used to collect and disperse wind. Based on previous wind research and experimentations, we have gathered various data results that have, in turn, informed our decision as to where we should situate these pods within the site, so as to maximise the incoming force of the wind, without encouraging wind tunnels. Ideally, these pods will be intertwined within the growing landscape, and strategically positioned based on wind direction and pattern, also allowing for future growth and development within the site.


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A HUMBLE DESIGN THAT SURRENDERS ITSELF TO TIME AND NATURE.

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Referring to the image above, demonstrating the mapped out wind path, initiating from the south easterly direction, there is a clear deterioration when it comes to strength of the wind, as it travels. As the wind path begins to interact with the positioned ‘harvesting pods’, there is a clear divergence in the pathway, as the wind gushes are forced to split, thereby travelling against either wing of the pods. The further

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away the pods are positioned, the less wind interaction they will gain, as the evergy and force lessens. In order to explore the connection between each of these harvesting pods, we are looking to create a much more distinct physical connection. This connection will create, and almost map out a path, for the wind to follow, thereby creating a closer reaction from the previous pod.


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DIRECTION OF WIND-FLOW, INTERACTING WITH THE HARVESTING PODS

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The positioning and overall rotation of the habitable and energy harvesting pods, is subject to the action of the wind force. As the wind diverges across either side of the pod, It would ideally capture the force, which in turn, would emphasise the action of ‘harvesting’ the ‘energy’, created by the wind force. In a sense, the positioning of the pods will almost affect each other, as the overlapping placements may cause a wind path to re-direct itself, thereby affecting the degree of interaction and diretcion of force it has, on the following structure. Therefore, each pod is subject to the behaviour of its previous inhabitor.

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TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL DESIGN CONCEPT

These Habitable and Harvesting Pods will be used to collect and dispense wind. Based on previous wind research and experimentations, we have gathered various data results that have, in turn, informed our decision as to where we should situate these pods within the site, so as to maximise the incoming force of the wind, without encouraging wind tunnels.

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IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT ALL ASPECTS SUCH AS ENERGY, ARCHITECTURE, THE USE OF CITY SPACES, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND USE OF RESOURCES ARE CONSIDERED IN PARALLEL, WHEN WE ADAPT AND CREATE OUR FUTURE CITIES. 111


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TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL DESIGN CONCEPT H A B I T A B L E

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To say the 'habitable pod' design is innovative based on the process of incorporating data into our iteration and design process would be incorrect as this has been done so by many other students, and also is a common technique in contemporary computerised design. Also, using wind as the key energy source to meet the LAGI brief is a re-occurring theme throughout this studio. However, what differentiates this design proposal to wind- based solutions from other assignments is the aim to incorporate and produce kinetic energy; that of not only wind 112

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but people as well. Furthermore, as opposed to presenting a single pavilion, this project specifically focuses on dispersal. This idea of spreading the design around various locations of the site is proposed to allow nature and society to grow amongst the sculptural, energy producing installation. Kinetic, wind and human based mechanical energy pods dispersed around the site is a preferable approach as it directly addresses the design intent to “produce a design that surrenders itself to time and nature�.


C O N C E P T U A L A N D T E C H N I C A L A C H I E V E M E N T S A N D D R A W B A C K S O F T E C H N I Q U E The simplicity of the pod was selected as a conceptual representation for design intent based on its simplicity to clearly display how the design is to be scattered around the site. Indeed the 'pod' itself is far too simple in terms of design, however, the point of selecting this basic form is that it creates a firm 'building block' for ideas in Part C. Indeed it could be argued that such a simple form which leaves so many options open for the next stage of design may in fact be a burden, as too many choices may become insufficient in terms of working towards a deadline. Nonetheless, in every design project there is a need to be conscious of the danger of having range of options that is too broad, especially due to computational design. Design process is all about selectivity and timelines. Essentially, a good designer will know when to stop designing. Therefore, the variety of options that a pod offers in terms of development should be embraced as an opportunity to test our own decision-making and design skills. The pods have been successfully fabricated, constructed and tested, making them a valid starting point from which manipulation opportunities are vast. It was justified due to fabrication and testing during this Part B process that it is generally more effective to start with an already build-able, logical form, as opposed to starting with an overly-complex sculpture from which simplification would essentially involve taking a step backward in Part C. The pods ultimately trigger a forward, developable and broad beginning of process continuum in the final stage of design.

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TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL DESIGN CONCEPT H A B I T A B L E

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The pods act as pavilion structures in which people can encompass themselves for example they can act as a shelter, space for reading or a meeting space. Ultimately, each of the pods will have varying function and structure – as well as diverse directional positioning, further informed by the action of the wind itself. Building upon the energy functions of the operable panels, the panels will also act as an interactive surface, which users can operate themselves by exerting mechanical force, which will be captured as a form of energy, in addition to the wind force. Furthermore, the user can adjust the panel to meet their desirable lighting level and the exposure to breeze, hence personalising the experiential qualities. Users therefore are involved in the dynamic movement of the structure and the energy harvesting process. In turn, they are presented with a visual representation of wind force and hence the potentials of natural energy production as a medium for harvesting electricity for the city. The panels are visually engaging due to the continuous transformation of views hence establishment of a continuous connection to the landscape that is intermittent. As a result, the pods are aesthetically pleasing which heightens the experiential qualities for the users. The connection between these pods and the views of other pods from that prior is an element that requires refinement to ensure a stronger connection is established. The medium for connection, whether it be visual, physical or experiential is an intriguing notion for exploration, which is yet to be concluded. E N E R G Y

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The semi-spherical surface acts as an energy harvesting façade in that the panels alternate between fixed and operable, with the operable panels capable of responding to wind conditions through movement. The operable panel openings of the pod are positioned in accordance with the main wind load pathway in order to maximise the amount of wind force received by the structures and hence the amount of kinetic energy harvested via their dynamic movement. The mechanical energy produced by the panel movement will be converted to electricity via a micro-inverter within the piezometric material from which the panels intend to be built. This energy will then be transferred via a conduit within the structure to the base of the pod where it can be connected to the city’s electricity grid through an underground medium.

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TECHNIQUE PROPOSAL DESIGN CONCEPT H A B I T A B L E

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The materiality of the pod like structures is currently under investigation, and will be concluded via further prototyping exercises and overall design refinement. The initial prototyping experience aimed to simulate the behaviour of a fluid material such as a malleable metal and contrast this with a more rigid material such as timber. Materials must achieve a balance of structural integrity and flexibility, to encompass wind flow. This balance is positioned to reflect contemporary earth 116

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materials combined with synthetic new age technologies. The reason for exploration of such materials is associated with an interest in a fluid, dynamic structure as well as a design which is raw and organic and evokes the structure of Buckminster fuller’s geodesic dome which was key to the Aami Park stadium. Evidently, a rigid geodesic domelike structure is a stimulating concept for the LAGI installation design, which would be an effective


means of exploring the material system of geometry as a medium for creating an encapsulating design. In the iterative process, the tensile qualities of steel were explored which stimulates design intent that is partially driven by the notions of elasticity, stress and strain of materials. It is intended that regardless of the selected materiality, parametric modelling techniques be utilised to simulate such material performance characteristics. 117


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LEARNING OUTCOMES INTERIM SUBMISSION FEEDBACK

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Interim feedback focused mainly on the need to further work on how energy is to be generated through the proposed design concept and to provide valid proof that the selected method would be successful. Also, the pod itself needs to be further developed working especially on scale, orientation and distribution over the selected site. These two main points of feedback will develop handin-hand in Part C. As further knowledge and understanding of how to produce energy is gained, the form of the pods and their positioning will alter accordingly. Prior to presentation feedback it was known and intended to 'break the pod' and manipulate its scale and shape, however now the need to produce enough energy to run ten to twenty or even thirty households needs to be heavily focused on during the manipulation of the pod in order to successfully meet the brief. From a visitors point of view, experience in each pod needs to be considered more, with the need to find a way to differentiate experiences in each 'pod' in order to encourage people not only to visit the site, but to ensure that people will want to travel from one pod to another. Therefore, the pods need to differ from each other to provide a range of enticing options for visitors, however they will also need to be cohesive. A balance between variety and unification needs to be found in the next stage of design process.

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BASED ON EXPLORATION, EXPERIMENTATION AND FEEDBACK A CLEAR SENSE OF DIRECTION HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED FOR PROGRESSION INTO PART C. BELOW A CHECKLIST HAS BEEN CREATED AS A STARTING POINT AND GUIDE FOR THE FINAL STAGE OF DESIGN:

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C L A R I F Y A N D V E R I F Y E N E R G Y G E N E R A T I O N : Further research and experimentation needs to be the first and foremost issue to address and solve. Basic research to start this process could be finding data and statistics about how much energy is needed to run an average household in Copenhagen, in order to calculate how much energy production is required to sufficiently meet the brief. Research into successful energy producing projects that have incorporated kinetic energy and use as tangible evidence will be of assistance in Part C. Also, experimentation is vital. Prototypes need to be constantly produced and tested from this point onwards, as well as other means of experimentation, such as using software programs such as EcoTech.

