ANNUAL REPORT 2014 TOWARDS A NEW STRATEGY
DANISH INSTITUTE FOR PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY
The vision of DIPD is to contribute to the development of well-functioning democratic political parties, multi-party systems and other institutions as central stakeholders in the democratic culture of selected developing countries.
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DANISH INSTITUTE FOR PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY
ANNUAL REPORT 2014 TOWARDS A NEW STRATEGY
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A NEW STRATEGY FOR DIPD
OPENING A NEW CHAPTER The overview of highlights opening this year’s Annual Report is a testimony to the enthusiasm and vibrancy of the partnerships established by the Danish political parties and the institute during the first three years of existence. It has certainly not always been easy, but when you meet partner representatives in their own country or visiting Denmark, and they tell you how ideas can in fact be inspirational to their efforts of developing a stronger democratic culture inside and among political parties, then you feel it has been worth the effort. Many experienced this when DIPD celebrated International Women’s Day on 8 March in Copenhagen with the first female minister in Bhutan, Ms Dorji Chhoden, as the keynote speaker. She argued passionately for the DIPD support for empowering women in Bhutan to run for public office, whether at local or national level. The impression was confirmed the following month, when former and present Danish members of Parliament travelled to Bhutan to participate in the national conference of Bhutan Network for Empowering Women, a platform supported by DIPD since its start in early 2012 and recognized by all stakeholders as an important contribution to the engagement of women in the young democracy of Bhutan. In May in Tanzania, the Conservative People’s Party launched a Kiswahili version of the DIPD Guide on “Political Parties at Local Level”. To start with this was intended as a training material for the political party platform in Nepal, but the opposition party partnering with the Conservative party had suggested that it might be useful in Tanzania as well, and it is now available for all the political parties. Danish political party activists from many parties were activated in June, when delegations from Nepal and Bhutan visited Denmark to participate in the Constitution Day celebrations, and later participate in the so-called People’s Meeting on the island of Bornholm, which attracts thousands of politically interested citizens to participate in hundreds of debates over three days. In the future it is very likely that both Nepal and Bhutan will test this idea. Towards the end of the year, a delegation including present and former Danish MP’s and ministers, together with the Chairman, visited Myanmar to meet with key political leaders from many of the old and new political parties and the Election Commission. The enthusiasm was ‘in the air’ so to say! But it was also clear that transforming Myanmar into a truly democratic society is not done overnight. There are many other highlights, and taken together they clearly document that much of our work is undertaken in political environments that are infected with conflict, dominated by authoritarian traditions, and ruled by politicians unwilling to accept change.
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To make an impact and a difference therefore takes exactly what the new DIPD strategy emphasizes: a good analysis of the political environment; a true partnership based on mutual trust; a programming process that honestly reflects what is really needed; and a long-term commitment from both parties in the partnership. When this is combined with a thematic focus on areas where we believe the Danish political party history has something to offer – like involving women in politics, involving youth in the political parties, and organising parties at the local level – it is possible to argue that DIPD can in fact make a contribution which adds value to what others are able to offer. At least this was what the Board made an effort to do when the new strategy was approved in May 2014. During the autumn of 2014, DIPD finalized the first cycle of projects under the first three year appropriation from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Thereby DIPD had the first experience with making final narrative and financial reports on all projects. This was therefore also the first opportunity to synthesize the results from the work in 13 countries with 20 partners, and understand what had been achieved in this first phase. The annual report builds on this synthesis of results, while highlighting particular developments in 2014.
Henrik Bach Mortensen, Chairman Bjørn Førde, Director
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8 HIGHLIGHTS FROM 2014
MAKING PARTNERSHIPS MATTER
22 A NEW STRATEGY WAS BORN
IDEAS THAT CAN INSPIRE
28 FROM STRATEGY TO RESULTS
HAVE WE MADE A DIFFERENCE?
38 THE ORGANIZATION
CONTINUITY INTO NEXT PHASE
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HIGHLIGHTS FROM 2014
MAKING PARTNERSHIPS MATTER Today, DIPD is active in 13 countries with a total of 20 partnerships. Most of the activities take place in the countries in Africa, Middle East, Asia and Latin America, where our partners operate. In 2014 the focus has been on the deepening of the partnerships to prepare for a new phase. The following offers an overview of some of the highlights.
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JANUARY SOCIALIST PEOPLEâ€™S PARTY IN BOLIVIA: After a year working successfully with the political leadership of MAS on techniques for conflict resolution, the training was applied to regional level in January 2014. Workshops to improve the ability to mitigate and handle internal and external local disagreements were conducted in three different regions, with the participation of local MAS leaders and activists.
WORKING GROUP ON CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT: The group had members from all political parties and worked to develop the special DIPD Approach to Capacity Development, drawing on the experiences gained in Danish parties over time, and building on experiences from the party projects now being implemented. The approach is now available on the DIPD website.
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FEBRUARY DIPD BOARD DISCUSSES NEW STRATEGY. A full day of critical reflection on what DIPD has done so far; where we would like DIPD to move in the next 3 years; and what we believe is unique about DIPD. A reflective and self-critical exercise under the guidance of an external consultant who also wanted to know if DIPD could deliver something which others could not do.
STRATEGY 2014-17 IDEAS THAT CAN INSPIRE
DANISH INSTITUTE FOR PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY
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MARCH CELEBRATING MARCH 8 WITH MINISTER FROM BHUTAN: The first female minister in Bhutan visited Denmark, to be the keynote speaker at International Women’s Day, where she discussed with prominent Danish women. The minister also visited the Municipality of Lejre, which is known for its strong leadership by the female Mayor and efforts to focus on environmentally sustainable solutions.
FILMS FROM BHUTAN: The Friendship Association Denmark-Bhutan organised this first ever film festival in Copenhagen and a few other cities. Producing films is a new thing in Bhutan, where TV only started in 1999. The festival was supported by DIPD because one film presented was “Yes, Madam Prime Minister” about the role of women in politics, produced by Kesang Dorjee and funded by DIPD.
