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1000+Pictures for Teachersto Copy AndrewWright

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Contentsand Introduction

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1

How to draw

2

Settings

3

The organisation of the book and the selection of language items

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The se.lection,topics and larrguageitems in this book are 54 b.rserl on the T/rrcs/lo/rlLct,cl, a clocume.nt producec'l bv Topics, behaviour, notions 3 tire Cor-rncilof Europe for language svllabus designers.I 84 have also referreclto the Cnrlhrill,gt'Erg/ls/rLc,rlcon. Illustrated vocabulary and grammar 4 Language is enormouslv rich. A r,r'orclcan have nranv meanings depe.nding on context. I have had to be 118 Pictures for composition 5 sr.lcctive.and have.ofte.nonlv been able to illustrate orre of se.,'e.ral possiblc.mearring:. I have rrrnitted concepts Some basic ways of using pictures in 6 128 that are impossible to represent pictori.rllv ancl language language teaching ite.mslvhich are re.latir.e.ltinirr.tluent,r.c. rr'ithin stages5 1,36 or 6 of the Canrbridge English Lexicon. Further reading Onlt' rarclv can a picture contmunicate the same 137 rnc'aningto evervone n'ho seesit. The role of piciures in Index t l r i s b r t t r k i : t r ) c ( ) n t r i h u t ct o t h t ' l e , r r n i n g r ' f m e . r n i n g erperienced bv the learner .rsprrt ot a situ.rtitrn:referred k r i n a c o n r . e r s a t i o ni,l l r r s t r a t i n sr s t o r ) ' ( r r a s p a r t o f a gar-ne.It is the experience of the situation as a n hole r,''hich helps thc lcarne.r to build up a sense of the (For r-noreon the M a n y t e a c h e r s r e c o g n i s e t h e ' t t s e f u l n e s s o f * i r t r p l e n-reaningor mcanings of thc langr.rage. 128). tcaching of me.aninc sc.e pagc. dran'ings in their te.rching. Dran'ings have tnan"' advantages: thev are quick to do; their content can be determined exactlv bv vou, the teacher;thev are easv tc) Stereotyping reproduce. But manv teachersthink thev c.rnnot drau'l There has been no attemDt to reDrese.ntclifferent racial Or if thev can clrau' the'v feel ther. have not got etrt,ltglt t r p r ' * i r t t l r e d r , r t r ' i t t g . i r r L l r i . t r t ' r t r kT. h e r e S,etter,tli*t'd 'pot.rto' time. he.rclsare me.lnt to representall of us! The r-rseof This book is based on years of enjov.rble experie'nce' s t e r c t r t v p i c r l , r . r c i . - r ls v m b o l s h a s b c c n r e . j e . c t e cal s gained in helping teachersto learn hon' to c-iran'tn over rrr-rdesirable.. thirtv countries. It contains a care'ful intrtttiuction ttr dran ing and over one thorrsandclrarvirrgsfor teacherstr-r T h i s n e w e d i t i o n coPi/ 1000 PrcluHr,sr,orrTr,.rcrrF-Jts r() Colv has been usc'd bv teachers in countries all over the n'orltl. Some tcacher-s Who might use this book? have said that thev rvoulcl n()t bc n'ithout itl The rnain users of this book u'ill be langrrage teache'rs. \ e ' r ' e r t h e l e s s , s u g g e s t i o n s h a v e b c ' e n m a c l e f o r i t s anvone' i ) n p r ( ) \ ' c m c n itr r t l r eJ i g l i to i t l t i r r , ri t l t ' - r . r r r g i r rLg' \ F e r i r n ( ' H Hor,r'ever,teachersof othe'r subjccts,arrd ir-rdeecl r,r'hose job involvt's commttnici'ttiort, rt'ill finrl this of use in so lrr;lnv classrooms.ln this neu' cclitior-rthere m a t e r i a l r c l e v a n t . I h a r . e m e t s p c e c h t l r e r , r p i s t : . are sixteenertra pages.Additions inclucle:more pages of sociologists, vouth leaders, voga teachers as r,r'ell as faces ir-rclrrclirrg hou. to look v()unger (.rlu'avs r-rsefulin teachersof historr,,geographv anc-lecttnomicsu'ho make these stressful times); ne\\' pJge\ illustrating tenses anrl With the examp)t': givt'tt phclnologv and nine morâ‚Ź.pagcs on iclcasfor making use use of simple rc'pre'sc'ntations. in this book, teachersand their stuc'lcntsctrn drar'r'their of the pictures in tlie book for languare te.aching.Marrv orvn pictures r,r'itl-rcomputer softu'are clr.rn'ing packages oi the inclivitir"ralpictrrreshave been motlifiecl.The inclex as lt'ell ;rs lnore trac'litionallvon thc' boarcl,on hanclouts no'"r'incorporatesArnerican crs\r'ell as tsritishEnglish. and in displavs. Acknowledgement Copying

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B v c o p v i n g I r n e a n , l o o L i n g a t t h r ' p i c t t r r e si r t t h e b o c t k and drarl,ing vour ()\vr1 r'e'rsions.I also mr'an that a teacher,having bought hi-. or her o\\'n copv nf the book, should feel that he or she can m(rke multiple copies ior use nith his or her or.r'nstttdents. I'ermissittn to m;rke multiple' copies is not gra ntecl for itny other circumstancesexcept r'r'ith erprcss pcrmission givert b1 tl.republisher.

and thanks

I r.r'otrlcllike to thank thc. r-n.urv,r-nanvte.rchcrsrvho h.rr.e p a s s e do n t o m e t h e i r p l t ' . r t u r r ' i r t u * r r r g t h i s b o o k a n d macle their suggestionsior changr.sin the nerv eclition. I particul.rrlr' \\'alrt t() thank I'aula Saudhan'r .rncl Julia Dlrcl.rs,foi p.rssing on their experience to nte and for r-nakir-rg so manv helpir-rIsnggestions.

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THow to draw

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In the first section I have reproduced the way in which I help people to draw more effectively. The level is higher than you need for copying the drawings in this book. However, I have decided to put it at the beginning of the book becauseyou need basic help even for copying. Essentially, in order to copy (i.e. without photocopying!) you must: 1 judge proportions (is a line is longer or shorter than another, or a shape thicker or thinner); 2 judge the angle of the lines (whether they are lines or the edgesof shapes). These are the main things. However, it will also help you to study how I draw solid people. When you learn my approach you will be able to copy my solid people much more easily. Similarly with the settings: when you learn how I have avoided using perspective,you will be able to copy them much more easily. So, please,even if you are only going to copy the pictures in this book (and not produce your own), do look through this first section. Thanks.

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Card or paper

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Materials and techniques

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Teachers' flash cards should certainly be on card and not paper. Card lasts longer and is easier to handle. For pupils it may be as cheap to use duplicated sheets rather than card. In Britain it is possible to get cheap or free offcuts of paper and card from printing houses.

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Sometimes you may want to stick thin paper to card. You can: I use a rubber baseci glue which does not wrinkle the paper. Professionaldesignersdo this. 2 use a paste. If you use a paste put it on the thin paper and leave the paper to expand for some time before putting it onto the card.

Photocopying 1 Don't go to the edge of your paper. 2 Don't use larger areas of black than your machine can reproduce. 3 If you stick smaller piecesof paper down so that the levels are different put typist's white opaque along the edges to remove the shadowed line. Grids To give a senseof organisation to your text and pictures arrange them within a frame and align their edges. A frame (in British English - a 'grid') may be made of one, two or even more columns. Tracing If your top piece of paper is too thick for you to see the image clearly put them both againsta window pane and copy it like that. How big? Letters should be about two cms high. But guiding rules like this are not very useful. Try a sample - see what it looks like from the back of the class. Colour It is so tempiing to use lots of bright coloursin order to please the students. Much better to choose colours for other purposes: 1 to make an object more recognisable if the shape is rather ordinary, for example, an orange; 2 to direct attention to something, particularly if it is small within a picture, for example, one person giving another a present. The people could be drawn in black line and the present in a colour; 3 to express feelings and to make the picture look nice!


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How to draw

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Canyou seethe difference?Is A wider than B?Is F longer than D? : F-:

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If you think A is wider and D is longerthen you canjudge anglesand proportions and that is all you need for copyingthe drawingsin this book. Indeed,it is the basic skill you need for doing objectivedrawingsof the highestorder. Amazing factsabout the human body The head and body are equalin length to the length of the legs. The arms are as long as the body.

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elbows are halfway down the arms and point backwards

no hips,no hands

knees are halfway down the legs and point forwards

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stickpeople We canonly interpret a stickperson's actionsif he or shehas the sameessential featuresof a'real' person;so you must baseyour drawingson how peoplelook and move.The 'real'peopleyou copy could be you (yourself,actingout the

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position and copying each bit, starting with the body) or a friend or someone in a photo. Most artists study a photograph or a model if they are drawing something for the first time.

lf you or youtftiend, ak achn!ouV a posrlton,then clo se the whdovts O,td loch- the doors in Cate Wu afe laoh.ed bpon aad Jadged lo bec.azy!

Here are someactionsto copy. Study the anglesof the body, then the arms and legs.Judgethe anglesof eachbit by comparingit with eithera verticalor horizontalline.

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Copy theanglesexactlyas you seethem here and you will then have the same dynamicaction.And you CAN judge angles!You did it on page 4lIf you[et it *ro.rg, do it again!

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C o p y t h e s ed r a w i n g s . S t a r tw i t h t h e b o d y .

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Start u'ith the chair, then do the body.

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stickpeople Copy the angles exactly!

SlighbcharyesoF angleillus1raLe diFFerznbwaqsoFwolking (*t, fon-s.ar',il ,runniXg,and Jo,.ev"nepr.sent dif?err^L Balance

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Box people are useful becausethey have characterand can be seenmore easilythan s t i c k p e o p l e i n a c o m p l i c a t e dp i c t u r e .