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C O N S T R U C T I O N A N D M A T E R I A L I T Y Further explore and finalise materials to be used to both fabricate the final design model and also what would be used to actually build the final sculptural installation on the site. It has already been identified during Part B fabrication that a balance between structurally stable and fluid, flexible materials needs to be achieved. Therefore, the choice of real scale materials should be directly tested. For example, if we intend to use timber as a structural material, timber should be used and tested in prototypes. More tensile materials are also to be tested in accordance to wind flow and movement. How the structure would be joined, what method would be used to connect panels and materials also needs to be explored and resolved.

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The idea of the 'pod' was used to simply communicate the design intent of dispersal. Now the pod needs to be manipulated and iterated based on its need to produce a certain amount of energy to meet the requirements set in the LAGI Competition brief. The form, scale and position of these 'pods' will indeed drastically modify in accordance to energy and material solutions. The final design needs to incorporate a balance of the concept of a “humble� design yet simultaneously be sophisticated in terms of computational design, construction and reallife experience. The pod needs to be varied in appearance and function to verify that people will want to travel around the site to actively involve themselves in the sculptural dispersal. This variation around the site needs to also create a visually, structurally and functional homogenous design overall, which successfully connects to nature and people.

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“ OUR OBJECTIVE IS NOT KNOW THE ANSWERS BEFORE

TO WE DO THE WORK. IT’S TO KNOW THEM AFTER WE DO IT. - BRUCE MAU

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B.7

LEARNING OUTCOMES PERFORMANCE OF STUDIO LEARNING OBJECTIVES It is evident through the reverse engineering exercises and iteration matrices in parts B.1, B.2 and B.3 that an ability to generate a series of design possibilities through algorithmic design and parametric modelling has been achieved. The degree to which the algorithms have been manipulated is limited as a result of minimal experience with Grasshopper, however through such exercises in conjunction with algorithmic sketching the scope of my Grasshopper knowledge has broadened considerably compared to the start of the semester and is continuing to do so. It is encouraging when modelling issues can be resolved quickly and easily as a result of previous experience with such issues or a new knowledge and understanding in relation to the problem. This became an increasingly common experience and is a testament to the fact that my skills in three-dimensional media, in particular Rhino and Grasshopper, are increasing. The digital prototyping process was a new experience as due to not electing Virtual Environments as a subject, I was yet to use Melbourne University’s FabLab to model my designs. Through this process, I was enlightened on the ease of modelling laser cut two-dimensional models however, I learnt that it is imperative for the model to be unrolled and developed properly in the digital realm in order to experience such ease. We were subject to various issues and lost considerable time due to inexperience with preparing files for the FabLab. Once these issues were overcome however, the process of realising a three-dimensional model was much more efficient and precise than conventional model making. The interim submission was pivotal in strengthening my ability to make a case for proposals. Engaging in conversation with team mates on our personal design intentions and what we felt the design needed to achieve and evoke proved to best the most effective means of critical thinking for the development of persuasive arguments involving the design concept. Prior exploration of contemporary architectural discourse through analysis of precedent projects and architectural literature was imperative to this process as it provided the basis of computational design knowledge which was essential to the design process and hence concept development. Furthermore, exploration of theoretical architectural research and enhanced composition was validated by my engagement with parametric tools and computational design in general.

Through the interim submission and Part B requirements in general, it has been established that interrogation of a brief, in which parametric modelling is required, involves the same considerations as a traditional design studio brief in regards to site context, function, environmental considerations and conceptual requirements. However, these factors are a mere portion of the considerations to be made. The LAGI brief has a key requirement in regards to the functionality of the design. The installation needs to produce and store energy, which can be converted into electricity and supplied to Copenhagen’s public electricity grid. Hence, through computational design and additional technologies, design options need to be assessed in regard to not only their connection with site and conceptual value, but also their ability to generate energy, and furthermore a substantial amount of energy. This has been explored via analysis of wind data however, we are yet to interrogate this element in depth hence, Part C will involve extensive calculations and design testing to establish numerical data of its energy producing potential to ensure this learning objective is achieved. Computational design enhances optioneering, whereby various design options can be produced quickly and easily once an algorithmic definition has been established parametrically. This was demonstrated in the iterative process in particular, however there appeared to be some limitations on the design process as a result of such efficiency. The use of Grasshopper and furthermore relevant parametric plugins such as Weaverbird, enhanced a new knowledge of digital modelling and produced various unique and stimulating models. However, It was easy to become lost in the range of design possibilities which in some cases lacked the conceptual meaning required to render them successful and site responsive design options. Overall, Part B has been a considerable learning curve which consolidates a firm pathway for the next stages of design development in Part C - where the knowledge and skills obtained thus far will be tested. Part B has not only broaden my understanding of computational design, but enhanced my problem solving methods throughout design process and increased my knowledge of various digital and analogue mediums required to gain information imperative to the design. These are valuable skills that will augment the potentials for a successful final design outcome.

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...IT IS NOW POSSIBLE TO MATERIALLY REALISE COMPLEX GEOMETRIC ORGANISATIONAL IDEAS THAT WERE PREVIOUSLY UNATTAINABLE. - B. KOLAEVIC AND K. KLINGER

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B.8 APPENDIX

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

Various computational principles have been explored in the development of the design proposal thus far through the mediums of Grasshopper and Rhino. Engagement with the video tutorials and subsequently algorithmic sketching tasks has informed a basis from which definitions have been reengineered and developed in order to explore the material system of geometry and derive a form for the design. This has ultimately led to the generation of a design concept in response to the LAGI brief. Whilst plugins such as ‘Weaverbird’ and ‘MeshEdit’ have been explored in the design development, the ‘Kangaroo’ plugin is yet to be incorporated. However, this algorithmic sketching exercise was most stimulating and encourages experimentation with the plugin in the definition developed for the LAGI project. A key element for further exploration in the ‘Habitable and Energy Harvesting Pod’ concept is material behaviour, greater understanding of this will maximise the responsiveness of panels to wind and human force and hence augment energy production. Kangaroo enables simulation of various material behaviours in response to an attractor point or a source of force. This physics element is therefore beneficial for further testing and development of the design in Part C to achieve a successful final outcome.

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B.8 APPENDIX

ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES E V I D E N C E O F A L G O R I T H M I C S K E T C H B O O K I N D E S I G N

The graph controller introduced in week 5 video tutorials proved to be an important component in the Part B.3 iteration of the reengineered Aami Park definition. This technique assisted in diverging from the spherical form established in the definition to achieve more abstract and stimulating geometries. The algorithmic sketches produced via manipulation of the graph controller following the associated videos have therefore been incorporated. These resemble forms derived in Part B.3 matrices and developed in Part B.4 as a digital prototype. The incorporation of the wind-rose diagram was included in the definition as a means of creating a more conceptual and

meaningful form in relation to the site environmental context and intended energy source – wind energy. This algorithmic sketch has therefore been a vital exercise as it was utilised to develop iterations, which have been categorised as potential design basis’. Despite concentrating on the semi-spherical pod form for the purposes of exploring design concepts, this form will be diverged from in Part C and it is expected that the knowledge and understanding developed in regard to the graph controller component will be utilised as a means to develop more abstract and complex geometries.