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APRIL LIBERAL PARTY SUPPORTS WOMEN AND YOUTH IN ZAMBIA: A new three year partnership with National Restoration Party, NAREP, was started. Zambia has a young population, and women are an important force in society. NAREP prioritises women and youth to be influential when the policies of the party are formulated. The partnership involves tailor-made workshops for women and youth in the party.
CONFERENCE WITH DANISH MP’S IN BHUTAN: Astrid Krag, former minister and now MP from the Social Democrats; Lone Dybkjær, former minister and MP from the Social Liberals; and professor Drude Dahlerup, an expert on quota systems, participated in the annual conference of women in politics at national level, organized by Bhutan Network for Empowering Women.
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MAY NEW STRATEGY CALLED “IDEAS THAT CAN INSPIRE”: Four years after being established by the Danish Parliament, the Board of DIPD approved a new three year strategy for 2014-17, building on the practical experiences from the first phase. A key objective is to contribute to strengthen parties to function democratically and being representative and accountable. YOUTH NETWORK LAUNCHED IN MYANMAR: DIPD Board Member Morten Dahlin from the Liberal Party, and youth leader Ditte Søndergaard from the Social Liberal Party, launched the DIPD youth network in Myanmar. Using their personal experiences from Denmark, they provided inspiration on how to start a youth wing. They also used the translated version of the DIPD guide. DELEGATION FROM EGYPTIAN POLITICAL PARTIES: Organised by the Danish-Egyptian Dialogue Institute and co-hosted by DIPD, leaders from different political parties met with Minister of Foreign Affairs, Martin Lidegaard; Speaker of Parliament, Mogens Lykketoft; and several other individuals and organisations. Recent developments in Egypt were at the centre of discussions.
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GUIDE ON POLITICAL PARTIES AT LOCAL LEVEL IN KISWAHILI: The Conservative People’s Party and the opposition party CHADEMA in Tanzania signed a new partnership agreement in Dar es Salaam. Helle Sjelle participated in a mentoring program for women. Rolf Aagaard-Svendsen made a presentation at the launch of the guide, which is available for all political parties in Tanzania.
PUDEMO PRESIDENT CHARGED WITH TERRORISM: President Mario Masuku along with Secretary General of the Youth League, Maxwell Dlamini, were detained and charged with terrorism for having shouted “Viva Pudemo” and criticized the monarchy at a May day rally. The RedGreen Alliance has initiated a campaign for their release, supported by the Speaker of Parliament, Mogens Lykketoft.
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JUNE STUDY TOUR FOR NEPAL AND BHUTAN: Representatives from six parties in Nepal and 5 parties in Bhutan came together to learn from the experience of Danish political parties. They celebrated Constitution Day on June 5, hosted by different Danish parties in different cities; they met with MP’s in the Parliament; they had lectures by academics on different topics.
PEOPLE’S MEETING ON BORNHOLM: The delegations from Nepal and Bhutan, together with volunteers from most of the Danish political parties, spent a day on the island of Bornholm to learn about the so-called People’s Meeting. Over 3 days thousands of Danes have the opportunity to engage in more than 1.000 workshops, discussing all kinds of social, economic, cultural and political issues.
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OBSERVING POLITICAL DIALOGUE “BORNHOLM-STYLE”: The pre sident of the National Restoration Party, Elias Chipimo Jr., visited “Folke mødet” with the Liberal Party. He was fascinated by the way Danish politicians interact with each other and with a very wide range of participants. He himself participated actively in several debates, contributing with a modern African perspective.
A NEW BOARD APPOINTED AND CHAIRMAN RE-ELECTED: The 15 members of the Board of DIPD are appointed by the Minister for Development for a period of 4 years. Except for Jeppe Kofod from the Social Democrats, who was elected for the European Parliament, all others were re-appointed. At a special meeting, Henrik Bach Mortensen was reelected as the Chairman. RED-GREEN ALLIANCE ON MISSION TO SWAZILAND: The delegation met with the partner Pudemo to discuss project activities. It also attended a court hearing of human rights lawyer Thulani Makhubu and magazine editor Bheki Makhubu, who later received prison sentences of two years for criticizing a judge. The delegation also visited workers on strike in the sugar belt.
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AUGUST SF PARTNERSHIP WITH BOLIVIA: Meetings and workshops between the Socialist People’s Party and MAS were held in La Paz in August. Difficulties from the first phase were openly discussed. An agreement to continue the partnership was signed. Participants in the project told stories about how they have changed their approach to conflicts after participating in the conflict management workshops. CONSERVATIVE PARTNERSHIP WITH TANZANIA: Opposition party CHADEMA councils for the youth wing BAVICHA and the women’s wing BAWACHA are established with local branches at grassroots level in most of the country. BAVICHA initiated the process of youth policy development, while BAWACHA has been able to initiate self-help groups at local level as an effort to empower women.
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SEPTEMBER NORDIC ACADEMY MEETING IN FINLAND: Coordinators from several Danish political parties and staff from the DIPD secretariat participated in the second Nordic meeting of political party support institutions. PARTY MEMBERSHIP DATABASE IN SWAZILAND: Political parties exist in a legal vacuum, not being allowed to contest in elections. But this has not prevented SWADEPA from continuing its efforts to establish itself as an enduring force for democracy in Swaziland. Through the partnership with the Social Democrats, a digital membership database is being developed.
DANISH DELEGATION TO MYANMAR: Former Minister and EU Commissioner Poul Nielson from the Social Democrats and former minister and MP Eva Kjer Hansen from the Liberal Party joined the DIPD Chairman Henrik Bach Mortensen on a mission to visit the networks of political parties and to launch a Resource Centre in Yangon. Meetings were also held with party leader Aung San Suu Kyi.