Tne vifatacfiono{ the borpersonts achtcvedexac?lylius rson. llo,rtever, o( q Sl'icKpe sf*r( wilh the body . L1naY Wha( sorL o( bod'yd,oyan want lo give hru or her? Chooseone!

I[U^VAA 'lhen drcta shcRgcrson lrhbs in t-he Draw (ne bod.Vhrsf . qcdon you wanl . prau Lhe lr'nbs kom lhecorners o( lhebox.

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boxpeople draw tn ltneS r?presentingfhe oth<r sdie o( fhe lrrybs. lrlOW These llnes Shouttdno? tuifare srabfIe folds o{ a[oth,el.c. praw rh fhe teeCaslria.ngles.NriY fr,qfo draut real shoesl [( is fu aifhcnl? a,nd no( uorth fhe eftort . Draur ln fhe heds and. hands.

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Here are urz.e rnor.eboxpeopleaUd'raon n the sa^e sfaSesas ou7h'neaaboe. Nofe ho.l linesdis oppear fun|ta bodrcs o( oVher linrbs.

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cnd,fi"Jo-for theeyebroc.ts . lon have tltree lines le{t,6na for the 7y16wth Nirh thes? Ilneson ev(ra.ord.t'n^rUnuMber d ex?resrIonscqn be rndde. tbueler, c,stn li(e the h,crLl cypresrionsfou r.o[e uitl Yâ&#x201A;Źrvratn arnbjkok-r

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High eyebrows show surprise.

Low eyebrows show concentration.

Angled eyebrows show pain.

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The eyebrows rise in the centre. There must be a gap between them or he will look too determined.The mouth turns down.

The eyebrows are now slightly concave- this gives that look of pain. The mouth is now longer and weaker and further down.

Eyebrows still more concave and further apart.The mouth, down-tumed, is weakly down more on one side.

Now the head is back. The brows are nearer the eyes due to the concentration of the outburst. The mouth must turn down.

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High eyebrows, not High eyebr ows. Surprisedhorror t o o c l o s et o g e t h e r . Smalleyes,rather Bulgingeyes. Tiny m outh. Slightly larger eyes. intense. Mouth shows hint of pleasure in the surnrise.

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T h e e y e b r o w sr i s e and curve. The mouth begins to curve upwards.

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The distance between the eyebrows is so importantfor that s i m p l eo p e ns m i l e

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The eyebrows are now nearer to the eyes and nearer to the centre. The mouth is bunched and a little nearer the nose.

The eyebrows now touch the eyes.They nearly meet and they tip downwards towards the centre.

One eyebrow rests on the eye:the other has flown upwards. There is a compressed fold of skin between the eyebrows. Note the corner of the mouth is dou,tt.

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Pea( head Smafl eyebrows big eyes lonq nose SmallmouAlt big pear bod'y Squa(e sh.r'rE

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SCCNCS Your charactersmust live somewhere. Theremust be a contextfor things to happenin. Hereis a map. Copy it and let

the students decide where the schools. hospital, etc. should be.

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How to draw

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animals and obiects

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If you want to draw from a real object or a photograph of it, there are, basically,two things to think of: first of all, the proportions of the basic shape(s)and secondly the angles of the edgesof the shape.

Aasi shwe of ob)eclt lf you wavt( to raakea drauttg ol-a car,fi* of ^ll f+ t ewzcntVb-orre.t! tnto a ve^j basicshapet"kei rtcrartgto'.qek I tsk"too;ltn? tla*1 E f"Xut tsk too1"iZ Mak<t shivt*ter Tlacxore tlp otttg +* W6;t4s fD bnsvev0t fl^ts stage.

-

Wh:er\yau have [ot tl*. popotior't ol $e nMtA rettanqle arred. krok(or inpdtTr;t nternal shapesaM gek dte a,ngli: correct.

-t

Now yaa have qov the ,,..aLr. popa/nov-ts anrJshapescorreot wil'l on(trr {o the yot u,^ ad.d 't t'hc few wselhd deJaiJr,^JurLh vtewQx#rat is 6 cdt.

.: .: -^* -4 -4 4

27


How to draw

:

animals and obiects :* .:--i--

:* :-t-=

:

Here are examples of how to find basic shapes in a variety of creatures.

: _-t-

Once you have this basic shape you can put in a few important curves and details.

_F

find a rcc(angk uhtcherrcloses the nwn Shape the qntrnalo, "( aQlect.Qet the proporfions o{ the ftc(atgle corfect and.qou ha(e'eptkred.' iE!

Mob, if is tnncheasterbjndge the gfoporftons af a reol'an7te tlp.n o{ ^ cfcl< o{ oval .

_: __F_t--

_f

_-

Trq {ofina 4 re{al\gle{or l6is She.ep

___i-=

28

-:


-1

How to draw

animals and objects T h e r e a r e m a n y a n i m a l sa n d o b j e c t sd r a w n in this book which vou maywish tocopy.

On thesefr^to pages(zq-so)you can .feehou I maae funfr'nol

get the propofiionc o{-th< Area"s,ltnssand" a.agfr5r$hvf

drawngs and hou t1ouCan bpq ther,'t.Above all,mahe -sur</on

-i

--.â&#x201A;Ź -1

4

J

J

J

.* 1

-e

-t 29 a


L-__

How to draw

animals and objects

: : .: -..-

_:----_--

l._

F_ _:* -|-.. _| -} _tL-.._

_-: _F_!_L-_

L,

_L-_

-r: _|.--

_}_:-_ _t-. _l _t-30


ts-

How to draw -,

scenesand objects and avoid perspective

-a

A v o i d a l l p e r s p e c t i v ed r a w , i n gi f ; r ta l l p - r o s s i b lD e .r a w b u i l d i n g sa n d s i m i l a r jects ob face-onratherthan going away kom y o u . I t i s n e a r l v a l w a y s p o s s i b l e !C o r n p a r e t h e d r a w i n g s b e l o w . O n t h e l e f t a r es o m e t y p i c a l a t t e m p t st o c l r a wp e r s p e c t i v eO . n t h e r i g h t i s t h e e a s va n d e f f e c t i v es o l u t i o n .

O n t h e r i g h t n e a r l ya l l t h e l i n e so f t h e f u r n i t u r e a n d t h e b u i l d i n g s a r ee i t h e r v e r t i c a l o r h o r i z o n t a l .A l s o n o t e t h a t t h e chairs, the table and the people'sfeet are on the ground line.

X a a

a

!

qR@@â&#x201A;Źre

a

a

': ! :

!

Here are two more. There are many more in the section on settings.

./ j

I

! : : : ':

\.

a1 JI

I


c-

How to draw

..-

scenesand objects

-

Of course, when you draw something'flat on', without perspective,you must still make decisions. You must decide which view to take. Some objectsare easierto recognise from the front, some from the side. :::--

-:* _=-

Televisions are most easily recognised from the front.

Chairs are most easilyrecognisedfrom the side.

trom y!1e lront

l-

::

_L-

\-

#;'3(""'ilbor

us)

Bre

ftowt ftle sidg

fop

.t

siae I v

--:-----*-+ :-:-ts ---::

T@il'

:::

JL

ffiM

_-L-

l-L-

l-l lL

llvr |>

It fronr Lv

< t.-

ll

Stde \l

H tl__lt t__l

lc

o

-L.<

_t-j--

c eol

|-=--rI

lr----r I

L-

-j-


F+

'1,

--

How to draw

specialeffects

*

shaking

d"F

=f

\r--

1

5

,?

a

A

+

h

I^.^

4

+

z

' > .-1-) -r.7/'' 2 ) tt(a-

-_-

l{lr,

--)-

-z-(

-

-ltt/

ln--

E

*, -,).1

{


:-

How to draw

<

specialeffects

4

LI

L. 1

=-

*LLZZ = L

= 1

r/ .,\'l

,/

--G D_:=

cX

l

] 1--

>--->

l:

-q_

5= :-

\.

Ic?

9,

0

D

Oo0 o

)+f

-+

o

r,oce.e

trâ&#x201A;¬obn rnan ond uorvra^go l" the Sreen7roe. *, fu,t sort4<kn,f Qnd, >< (hf rt 34

]--,

=:: 1-

!= -lL__

j-!.-

J-!l-

-} !


-t-t-

-

How to design

handouts,posters,displays -4

j

' l',.-,,611"1 ined {iYle nrts

tif te

--tC

,1

'^vh?*tn"

\!)'ij'r*r

"PY'1"; -

4

rllYYl /

\o*v'

Yo{' <lo\rt

,,-,

vYt9 ,Se{9'"*L "

bit*"^n"

-"=

Trl'lc

rof'

IP"' I

/

-

r!f*;t^r

--v

,a'

A

C

1if{e

z---

il@ L_itr t-"-I

T\

r*o,n^T#fn fi:1

Trhe

f'^t^t^ ,Pl^"

riq',fnti'"r,nyle ( s l L ns, 'cot^,i^rt.r r W

P''' ,np I'born.t' t n e o- , a 6

atr.Y

rc\v

r r 5t

vvr'.-x r ' ^ " ,kt

l,T'',,inrnf

, lin(s yticlucrot, t5'9lucrotf. l'Lv bL," Ln( ^h 1.gh'^*1o \yro"J" 4.gh'^*1o T 1'(-

v-

f

J/

f-le;F?I--,;

'i,^,*flEEH cor

go.t'), nrt.l

_4

'to'4u"r'fi?u'u Tttle

o^|o,tXlinl?:: 6ort,lrr'etw'

all6res'

hr^?e*_ ?r"*

ole' Y

Cffiffi[I -.G

@

r;6ffiY," Y

4

-..4E

+

A Traditional page design. Is it boring or dignified? It depends what it's forl 'ragged' B The right hand edge of text adds informality and interest. C Centralising (so easy with word processors)is attractive.

+

= *_ =

D Two-column designs are ordered but flexible to different elements. E Displays can be as ordered or as chaotic as you wish. F Underlying two column design gives order to an informal display. G An example of really beginning to plav with shapes and composition. Suitable perhaps for a poster.