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B

REFERENCES TEXT

1. “AAMI Park”, Cox Architecture, accessed 8 April 2014, http://www.coxarchitecture.com.au/#/project/11615 2. “AAMI Park”, Quentin Seik, MIMOA, accessed 8 April 2014, http://www.mimoa.eu/projects/Australia/Melbourne/AAMI%20Park 3. “AAMI Park”, Melbourne Design Awards, accessed 8 April 2014, http://melbournedesignawards.com.au/mda2010/entry_details_v03. asp?ID=3371&Category_ID=4554 4. “AAMI Park wins at world stadium awards”, Architecture AU, accessed 8 April 2014, http://architectureau.com/articles/aami-parkwins-world-stadium-award/ 5. “About AAMI Park”, AAMI Park, accessed 8 April 2014, http://www.aamipark.com.au/about/history/ 6. Achim Menges, “Instrumental Geometry”, AD Magazine Volume 76, Issue 2(2006): 43-44 7. City of Copenhagen, “Copenhagen Carbon Neutral 2025”, Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen 2014 Design Guidelines, 2014, 3 8. Dennis R Shelden and Andrew J Witt, “Continuity and Rupture”, AD Magazine Volume 81, Issue 4 (2011): 37 9. Helmut Pottmann, “Architectural Geometry as Design Knowledge”, AD Magazine Volume 80, Issue 4 (2010): 74-77 10. “Inside the Museum”, FMGB Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa, Guggenheim Bilbao, last modified 2014, http://www.guggenheim-bilbao. es/en/the-building/inside-the-museum/ 11. “The Construction”, FMGB Guggenheim Bilbao Museoa, Guggenheim Bilbao, last modified 2014, http://www.guggenheim-bilbao. es/en/the-building/the-construction/ 12. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), 5-25 13. James Merlino, “AAMI Park Melbourne”, The Arup Journal, Isssue 10 (2010), 8-9 14. Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, “A Field Guide to Renewable Energy Resources”, Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen 2014 Design Guidelines, 2014 15. Robert Ferry and Elizabeth Monoian, “What is LAGI?”, Land Art Generator Initiative Copenhagen 2014 Design Guidelines, 2014, 4-5 16. “VoltaDom Installation Skylar Tibbits + SJET”, eVolo, Lidijia Grozdanic, published November 22 2011, http://www.evolo.us/ architecture/voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/

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B

REFERENCES IMAGES

1. Cox Architecture, title of image n/a, digital drawing, http://www.australiandesignreview.com/architecture/1798-melbourne-rectangularstadium (accessed 8 April 2014) 2. Gary Annett Photography, AAMI Park Melbourne, architectural photography, http://garyannettphotography.com/blog/aami-parkmelbourne/ (accessed 8 Apriil 2014) 3. Green Void, date of image n/a, photograph, Lava Net, http://www.l-a-v-a.net/projects/green-void/ (accessed 31 March 2014) 4. Guggenheim Bilbao, date of image n/a, sketch drawing, Guggenheim Bilbao, http://www.guggenheim-bilbao.es/en/the-building/thearchitect/, (accessed 1 April 2014) 5. Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Spain, November 6 2010, photograph, HD Wallpapers, http://www.hdwallpapers.in/guggenheim_museum_ bilbao_spain-wallpapers.html, (accessed 31 March 2014) 6. LAGI Site, photograph, Land Art Generator Initiative, http://landartgenerator.org/designcomp/about-the-2014-competition/ (accessed 18 April 2014) 7. LAGI SITE LMS > Land Art Generator Initiative > Site Photos 8. Los Angeles. The Walt Disney Concert Hall., May 1 2012, photograph, BCBL, http://bigcitiesbrightlights.wordpress.com/2012/05/01/ los-angeles-the-walt-disney-concert-hall/, (accessed 31 March 2014) London City Hall, date of image n/a, photograph, Vis[Le], http://visle-en-terrasse.blogspot.com.au/2012/02/london-city-hall.html, (accessed 20 March 2014) 9. Luminova, AAMI Park, photograph, http://www.luminova.net/projects/aami-park (accessed 8 April 2014) 10. “Refshaleøen”, Refshaleøen, authors n/a, (Sammen Om Byen, place and date of publication n/a), 1, photograph 11. The facade of the Experience Music Project where it meets the Science Fiction Museum in Seattle, WA, date of image n/a, photograph, Panoramio, http://www.panoramio.com/photo/1061598, (accessed 31 March 2014) 12. VoltaDom, date of image n/a, photograph, eVolo, http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom-installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/ (accessed 31 March 2014)

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DETAILED DESIGN

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PART C: DETAILED DESIGN

C.1 DESIGN CONCEPT

130

C.2 TECTONIC ELEMENTS

142

C.3 FINAL MODEL

154

C.4 ADDITIONAL LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS

166

C.5 LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

188

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C.1

DESIGN CONCEPT INTERIM SUBMISSION FEEDBACK

1

130

2

F O R M

C L A R I F Y A N D V E R I F Y E N E R G Y G E N E R A T I O N :

The presentation feedback encouraged divergence from the semi-spherical ‘pod’ form to achieve further abstraction and dynamism hence, generation of a more stimulating design. This has been addressed via consideration of previous definitions and iterations developed in Part B. The pod form was warped in the Part B iterations; this form has been derived and adapted to meet the conceptual ideas established in the initial proposal. Furthermore, ‘digital prototype number 1.0’ has been revisited. This prototype was an intriguing iteration development however fabrication difficulties limited our ability to realise it using the FabLab for Part B prototyping. It is intended to persist further with this definition as a way of resolving various concerns in regards to the design proposal.

The Interim presentation highlighted the need to refine energy generation in the proposed design concept to enhance the installation’s ability to provide a more significant amount of energy and hence meet the LAGI brief. Research into successful wind harvesting energy technologies and methods lead to the discovery of horizontal axis wind turbines, however due to advice from tutors this idea has been abandoned to ensure that the design quality of the proposal is not compromised.

B R E A K

T H E

P O D

Digital prototype 1.0 has been incorporated in conjunction with the ‘pod’ notion. The design concept therefore incorporates ‘architectural arms’ reaching throughout the site to different points from which wind can be captured and flow through. The positions at which these architectural arms converge will be used as energy producing stations and spaces for human use and interaction. The notion of kinetic piezoelectric panels on the pod surface are an innovative and interactive means of producing renewable energy, it has been accepted however that the amount of energy produced is not substantial and hence the experiential qualities and educational properties of the design are more weighted. Furthermore, in order to maximise the amount of energy produced, the sculptural arms are positioned in relation to maximum wind exposure, tapering out towards the water to harness the significant wind load received at the waterfront.


3

R E F I N E

4

F U N C T I O N

E N C O U R A G E U S E R S T O M O V E T O O T H E R P O D S

To enhance human use, a large architectural arm opening will be positioned near the water taxi terminal so that visitors to the site are immediately greeted by a pathway leading them to a pod in which they can engage in an interactive experience. The interim presentation highlighted the way in which visitors interact with the design and encouraged refinement to achieve a design in which visitors are enticed to progress and experience each ‘pod’. In order to address this issue, the size and shape of the ‘pods’ will be varied, with larger pods offering a place of public assembly and smaller pods for small-scale interactions or individual contemplation. The larger, more public ‘pods’ will be positioned on the exterior of the installation, to not only maximise exposure to wind load and hence increase energy harvesting, but to create a threshold of privacy. The privacy threshold increases as one meanders further into the installation and hence core of the site. Larger pods will house more public interactions and events and hence seclusion is not a key concern. However, in order to enhance the experience of smaller pods, the level of privacy is increased creating a space where people can escape the public and become immersed in their own ‘pod’ and hence activities or thoughts.

Users are encouraged to travel further into the installation due to manipulation of the site terrain which develops a level of mystery whereby, visitors can see that the path continues however they are unaware of what lies at the end of the pathway. This generates a sense of intrigue, which is important to the success of the design. The refined design concept continues to encapsulate the essence of the initial proposal – a design that is able to respond to an ever-changing environment and society, as the arms allow freedom of space between the pods to ensure that integration with urban development and growth, which has been proposed for the site in the future. Despite a greater degree of physical connection and cohesion between the pods and hence a larger design, the notion of ‘dispersal’ is maintained in that the actual hubs of human interaction are dispersed across the site and the architectural arms diffuse into the landscape.

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C.1

DESIGN CONCEPT FINALISED DIRECTON H A B I T A B L E

A N D

E N E R G Y

H A R V E S T I N G

P O D S

This diagram aims to highlight the selected iterations, which are to be the computational basis from which the final form of the design will be derived. Furthermore, exploration of the site context, in particular wind conditions as well as the LAGI brief has been conducted in an attempt to extend knowledge and inform the design, particularly the way in which the operable panels are detailed. Specific research has been conducted in relation to the average energy generation and consumption in Denmark. This information has stimulated further consideration of the effectiveness of the design proposal, prompting the enhancement of our overall understanding of the site context and basis of the brief requirements. The adjacent diagram was derived in the digital prototyping stage of Part B. It is anticipated that this model will be used as a ‘mapping’ tool, and potentially a form to embed or excavate throughout the flat plane of the LAGI site, enhancing this idea of undulation and generating a more stimulating terrain which offers opportunities to establish conceptual qualities in the design

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WARPING SPHERES

CREATING A N D TRIMMING SPHERES

B

A

S

DENCONSTRUCT T R I M M E D S P H E R E S

DIVIDE

CURVE

C O N T O U R S U R F A C E

D I V I D E CONTOURS

SHIFT FOR

LIST CURVE

EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE

POINTS

MERGE FIELD AND CONNECT TO FIELD LINE

E

C U R V E

134

CREATING F I E L D F O R M

APPLY POINTS TO POINT C H A R G E

APPLY

CREATING W I N D PANELS

C R E A T E TRIANGULAR P A N E L S

A P P L Y ATTRACTOR C U R V E

TO SPIN FORCE

DISPATCH PANELS TO CREATE OPEN AND CLOSED P A N E L S


C.1

DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PSEUDO CODE OF PARAMETRIC DESIGN PROCESS CONTOUR LINES MOVED BY GRAPH MAPPER