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OCTOBER YOUTH FROM THREE PALESTINIAN PARTIES: Project representatives from the Red-Green Alliance and their Swedish partner visited Palestine to discuss activities and to see how work was progressing under difficult circumstances. During the four day visit the project activity plan and budget were revised to reflect the changed political situation and the progress in the project. INFORMATION ABOUT BOLIVIAN ELECTIONS: The Socialist People’s Party held a public meeting about the results and challenges after the national elections won by Evo Morales and MAS. Participants included representatives from other political parties and NGO’s. Speakers included the Danish ambassador to Bolivia, Ole Thonke, and the Bolivian charge d’affair to Denmark, Carla Ledezma.
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NOVEMBER DEMOCRACY SCHOOLS IN EGYPT REVIEWED: Together with our partners DEDI and NIMD, DIPD is funding two local organisations to train Egyptian youth in a democracy curriculum over a 4 month period. The first phase has been reviewed, and the consultants recommended that the project should be continued. It was also agreed to make efforts to scale up the schools if at all possible
DENMARK ENDS OFFICIAL COOPERATION WITH BHUTAN: After almost three decades of official and very successful development cooperation between Denmark and Bhutan, the programme was ended. DIPD participated in the ceremony in the capital Thimphu, and both the Danish Ambassador and the Government of Bhutan welcomed that DIPD will continue to support democracy in Bhutan. FILM AND SEMINAR ABOUT COLOMBIA: The film “Life is sacred” with former presidential candidate and celebrated mayor of Bogotá, Antanas Mockus, was screened in Copenhagen. The film shows a politician trying to do politics differently. DIPD used the occasion to invite for a seminar on the need to reinvigorate the way we do politics, in order to convince citizens to be engaged. “DEMOCRATS” — A FILM ABOUT ZIMBABWE: Zimbabwe got a new constitution in 2014, after years of negotiations between the two largest parties. A Danish film crew was allowed to follow the two chief negotiators, one from Zanu PF and one from MDC. This resulted in a fantastic film that was screened for the first time in Copenhagen. Both negotiators came to Copenhagen, with support from DIPD.
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A NEW STRATEGY WAS BORN
IDEAS THAT CAN INSPIRE DIPD was born in 2010 as a result of political parties wanting to contribute to the development of democratic, well-functioning and cooperating political parties in developing countries, within the framework of Danish development cooperation. Four years later the Board took stock of what had been achieved so far, and decided the new strategic framework for how DIPD should move forward.
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ANSWERING THE DIFFICULT QUESTIONS It started with the external facilitator asking the obvious question when the members of the Board of DIPD met for a full day seminar about the future strategy: Will the partners working with DIPD today be sorry if DIPD no longer existed? And why would they miss us? This started a fruitful reflection in the Board over several months, trying to honestly answer the difficult questions. What has DIPD been able to offer partners so far, which is different from what other party-support institutions can offer in the same way or maybe even better? What are the particular areas where DIPD can argue that we can offer something which is clearly different or unique? With fairly limited resources compared to many other institutions supporting democracy and political parties, what are the areas that DIPD should focus on to make an impact? These and many other questions were digested and answered before the Board in May 2014 unanimously agreed on the 2014-17 strategy, which was called “Ideas that can inspire”. The vision remains the same: To contribute to the development of well-functioning democratic political parties, multi-party systems and other institutions as central stakeholders in the democratic culture of selected developing countries. The mission is also unchanged: To establish partnerships with political parties, multi-party platforms, and other institutions through the active involvement of Danish political parties, Danish stakeholders, and international partners.
A STRATEGY FOR CHANGE To be able to change and support democratic development, a strategy for what is needed to achieve the objectives chosen must be established. Each partnership is unique, and the strategy must build on a thorough analysis of the political environment in which the parties operate. Shared goals must be established as well as agreement on the methods to be used to transform the objectives into results. So every partner and project needs something special. But the DIPD strategy points to some general understandings about how change takes place. Political parties are seen as key actors in democratic societies. They are important channels for the choices of the electorate and thus for the influence of citizens on parliament and government. DIPD takes a systemic approach, meaning that analysis and interventions are applied at three interconnected levels: first there is the general regulation of the party political system; then there is the dialogue and cooperation among political parties and other stakeholders; and finally the political parties and their democratic functions vis-à-vis members, voters and government. A strengthening of the key democratic functions of political parties will strengthen democracy in general. This may be facilitated through the participation of citizens at the local level; more democratic processes for decision-making within the parties; increased inclusion of women and youth, and strong mechanisms for accountability and transparency. It is also our understanding that facilitation of cooperation and dialogue among the political parties will contribute to a more balanced and less polarised political environment.
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Democratisation builds on the respect for human rights.
DANISH INSTITUTE FOR PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY
Initiatives that capacitate partners to involve women and youth.
DANISH INSTITUTE FOR PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY
Cooperation and dialogue can create a less polarised environment.
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Diversity of partners contribute positively to our work.
DANISH INSTITUTE FOR PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY
TWO OBJECTIVES AND EIGHT RESULT AREAS Departing from the understanding of parties as vehicles for citizen’s voice and for multiparty cooperation, the Board of DIPD decided to direct and target our work on these two objective, with eight interlinked results areas. As each partnership is unique, it may not cover all the results areas but the change path towards the overriding goals of DIPD should be clear.