-t

--

35


2 Settings When people say they cannot draw they often mean they cannot draw things in perspective. In fact, perspective (in the sense of parallel lines converging to a vanishing point) is usually unnecessary!Indeed, it is often clearernot to use perspectiveand it is certainlymuch fasterOn page 37 I have drawn one of the pictures of the street in perspective in order to demonstrate that there is no particular gain. If you draw flatly across the picture all the lines on buildings will be either vertical or horizontal. But avoid perspectiveeven in the case of objects like cars or even a brush! (See

L

page31. Thick and thin lines In a scene there are a lot of lines: this can be confusing for the student. Of course,you can use colour to identify one subiectfrom another. If you cannot use colour, as I cannot in this book, you must use different thicknessesof line. For example, draw all the stickpeoplewith a thick line and the background with a thin line. Another way of separatingpeople away from the background is to draw them as solid people or boxmen. In the following section I have used both stickpeopleand boxpeopleto show what the effectlooks like. Lines which are sketchy and which do not yoin up with other lines of the sameobjectalso causeconfusion. All these points relateto the'gestalt' theory of visual perception, which argues that we gather together visual information we think belongs together. For uses of settings by language teachers, see Section 6, pages 128-736.

!

I-

\-L-

>

L-

:.

FF_ -::-

36


Ea

Settings 4 I,

Street

: -z

,4

wnr

-* 1

t

li

+

Ji

-&

JC

-5

-* = -at

+ 4 J/

t


_\..

Settings

Park and garden

4 l<

4

_14 1

>l.-â&#x201A;Ź _f: t-

:..l=

:=F

gEE

L,

_L-

L

L.

r-L-

L-

L-

lE-

L-

t--

38


?_

Settings

Terraceand countryside --= .-:

<=-

7

z z L

,

,+

*

*,4

':

-"-l

-1

-.{ -t

-dl

! '-.:

a -,1

4 a

39


!-

Settings

Beachand mountains

: : :

i

-*

I

i--

: E-

40

:


--1 ': -=

Settings

Bus station and bus

--= :

:

.-

::"

,4

a 4

: t

z

t

a

a

47


Settings

Train and aeroplane : L.-

:-= ==L

L=.

L:-

] L

L--

=r-L*

>-L-

L-

L-:

B

domo%aN

L--

L--

L-

L-,

L_,

I Tofu effecllrethisdra,singrnwsafiil(heblarp5oard

t--

l--

42


Settings

Kitchen and bathroom

'--

-4

.* .._t

a :

.a a !-

+J

t


!

Settings

-

I

Dining room

=: -1.

..<.

5= !: 5: =

>=l--

_

L.

= > l---

f'-=

-,=-

-r\ vrlt

na q^;F rruru

[l

g

@h'

L

ffv

@4,

v

L=

f---

-=

an lv

l :

l-

L---

L-

L,

C-Ombmtirgvi<ws4nc

the

and,

s {Yp

L

e stitl< L

44


---

Settings

Sitting room and bedroom

trEE, usoo oo.o 6eDt a g E9

.:

-:

-.:

./ ./ ,,.-/ a

z

/, 1

4

45


Settings

Baker and superrnarket

: :

:-

---

=-

= =

=

L-

=-

]L-

fr-L*

f--

L*

L-

L--

L-

L

46


Ft

Settings -_ -=

Restaurantand caf6

: '-= = =

"=

: : = = a = -: -

-/ / 1

: a J

J

ta +/ f


Settings

Travel agentand hotel

__<.

= >

-. ]_:|*'--=. -= --. 1.-=..JL--

= =. Ir!

--.t-

L

iL-

=-_

L-

f,-

!-

--f--

L--

L-

L-

L-

L--

L_

L-

L*

,18


Settings -

Post office and telephone booth

:_

:

_ :

=

5

a a a

49


!-"=-

Settings

Hospital and doctor's waiting room

<

:-:--. :.:.,-. =: =.-

=--"-------

i--

-----. --

RECEPTnON

--= L.-

--L-

b: L: bb-= L---

,E-

t-

t-

50


F'z

Settings

Classroomand police station 1

'-

= -= a

:

:

'=

u_

-li

-

a a

a 4 4 1

51


Settings

Library and museum

*--: --__>F.

l-

a--=. L<

>._ t-

t: L_

L-

E--

>.L-_

L-=

>>--

-L-

tr-L-

t-ELE: L.

L*

L--

L-_

L--:


-,-.-

Settings

Art galleryand cinema

-:

: : -1

'::

-:

--: -_ : '= -1

4

a a t

'a I

53 I


t

3 Topics, behaviout, notions

L=E}-a-

How to draw 1-:

In order to copy these drawings you will have to make judgements about angles and proportions. Have you looked at Section l How to draw?

L=

Subiects covered

>--

The subjects are taken from the Council of Europe Threshold Leuel contents list. I have omitted Education - you will find some pictorial reference in Section 2. Household articles are under'House and home'. Ambiguity These pictures are not expected to illustrate unambiguously the word you are trying to teach (seeintroduction). Note Most of the settings on page 23 need to be simplified if you copy them out yourself. I recommend you use photocopies of this page if you can.

D--

L

>i.ti-

t.t--

tE: ttL.-

F-b:

b-= b-b-b-

F b-: bbb-

54


'_--1

E-

Topics, behaviour, notions

-'-

identification Personal (appearance)

-1'

feaYqreshghVana -

Iower61e,s4

young (child)

fea,(uresSfronqand fugher, morz naf

sligh( {ru"rn, pLr^p i ; h t n r l e s ch a i r

At'ncheeks,(h,n

young (adult)

middle aged

old

short

hLt( | ltn<S

thin

'-:

straight

strong

stooped

-=

"ffi;(,,01

UN'

e al

broad-faced moustache

thin-faced beard

fringe/ponytail

plait

dark-haired straight

fair-haired wavy

bald

dark-haired curly

6_

e I

n 55


Topics, behaviour, notions

L-

Personalidentification

L

(appearance)

l-_

L--

{eafutes loood,ov>non Ae head , head larqe (etakd. lo the bod.t1,

My

snail.

sho^ldeG larg)er,

{at chth, fatter sf'oma.c\, thiclcerand

Ctttn

slirtt

Slryhrlq bo;ea legs.

!!-F l::L-

very young

middleaged

young

L-_

L

middleaged

L

: :._ --

:-:--

very young heads bouted

young

=

head

tn,^>ed,bod,", boed lejs."

hPngh? anat'

. welllorosara on the booeA chesl.

--:=* -

old

old

:

56

>

L


F-,

.'

Topics, behaviour, notions

identification Personal (family relationships)

2

loHN BROWN MARYBROWN (1.e20-1.970) (b. 1e25)

*_ n_

grand father

grandmother

C E O R G EB R O W N

(b.leso)

B A R B A R AB R O W N H A R O L DC R E E N A N D R E r y B R O W N( b . 1 9 6 0 ) R A C H E L B R O W N( 1 9 s 0 - 1 9 9 0 ) j A N E T G R E E N (b. 1952) (b. 1e65) (b. 1e60)

@ uncle

.J

JOHN BROWN (b.1e83)

father

mother

P E ' I E RB R O W N N A N C Y B R O W N (1984-198s) (b.1e81)

aunt

uncle

E L I Z A B E T HC R E E N (b. 1e78)

aunt

P E T E RG R E E N (b. 1e83)

"1

t ! = -d_

= : a 1 / a

@

I

brother

@ COUSI N

cousln

57


L

Topics, behaviour, notions

L

identification Personal (professions/occupations)

L=-

:-

L.--

L.-

ll-

architect

artist

baker

/ businessman

woman

d

l!-

:=

L,-

>-

butcher

chemist (druggist - US)

doctor

L.-

L._

L==:

driver

4 ql

+ !-

factoryworker

farmer

fireman lr-

L--

BfTlâ&#x201A;ŹC

footballer (soccerplayer- US) Sreengrocer

grocer

E-

& lolner l--=

l--

labourer 58

mechanic

milkman

mrner

bl---

-7 - -


F-

Topics, behaviour, notions -=

identification ersonal P (professions/occupations)

.-

musician

nurse

office worker

photographer

pianist

pilot

policemin

policewoman

frJ

Rt-=-F)

nilt EI tt'|l postman (mailman - US)

qt s h op a s s i s t a n t

s eaman

u n e m p loyed

O+'

A, ,-J

I

-.J

I

,A

F

soldier

street cleaner

teacher

typist

waiter

wrrter

yoga teacher

il

: -'a-

!

59


A

Topics, behaviour, notions

-

< L

Flouse home and (rooms

L-

etc.)

j-

rutl LI

ru semi-detached house

detachedhouse

bungalow

"-FEg cottage

:-l\-

-.-<

attic bcdrot

a t t i cs i t t i n gr o o n r fl f

-.bathroonr

--first flclor (secondfloor - 115)

a--

slttrng roonl

dining room a-

ground floor (first floor - U5)

L-

tr--

.t-b-

h-

DE]C]

trurl

tf-

+ NtrlD

Ft/FrF

oucl [1trlrJ

l

r]nt]

flat (apartment -

l us)

n tr Wm

nronN

terraced house

caravan(trailer - US)

tent

ta-

F.

60

-


ts-

--

Topics, behaviour,notions

"-

House and home (furniture

--

and amenities)

armchair

bath

blanket

o

bookshelves

chair

\-,

o

o

o

o

chest of drawers

clock

olo

coathooks

cooker( stove- US) cupboard

computer

* -11

dishwasher

desk

d r e s s i n gt a b l e

electric firc (electricheater - US)

-" T

t: Cr

.fo

l l rr t l l

llltlltl

s.\ 4

hand basin

irot

"^;

1l

ttl 'll

-^|ll

')1

c o ld w a ;;

lamp

mtrTor 61


1-

Topics,behaviour, notions

t

home House and (furniture

1

and amenities)

L-

1 t-..-

t-=-

L.-

pillow

picture

potted plants

radiator (centralheating)

1-

a.

l-.