S P H E R E S AT POINTS ON CURVE

I N T E R P OLA T E P O I N T S

E X T R U D E

O F F S E T BASE CURVE

SOLID UNION SPHERES + EXTRUSION

FIELD LINE CURVE MOVED BY GRAPH M A P P E R

FIELD LINE C U R V E INTERPOLATED

EXTRACT BREP WIREFRAME OF INNER PANELS

ROTATE AXIS OF INNER P A N E L S

BASE

CURVE

EXTRUDE FIELD

FIELD

LINE

LINE

CURVE DIVIDED

CURVE

O F F S E T PANELS AND CREATE BREP WIREFRAMES

L O F T INTERPOLATION

MULTIPLY GRAPH MAPPER O U T P U T

M

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WIREFRAMES

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W A R P E D A R O U N D

P O D B A S E

A R R A Y C U R V E

B A S E CURVE

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A R C H I T E C T U R A L A R M S A R O U N D B A S E C U R V E


C.1

DESIGN CONCEPT DESIGN PROCESS - FORM FORMATION B R E A K D O W N

O F

M A N I P U L A T I O N T H E T E R R A

O V E R A L L

I

O F N

F O R M

O F

W A R A R C A R M

D E S I G N

P E D P O D A N D H I T E C T U R A L I N T E R A C T I O N

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C.1

DESIGN CONCEPT DESIGN PROCESS - ENERGY GENERATIVE ELEMENTS B R E A K D O W N

C L O S E D

O F

P A N E L

P O D

F R A M E

B A S E CURVE

138

P A N E L L I N G

F E A T U R E

C L O S E D

P A N E L S


O P E R A B L E

P A N E L

F R A M E

O P E R A B L E

R E S U L T A N T

P A N E L S

P O D

F O R M

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C.1

DESIGN CONCEPT ENVISAGED CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

POTENTIAL MATERIALS

STEEL

CONCRETE

TIMBER

AIM: TO BALANCE RAW & SYNTHETIC

POTENTIAL TECTONICS

MALLEABLE STEEL

HINGES

BOLTS & NUTS

AIM: SEAMLESS, FLEXIBLE & FUNCTIONAL

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POTENTIAL ASSEMBLY

PRE-CAST:

PANELLING & SKELETAL STRUCTURE

IN-SITU: LANDSCAPE ARMS

SITE ASSEMBLY: PRECEDENT: ITKE PAVILION

AIM: COMBINE PRE-FAB & IN-SITU ELEMENTS. ASSEMBLE ON SITE

POTENTIAL FABLAB

3D PRINTING: PODS

LASER CUTTER: ARMS

CNC ROUTER: TERRAIN

AIM: PROTOTYPE, TEST & COMMUNICATE DESIGN CONCEPT/FINAL

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C.2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS TECTONIC SYSTEM OF WARPED POD STRUCTURES

U N D E R L Y I N G

S K E L E T A L

S T R U C T U R E

The underlying skeletal structure utilises flexible yet stable metal ribs which are to be constructed using aluminium metal straps. This forms a grid structure that is capable of achieving the warped sphere form as well as supporting the load of the panels. The metal support system also provides a base for the establishment of a tectonic system. The timber panels will be fastened using a series of bolts, secured through drilled holes, which span along the surface of the structure. The

142

panels

are

placed

at

varying

angles,

further defined by the algorithm derived in the computational process, which has been outlined throughout the refining process. These are hinged to allow for a considerable continuum of movement. This model represents the tectonic system, which will be explored in the realised tectonic model for presentation purposes hence it demonstrates a conventional means of connection that is necessary for small-scale fabrication of such a design.


143


C.2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS FASTENING MECHANISMS AND STRUCTURE T E C T O N I C

144

S Y S T E M

O F

O P E R A B L E

P A N E L S


T E C T O N I C

S Y S T E M

O F

B A S E

S T R U C T U R E

145


“GOD

IS IN THE DETAILS... - MIES VAN DER ROHE

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C.2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS TECTONIC SYSTEM OF BASE STRUCTURE

F M H

A E

S C I

T H

E A

N

N N

I G

I N C A E

G L S

Using a series of conventional hinges, the timber structure adhered to the metal structural skeleton will be attached to the operable timber, triangular panels. This will enable movement via the pivoting motion achievable through the range of movement of a hinge system. This tectonic system is an essential characteristic of the warped pod form, as the dynamic panel movement is critical to the energy harvesting capabilities of the structure.

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C.2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS ARCHITECTURAL TECTONIC SYSTEM FOR PROPOSAL

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A R C H I T E C T U R A L M

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H

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In regards to the realised construction of the warped pod design, an architecturally designed hinging system has been opted for as opposed to the conventional hinging system used for prototypical fabrication purposes. This innovative, abstracted design consists of a metal rod that pivots in the range of the fastened metal rings that encase it.

03

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C.2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS PIEZOELECTRIC MATERIAL E N E R G Y

150

H A R V E S T I N G

P I E Z O E L E C T R I C

M A T E R I A L


CERAMIC

PIEZOELECTRIC

RING

FORM

The piezoelectric ceramic rings, will be placed strategically on the underside of the operable timber panel in order to provide a medium for collection of the kinetic energy generated by the movement of the triangular panel in response to wind load. There will be around 8-10 ceramic rings as this is an optimum amount according to further theoretical explorations presented in the later stages of the project research. Piezoelectric ceramic ring forms are of approximately 20mm in diameter, therefore there will be multiple rings placed on the underside of the timber flap panel.

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M O D E L

M A K I N G

HINGE SYSTEM

152

P R O C E S S


C.2

TECTONIC ELEMENTS TECTONIC MODEL FABRICATION

KINETIC, STEEL

OPERABLE STRUCTURE

PANEL OF

CONNECTION

WARPED

POD

TO FORM

During the construction stage of the prototype tectonic model, experimentation was conducted in order to explore varying hinge systems, which could be used to achieve dynamic movement of the operable timber panels on the warped pods. This process was conducted initially through Rhino by selecting eight of the panels from the final baked Rhino model as a means of representing a portion of the pod structure. These panels were then unrolled and sent to the FabLab to be laser cut on 3mm MDF board. Using 2mm aluminium metal straps obtained from the hardware store in conjunction with a series of nuts and bolts the timber panels were fastened to the underlying metal structure, which represented the skeletal structure of the pod forms. There was difficulty in establishing how the connection elements would be to adhered to the panels and base structure, as the thickness of the structure at the chosen scale appropriate for presentation did not allow provision for the use of a screw system. As a result, for fastening purposes, glue was opted for, provided that a rational degree of pivoting and rotation was still achievable. This approach was successful, although it did re-iterate the fact that the materiality in the potential structure would need to be of a sufficient width and thickness in order to accommodate for the tectonic system. Through the construction of this detailed panelling model, there posed an additional issue, which was to ensure the underlying metal structure would be malleable enough to bend into a curved form corresponding to the curvature requirements of warped pod form. Hence it has been considered that in true construction, there would need to be provision for pre-fabricated flexible, steel members, which would enable successful adaptation on site during construction assembly processes.

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C.3

FINAL MODEL SITE MODEL FABRICATION

154


MODEL MAKING: DESCISION PROCESS The site model aimed to clearly express the manipulation of contours, the integration of ‘architectural arms’ and the orientation of the pods sitting within the evolved LAGI site. The means to justify the designed terrain triggered the use of the CNC Router for fabrication. The Router allows for contours to be clearly expressed and is commonly used for landscape modelling. The main challenges sending to the Router were inexperience with the machine and what to fabricate specifically - whether it be just the terrain itself, or members of the ‘built’ design as well. Due to the Fab Lab queue, and uncertainty in relation to what would be the best outcome using the CNC Router

fabrication, three different versions of the site model were generated to ensure that at least one would be a definite success within the limited timeframe. These three files consisted of: the terrain itself, the terrain with slots for the architectural arms and the terrain with the ‘architectural arms’. All three versions were fabricated with MDF board to accomplish an earthy aesthetic. This therefore reflected the design intent to balance the synthetic and natural. Plywood was also considered, however, it was more expensive and might have chipped the architectural arms and slots for versions two and three. The site model was set at a scale of 1:500 to enable the entire site to sit comfortably within the FabLab template for the CNC Router.