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OBJECTIVE 1 DEMOCRATIC FUNCTIONS ENHANCED
Partners take specific actions to become better equipped to involve women and youth actively in the party organisation
Partners introduce internal procedures resulting in all major decision-making being conducted in a democratic and transparent manner
Partners have the necessary capacity to develop policies and are able to communicate with citizens and voters, who are to hold parties accountableisation
Partners build increased capacity to represent and involve members and interested citizens at the local level
OBJECTIVE 2 DIALOGUE AND COOPERATION STRENGTHENED
PLATFORMS FOR DIALOGUE IN PLACE
LEGAL PARTY ENVIRONMENT
Partners create and utilise platforms for dialogue to further interparty dialogue as well as communication with other stakeholders
Partners strengthen the internal democratic culture in the parties through sharing of experiences and best practice
Partners come together to develop codes of conduct for parties and party members, in particular around election time
Partners together take action to contribute to democratic legislation and regulation of the multiparty political system
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ORGANISATIONAL EFFORTS DIPD is still a young organisation. It will therefore need to strengthen its own organisational capacity to deliver on objectives and results. During the first strategy period, guidelines and procedures have been developed to ensure implementation in a qualified manner. In the next phase, both the parties and the secretariat need to develop new capacities in several areas, and monitoring and evaluation procedures must be strengthened. More specifically, the strategy says that DIPD will work with the political parties to identify initiatives that can support the capacity of the parties to implement their own partnerships and also contribute with expertise and experience to multi-party activities. The secretariat will also strengthen the capacity to cooperate with many different types of partners both in Denmark and around the world. This diversity contributes positively to the work of DIPD, but it can also be a challenge. And finally it is imperative that DIPD develops a simple and manageable system for reporting on objectives, activities and results. It is useful and necessary for DIPD and its partners to obtain an overview of the results of our common efforts. A light but consistent system for reporting on activities will document how we use our resources effectively and deliver results.
Danish political experiences form part of our work.
DANISH INSTITUTE FOR PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY
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Photo by Bent Nicolajsen
Photo by Rolf Aagaard-Svendsen
DANISH INSTITUTE FOR PARTIES AND DEMOCRACY
It is useful and necessary to know the impact of our work.
FROM STRATEGY TO RESULTS
HAVE WE MADE A DIFFERENCE? The overall positive finding is that the majority of the more than 20 new partnerships, DIPD established in the first years of its existence, have proven productive and viable. In most cases it has been decided to continue cooperation in the next phase. The final reports document that political parties in Denmark and in cooperation countries have devoted commitment, energy and resolve to take the most important issues forward â€“ be in it the national political arena or in the project cooperation.
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DID THE PROJECT STRATEGY WORK? The final project reports are very positive in their assessment of how the overall project strategy worked out. In a few cases developments have implied that it could not be fully implemented, but generally the change strategy is assessed positively by the parties themselves. Moreover, there is generally satisfaction with the initial situation analysis undertaken, which generally has provided sufficient information for project design and implementation. Reports indicate that the internal dynamics of the partner parties is more difficult to assess. How broadly within the party are the objectives of the activities known? Is the top leadership fully on board, or will the leaders at the end of the day resist the new ideas that have been promoted? Are the people most directly involved actually those who are best situated to push the ideas towards implementation? The final reports show the results obtained in a number of priority areas within the DIPD Strategy, and they also present testimonies of the struggles for enhancing local democracy or an overall more democratic dispensation in the country. The following is an effort to synthesize some of the achievements, organised according to the objectives and result fields identified in the strategy adopted in 2014 (see overview on page 26).
SOCIAL DEMOCRATS IN EGYPT RED-GREEN ALLIANCE IN PALESTINE
RED-GREEN ALLIANCE IN HONDURAS
SOCIAL DEMOCRATS IN GHANA LIBERALS IN KENYA AND ZAMBIA
SF AND LIBERAL ALLIANCE IN BOLIVIA SOCIAL LIBERALS AND THE CONSERVATIVES IN TANZANIA
SOCIAL DEMOCRATS AND RED-GREEN ALLIENCE IN SWAZILAND
EGYPT IN COOPERATION WITH DEDI AND OTHERS MYANMAR WITHINTERNATIONAL IDEA AND OTHERS
TANZANIA WITH TANZANIA CENTRE FOR DEMOCRACY (TCD)
MALAWI WITH MALAWI CENTRE FOR DEMOCRACY (MCD)
BHUTAN WITH FOCUS ON WOMEN, CIVIL SOCIETY AND PARTIES NEPAL WITH 6-PARTY PLATFORM CALLED JOMPOPS
ZIMBABWE WITH ZIMBAWE INSTITUTE AND NIMD
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RESULT FIELD 1: INVOLVING WOMEN AND YOUTH
Very early DIPD recognised the need and the potential of focusing in particular on the involvement of women and youth in political parties and in politics more generally. Consultative processes with the political parties to distil Danish experiences and the holding of the Christiansborg Seminar on Women in 2012 resulted in two important knowledge products. They have since been widely used in DIPD projects and by partners. The ideas coming out of the Christiansborg Seminar were quickly utilized in Bhutan in the Bhutan Network of Empowering Women. It started as an initiative to offer women engaging in politics at the local level a place to meet and share; soon women elected to Parliament were involved as well. Today it has been recognized as the major entity for preparing women candidates to run for office in the upcoming 2016 local elections and the 2018 parliamentary elections. Initially women in politics was not intended to be a key focus in Nepal, but the six parties in the platform themselves decided to give it high priority, and today it has grown to become the major focus – working together to push the agenda into parliament and relevant ministries, and also pushing the agenda within each of the parties. In cooperation with DIPD, both the Tanzania Centre for Democracy and the Centre for Multiparty Democracy in Malawi have embarked on a new approach to enhancing women’s participation, because experience has shown that a lot of training of women has been undertaken with little effect on the numbers. The party-to-party projects most explicitly targeting women are those in Ghana, Palestine and Tanzania. Results obtained include more women candidates standing for elections, better organised women’s wings, better trained women party members and gender policies debated at the party congress. Regarding the involvement of youth, it is unfortunately not possible to establish the same level of positive results. Political developments in Egypt during 2013 and 2014 have made it difficult to use the DIPD Youth Guide as intended. However, parties in Nepal have shown keen interest, and youth is also now a key focus on the agenda in Zimbabwe. In Myanmar the youth component quickly gained momentum since 2012, and now the level of youth organisation within parties and in cross-party youth alliances have improved remarkably. The overall finding is that youth wings or platforms have been established and strengthened and that youth play a greater role in decision making in the political parties due to the efforts in the DIPD party projects. In all cases the Youth Guide has been shared. In some cases the Guide has formed the basis for specific training sessions; in other cases it has served as a frame for inspiration.