L,_

a._-

L

refrigerator

record player

--

settee/couch

t---

:--.r-= L-

!-

shower L,â&#x201A;Ź

(B

L-

trlc!Er EEB EIEIGI EI @EI

tabie

switch

t a b l ec l o t h

telephone

=:

o o o 6

o

==--

televisrcln

t o i l e t / WC

wardrobe

washing machine >

-


tsz

Topics, behaviour, notions '= -=

home House and (household tools) articlesand

.":

bowl

brush and pan

fork

cup and saucer

'= "A 4r (\^.

--

(>t

--

hammer

iron

kettle

knife

o mrxer

pan

plate

pliers

screwdriver

spanner (wrench - US)

.-

-4

d

SCISSOTS .J

-

spoon

teapot

torch (flashlight - US)

trl c: vacuum cleaner

a {

63


L-

Topics, behaviour, notions

:

Reguons

I-

]=: 1-

l-*

n 0 0

l--

n

factory/ rndustrialarea farm/farming area

>_ L-

=: L=

t--=

>

fields

flat country

L

L-

=:

"#,,.,,-,,y,

=: l-

island

mourrtain

rlver

L,-

!-L-

:*-t seaside

râ&#x201A;Ź tl

o

#

D I

:-

village }-

lr-

o1+

:_ a


--

-_

-,.

Topics, behaviour, notions

Animals

bat

bear

bird

butterfly

bird

camel

cock(erel)

crab

_-4

=

deer

crocodile

'-

elephant

fish

,65 -1


Topics, behaviour, notions

Animals

:: : : 5-

giraffe

goat

goose

hedgehog

> l!-

L

hen/chick

lL-

kangaroo

horse

A

L-

a\

L:

r-_ >-* t--

monkey

n 1^ga ) f

mouse

EI\

EF--

rabbit

sh.rrk

sheep

snake

F_

jv--

E-

l--

D<

t--

swan

f iopr "b-'

tortoise/turtle

whalc'

f-

]66

^


---

Topics, behaviour, notions .:

T-rl

1

rLants

-:

branch

il

-'

/

q 4 //^

V \J,, u - us) \//

'

\i;/uVnX/;'rnX.-hiif,iti grass

\(/,

*\l/h,

-

\U(z-.--

:

a

hedge

m.trsh

4

= a

I

cirn,s.rnthemum t

Ii

67 I


Topics, behaviour, notions

Free time and entertainment

acting

b a l l e t( g o i n g t o )

baseball

bird watching

camping

c h e s s( p l a y i n g )

cinema (going to) [movies (going to) - US]

basketball

car racing (watching)

c l o t h e s( m a k i n g )

computer

c o l i c c t i n g( s t a m p s )

c r i c k e ' (t p l a 1 , i n g )

68

(plaving computcr games)

concerts (going to)

- . '- , . ,. -

clancing

r-rrclit-r tr

discodancing clriving .t_


Topics, behaviour, notions '-

Free time and entertainment

-:

'=

films (watching) lmovies (watching) -

I fishing

_ uSl

fencing

?

football (soccer- US)

.:

gardenin

hang gliding

hiking

hockey

hunting

'a

-:,

,javelin(throwing)

I -l

a 4

f

jumping

model making

C,NEA4A R,EX

a ppR

m o v i e s ( g o i n g t o ) ) o p e r a( g o i n gt o t h e )

I

painting

pets (lookingafter

J

4

/:*:#

-

photography

picnics (going on/having)

poetry lwriting)

69 I


:-

Topics, behaviour,notions

.<

:

Free time and entertainment

:' :-L--

F=:-

r a d i o ( l i s t e n i n gt o )

riding

reading

:: E

L-

: L_

rockclimbing

sailing

runnlng ()

shopping

singing L-

>!:F F

skiing

snorkelling

sq u ash( playing)

s u n b a t h i n g swlmmlng

t--_

poo t' ErrgD(]

Ir@n [-1 D

l+

F-

o

table tennis

television (watching)

tennis (playing)

fi theatre (going to)

t-t-_

touring

l,-

5 â&#x201A;Ź,

video (making) video (watching)

70

4$ walking

water-skiing

yoga

ts: ]-

15 1


"-'--

Topics, behaviour, notions

places Travel and r (types of transport)

bv bicycle

by camel

by car

by elephant

on/by foot

by hovercraft

by lorry/wagon (by truck - US)

by motorcycle

on horseback

by scooter

'.-

-* .*

-a

b y pl a n e

on roller skates by ship

by taxi

I

-

4 -.t

by train

by underground

by unicycle

71


L-_

Topics, behaviour, notions

!

places Travel and r(road features)

:F:-

>->-:-=-

-

roundabout

I Icorner

junction

o

= = --

t -

pedestriancrossing(cros?wak- US)

]: !r-_ l-_

l]--n;r-ll : [f-Tl

one-way street

= I't-Tl

!-t-=-=" P !t-:

,.=F_

traffic lights (traffic signals - US)

no waitin

!-lL-

-


--

Topics,behaviour,nouns

Placesin atown BANK

Etr l-ll

l-ll

railway station (railroad station- US

cafe @

Nm

=

police station

pub/publichouse -Ju-^

=

Corner Shop

YJ ;-9

.a

doctor'ssurgery

4

swimming pool

'a = = -= -t

a information service 4 4

football stadium soccerstadium - US 73


L-

Topics, behaviour, notions

:

Relations (invitations and correspondence)

:-l: -

:-

|l

L-

il

L--

d tnner L.-

L_

L--

L,_

D.

>-*

L-

-= L

L-

bring-a-bottleparty

cocktailparty

:l-

L

F

p r e s e n t / gfit l g i v i n g a )

writing a letter

receiving a letter

O

=

v

:

I

tlF :

telephoning

friends

not friends

lovers f:--


1--

Topics, behaviour, notions

-

Health welfare and (parts body) of the

ankle

body

shoulders ankle

thigh thumb finger stomach waist heart

chest

breast elbow

I

head

foot-Gr-

foot feet

I

*---hair

face hair --+

forehead

'1

eyebrow

I

eye

"J I I t

c- moustache tooth etongue e--

beard

@,

cheek ear nose

*(

'g

mouth chin neck

-/ 75 -l


:-

Topics, behaviour, notions

:

welfare and Health (ailments, accidents,medical services)

5. :--

:-= t-

L,-

got a cold

a sore throat

a cough

a headache :-: :-.

a rF,

L--

L

stomach ache

toothache

sunburn

a temperature l-.:.

t

L-

\

a broken arm

=-

a bruise

a sprain

-:--,

AMBULANCE F

ambulance

stretcher

= F= F -

@E

F l-

tablets L-

76


ts--

*-

Topics, behaviour, notions

Clothes

blouse

boots

hat

CAP

J

--J

jacket

bra

leans

jumper (sweater- US)

nightdress

4 !

t -:

panties

pullover (sweater- US)

oviamas I

J l

raincoat

J

J-

-,

4

*4 4

sandals

shoes

shorts

-1,

-t J

77


r--15

Topics,behaviour,nouns

:

Clothes

I

:--. !.--= 5-.E j}--

:!-k

skirt

slippers

:-

socks

!-. --= >4-

-

r-.,

suit

swimming costume (swimsuit - US)

swimming trunks

tights (pantyhose- US)

] tL-

r.<

:-:-r*

trousers (pants- US)

T-shirt

underwear

waistcoat (vest - US)

!-t

--

l--

I belt

bracelet

brooch

earrlnS

:---L-

-l-<

-F r.-

-L.-

_tI

__t-necklace

78

purse

nng

sunglasses

_-


--

Topics, behaviour, notions -a

Food and drink

biscuit (cookie- US)

tm

.-

chocolate

cnsps (p o ta tochips- US)

pancake

sandwich

sweets(candy - US)

coffee

cream

pastry (Danish)

-

_: -:

pre

tart

*j -". I

J -l

J

tea ,-t

79 --J


t

Topics, behaviour, notions

-

Food L-

a:

--.-

L--

butter

bacon

cheese

chicken

t-.L--

L-

jam (jelly- us)

egg

bE;;â&#x201A;Źo omelette

L

L--

=

meat (beef)

sauce

sausage

soup =

= cereal

chips (french fries - US)

E

spaghetti

nce

=

t t ltr.

,t

tl{ r lr,

'ltt{ll

=

-0-!--0-.0-LL =-

barbecue

80

fry

=


=---

:

Food:vegetables d ,a rL re 4

uhib asParagus

wh'rbe Xre?-n, aubergine or brcwn (eggplant - US) beans

beans (French)

broccoli

glcf''or(ed'

\

uLiYe ceafr< Brusselsprouts

cabbage

cauliflower

celery r^lhilc

r"l hile courgette (zucchini - US) O(ce^ aY black

olive

cucumber

garlic

brO.-rn

onion

lettuce

red or

o(ae^

Parsnlp

Peas

Sree^

PePPer 9(een.

r<d

urhrt< potato

mushroom

tlhtlc

radish

tomato

turnip

watercress

81


I

]-

Topics,behaviour,notions

-

Food:fruit

Gl

F 4

l.-...1

of 9fec^

green or "â&#x201A;Źdt

--

@

]'..<

t-

coconut

avocado green or dark purple

)e\oo

or 9r"e;'\ =' =

yellot.l,

yle rea 9(ee^

=

kiwi fruit

grapefruit

--

Cl/otJrl

#

\ lL-_

melon --

yellout <nol red

Of a,nQ?-

L

yellow

--ir--

=L-

pawpaw grcL^or yallow

O pineapple

F--

d l--

ffiu EffTI

t, L-

d-ar

H,

.g

raspberry

l--

strawberry

L-

L

L-

82 f


Topics, behaviour, notions

Weather

lightniry

thunderstorm

it's windy

it's foggy

it's cloudy

it's snowing

it's sunny

it's verv cold

I'm wet

it's very hot

/,,

it's raining

t8ffit}

Ll.'r:1.1.-.t

-J

';!*i1j7.;,:. ,i.:.i'-:':,.:

-t

I'm cold

ha oa

spring

summer

autumn (fall - US)

winter

83


s-

4 Illustratedvocabulary and grammar

\

b= L-_

>-_

In Section 4 there are over 500 drawings illustrating prepositions, verbs, passives, adjectives and nouns. In some cases you could copy the drawings onto the blackboard and use it to teach the meaning of the associatedword. In other casesthe picture is best used to contribute to an overall experience which helps the student appreciate the meaning of the associatedlanguage. These drawings are more useful for practice than for presentation. The drawings can be used to cue alternatives in sentence patterns, or to cue answers to questions or as reference and the starting point for discussion, con'Some basic ways versation and stories. (See of using pictures in language teaching'/ pages 128-736).