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C.3

FINAL MODEL CNC ROUTER SITE MODEL FABRICATION

FABRICATION

#1:

Site model version one was rather straightforward to send to FabLab. The CNC Router requires a single poly-surface to be placed within the FabLab template. Therefore, the grasshopper object was simply baked into Rhino, made into a singular surface and sent to FabLab with a material selection of 25mm thick MDF board. The challenge with this version of the site model was how to accurately and neatly attach the ‘arms’ to this terrain as there was no form of marking of their position on the fabricated site. This prototype was therefore decided to be a substitute for the site model only in the case that fabrications of the other two versions of the model were unsuccessful.

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F A B L A B O

F

S

P R E P A R A T I O N

I

T

E

M

C O N V E Y I N G S M

U A

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T H R O U G H

U

D

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F P

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C N C

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C T

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R O U T E R

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C.3

FINAL MODEL CNC ROUTER SITE MODEL FABRICATION

FABRICATION #2:

The process of fabricating site model version two was more rigorous than the previous fabrication. The grasshopper version of the terrain and the architectural arms were once again baked into Rhino. However, the baked version was problematic due to the file having too many separate surfaces, which made the model difficult to explode, group, extrude and trim. Therefore, the majority of the ‘arms’ were remade in Rhino using the interpolate curve, extrude and loft commands. This enabled the form to stay true to the Grasshopper version yet simultaneously generated singular surfaces on each arm and therefore facilitated manipulation. This modification of the original baked version was rather time consuming yet worth while in terms of refining the model for fabrication. Prior to commencing with the FabLab submission, the existing site had to be slightly modified to comply with CNC Router specifications and requirements. Many of the ‘architectural arms’ had to be cut at certain points as they would have become too messy for the CNC to successfully fabricate. Also, the arms had to be spread out to allow for minimum 6mm drill space required by the FabLab. Version two consisted of slots being placed in the terrain where the architectural arms were positioned. This allowed the arms to be fabricated in a different material and therefore the potential to seamlessly and accurately place them within the MDF terrain.

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FABLAB

PREPARATION

ADJUSTMENT

OF

SITE

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C.3

FINAL MODEL CNC ROUTER SITE MODEL FABRICATION

FABRICATION #2:

160

The arms were unrolled and tabbed at the bottoms to provide space for them to slot into the terrain and hide the adhesion method. These unrolled pieces were sent to the Laser Cutter in both Ivory Card and Black Card for a flexibility of choice once fabricated. These materials were specifically selected, as they are low in GSM thus more capable of achieving the curved lines of the ‘arms’ whilst creating a sturdy, continuous form that simulates real life construction.

materials for MDF and hence, that a neat process of attaching the Laser Cut ‘arms’ could be achieved. Once all the ‘arms’ were extruded to the bottom surface and trimmed from the top surface, the ‘base terrain’ was deleted and a line in the middle of each slot was created to ensure that the Router would be able to read where to cut. The slots were then grouped to the terrain to make them a singular poly-surface. This file was also fabricated using MDF board 25 mm thick.

In order to create the slots, the terrain was copied and pasted 6mm below the existing surface to act as a base when extruding and trimming the arms. The use of a base terrain aimed to ensure that all the slots would be of an equal length, which was important in ensuring that the final polysurface correlated with the required thicknesses of

Once the Laser Cut and MDF files were successfully fabricated a decision was made to use version three of the site model due to time limitations. The cutting and pasting of each individual arm was deemed as a process that may have taken too long and caused too many errors which was not a worthwhile risk with the presentation deadline fast approaching.


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C.3

FINAL MODEL CNC ROUTER SITE MODEL FABRICATION

FABRICATION

#3:

The third and final method of fabricating the site model was incorporating the ‘arms’ within the terrain and sending the two elements to the CNC Router together. This method consisted of using the modified baked version to once again manipulate the terrain to meet the 6mm drill space requirement of the Router and to connect to the terrain and ‘arms’ using extrude and trim commands in Rhino. This file was fabricated with 12 mm thick MDF, which consequentially became the preferred option. The thinner MDF looked neater and enabled the terrain to stand out more than the MDF board itself, which appeared somewhat bulky in the 25 mm thick versions. Fabrication version three was therefore selected as the final site model due to the preference of material thickness and due to time limitations as the ‘arms’ didn’t need to be separately constructed and joined. The boarder of the model and the sides of some of the ‘arms’ fabricated were rough in appearance initially, however, this was manually refined using sand paper to smooth surfaces and give the model a neater, exhibition worthy finish.

162


FABLAB

PREPARATION

ADJUSTMENT

OF

SITE

163


C.3

FINAL MODEL CNC ROUTER SITE MODEL FABRICATION

FABRICATION

#3:

The pods were constructed by hand in a simplistic form using card to convey their orientation and positioning on the site as opposed to reflecting their warped shapes which would’ve been far too difficult to make at such a small scale. Also due to time and budget 3D printing wasn’t used. None the less, renders and drawings convey the accurate form of the pods themselves. CNC Router was a new method and rather chaotic period of time. useful, exciting and taught a lot fabrication, which shall indeed be

C N C

R O U T E R F

A

F I N A L M

SCALE:

164

B L

A

B

S I T E O

D

E L

1:500

of fabrication learnt in a short It was a journey that was most about this particular method of most useful for future projects.


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C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS DESIGN PROPOSAL D E S C R I P T I O N

O F

P R O J E C T

The “Habitable, Kinetic, Harvesting Pod” design proposal seeks to evoke a humble design that surrenders itself to both time and nature and hence has the ability to adapt to the ever-changing conditions of both society and the natural environment. The proposal was central to the energy producing capabilities of wind in order to meet the technological requirements of the brief and to provide clean energy however more importantly, to create an aesthetically pleasing and experientially rich visual representation of this for users to become immersed in. The design consists of a series of ‘warped pod’ forms of varying shapes and size, which act as pavilion-like structures that can be used for a range of functions. The larger pods are intended for public assembly and use and have the potential to encourage social interaction and public activities and performance. The medium pods are more intimate and are intended for use by a group of

166

P R O P O S A L

people such as a family, as a picnic space or a space for communal seating and hence a means of meeting and bonding with others. The smaller pods achieve the greatest level of privacy and are appropriate for couples or individuals. They are shaped to provide greater enclosure and have the potential to function as a study or reading space or perhaps a place for reflection and contemplation. The façade of these pods consists of both closed and operable panels. The operable panels act as a means for energy production as their movement in response to wind load produces kinetic energy, which is then harvested. The operable panels are positioned in accordance to the main wind load pathway in order to maximise the amount of wind force received by the structures and hence the amount of kinetic energy harvested. The façade is therefore dynamic which is experientially enticing for users due to the diffusion and intermittence of the views through the panels.


The design proposal also considers landscape architecture and manipulation of the terrain in order to achieve a sense of ‘hide and reveal’. This was important to ensuring that visitors to the site are motivated to travel to the different pods. ‘Architectural arms’ emerge form the pods and map out the undulating landscape. Users are encouraged to enter the arms, which lead them to the pods in a labyrinth-like manner. Above the architectural arms, users are offered previews of the pods siting at different contours on the landscape and hence are intrigued due to the hidden identity of the structures. Hence the underlying concept behind the Habitable, Kinetic, Harvesting Pod proposal is the notion of a dynamic design that harvests energy in a manner, which develops a connection between people, the energy production, site context and the built form.

167


C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS DESIGN PROPOSAL T E C H N I C A L

168

D R A W I N G S

O F

W H O L E

D E S I G N


S I T E

S E C T I O N SCALE

A

A : A 1:1000

A

169


C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS DESIGN PROPOSAL T E C H N I C A L

D R A W I N G S

B

170

O F

W A R P E D

P O D

B


N O R T H

E L E V A T I O N

S O U T H

E L E V A T I O N

S E C T I O N

C U T

B : B

171


C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS DESIGN PROPOSAL

O F

W A R P E D

S M A L L

3000

172

P O D

S I Z E S

4000 MM

3000 MM

T H R E S H O L D

P O D

M E D I U M

6000

P O D


6000 MM

L A R G E

P O D

10000

173


C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS ENERGY GENERATION - PIEZOELECTRICITY

01

HOW IT WORKS... CERAMIC PIEZOELECTRIC TILES: A piezoelectric ceramic is the result of a mass of pervoskite of ceramic crystals, each of which contain small, tetravalent metal ion, generally titanium or zirconium, which are contained within larger, divalent metal lead, barium or O2- ions. Each crystal of the piezoelectric element has a “dipole moment”, which separates the magnitude of the charges. A voltage is created by a poled piezoelectric ceramic element through mechanical compression or tension. Compression along or tension perpendicular to the direction of polarisation generates voltage