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RESULT FIELD 2: INTERNAL PROCEDURES FOR DEMOCRATIC DECISIONS
This field has only recently been explicitly stated in the new DIPD strategy, but several of the existing projects have nevertheless targeted this already and have provided results. Some projects are showing results in more consultative and dialogue based forms of decision making, enhancing the democratic culture of the party. One party reports on consultative mechanisms, which have helped prevent conflicts and splits within the party. Another party reports on the improvement in internal communication and more democratic procedures internally, especially due to broader involvement in policy making processes.
RESULT FIELD 3: CAPACITY TO DEVELOP POLICIES AND COMMUNICATE
Five projects have explicitly delivered results in policy development and communication: the Liberal Party in Kenya; Conservative Party in Tanzania; Liberal Alliance in Bolivia, and Social Democrats in Ghana and Swaziland. It is a deliberate choice in the strategy to focus on policy development and the ability to communicate with citizens as one results area. Reports offer some evidence of improvements in policy development processes; clearer ideological profile; and adoption of specific policy programmes. However, Danish parties have so far not engaged in helping develop specific policies on taxation, land, health, etc. Regarding communication with citizens, reports cover results in the stakeholder engagement capacity, including relations with civil society organizations; a guide to new members and volunteers that want to contribute skills to the party; the establishment of focus group consultations. All of these examples evolve around consultative policy development processes and communication to the electorate. The Red-Green Alliance project in Swaziland focused intensively on mass mobilisation and campaigns for citizens on issues of election ban, land reform, education for all, health for all and anti-poverty policies. The repressive environment and weak structures of the party can explain why results were limited. The multiparty platforms in Tanzania and Malawi often support policy development processes among and within parties, and DIPD early on developed the Reader on Political Parties in Transition, which to a large extent focus on the need for policy development and communication with citizens.
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RESULT FIELD 4: INVOLVING MEMBERS AND CITIZENS LOCALLY
In the preparatory phase of the Nepal programme towards the end of 2011, it became clear that one area where DIPD might be able to make a difference, because no other international stakeholder was active, was political parties developing and managing local level branches. At the Danish end, political parties readily identified their local party foundation as a relative strength and area of expertise that could be of interest to parties abroad. Consequently, a cross-party Danish-Nepali working group on political parties at local level was established, and it worked in a close twinning arrangement with seminars and workshops taking place in Copenhagen as well as in Kathmandu. This was not at all an easy process, because what is termed â€˜localâ€™ has different meanings in Denmark and Nepal, and also because parties in Nepal traditionally are much more centralized than in Denmark. The Nepali version of the Guide is therefore different from the English in order to make it useful in training activities. The guide has since been translated into Kiswahili and used in Tanzania at the request of the parties in Tanzania and used a lot in the party-to-party cooperation. In the multiparty project in Tanzania, the results at local level are in particular seen in the project on Localising Multiparty Dialogue. More than 20 districts have now piloted a unique and innovative multiparty dialogue practice which helps the local branches setting joint agendas and ease the relationships between contesting parties. The projects of Conservatives and Social Liberals in Tanzania, and the Liberal party project in Zambia also have a local branch focus, strengthening the representation of the party at local level.
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RESULT FIELD 5: PLATFORMS FOR MULTIPARTY DIALOGUE
All multi-party projects have made progress in making parties meet around the same table and discuss issues of joint concern, both issues of an internal party nature, as well as issues of national interest. The message about the necessity of a well-functioning democracy requiring both competition and cooperation has been listened to, and it has been useful to use Danish experiences for inspiration. In countries like Tanzania and Malawi these multiparty platforms existed before DIPD was established as a result of support from other international stakeholders, but DIPD has been able to contribute with new ideas and energy. In countries like Nepal, Bhutan and Myanmar, DIPD has been instrumental in supporting the establishment of new platforms, based on lessons learned from other countries, and drawing on Danish experiences in multiparty dialogue. In the five countries with platforms mentioned above, multiparty dialogue is increasingly becoming institutionalised, and the platforms are recognised by other actors (international as well as national) as significant players in the political landscape. The dialogue practices also produce joint reform initiatives and joint positions on burning national issues. In Tanzania the platform has facilitated deliberations on the constitutional process. In Nepal, the six parties have taken joint initiatives to break the deadlock around the negotiations for the new constitution. In Myanmar DIPD started from scratch in 2012, and the programme has helped change the political discourse. Parties that had not met for decades are now regularly participating in cross-party dialogues, convened by DIPD. In a similar vein, the youth from across the political spectrum are now meeting to form multiparty youth platforms and develop joint youth agendas while campaigning for youth involvement in the elections in 2015. Bhutan is a latecomer to the idea of organising parties in a multi-party platform. Only two parties are allowed to be represented in the National Assembly, while up to five parties compete in a primary election to be allowed to run for the seats. This means that three parties will always be ‘in the cold’, with few resources to run a party in a sustainable manner. DIPD worked for more than two years to help create the platform called ‘Bhutan Democracy Dialogue’’, and work has just started on this in the new funding phase.
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RESULT FIELD 6: STRENGTHEN INTERNAL DEMOCRATIC CULTURE
Efforts to enhance the democratic performance of political parties are generally undertaken in a cross-party setting, with a focus on various capacity development initiatives, peer-toâ€“peer exchanges and support to transparent and accountable mechanisms. Not all the multiparty projects have targeted interventions in this area. In Tanzania, all political parties represented in parliament now have knowledge about basic anti-corruption measures and essential accountability mechanisms within the party. Moreover, tools and methods have been adopted that enhance engagement with the members and citizens. All parties are involved in activities aimed at enhancing the role of women in the parties. In Myanmar, a party financial health check has successfully been piloted during 2014 with the political parties, and at least 10 of the most influential political parties have implemented improved financial management procedures. This has been organized very much as a demand-driven process, with parties coming forward asking for this information. In Nepal this is undoubtedly a key area to be dealt with, considering the level of corruption generally in the country according to the Transparency International perception index, and according to anecdotal evidence of how parties access resources to run the parties. DIPD has so far not engaged on this theme. In Bhutan the issue of party financing has been discussed at a general level, and training has been offered through the agreement between the Election Commission and International IDEA. It will continue to be a challenge for parties in Bhutan, but the advantage is that in general the environment is used to focus on this area.