L*

>_ >_ L_

L--

L-

L-

L--

=

s>lL.--

=-

>L=

= L--

=-

L--

84 L


Illustratedvocabularyand grammar

Prepositions rLrtq,reus

I

-n n a re(uJ

@a w before

)rt

after

in front of

behind

u{ton^el

f; up

in

down

to

out

_t

-! a

4

f

v {

\t \-

-

,1

with (sugar)

g

without (sugar)

a

\3:

tq+

away from

towards

85


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

t-

Prepositions

E-E_.l--L

t.."

a T near (to)

around

T

+li

t-tE:. f--

next to L--J+

under

over -* ---: =:-

inside

across

=: F-=

d\

Y

L: L.

F:

between

> >*

A

>_ l.-

>-

h rou

|rL

86 -


Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Verbs l6R SALAI 70.,q{i4

T-,,:f,y{,y "ii';r r',fn

allow

apologise arnve

answer

:-r

E{

bark

answer

attack

bathe

/=i.-."

itv

:il

-a

blanre

a -= -:

=.13 blor,r'

brakr:

^f8,

break

87


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Verbs

=

>-.

>_.

>_-

>__

>_.

>_=

iL-

---t-= -" {

' Y;e-v come down

-t-//a

?\

OJ

F t>.

88 -


Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Verbs tznx${ dance

dance

descend

demand

disagree

nt

disappear

ffi

divid e

'-

a a

ldrive

,t_

: '-

examlne -'=

89


Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

:

Verbs

:*

fall off

.trtl finish

frighten

gather

get/receive

get on/puton

get on

90

get down


Illustrated vocabularyand gramrnar

Verbs

gl!'e

gro\v

hitch hike

w' f \

hunt

imitate

lmprove

corvt< o ?kose -llturcday .l

I

introduce =J

f^il" x *i

ftxapr'/

keepquiet 91


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Verbs

L-

> : = :-

++

H

,"lJ ll ILU

lie

A-

+ -L

+ + Iisten to

l-

5 il

1

!

look after -1

92

J !


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Verbs

make

g

,trP obey

93


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

:

Verbs

:

>

*b polish

l--

I-_

IL

prefer

=

= !5-

put away

put down

quarrel

5-

!L_

,L-

JL*

jL-.

rr--

.l_

tr,-

L_

,* -_ nd l-

a O1

-


Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Verbs

sell

tt

shake

sing 95


Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Verbs

:

:

-= r-

-

sl e e p

tr-

L--

li,

spill

smell

ilr-

.L,-

.L,-

'E-

--

L/)

splash

5-

standu

BAKER

\. .r-, -L-

l-

i]-

rr-=

sting l,-

l_

l--

^-t_

supporr = 96

I

-


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Verbs

take off

telephone

thank

){,

r \

turn on

turn off

97


L.

Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

L

Verbs

L

l-

L

L

L_

_L--

wear

L-

ilL

.L-

5-

wish I--

.L,-_

-5.-

jL-,

iL-

+-

-L-

.a-=_

l=

[-_ L=

t=

l,_

t-

98

I

t


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Passives

S h e ' sh a v i n g h e r p h o t o t a k e n .

They're having their housepainted. I t ' s e l e v e no ' c l o c k .S h e wants to go to bed: the cat has been put out. The g a r a g eh a s b e e n l o c k e d . T h e l i g h t s h a v eb e e n s w i t c h e d off. The radiator has been turned off. The washing up h a sb e e n d o n e .

Fslr orrrce

being posted (mailed - US)

being collected

being taken

being sorted

b e i n gp u t o n

b e i n g t a k e nb v

being taken off

ytcToRtA I

being takei

FOST

being takEn to

br'rng sorted again

being cle.live.red

99


+--

Illustratedvocabularyand grammar

l

Tenses

L

:--

>= _1-

a-: ===

y swims in a pool,

t toda ne s swlmmln

in the sea!

= =. =-=* ==.r-

trs'H 7\r#14'. This rmorning l_,lrrrnpedouL of bea, goE o{ressecl, Yan up a /vroL(hfain, swom to rniles and play<d lennis.

alb onaztng! And ils onlv luvtchlinel

=_1---

!== --t-:

!-: :--l*

]-=: :--

(t, ((

S h e ' sg o i n g t o d r i v e .

She'sdriving.

-L.

She's/Shehas driven.

l_ ]-

100 -


Illustratedvocabularyand grammar

Tenses

ile he was watching television the telephone rang.

After he had eaten the fish he began to feel ill.

lf Lh" sqn

. cotvtes oaf, I r:ilt 9o a,nol oor|a tA El,'regc.nc{e,,r

-2,

'.

ff I wovl {t ^illion,l woqfd sail Found the Norld .

101


l--

Illustratedvocabularyand grammar

L

Vowelsand dipthongs

L

5

>=E

:--

.G sheep

fish

bed

hat

=: =:

o:

=.--- =L

arm

box

claw

foot

=-

u: =-=-'tt-:_

'H

boot

sun

curly AI

panda AU

=_rF=F-

.';/

radio

.rL_

/ road

!--

Ple :--.

CI

!-

C

s

Fl--L.

oil

102

ear

flower

l_

t---


Illustratedvocabularyand grammar

Consonants

pen

socks

bed

doll

chick

juggler

video

three

feather

zebra

shark

treasure

mask

wlng

yacht

103


E-

Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

-

Adj ectives

E L-

+.. A m la l i ( e ? lrw

+

tV Vl

--

o

+--._

absent

afraid

aggresslve

_:-._

alive

LT? 77 7-

+-

*,il,

--__ i-

alone

ancient

apart

' ,,rc

asleep ---

f_

-=

bad

bald

bare

-,F-l=

L-

beautiful

-

hio

L-

blind

=*.

e\

1tr

t-

l_-

.V I

:-: L

blooclv

blunt

brave

bright =

10.r

1-

-


Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Adi ectives

careful

&

f,r\t

/,

nntaho cheap

cautior-rs

careless

>2rl\Z ,,F

;-,

\.

cheerful

#' clever

-t =1

tt

\t

t

cloudy

cornfortable

content

costlv

crooked

-!

105


i-

Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

c

Adj ectives

5-

&* .L

* *

+_

-\_ dangerous

crushed

.L

-L

JL

-a-_

-a

.\.a_

l=_

delicate

clelighted

.4,*

1ffi

-4,-_

different

=--

2_

L

L

---

+ EASV

-.t-

eldest

electric a-.

l_

emptv 106

endless

enormous

nn equal

t-

r-= l-

= a

-


Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Adj ectives

expenslVe

false

r\,M t,t

v)

.t\ favourite

first

foisetful

- j

-t -t_

generous

gentle

-

107


L.

Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

>

Adiectives

L-'._

:-

'%-:

\/

\ r-

L-

L--

L.

hollow

L_

L-

>

humorous

ill (sick - US)

rmportant

L_

L-_

'L-impossible

instant

-

intelligent

L,-

iealous

>

-

light 108

}. -


Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Adj ectives

lonely

frA6 A f,"4 $,,"ft

'/f#,^

,[i './,/ (!-*--.,

middle-aged

.l

J I : J-

Poor

t lfr t ftrI 1?' a7

narrow

.al1

7

o Pp o s r t e

painfu

powerfr-rl

precious

f.

polite

109


=-.-

Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

5

Adj ectives

=

s!f5

pfl

gl--llll-

5 l

quiet

rapid

respectful

s :-''ll

*-o

responsible

_,l--

:l :l-

w//#

.+_

:l_ll_

IFâ&#x201A;ŹEEI

+:

/{

oeo

+ '.4_

( _l-_

rude

ru sry

selfish =

+ + _l'_-

+serious

shallow

_r-

+ t


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Adiectives

ffi thy

I

- US) si ck(n a useous

similar

&2,'2:

skilful

smooth

sl e e p y

srormy

t

\a

_t

straight 4

111


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Adj ectives

thoughtful

**9 OJ' unconscl0us

unhappy

untidy

unwilling

wealthy

wicked

aTfk-r,

woollen

t72

wide


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Nouns

balloon

banana --

t,

-t t chimneys !

' 'fiY iltfi

CTTCUS

113


Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

:

Nouns

: !-!l ::I

curtains (drapes- US)

l l : : :-

dustman (garbageman - US)

devil

L

: I

4?^

l L-

:earrlng

envelope

family

feather

(,{ h1

l--

: ft5

:F

de

t-_

t-

fireplace

fire

l-

F

dâ&#x201A;Ź n

e

! lF 5 guitar t-

174

L

I


:

Illustrated vocabularyand grammar

Nouns

bl hairdrier

handbag

t

handkerchief

handles

rl

/

.a

{[(

ice cream

Ir t

iail

k"y

king 1t{

3l rt

0 t -:

,a

knot

lift (elevator - US)

Iipstick

Ioaf

Iock

luggage

matches(box of)

microphone

4

115 :


}-:

Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

>.