174

of the same polarity as the poling voltage. These “generator actions” of the ceramic product converts the energy of compression or tension into electrical energy. The direction of the poling voltage shrinks and expands in size and diameter in accordance to the amount of voltage and its polarity in comparison to the poling voltage applied to the piezo-ceramic element. Therefore, voltage is created when the wind of the LAGI site, averaging 19.3 kilometres an hour, hits the piezoelectric element placed on the panels of the ‘kinetic harvesting pods’. The individual ceramic elements shall lengthen and shorten cyclically depending on wind pressure hitting its surface. This “motor action” converts electrical energy into mechanical energy sufficient to operate and power electrical devices and systems.1 1 Piezoelectricity, APC International Ltd., accessed 13 May 2014, https://www.americanpiezo.com/ knowledge-center/piezo-theory/piezoelectricity.html


01 ABOVE: SOURCE

PIEZOELECTRICITY IN THE 2012

USED LAGI

AS COMPETITION

ENERGY WINNER:

PRODUCTION SCENE-SENSOR

01 & 02 James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze, 2012 First Place Award Winnder - Scene Sensor, LAGI, digital design, http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ap347043/, (accessed 21 May 2014)

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C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS ENERGY GENERATION - PIEZOELECTRICITY CALCULATING

THE

ENERGY

PRODUCTION

CAPACITY

OF

THE

DESIGN

PROPOSAL

PODS & PANELS: SMALL: 6 PODS X 40 PANELS = 240

MEDIUM:

4 PODS X 60 PANELS = 240

LARGE:

5 PODS X 120 PANELS = 625

240 + 240 + 625=

1, 105 PANELS PIEZOELECTRIC CERAMIC TILE: TYPE:

DOUBLE-QUICK MOUNT EXTENTION SENSORS

RATED OUTPUT POWER AT RATED DEFLECTION AND FREQUENCY: 1,300 MW

= 0.0013 KWH 176

PIEZO & PANELS: 1, 105 PANELS 13 TILES PER PANEL (AVERAGE) 0.0013 KWH 0.0013 X 13 X 1,105 = 19


PODS THEREFORE PRODUCE ENERGY EQUAL TO ABOUT:

AVERAGE DAILY ENERGY USAGE PER DANE: 3 KWH

A WEEKS WORTH OF CONSUMPTION OF THE AVERAGE DANE.

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C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS ENERGY GENERATION - PIEZOELECTRICITY E N E R G Y P R O D U C T I O N C A P A C I T Y O F T H E D E S I G N P R O P O S A L

The Habitable, Kinetic, Harvesting Pods focus more so on visualising energy production as opposed to producing large amounts of energy itself. The energy harvesting technology is based on the operable panels of the pod facades moving in response to wind force prominent on the site. This movement produces kinetic energy, which will then be harvested by piezoelectric material incorporated within the panel design as explored in C.2 Tectonics. The pods are oriented and dispersed in accordance to wind load and direction in order to maximise the amount of wind load on the structures and hence the amount of kinetic energy harvested. Furthermore, the architectural arm layout is key to collection and filtering of the wind. These arms taper outwards to

178

the site boundary and hence waterfront, where the wind loads are heightened due to wave movement. Despite the energy-harvesting program it is evident that the amount of energy produced is minor and hence the proposal is gravitated towards the experiential quality and educational benefits of this kinetic energy collection. The tranquil experience with nature and architecture allows visitors to visualise energy production, which informs them about the ability and potential of using natural resources to peacefully create energy. The experience on site and their interaction with the pods aims to also encourage them to assist in working towards a sustainable way of life in their daily routines once they leave the site.


I WOULD LIKE MY ARCHITECTURE TO INSPIRE PEOPLE TO USE THEIR OWN RESOURCES, TO MOVE INTO THE FUTURE.

- TADAO ANDO

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C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS DESIGN SITING

= INITIATION POINT OF WIND FLOW 180

N O R T H


L S

A I

G T

I E

W F

I L

N O

D W

D I A G R A M A T I C REPRESENTATION

These diagrams demonstrate a simulated wind flow path through the LAGI site based on a plan view representation of the design proposal. The wind, initiating from the northwest direction (as indicated on the accompanying maps), travels in accordance with the strategically placed ‘architectural arms’, which were derived during the iterative process through the input of a wind rose graph as a site related base curve. As demonstrated through the mapped diagrams, the passage of wind through the arms acts as a filtering process, to ensure that once the air current reaches the pods, there has been depreciation in force, which aims to further enhance the level of comfort for inhabitants and minimise the risk of generating wind tunnels on site.

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C.4

DESIGN BRIEF REQUIREMENTS DESIGN USE AND FEATURES C I R C U L A T I O N

= WATER TAXI POINT

N O R T H

182

A N D

F O C A L

V I E W

D I A G R A M


These diagrams demonstrate a simulated motion path based on the water taxi drop off point at the south end of the LAGI site, which has been mapped out through an aerial representation of the design proposal. It is anticipated that visitors to the site will progress in accordance to the strategically placed ‘architectural arms’, which were derived during the iterative process. As demonstrated through the mapped diagrams, this idea of ‘hide and reveal’ is optimised, depending on the route which one plans to embark upon. Key views along these pathways are demonstrated in the diagram, the pods have been positioned in order to maximise encapsulation of these views and hence to enhance the experiential quality of the design. The form and in particular, the operable panels, offer a dynamic range of views to ensure users remain intrigued by the experience and continue along the general pathway denoted in the diagram.

P M

K V

O

E

O V E

I

P L M E N

E E

W

E T

Y S

D I A G R A M A T I C REPRESENTATION

183


C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS MATERIALITY

184


H A R M O N I S ING

THE

RA W

&

THE

TE CHNO LOGI C

The design of the site and the pods themselves is derived from the aim to combine nature and humanity: to establish equilibrium between the built and natural environments. The dispersed pods are to intertwine with time and nature, allowing the natural and technological world to grow around and within the designed site whilst the pods themselves display the process of producing kinetic energy. As a result, a harmony of materials was selected to encapsulate this balance between the natural and synthetic world. European Cedar (Cedrus) timber is a local, earth material used for the panels of the pods. Cedar wood is scented, humble in colour and has a strong characteristic in the grain of the timber itself.1 Timber represents and blends with the natural environment of the specific site. Due to the panels sitting within the external environment, and moving in accordance to wind, they are to be approximately 18mm thick and waterproofed through staining the timber. Steel is used for the skeleton of the pods to ensure structural stability and to maintain integrity of the warped shapes of the pod design. This structural soundness would be achieved with a member thickness of approximately 25mm thick. Steel is to be galvanised to prevent weathering of the external environment therefore maintaining its synthetic look. Steel also creates that contrast between nature and human advancement, and is aimed to visually and structurally juxtapose yet integrate with earth materials to further highlight the concept of harmony and balance. Concrete is to be used for the architectural arms that reach in and out of the designed terrain leading to the pods, as well as the seating within the pods. The concrete for the ‘arms’ are to be raw, rough, 150 mm thick reinforced concrete. The seating however, is to be of a smoother more polished finish for comfort and functionality reasons. The concrete acts as a medium between the steel and timber due to its raw, earth-based aesthetics. The fact that it is an old yet dominant building material until present demonstrates it’s significance in the technological advancement of the building industry and hence can be associated with technological advancements such as parametric modelling, just from a much more dated time period. The aggregate-based material was deemed appropriate for the ‘arms’ specifically as they were produced from the re-adjusting of the earth to create terrain, therefore symbolically intertwining the landscape and architectural design process.

TIMBER 18MM THICK

STEEL

25MM THICK

CONCRETE 150MM

THICK

1 Associated Timber Services Limited, Environmental, accessed 20 May 2014, http://www.associatedtimber.co.uk/

185


C.4

LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS HABITABLE, KINETIC HARVESTING PODS E N V I R O N M E N T A L

I M P A C T

In accordance with the LAGI brief requirements, the Habitable, Kinetic, Harvesting Pods capture energy from nature, convert it into electricity and have the ability to transform and transmit electrical power. In doing so, they do not create greenhouse gas emissions or pollute the surroundings. The dynamic, wind responsive panels are a means for soliciting contemplation from viewers on ideas concerning energy and resource generation and consumption. Hence, despite the low amount of energy produced by the design proposal, the concept has a key role in educating users about the clean energy resources readily available in our natural environment. It signifies the need for an uptake of such resources to a greater degree in order for society to live more sustainably

186

S T A T E M E N T

and to protect further degradation of the natural environment. The design also incorporates ecological systems and the idea of growth, which is key to both nature and society, particularly Refshaleøen where there is expected urban expansion. Users who regularly visit the site will recognise growth of the vine vegetation forming the architectural arms that generate a dynamic design based on ecological program. Furthermore, the visual representation of the invisible wind force is an enlightening experiential quality of the design demonstrating nature’s forces.