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RESULT FIELD 7: CODE OF CONDUCT FOR PARTIES AND MEMBERS
In some countries, this has already been dealt with through existing legislation or rules set by the election commission - like in Bhutan, Nepal and Tanzania. In the case of Myanmar, it has certainly been on the agenda. A successful seminar was held, and the parties and the media jointly develop ideas. A process is underway whereby a code of conduct on election reporting between parties and media will be agreed. A similar process is underway regarding a political party code of conduct. In a country like Zimbabwe which has been plagued by political violence for more than a decade, the issue of codes of conduct has been debated heatedly. Thanks among others to the initiatives supported by DIPD-NIMD through Zimbabwe Institute, it was possible to have reasonably peaceful elections in 2013.
RESULT FIELD 8: REGULATION OF THE PARTY SYSTEM IMPROVED
DIPD expects that most of the overall party system improvements must by definition take place through multi-party efforts. However, one party project is reporting to also having changed the overall rules of the party campaign regulations following a study tour to Denmark. The party projects in Swaziland are also aiming at a fundamental change in the regulation of the party system, but the current power balance in the country has not been conducive for such changes. Of course several of the parties involved in DIPD cooperation projects have changes of the party system on their agenda and they advocate strongly for this in their own right, but it is not explicitly part of the party-to-party cooperation projects. In Myanmar, dialogue and debate has been intensive on legal reform of the electoral system; rules on electoral campaigning, the party finance system; the statutes of the Electoral Management Body; criteria for party establishment and candidate nomination, etc. Currently DIPD is the co-convener of political talks between the Union Election Commission and the political parties and between the Media Council, media organisations and political parties on code of conducts for election reporting. In Tanzania, the dialogue platform has held debates on the reform of the statutes of the electoral management body; on affirmative action on women in political parties, on cubing of corruption and especially on the constitutional reform process and made several recommendations. However, the political power balance has not yet been in favour of a realisation of these recommendations.
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STUDY TOURS AND CROSS-PARTY ACTIVITIES It has been a tradition to organize study tours or visits of partners around Constitution Day since the start of DIPD. The partners can use the opportunity to meet ordinary members of political parties in communities around the country, which allows them to observe how the Danish democracy functions at the daily level. The study tours are tailor made, with detailed preparations in home country training, exposure and action planning in Denmark; and extensive and long-term follow up after the participants return home. Thus the study tours become part of ongoing democracy strengthening programmes and help energise these efforts. Some results are thus planned. Others are unforeseen as when the ruling party of Ghana, NDC, undertook election campaign reforms after having visited Denmark. One common learning and impression by most participants is the ‘informality’ of the Danish democratic culture; the fact that even high level politicians take time to engage with ordinary citizens; that former ministers show up and lecture based on their own experiences. Or like one of the Bhutanese participants in the 2014 study tour explained at the end: “It looks like Danish politicians behave like citizens – and the citizens behave like politicians!”
RESULTS IN DENMARK Results in Denmark are not part of the overall programmatic results framework of DIPD. However, the Board has endorsed that DIPD will seek to document the results in Denmark of DIPDs overall engagement. After all, it is the commitment of the political parties and a broad based coalition initiative that made DIPD a reality, and it is relevant to look at the footprints that the international partnerships make. This is particularly important because partnership is a two-way dialogue, involving parties in both countries that struggle with the same challenges – lack of popular involvement, decreasing voter turnout, electoral campaigning hijacking the reform agenda, and short-term power games undermining long term planning. The engagement in DIPD offers the political parties a unique opportunity to strengthen the global perspective and appreciate the broader political dynamics. DIPDs engagement with Danish NGOs and the Embassies also provide an opportunity to see different democracy support modalities and be inspired. The study tours in Denmark and the meetings with DIPD partners have clearly left a strong impression on many leading politicians in Denmark and a large number of party branch members around the country. The participation of youth party leaders and ministers in the dialogue meetings in Myanmar has provided crucial insights into the transition processes in this country. The participation in the so-called ‘Folkemøde’ has provided opportunities for meeting the Danish public and political party members at large – and for members of the Danish parties to meet active party members from the global South. In conclusion, there have been many important foot prints in Denmark, although this is not officially a major objective for DIPD.
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CONTINUITY INTO THE NEXT PHASE The major challenge in 2014 for the entire organisation consisting of the board, the secretariat and the political parties was to ensure the closing of the books for the first phase according to rules and regulations, while at the same time starting projects for the next phase. This coincided with the appointment of a new Board for the next four year period.
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THE MINISTER APPOINTS NEW BOARD While it is clear that DIPD is a fully independent institute, the law adopted by Parliament in 2010 stipulates that all members of the Board are appointed by the Minister for Development, based on recommendations from Parliament in the case of 9 party members, from civil society organisations in the case of 5 members, and then the Minister himself appoints one person based on professional qualities. Following the appointments, the members themselves decide on the posts of Chairperson as well as the two Deputies. Except for one member, all of the other members were reappointed for another four year period as the law allows. And the Deputy Chairperson, Jeppe Kofod from the Social Democrats, was not appointed due to his election to the European Parliament. In the constituent meeting, members re-elected Henrik Bach Mortensen as Chairperson in a consensus manner. Mette Gjerskov from the Social Democrats was elected 1st Chairperson, and Karsten Lauritzen from the Liberal Party was elected 2nd Chairperson. This means that in developing the institute further, DIPD will benefit from the experience of the people who have made the key decisions in the starting up phase. In particular DIPD will benefit from a strong track record of decisions taken by consensus.