Nouns

L

>: L-.-

=-.L,-

=--

qblt iq mosque

=-=-

mosquito

moustache

mouth

Ergli>h

= =:--:_ --*

nest

nuts

overcoat

-_ t_

--_

+-=_

pencil

ple

plano

L=_

L-_

fr

l=-

g

l-

'{::::-

pl8eon

p rp e

pond

F-=-=

prlson l,-

l,--

>L--_

l_:

pylamas

queen

razor

-_.l-

116 -


:

Illustrated vocabulary and grammar

Nouns o

spade

r-. )' saddle

shirt

sleeve

stick

sword

tap (faucet- US)

toothbrush/paste

towel

tractor

van

VASC

violin

_a

-4 -t 4

Vre

't\ll'

,tt: '-''rq. ++i.d'

volcano

watch

windmiil

*-.

zip (zipper - US) T17


>:

5 Picturesfor Composition

L-

l =

I

L-

5-: It is quite easy to invent speculative pictures and story sequences.However, people do not usually think it is going to be easy so they do not even try. When you have copied some of these you will feel more confident in doing vour own.

Individual speculative pictures The secret of inventing these is to clear your mind of any specific incident. The picture must be ambiguous! For ways of using these pictures, see page 134.

Il-_

Story sequences Once more I think it is better to allow a certain ambiguity in the story. Fairy storiesand other traditional tales give a clear story to illustrate, see'Beautyand the Beast',page 726. For ways of using these pictures, see page 135.

\ !--_L-_

L-_

L-

L,-:

L=

L

L-

>-=

>-= L,_

>L-=:

=-!-. L--_

=-!: }.-

118

L.-

D


Pictures for composition

Individual speculative pictures

sffi wdA9

*: -a

:. -a

4

--= -:

[1fnI

h 179

t


Pictures for composition

Individual speculative pictures

rfE 1^nr

y-<),!f

Wi,.o

/--L1

l

.2Yt-

:-

:-


Picturesfor composition

Story sequences

e e & e

I -! : 4

121 I


Picturesfor composition

Two story sequences

$

:-

:: L

122 1


Picturesfor composition

Two story sequences

4 ffi -D

G5 10 -b

t"

':b: / r'

"L

_4

t

t

-&

*" _,*' -i

-L.

4

4 ., J,

a tzJ

,-_


Picturesfor composition

Story Maze

: : :::: ! :

l-l-: ::-t-

: : :-

\__

:-

--:_ :-:--

: 124

:--


Picturesfor composition

StoryMaze

_t

_a_

t

hoppV , peacefr^l

a

evci(ed , nerro^s

a^9(t


Picturesfor composition

Storysequence Beautyand the Beast

I

>-

}-.F:

<

-,-1

Ae l',,\l s-/

@

o

-: :' --:

tl:-: _L-_

_r-]: _L=-

>-_L-_

t: >_l_-

126 -


,-_

Picturesfor composition

Story sequence Little Red Ridirg Hood

6fr

t -! -! :

a


FF

6 Somebasicways of using picturesin language teaching

.=<-

= ==1--

t-

=--L=-

F --

I hope that people rvith cttncerns verv different from rvill find this book useiul as a those of language te-achers source of pictures. Hor,r'ever,language teacherstrnd, in particular, teachers of foreign and second languages,rvill probablv be the chief users and it is for them that I am ac'ldingthis section.

=l:,_

=-.-

The section is dii'ided into four parts: Listttt i rr,g,r cntlirtg ntrtl 7ttct u rt s t r i t it tg nrd 7tict tt rcs S1tcnkirt,q, by ttngc Exnn4tlcstrf ir,nysof usirtg Tticturt'sTtage Mtdin

lâ&#x201A;Ź:

l-._

The ideas suggested in this section can be added to bv referring to the books to be found in Furthcr readirtgon page139.

Listening, reading and pictures Somewaysof usingpictures 1 To interest the student 'translate' the meaning of the gist of the text 2 To help to or of indir''idual items of language 3 To give a context for the language and for the students' activitv 4 To eive cultural information 5 To iontribute to the search for specific information in the text and to help the students demonstrate non.,'e.rbal1vthat s/he has for-rnd that information and underslood it arrd has a personal responseto offer about it. Teaching meaning A single picture ma1,,occasionally,be used to teach the meaning of a word or phrase ne$' to the student. Howe'u,er, pictr"rres are usually ambiguous; people interpret them differentlv. The most useful contribution a picture can make is to contribute to the student's understanding of a more general context rvhich mav be made up of pictures, the ieacher'sactions,the student's actions,sound effectsand words. It is in the understanding of this overall context that the language new to the student vr'ill have meaning It is often the rt'ny the picture is used and referred to 'new' lr.4rich gives (or doesn't give!) meaning to the language. Exnntplc .l: To introduce Past tense forms the teacher could tell a storv illustrating it with a series of picture cards n'hich s/he props on the ledge along the bottom of ihe board.

D-

It it,nsn bttdday for Tom! First of all, he fell out of hed! Then Itt' stctodotr tht cat! Tlrcn tlrc coffeeu,as hot and he burnt his nrottth! Tlten he missedhis bus! Then he was late for work! Wmt a day! etc. The cards are turned around after the story has been told. Then the class are asked Wlnt hattpenedto Tom? IMat hapltenedfirsf? He fell out of bed? (turring the first card arourtd)Yes,he fell orrtof bed.Then ithat happened? Exnmple2: Show the students a complicated picture, put it away and then challenge the students to remember it half an hour later. This immediately calls for the use of the past tense form, providing you do not pick up the picture but leave it hidden. (e.g.a student,tryirtg to rememherthe picfure) It was a seaside picture. Thert u,aretzto boats... no, thereu,erethreeboats... etc. In these two examples the past tense form is illustrated, not bv the picture alone, but by the way in r,r,hichthe pictr-rrels used and referred to. A1l the suggestions made in Section 6 for activities rvitl-r picturc's concern rvavs in which pictures can be used to introduce meaning and to personalise this for the learner. A most effective wav of helping students to become familiar with the meaning of lanp;uagenew to them is to ask the students to produce a more effective picture than the one used in 1000 PlcruRESron TeecHrRs ro Copv!

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Demonstrating

understanding

In orcler to shon their understanding and perhaps their personal response to what they have heard or read, the students can be asked to point to a picture, to draw a picture or to arrange several pictures in an order.

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Demonstrotinp; ttrderstanding of uocnbulan1 Most pages with multiple, individual pictures. A well known activitv is Bingo (Lotto). For example, photocopv a few pages of the 6ook which have on them many small pictures; cut up the pages; distribute the prctures among the students (five each); call out the words randomly; when a student hears a r,r,ord naming one of his or her pictures he or she turns it over. When a student has turned over all five pictures s/he calls out, B/NCO! Alternativelv, rather than calling out a word for each picture you can describe the piclures. This is clearly a more demanding activitv. Demonstrating understaltding ot' a dialogue Most pictures in the book If_you want to test the students' understanding of parts of a dialogue vou can ask them to complete a ircture or -appliej to dran' one. In principle this idea to most pictures in the book. Example: The students listen to a dialogue describing someone's appearance (on cassette or between two students in the class). Thev draw the information they hear onto a simple drawing of a box person, for example, beard, moustache, lonp; hair, a bror,r,n hat, jacket, short trousers,etc. See page 18.

Speaking,writing and pictures Some ways of using pictures I To motivate the student to speak or to r,r.rite 2 To create a context r,r,ithirrlr,hich his/her response r,r,ill have meaning 3 To provide the student with information to use rn cott.trolletlpractice work. pictures showing objects, actlons, events and relationships can cue answers to questions,substitutions and sen[encecomplettons ,1To sponsor,stimulate and possibly to r,iriit, spoken and r,vritten descriptions, narrations or dialogues 5 To sponsor, stimulate .rnd offer infoimation for free n'riting ancl speaking. 'Free, in the sense of the teacher otfering no Ianguage guidance or restrictions Mechanical

and communicative

use of language

Pictures can be used in activities which offer little more than nec.hnrricnl Ttrncticein the use of the language or may be used in comnntnicntiue nctirtities r,vhiiir would b'e meaningful to the students even if they did them in their o\,!'n languaâ&#x201A;Źle. It is important to note that communicative activities mav demand an objective response or a subjectiv" ,"rponr6. For example, if you make a big simpie drawing of a person jumping and then slon,ly pull it out of an envelope, the students can be asked [o guess what it is. Their guesseswiil be as objective as the1,"canmake them; there is a right or_$rrong ans\\,er. If you show the picture of the seaside and ask the students io say whethei or not it reminds them of their holidays by the sea, the answers must be subjective and cannot be fudged as right or \vrong as far as the content of what they siy is concerned. In the caseof the partiallv-hidden drai,r.ingthe students arebeing motivated bv being challenged.Inlhe caseof the of feelings and e.xperienies, the students are 3rghange belng /i l?'rfddand crrctrrirngcd. The idea of challenge , inuitntion and encortagementcanbe used by the teacher to help him or her to'minimise the amount of purelv mechanical lr,,ork the students are asked to do. Some ways of challenging

and encouraging

students

Demonstrating understanding of a story

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Beauty and the Beast page 126 Students can be asked to put muddled pictures into the correct sequence for the story you have told. you would have.to photocopy the page iiist, cut up the pictures and hand them out in a muddled sequence.

The idea of challengeand inoitntion can be adapted to the needs of students at the highest and at the most basic of proficiency levels. The activities arising include controlled, guided and free activities, ai well as subjective or objective responses.

Identit'ying

Challenge the students to identify a picture which is difficult to identifv. You may show them the picture at great speed or shon' them only a small unchaiacteristic Cappedexercises,multiple clnice, truelfalse,qLtestions part of it. In the case of these two examples the students call out and attempt to describe what they see. Other a n da n s l r c r s types of challenge to identify depend on ihe students Most picturesin the book ask-ing questions. For example, you think of one prcture The information neededto do thesetraditional activities and they ask you questions to find out which one it is.

can be taken from a varietv of pictures.