Not only does the design educate users and influence their perceptions, but also it encourages people to partake in activities that do not require electricity. Whereby, when users visit the site they diverge from appliances that require the input of electricity or gas and hence are engaged in ‘clean energy’ pastimes. This is important to influencing a more sustainable lifestyle and encouraging activity that is not only environmentally sustainable but also socially sustainable. Users will engage in social interaction through the design proposal and furthermore it provides a setting for community activity. This is important to human development and has the potential to influence both lifestyle and attitudes in Refshaleøen.

187


C.5

DESIGN REFINMENT DESIGN MODIFICATIONS P O S T

188

F I N A L

P R E S E N T A T I O N

P R O P O S A L


TO CREATE, ONE MUST FIRST QUESTION EVERYTHING. - EILEEN GRAY

189


C.5

DESIGN REFINEMENT ARCHITECTURAL ARM REFINEMENT P R E C E D E N T F R A N C O I S

P R O J E C T

R O C H E - S P I D E R

I N

T H E

W O O D S

01

In response to the final presentation there was a need to refine the ‘architectural arm’ element of the design proposal. These forms were critiqued due to the concrete materiality and abrupt manner in which they extruded from the landscape. In order to address this feedback the notion of walls which were subtler, more natural and landscape based was considered. Precedent projects were referred to as a means for gaining inspiration and refining this idea.

190

users follow the pathway of the ‘architectural arms’ until they are greeted with the habitable ‘warped pod’ pavilions.

Francois Roche’s ‘Spider in the Woods’ project was of key interest. This 2007 project is aligned with the LAGI design proposal, as the labyrinth established in this precedent is associated with the notion of ‘hide and reveal’ and the somewhat maze-like experience created via the architectural arm feature of the design1. In this project, the labyrinths lead to a house in the centre of the pathways, simulating spider legs leading to the central body of the creature. This can be reinterpreted and applied to the design proposal, whereby

Francois Roche has achieved the corridor spaces through netting and wrapping vegetation to a polypropylene mesh.2 This has influenced the idea of a steel mesh structure supported by steel posts, which graduate in height. This refined proposal diverges from the monolithic, harsh nature of the solid concrete wall offering a design, which is more dynamic, and integrated with the environment. The notion of blurring boundaries established in Spider in the Woods was also considered and is emulated in the merge of vinelike vegetation with the synthetic steel materials for the design proposal. Furthermore, Spider in the woods considers confusion with nature and architecture, which is an interesting concept that is of relevance to the LAGI project in that the proposal is architectural based however manipulation of the natural landscape is key to the success of the design.

1 Spidernethewood / R&Sie(n), Arch Daily, published 5 June 2008, http://www.archdaily.com/1878/ spidernethewood-rsien/

2 François Roche. Spidernethewood, We Find Wilderness, published 17 November 2009, http://www.wefind-wildness.com/2009/11/francois-roche-spidernethewood/


02

01 & 02 R&Sie(n), Spidernethewoods, photograph, We Find Wilderness, http://www.we-find-wildness.com/2009/11/francois-roche-spidernethewood/, (accessed 5 June 2014) 03 & 04 R&Sie(n), Spidernethewoods, photograph, New Territories, http://www.new-territories.com/spidernet2.htm, (accessed 5 June 2014)

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C.5

DESIGN REFINEMENT ARCHITECTURAL ARM REFINEMENT U P D A T E D

D E S I G N

P R O P O S A L

NEW ‘ARCHITECTURAL ARMS’

INTERTWINING VINES Francois Roche’s ‘Spider in the Woods’ assisted in envisioning the alteration of the architectural arms. Indeed the challenge was to maintain a sense of structure and path, yet to soften the ‘arms’ and bring them back to nature through the use of vegetation. The ‘spider legs’ Roche designed triggered the concept of a post and mesh design. Steel posts taper in and out of the ground, graduating in height in relation to views and approach towards the pods. These posts follow the lines created for the previous ‘architectural arms’ as they are based on wind and people motion, thus still attuned to the overall 192

design layout. The tapering allows the posts to appear as if they are growing out of the ground as opposed to being placed onto it. The notion of tapering relates back to design feedback about connecting the ‘arms’ more to the site and landscape itself. The graduating of height and tapering encompasses journey and the concept of ‘hide and reveal’ as the progression of the posts creates a sense of subtle suspense and approach. A key aim after feedback was to also transform what were originally concrete walls to something much lighter in terms of structural design. The replacement of concrete with steel was to contribute to this desired lightweight aesthetic. Steel also relates back to the design concept of ‘harmonising the raw and the technologic’ through materiality, presenting a synthetic material.


Similar to the skeletal frame of the pods, the steel posts are to be galvanised to prevent rusting and erosion, hence further highlight their difference to the raw materials yet maintain a homogenous design. The posts are to be 50x50 mm to ensure structural stability and that they aren’t too imposing on the site. In between the posts a wired mesh is to be placed for vines to grow upon. This enables vegetation and structure to be unified more so than the previous concrete ‘arms’. The idea of progression of time due to vine growth and intertwining with nature thus becomes quite literal through the design. The vines will gradually thicken and enhance the idea of ‘hide and reveal’ acting as somewhat of a delicate wall system.

193


C.5

DESIGN REFINEMENT ARCHITECTURAL ARM REFINEMENT U P D A T E D

D E S I G N

P R O P O S A L

P O D

P L A N

ELEVATION

194


B U I L T

I N

T H E

F O R M . . .

P R O S P E C T . . .

A R C H I T E C T U R A L A R M S 195


C.5

DESIGN REFINEMENT TECTONIC SYSTEM REFINEMENT

P A

O W E R P I E Z C T U A T O R

O S

Power piezoelectric stack actuators will be used as an energy harvesting mechanism. These actuators will collect the kinetic energy generated by the hinge motion of the operable panels in response to wind movement. These tubular actuators have the capacity of: - Pushing Forces to 4500 N Pulling Forces to 500 N In addition, these piezoelectric mechanisms are adaptive and have active vibration damping, which is relevant to the motion of the flaps along the facade.

196


A R C H I T E C T U R A L

M E C H A N I C A L

H I N G E

D E S I G N

As aforementioned, this architectural style hinge would most ideally be incorporated within the prospect of the final structure, as it ensures a much more streamline and understated appearance. Although, this approach will now incorporate a more functional use, demonstrated below, through the introduction of tubular formed piezoelectric actuators as the base element of the architectural hinge.

01

02

03

197


C.5

DESIGN REFINEMENT ENERGY GENERATION REFINEMENT - PIEZOELECTRICITY UPDATED CALCULATION OF THE ENERGY PRODUCTION CAPACITY OF THE DESIGN PROPOSAL

PODS & PANELS: SMALL: 6 PODS X 40 PANELS = 240

MEDIUM:

4 PODS X 60 PANELS = 240

LARGE:

5 PODS X 120 PANELS = 625

240 + 240 + 625=

1, 105 PANELS

1, 105 PANELS 3 HINGES PER PANEL (AVERAGE) 0.0083 KWH

PIEZOELECTRIC ACUATOR: TYPE:

0.0083 X 3 X 1,105 = 27.5 per year

STEEL ENCASED HIGH FORCE PIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATOR

RATED OUTPUT POWER AT RATED DEFLECTION AND FREQUENCY: 30,000 n*m (information given by PI manufacturer)

= 0.0013 KWH 198

PIEZO ACTUATOR & PANELS:


PODS THEREFORE PRODUCE ENERGY EQUAL TO ABOUT:

AVERAGE DAILY ENERGY USAGE PER DANE: 3 KWH

A WEEKS WORTH OF CONSUMPTION OF THE AVERAGE DANE.

199


C.5

LEARNING OUTCOMES LEARNING OBJECTIVES

1

200

2

O B J E C T I V E

O B J E C T I V E

Interrogating the brief through consideration of brief formation in regards to optioneering was a new experience, which initially appeared to be rather daunting. Extensive exploration and manipulation in Part B through iterative development of a built definition and later, that of a reengineered project, demonstrate and engagement in optioneering however, the value of these matrices is limited. The conceptual meaning and site relevance, hence relationship with the brief in initial iterations was lacking. Progressively the outcomes became more meaningful through the input of site relevant data. These outcomes proved to be the most successful and evidently these were selected to lead the design. However, with a greater understanding of the technology I believe that I would now be able to achieve a more valuable, stimulating array of outcomes, which would enhance the final design concept.

The ability to generate a variety of design possibilities through algorithmic design and parametric modelling is evident in Part B.4, which demonstrates matrices of extensive iterative processes in which an array of outcomes was achieved via manipulation of parameters within the Grasshopper definitions. Furthermore, this was explored in Part C.1 where definitions developed in the B.4 iterative task were merged and manipulated to develop a more complex, innovative model for the design proposal which addressed prior concerns following interim presentations.