BOARD MEMBERS NOMINATED BY PARLIAMENT Henrik Bach Mortensen, Chairman
Venstre (Danish Liberal Party)
Mette Gjerskov, Vice Chairman
Socialdemokraterne (Social Democrats)
Karsten Lauritzen, Vice Chairman
Venstre (Danish Liberal Party)
Aia Rebecca Fog
Dansk Folkeparti (Danish People’s Party)
Konservative Folkeparti (Conservative Party)
Liberal Alliance (Liberal Alliance)
Socialistisk Folkeparti (Socialist People’s Party)
Radikale Venstre (Social Liberal Party)
Enhedslisten (Red-Green Alliance)
BOARD MEMBERS NOMINATED BY ORGANISATIONS Marie Borum Pedersen
DUF (Danish Youth Council)
DUF (Danish Youth Council)
Rektorkollegiet (Danish Universities)
NGO Forum (NGO Forum)
IMR (Danish Institute for Human Rights)
BOARD MEMBER NOMINATED BY THE MINISTER FOR DEVELOPMENT Anne Mette Kjær
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DISTRIBUTION OF FUNDING 2011-2014 In some countries, party support is channelled exclusively through the political parties (Sweden, Norway and Germany are examples of this); in other countries the major part of the funding is allocated for multi-party activities (the Netherlands is an example of this). The Danish lawmakers decided back in 2010 that funding for Party-to-Party and Multi-Party activities should ideally be on a 50-50 basis, with the Partyto-Party activities being implemented by each Danish political party, and the Multi-Party activities being implemented by the secretariat. At the end of the first funding period covering 2011-2014, we can conclude that the intentions of the lawmakers have been fulfilled as much as it has been possible. As indicated by the figure, the total investment of 48.3 mio. DKK has been distributed with 49.5 % for Party-to-Party and 50.5 % for Multi-Party activities.
DISTRIBUTION OF FUNDING 2011-2014
49.5% PARTY-TO-PARTY FUNDING
50.5% MULTI-PARTY FUNDING
Partnerships have been established with 20 political parties or multiparty platforms in 13 countries. Overall, the distribution indicates that Africa has received the largest share, followed by Asia, and with the Middle East and Latin America trailing behind. This is very much in line with position taken by the Board of having a high focus on Africa.
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GEOGRAPHICAL FUNDING DISTRIBUTION 2011-2014
9% LATIN AMERICA 45% AFRICA
16% MIDDLE EAST
But the geographical distribution for Part-to-Party activities is not exactly the same as for Multi-Party activities. For the political parties, Africa plays a much more dominant role than for the multiparty work, and in the latter case Asia plays a much more dominating role.
PARTY-TO-PARTY FUNDING DISTRIBUTION 2011-2014
19% LATIN AMERICA 65% AFRICA
16% MIDDLE EAST
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MULTI-PARTY FUNDING DISTRIBUTION 2011-2014
15% MIDDLE EAST
PARTY-TO-PARTY FUNDING The funds available for Party-to-Party activities are distributed among the Danish political parties. As stated in the law, the political parties represented in Parliament are allocated funds according to the following principles: One third of the total amount divided equally among the 8 parties â€“ around DKK 400,000 per party. Two thirds of the amount divided according to number of seats won in the most recent parliamentary election. For the years 2012, 2013 and 2014 the amount available to a party has therefore reflected how well the party did in the September 2011 election. It is clear from the figure that this results in parties like the Social Democrats and the Liberal Party having approximately three times as much funding available as a party like the Conservatives. From the point of view of long-term planning, this is not necessarily the easiest principle to operate with. If elections only take place every four years as has been the practice in recent time, it is certainly manageable. However, the Prime Minister can call an election at any time during the four year period which is the maximum. What is certain is that there will be a parliamentary election in September 2015 at the latest, and the results from this election will decide the amount available for each party starting January 2016.
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ANNUAL FUNDING FOR EACH PARTY 2011-2015 2.1 mio. A SOCIAL DEMOCRATS
1.1 mio. B SOCIAL LIBERAL PARTY C CONSERVATIVE PARTY
0.7 mio. 1.0 mio.
F SOCIALIST PEOPLE’S PARTY
0.8 mio. I LIBERAL ALLIANCE
O DANISH PEOPLES PARTY V DANISH LIBERAL PARTY
Ø RED-GREEN ALLIANCE Total: 10.0 mio.
Letters: The letter in the first column of the table indicates the letter which is being used by the political parties in the elections, including on posters and voting material.
It is important to emphasize that while each political party has a certain amount of funds available, funds will only be released after the Board has discussed and approved a specific proposal. By the end of the first funding period, the Board had approved a total amount of DKK 23.4.million DKK for project proposals from the political parties. This includes both appraisal proposals (proposals for preparatory activities, including meetings with the partner to develop a final proposal) and fully fledged project proposals. The table below provides an overview of the total amounts actually spent for each partnership by the end of the first funding period in June 2014.
COUNTRY Social Democrats
AMOUNT DKK 2.237.662 1.581.521
Social Liberal Party
Socialistist People’s Party
Danish Liberal Party
Note: The amounts mentioned in this table only reflect the parties that have actually developed partnerships. The Danish People’s Party (Dansk Folkeparti) has decided not to engage, and the funding allocated for this party has therefore been allocated for activities implemented by other parties or by the secretariat in cooperation with the parties.
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MULTIPARTY FUNDING The Multi-Party modality operates in a very different manner than the partnerships between one Danish party and one partner in Africa or Latin America. In some cases a multiparty platform consists of the few parties represented in a parliament; in other cases the partnership can cover all registered party in a country. An analysis of what DIPD wanted to deliver in each country, combined with the presence or not of other stakeholders, has resulted in very different solutions and set-ups. In Nepal it was decided to establish a small office with a DIPD Representative, to ensure that the six parties get the support required, and to ensure that the Steering Committee of the platform, made up of two representatives from each party, could work effectively. In Bhutan DIPD does not have an office, but resources are channelled through existing institutions (both NGOâ€™s and government institutions), as well as through a newly created platform for empowering women to be active in politics. In Myanmar it was decided that direct implementation by DIPD was required, because it was impossible to find a local partner to engage with, and because all recommendations pointed towards building the organisation from scratch. In Egypt DIPD from the start had the option of working with an existing institution like the Danish-Egyptian Dialogue Institute (DEDI), both as the programme partner and as the partner responsible for the logistics and management. In Tanzania and Malawi DIPD is engaging in partnerships with well-established multiparty platforms, offering the required security for funds and programmes. In both countries these platforms have received support from other international partners in the past. In Zimbabwe DIPD is working with its Dutch sister organisation NIMD, the Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy. Together we have entered a partnership with the local NGO called Zimbabwe Institute, which has the capacity to manage locally. The table below presents the funds spent during the first funding phase 2011-2014 in order of size.