Descrihing Challenge the students to describe a picture so well that other students can do something. Foiexample, the other students mig;ht draw a picture based on th-edescription or they might just name what has been described. The student can describe by speaking or by writing and,

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depending on the activity, the student can describe the picture objectively or subjectivelv. For example, if the student thinks about one of the scenesin the first part of the book (for example, the official and the r.r'aitingpeople on page 51) and recounts a personai experience reiating to the picture so that the other studeni can say which picture it is. This would be a subjective description.

You might, on the other hand, invite the learners to Iook at the pictures of young chiidren on Page 55 and Alternatively, the remember their own childhood. students could look at the pages of expressions, pick out one of them and tell their neighbours when they last felt the same and what happened.

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Pictures as cues in mini-dialogues Matching Challenge the students to find a relationship betu'een tn'o bits of information, for example, between two pictures or a picture and a text. Many of the best-known language games belong to this kind of challenge, for example, true,/false games (in which the student has to match what is said against what he or she knows to be true or false); Bingo (Lotto) games; picture/text matchine activities. Once more, the matching could be objective or subjective. For exampie, a subjective matching could be between two pictures with no obvious connection except to an individual who feels there is one and is willing to tell the others what it is.

Grouping Challenge the students to find a relationship between three or more bits of inforrnation. The bits of information might be all pictures or could be pictures, n'ritten texts, objects, tape recordings, etc. The grouping could be objective or subjective. For erample, an objective 'n'hich are usuallv grouping could be all those objects associatedwith a particular job. Sequencing Challenge the students to place various bits of information into a sequence. For example, a number of individual pictures or a number of pictures and texts. If you cut up one of the storv sequences, for example, Benfty antl the Benstit would be an objective challenge to place them into the correct sequence. If you give the students one page of objects and ask them to wrlte a story which involves at least ten of the objects it would 'correct' sequence be a subjective challenge, as there is no for this.

Ordering Challenge the students to place various bits of information into an order of value. For example, various pictures or pictures and texts. You could photocopy the pages of foods and ask the students to put them into their order of appropriacy for a school dav outing b1' coach. A more subjective invitation would be to place the foods in a oersonal order of preference and then to find someone in the class with the same order of preference' Remembering Challenge the students to remember what is shown in a picture or in a sequence of pictures. You might make that part of a preparation for dealing with everyday life situations ('training the visual memory'!) Copy the street scene (page 37) onto a transparencv, show it to the students for three minutes and then ask them who was in the street and rt'hat they were doing. Another well known picture memory game is sometimes called 'Pelmanism', in n'hich about twentY small pictures are laid upside down and then students try to remember which is which. If they are correct thev take the picture and have another go. Both these examples are chnllertges.

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Most pages with individual pictures Pictures have been used for many years to cue substitutions within dialogues in which the basic sentence patterns are determined by the teacher. Such dialogue work, after an initial demonstration, would normally be done in pairs or group work. The pictures would either be printed on a single sheet and taken in turn or each picture would be on a single piece of paper or card and then turned over or taken by a student. The advantage of the latter lies partly in the element of surprise and interesi; more importantly, however, the 'information gap' advantage lies in the creation of an between the students. If only studeni B sees the picture there is some reason for student A asking the question. 'opinion gap' has been The idea of information gap' and central to language teaching in the last twenty years. However, it is not enough; a'gap' is no use if the student is not motivated to cross the gap - and that is where the idea of chnllenge,inuitation and encouragementcome tn. The follon'ing example of a mini-dialogue, prompted bv pictures, hovers on the edge of being of sufficient interest to make the students want to know what the other is saying and want to respond. Exnmple: photocopy the two pages of jobs on pages 58 and 59. Cut them up and distribute approximately ten to each group of four students. Place the pictures upside down. Students iake it in turns to turn a picture over and then, referring to that picture, they ask another student Would you like to be a (t'armer)?The other student replies t r u t h f u l l y Y e s , I w o u l d ./ N o , I u t o u l d n ' /t I d o t t ' t knou/ Dcfin it cly rrot! , etc. Many of the pages of objects or of actions can be used as cues for mini-dialogues. I suggest that you photocopy the page of pictures you need, stick the page onto card, cut up the card into the individual pictures, put them into an envelope, write the instructions and sample dialogue on the outside of the envelope as follows:

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Pictures: Jobs How to play: Place the pictures upside down on the table. Take it in turns to pick up a picture and to ask someone else a question. Student A: (picking up a picture of a farmer) Would you like to bea farmer? StudentB: (telling the truth) Yes,I ruould.lNo,Iutouldn't. Optional language: Yes,it rt'ouldbe great!lNo,it u,ould be horriltle!ICtrtainltl not!Ilt itottld be uenl boringlhardIfunnyI e a s v. . . Extension into unguided oral fluency: Student A: Why? Student B: BecnuseI loueanimals and I lotteworkitrg outside irt tlrc clennnir, etc.

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Examplesof ways of using the pictures pageby page

make the same facial erpression. His or her partner tries t ( ) g u e s sh ( ) \ v 5 / h e f e e l s .

In the followingsection,due to limitationof space,I have How to draw faces (page 18) caricatures (pages only beenable to suggesta fen, rvavsof using the manv 19 to 24) pictures in the book. For more ideis on usin"gpictures, seeFurtlrcrrentlittgon page 139. Actittittl9 How to draw (pages 3 to 35)

The studentsrtould probablv enjov learning to make these expressionsand it u,ould be a good way of becomingfamiliar with the r,r'ordsfor the imotions. The comparative forms are also well contertualised vr..ith thesedrar^"'ings.

The pictures on these pages provide the basis of a rvhole 'soap opera/ set of characters r,r.hich can be used as a small element in a language programme or as the chief vehicle of it. Teachers rt,ho have made soap opera characters a central part of their teaching have told me that student ase and proficiencv level make no difference; everyone enjJvs the experience,businesspeople as well as children: The advantage of sbap opera characters is that the students create everything about them and thev can be made to do anything at all. Information about the characters_cangrow as the students, proficiency grows. In the earl1, stages the characters can be given names, ages and hobbies. In the later stages theri can cliscuss what they ivould do if thev *on i million dollars and they can write to each othei about it. The students are responsible for establishing the information since it is thelr creation. Dialogues, titters, newspapers,radio and videos can be made.-

How to draw faces (page 1.4)

How

ActirtitV3

Actiuittl 10

Shor,r'the studentshow to draw vounger and younger people.Cive eachstudentser.eralpiecesof paperso tiat they canproduceseveralfaceseach. Ask gioups of four to arrangetheir facesin termsof how old thev-lookand to use the phrases:Sllrc'solderlyLtungcr thanhe'rlhin.Hotu old is slhe?Sllrc's about(3).

It is often much easier to use the artificiality of a very limited amount of language about a fantasv creature than about normal, real people whom one knows to be infinitelv complex! The students can be asked to suggesr crazv names, ages, hobbies, likes and dislikes for ihese creatures. Make a character profile of one of these crearures. Interview him or her for one of the jobs illustrated on pages 58 to 5u.

Actirtitv 1 This sectionis primarily for vou. However,a drawing lessonbasedon the_se pageswould be interestingfor thE studentsand rvould contextualise, very naturallvla lot of basic vocabularvfor the body, plus cbmparativeforms. Considergiving a drawing lbsson... then the students c a nl r e l pv o u d r a r vp i c t u r e ii n t h e f u t u r e l How to draw faces (pages 11 to 14) Actiaity 2

Actiuity 4

to draw fantasy creatures

(page 2G)

Someof the peopleare lookingat differentangles.Show the studentshorvto do this and ask themto suggestwhat Actiuity11 they think the peopleare looking at. Which siudentcan Imagine one of these creaturcs arriving in one of the p r o d u c et h e m o s tu n e x p e c t esdu g g e s t i o n ?

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How to draw faces (pages 15 to 18)

sceneson pages 36 to 52. What would happen? Write a story or a dialogue about it.

Actiaittl 5

Settings(pages37 to 53)

Which of these drawings is a clear, unambiguous The complexity of these pictures is one of their strengths. illustrationof the rvord? Which is the mostambieuous? Copy the ones vou lvant the students to learn and ask Actirtity12 (Arrysetting) them to rank them in order of their ambiguity. Ask the students to call out or to list dor.r,n as manv Actirtity 6 Ask the studentsto imaginewhv the personfeelsas he or she does,what has just happenbdand what r,r,illhappen

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The students, working in pairs, imagine a conversatlon bletween any two of these people. They act out the conversation. The other students must guess which were the two facesand words providing the starting point for the dialogue. Actiztity 8 Each student chooses one of the expressions and tries to

words as thev can about the picture in three minutes. if this is done.in g-roupsthere c.rn be a grtrup competrtion. Following this the words can be put into a! many groups as the students can devise or into alphabetical oraer. Word treescan be made (e.g.for Siifjrrr roornon page,l5):

Actirritll13 (Ant| sctting) Pairwork. One. student pretends to be blind. The other describes the scene to him or her. The first stuclent guesseswhere it is. Actiuittl 11 (Ant1 sctting) Pairwork. F,ach pair writes ten sentences lvith gaps. These are given to another pair of students u,,ho inust complete the sentencesby referring to the picture. (you must decide whether to allow the questionjto be passed

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Actiuity 75 (Most settirtgs) Pairwork. Each pair writes ten sentences rvhich are true or false. These are given to another pair who must read them and decide which are true and which are false.