3

4

O B J E C T I V E

O B J E C T I V E

The emphasised of the studio on the use of Rhino3D and Grasshopper, has lead to the development of skill in both programs, which demonstrates significant progression from the start of the semester - during which experience with Rhino3D was minimal and that of Grasshopper was null. The use of Rhino has introduced digital fabrication, which was also a new experience, and both the successes and failures of this fabrication process are evident in the prototypes/ models developed in Part B.5 and Part C.2 and C.3. Whilst fabrication in Part B prototyping resulted in considerable error and somewhat unsophisticated models, the experience led to a more refined fabrication process in Part C. We learnt from previous errors preparing laser-cut files and were able to generate these with greater precision and ease. In addition, fabrication using the CNC Router was explored for the first time in Part C for the final model, as demonstrated in C.3. This was a difficult and time-staking process however experience with such technology was extremely valuable and is expected to be of use in the later studies and professional work. The progression of skill in using Grasshopper is evident in both the algorithmic sketchbook and design proposal. Additional plug-ins for Grasshopper were also used such as Weaverbird, Lunchbox and Kangaroo, demonstrating exploration of various three-dimensional medias and capabilities of parametric modelling and hence engagement with this learning objective.

The notion of developing an understanding of relationships between architecture and air is a perplex one, which I have often questioned the relevance of throughout the course of this subject. However, I now recognise that the notion of architecture and its response to air, which I deem the atmosphere and hence the environment is key to the idea of clean energy generation. Hence, the use of atmospheric elements, in particular wind to generate energy is conceptually somewhat a demonstration of an understanding of how architecture and air relate and more importantly how air shapes design. As an afterthought, this is particularly evident in the Habitable, Kinetic Harvesting Pod design proposal that concentrates on dynamic movement as an experiential quality of the design.

201


C.5

LEARNING OUTCOMES LEARNING OBJECTIVES

5

202

6

O B J E C T I V E

O B J E C T I V E

The ability to develop a case for proposals is a skill, which I have developed in previous design studios and continued to strengthen in Architecture Design Studio Air. Through both the interim presentation and final presentation, the ability to orally present the design proposal and argue the strengths of the proposal was evident particularly when questioned by the crits. Studio Air allowed me to further develop my ability to consolidate an argument for the proposal through the need to present these ideas both orally and in a written format. The ability to formulate this case for proposals through critical thinking and development of persuasive arguments was influenced by engagement with contemporary architectural discourse. An understanding of such discourse was developed via exploration of precedents and theoretical studies. This is particularly evident in Parts A.2 and A.3, which assisted in the development of both critical thinking and analytical skills – essential skills to both the formulation of a design proposal but more importantly conveying these ideas to the audience.

Gaining an insight into architectural discourse and significant works internationally provided a basis for the development of my own critique of the notions of computational design, parametric modelling and design optioneering. The precedent studies therefore put the theoretical architectural discourse into context and stimulated critique of computational designs and parametrically modelled works, which in turn has influenced my opinions on the strengths and weaknesses of such technological advancement in the realm of design. Exploration of the work of notable, large scale companies such as Foster and Partners and Gehry Technologies in Part A and B was particularly influential on my belief that the power of computational design lies heavily in what it offers in regards to communication between teams of professionals involved in large scale design.


7

8

O B J E C T I V E

O B J E C T I V E

The development of foundational understandings of computational geometry is evident in the algorithmic sketchbook however more significantly, in the generation of not only a base algorithm for the design proposal model but manipulation of the resultant Rhino model using Grasshopper in later stages of the design refinement. It has been noted that a true synthesis of data structures and the types of programming is a more difficult task, which I am yet to completely comprehend. However, throughout the process of design I have notice that you begin to gain a better sense of the capabilities of your definition and the way in which it can be manipulated which leads to a broader understanding of computational geometries in general.

The development of a repertoire of computational techniques was established over the course of the subject, particularly in later stages of the semester. It was in these final weeks that I began to notice the incorporation of skills learnt earlier in the semester, through algorithmic sketching tasks, in the parametric model of the design proposal. Despite the fact that this repertoire is rather basic, it demonstrates significant advancement from earlier in the semester and has the potential for substantial growth and extension to parametric design platforms other than Grasshopper.

“

ARCHITECTURE IS A LEARNED GAME, CORRECT AND MAGIFICENT, OF FORMS ASSEMBLED IN THE LIGHT - LE CORBUSIER

203


C.5

LEARNING OUTCOMES APPENDIX OF ALGORITHMIC SKETCHING W A R P E D

P O D

F O R M

A N D

In the developmental stages of the design proposal a key emphasise was placed on the merging of definitions developed in Part B iterative stages to achieve a design which extended upon the concept presented at the interim presentation. This involved an understanding of the definitions separately and the way they could be combined in Grasshopper using additional components to form a coherent whole. We began by incorporating the methods of curve array stemming from the spherical form in the initial stages of iterative design. By deconstructing the spheres and simplifying them into a series of contours we were able to introduce a graph controller onto the original sphere, and hence further manipulate the regular geometric form. A warped pod form was derived through interpolation of

O P E R A B L E P A N E L

204

F R A M E

P A N E L L I N G the points achieved using the graph mapper. The outcome was a series of pod forms of varying shapes and sizes, which was essential to the design concept - varying pavilions appropriate for differing functions. Hence, using grasshopper we were able to ‘break away from the spherical pod’ as proposed in the interim submission feedback. The development of the operable panel feature on the ‘warped pod’ façade was a complex activity considering the degree of understanding of Grasshopper. The outcome developed a series of interesting iterations however the most successful has been selected for the design proposal due to not only the aesthetic quality but also its practicability in regards to fabrication and hence realised construction.

O P E R A B L E

P A N E L S


The dispatched panels in to create a frame which base structure for the pod, constructability and furthermore

Grasshopper were offset represented an underlying important to this notion of the success of the proposal.

It was important to the design concept to achieve an interesting program for selecting which panels would rotate. Hence, the incorporation of an attractor curve through Grasshopper was a key aspect of the definition as it generated variation in the paneling of the warped pods as well as acting as a means for developing an optimised paneling pattern that responded to wind in the site context.

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In response to interim presentation feedback, we also began to explore the idea of an unfurling ribbon that almost wrapped around the warped pod form, following the direction of wind paths and therefore acted as a wind filter. The ‘architectural arm’ development involved exploration of charge and field related components in Grasshopper, which had been introduced in video tutorials. An understanding of the point charge, spin force and merge field components in particular was key to the success of this design element.

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With further manipulation of the form using the graph mapper, an intriguing form was derived which was conceptually meaningful due to the use of a key windrose for Copenhagen as the base curve. Merging the pods with the ‘architectural arms’ derived from a field component on Grasshopper, enhanced design outcome, generating a more innovative and experientially rich proposal. The development of this aspect was limited in Grasshopper hence manipulation was required through Rhino to ensure buildability.


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REFERENCES TEXT

1. Associated Timber Services Limited, Environmental, accessed 20 May 2014, http://www.associatedtimber.co.uk/ 2. Copenhagener’s energy consumption, City of Copenhagen, accessed 21 May 2014, http://subsite.kk.dk/sitecore/content/Subsites/ CityOfCopenhagen/SubsiteFrontpage/LivingInCopenhagen/ClimateAndEnvironment/CopenhagensGreenAccounts/EnergyAndCO2/ Consumption.aspx 3. François Roche. Spidernethewood, We Find Wilderness, published 17 November 2009, http://www.we-find-wildness.com/2009/11/ francois-roche-spidernethewood/ 4. Spidernethewood / R&Sie(n), Arch Daily, published 5 June 2008, http://www.archdaily.com/1878/spidernethewood-rsien/ 5. Standard Double Quick-Mount Extension Sensors (Generators), Piezo Systems Inc., accessed 21 May 2014, http://www.piezo. com/prodexg8dqm.html

IMAGES 1.

James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze, 2012 First Place Award Winnder - Scene Sensor, LAGI, digital design, http:// landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ap347043/, (accessed 21 May 2014)

2. LAGI SITE LMS > Land Art Generator Initiative > Panoramic Photos 3. R&Sie(n), Spidernethewoods, photograph, New Territories, http://www.new-territories.com/spidernet2.htm, (accessed 5 June 2014) 4. R&Sie(n), Spidernethewoods, photograph, We Find Wilderness, http://www.we-find-wildness.com/2009/11/francois-rochespidernethewood/, (accessed 5 June 2014)

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UNITY IS STRENGTH... WHEN THERE IS TEAMWORK AND COLLABORATION, WONDERFUL THINGS CAN BE ACHIEVED. - MATTIE STEPANEK

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