MULTI-PARTY FUNDINGS 2011-2014 COUNTRY
Forberedende aktiviteter Andre projekter *
Christiansborg Seminar 2012 TOTAL
Note: Other projects cover national and international seminars, publications, film production, Nordic Meetings, etc.
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THE SECRETARIAT The DIPD secretariat in Copenhagen can only be described as very small in terms of staff. At the end of 2014 there were a total of 6 regular full-time staff members, including the director. In addition to the core staff, there have been some students. The list also mentions two international staff members: Ms Shrishti Rana as the Representative for DIPD in Nepal, and Ms Khin Tazin Myint as the Representative for DIPD in Myanmar. In both countries there are some additional local staff.
STAFF WORKING FOR DIPD IN 2014 Bjørn Førde
Hanne Lund Madsen
Ulla Gade Bisgaard
Project Coordinator (ending 31 August)
Project Coordinator (ending 30 November)
Project Coordinator (starting 1 November)
DIPD Representative in Nepal
Khin Thazin Myint Nazaret F. Nyborg Asger Hougaard Line Stange Ramsdal
DIPD Coordinator in Myanmar Student (starting 3 March) Student (ending 12 September) Student (ending 30 June)
Student (starting 25 August)
Rebecca R. Vilhelmsen
Student (starting 25 August)
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© DIPD Danish Institute for Parties and Democracy Jemtelandsgade 1 2300 Copenhagen S Denmark Tel: +45 38 40 28 00 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org This publication is also available on www.dipd.dk. Views expressed in the publication do not necessarily represent the views of the Board of DIPD. Edited by Bjørn Førde, Director of DIPD. Contributions from DIPD staff Rebekka Randarsól Vilhelmsen, Jakob Bamberger, Hanne Lund Madsen and Flemming Astrup. Inputs from party representatives Marianne Victor Hansen, Bent Nicolajsen, Rolf Aagaard-Svendsen, Simon Redder Thomsen, and Peter Kenworthy. Photo list: Cover photo: Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt with delegation from Bhutan (DIPD). Page 5: DIPD Chairman meeting partners from Bhutan and Nepal on Bornholm (DIPD). Page 6-7: Member of Communist Party in Nepal speaking in democracy workshop (DIPD). Page 8-9: Opening of DIPD Resource Centre for political parties in Yangon (DIPD). Page 10: Workshop in Bolivia on conflict resolution (Socialist People’s Party). Page 11: Cover of the DIPD strategy for 2014-17 (DIPD). Page 12: First female minister from Bhutan visiting Lejre Municipality and the Mayor (DIPD). Page 13 top: Liberal Party Coordinator Bent Nikolajsen with partners in Zambia (Bent Nikolajsen). Page 13 bottom: MP Astrid Krag, former Minister Lone Dybkjær and Professor Drude Dahlerup with the Princess of Bhutan at conference in Bhutan (DIPD). Page 14: Minister of Foreign Affairs Martin Lidegaard meeting delegation from Egypt (DIPD). Page 15 top: National meeting of opposition party CHADEMA in Tanzania (Rolf Aagaard-Svendsen). Page 15 bottom: Speaker of Parliament Mogens Lykketoft with Pudemo leader (Enhedslisten). Page 16 top: Partners from Bhutan hosted by Conservative Party (Rolf Aaagaard-Svendsen). Page 16 bottom: People’s Meeting on island of Bornholm (DIPD). Page 17 top: Elias Chipimo debating on Bornholm (Bent Nikolajsen). Page 17 bottom: Demonstrations in Swaziland (Red-Green Alliance). Page 18: Members of CHADEMA youth wing (Rolf Aaagaard-Svendsen). Page 19 top: Social Democrats in workshop in Swaziland (Social Democrats). Page 19 bottom: Danish delegation with Aung San Suu Kyi in Myanmar (DIPD). Page 20: Evo Morales won the 2014 election (Eneas De Troya, Flickr). Page 21: Danish Ambassador Freddy Svane in Bhutan to celebrate end of cooperation (DIPD). Page 22-23: Women listening to speech at NAREP rally in Zambia (Bent Nikolajsen). Page 28-29: Bhutan-Nepal delegation to study tour in summer of 2014 (DIPD). Page 31: Youth from political parties in seminar in Myanmar (DIPD). Page 32: Statement on bench in Nairobi, Kenya (Bent Nikolajsen). Page 33 top: Former Minister Poul Nielson lecturing at democracy seminar (DIPD). Page 33 bottom: Former MP, MEP and Minister, Lone Dybkjær, on Danish democracy (DIPD). Page 34: Participants in democracy seminar in Copenhagen (DIPD). Page 35 top: Women at NAREP rally in Zambia (Bent Nikolajsen). Page 35 bottom: Participants from political parties in seminar in Myanmar (DIPD). Page 36: MP Uffe Elbæk lecturing at democracy seminar (DIPD). Page 38-39: Democracy seminar for delegates from Bhutan and Nepal (DIPD). Page 46: DIPD staff at planning seminar (DIPD). Design: Move Copenhagen Print: TopTryk ISBN print 978-87-92796-28-8 ISBN web 978-87-92796-29-5 Published in June 2015
JEMTELANDSGADE 1 2300 COPENHAGEN S DENMARK TEL.: +45 38 40 28 00 MAIL: DIPD@DIPD.DK WEB: WWW.DIPD.DK
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