Actiuity16 (Mostsettings) The teacherremains silent but gesturesat a projected image or wall chart of the picture.The gesturesindicate what the students should describeand sav about the picture. Example:6treet page37) A street. A busystreet. Therearea lot of cars. A womanis comingout of a shop. out of thebaker's. She'scomirtg Actiuity L7 (Most settings) The studentslook at the picture and decide rt'here the place is, who the people might be, what they might be doing/thinking/feeling, n.hy they might be doing/ thinking/feeling this wav, how well they know each other. Actiaity 18 (Most settittgs) The studentschoosewhere they would like to be in the picture. They say why and what they wouid be doing, saying,thinking and feeling.They could add what thev can see,hear,smell,touch, taste. Actiaity 79 (Beachpage40) Eachstudentsayswhat s/he saw this afternoonand tries

to repeat what everybody else saw, trying to remember it all in the correct order: This afternoonI saw a girl sunbathingand a ship sailing and a lrclicopterflyiirg, etc. Alternatively: This afternoon I saw a girl. She was sunbathing.I saw a ship. It was sailing. I saw a helicopter.It zoasflying. Actiuity 20 (Most settings) Ask the students to look at a setting for three minutes and then to turn the picture over and to describe the picture from memory. After fifteen minutes (or whatever time you judge to be appropriate) ask the students to compare their descriptions with their neighbours and to write together as good a description as ihey can. Alternatively, you or a student stand with your back to the projected scene and try to describe it to the class. Alternatively: each student studies one of four pictures. S,/he then leaves the picture on the desk and circulates trying to find which other students had the same picture.

Actiuity21 (Antt settirtg) In pairs, the students take it in turns to describe someone or something in the picture so well that their partner can identify him/her/it.

Actiuity 22 (Any setting) A student pretends that s/he is a mouse and is hiding in the picture. The other students must try to find where the mouse is by asking questions: Are you in the man's hat? etc.

Actiuity23 (Any setting)

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picture which mav be true or false. The students give their sentences to other pairs who must read them lnd decide whether or not they are true or false.

Actirrit!/21 (Any setting) The students write a list of twenty things which might have just happened before the situation depicted in t"he picture. Alternatively, thev write twentv things n,hich might happen next. Display the students, ideai and ask them to decide who has the most interestins ideas. you might like to-h_elpthem to get the idea bv practising orallv with a different prcrure. Example: (Terracepog" :O) Wut might hnue just happenedlteforcthe Tticture? The man zttltLt is reading nright hntte goneinto the houseand askedfor n drink. Actiaitrl 25 (Any setting) Students write a letter or a postcard as if thev \\rere a person in the picture. Thev can inclucle several things which are untrue. Another student readsthe letterarid decides if anv of it is untrue.

Actiaity26 (Any setting) Croupwork. Give each â&#x201A;Źjroup a copir of the same picture. Each group lr'rites ten questions about the picture. Take the pictures from them. Each group then talies it in turns to ask a question of the other groups who must write down their answer from memorv. When everv group has asked five questions find trut nhrch groups have the most correct ans\.vers.

Actioity27 (Any setting) Cive each pair one photocopv of a scene. (Errlarge the picture to fill an .A4 sheet if possible.) Ask them t; hold the paper to ihe light but to view the scene from the back of the.paper. They will see the picture through the paper. Ask them to write on the back of the sheet ill the words thev can which describe the picture on the other side. Thev should r,r,rite each r.rlord eractlv i,r-here the object/person shows through from the otlr-erside. This is more easiiy done if the picture is held against a window.

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over the hole and challenge the students to identify what they carr see from ihese tiny glimpses and to prediit what other things they might see and to remember what they have seen. Then show them the whole picture rather than the hole picture! This is known as the holistic method! (strange English humour ...)

Actiuity29 (Mostsettirtgs) Photocopv various scenes. Cut them in half. Give each student a half picture. S/he writes four sentences describing their picture. Display these descriptions. Students read the descriptions and decide who has the other half of their picture.

Actiaity30 (Mostsettitlgs) Photocopy some scenes. Cut them into six or eight pieces. Cive each student one piece. The students m"ust -and studv their piece of picture then talk to other students and find out wh_ohas pieces of the same picture. Finally thel' should put a11theii pieces of picture tbgether to make the whole picture. Topics, behaviour

and notions (pages 54 to g3)

Actitity 31 (Most pages) Many of these pages can be used as picture cues for the mini-dialogues described. on-page 130. particularly useful: profersiorr: pages 5tr to j9; rtttitnalspages b5 to b6; pages 6lt to 70; trnrcl page 7l : ltt'altfipage 75 to t'rtt t.tnt.c 76; clothespages 77 to 78; foodpiges 7o to 82; triatier page 83. Erample: u,enther Student A: Wtnt's the u,entherlike today? B: (-student,picking up a card) k's raitting. flu{ent Student A: Wnt are Lloltgoittgto do, then? Student B: I tltink I'll ... (go fishing). Student A: Good idea!/ You ntust lte mad!/ I zuill ns uell! / Oh, I u,on'tl/Ridiculous!, etc.

Actiuity 32 (Mostpoges) Pairs look at a page for three minutes and then wrrte down all the pictures thev remember. Alternativelv:_cutup the page inttr twentv pictures. Turn them over and try to remember which is which. point at the back of each picture and try to name it. Turn it over. If you are right you can keep it.

Actiaity 33 (Most pages) Croupwork. One student thinks of one picture shown on one page and the others ask questions [o find out which it is.

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Actittity34 (Most pnges) This paper can then be used as a vocabularv test bv the students. Student A sits with his or her back to theiieht and looks at the picture. S/he points to each part of ihe picture naming whatever s/he can. StudeniB, on the other side o{ the paper, can see the picture showing through and the written vocabuiary, as well as thE shadow of the other student's finger. Student B can then confirm or reject what Student A is saying.

Actiuity 28 (Most settings)

Pairs studv one page and try to find ten different wavs of g r o t r p i n gt h e o b j e c t s . Actiuittl 35 (Most pages) Cive any two of the pictures to a student and ask him or her to say_what the relationship between them might be. Example: The postman slnuld ent this beef to makeii, Irg, strotryer. When I'm hot I don't uant to utenra heauVsuit.

Photocopy g scene onto a transparency. place a piece of a paper with a hole in it on the OHp glass. pass tiie scene

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of objects) Actiuity36 (MostTtictures Students are given a picture of an object and have to try 'buy' it. to persuade other students to Alternativelv, the student has to complain about the object s/he has'bought'. The class consider the complaintand decidc if it is convincing. Alternatively, the student has to think of five different things that s/he could do with the object he or she has been given. Groups could compete to see hon' many different things could be done with the object. Alternatively, the students try to say i.t'hy one of the represented on pages 14 to 22 would love to have [i"tt"

of objects.) Actiaitrt37 (Mostpictures Give each group pictures of tn'entv objects and ask them to decide which five objects they rvould take if they were: on a desert island/staving in hospital/camping on holiday/on a train journev Actiitittl 38 (Most pages.) Cive the student one of the pictures and ask him or her to sav n'hv it could be a metaphor for something else, for exarnple, their friend/a student/a teacher/a teenager/a prime minister/1ove.

plges58 snd 59) Actiuity39 (Professions Stuclents choose one of the jobs, write four good things about it and four bad things about it. Read their eight lines to another student and see if s/he can identifv the job referrecl to. Actittity 40 (House atd honrc Ttages60 to 63) Give selectedindividual pictures to each student. S/he writes three lines clescribins its use. S/he snows the descriptions to five other students who try to identify the object referred to. If most of the students identifv the has communicated object correctlv then s /he successfullv! Illustrated

vocabulary

and grammar

(pages 84 to

1171

to find as many examplesas possible.Seewhich group of four has made the most examples. Examine each exampleof the winning group with the classas a whole to checkthat they really have won! This enablesyou to do someintensivegrammar practice!

Thereare four types of picture in this section: 1 Individual speculativepictureswhich are intended for useas singlepictures.Pages119to 120. 2 Ambiguous story sequencesin which there is no final 'correct'story. Pages721to 723. 3 A flowchartof random pictures,abstractmarks,words, symbols,numbers which act as cues for a story. Pages 724 and 1.25. 4 Picturestrips of well known stories.Page726 and 127. Individual speculative pictures. (Pages119 to 1201 Actiuity 41 (Any speculatiuepicttrres) Using one of these pictures a possible sequenceof activitiesis as follows: Description First of all, the studentsdescribein very simple terms what thev can see.How manrlpeople arethere?Wat's this? etc.

Conflicting individual interpretations of what is representedbecomeapparentvery quickly, and should be encouragedas they lead to genuine exchangesof views. It is advisablefor the teacherhim/herself not to allow anvone'sinterpretationto 'crush' another's. Here are someusefui ouesnons: W'nt is ha1tpening? Do you agree? Wut hashawened? Whntzttillhappennext? Wttl tlorlouthirtkthisis a roornirta houselhutlfactorylschool, ctc.? Wy tlo you thir* it is a backdoornnd not a front doctr? Personnlexperiences Sometimesdiscussionof what might be happeningin the picture leads to personal experiences,for example, accidentsof various kinds. Let studentstell each other these associatedexperiences... possiblysome can be sharedwith the classas a whole.

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r'""" the grammar and cxlteriertcltl,qits meanings that the student can learn. With this in mind, it is a most useiul activitv to ask the students to think of alternative ways of drawing pictures to illustrate the conceptsin this section.In the act of doing this work the student's feeling for the grammar w'ill take a step forward. The manl' acti"'ities r,r'hich focus on grammatical points or specific areas of lexis r,r'hichare possible with the other pictures in the book are just as likeiy to help the students to internalise and grasp the grammar as a specific section on grammar. On pages 100 and 101 there are eight strips of pictures illustratins various tense forms. Cive the students a selection of ten verbs frorn pages 87 to 98. Either n'rite the r.erbs on the board or photocopy the pictures and gir.e each pair of students an identical set. Select the strips of tenses lr.hich vou wish the str,rdentsto practise. Each pair attempts to make as many alternative examples as possible using the ten verbs. After five minutes ask each pair to join another pair and to add their sentencestoeether.Cive'them another five mtnutes 'lrandling'

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Sometimesa broaderissuemight emergeand be highlightedbv the teacher.For example,the questionof punishmentfor peoplewho are seenas responsiblefor the 'accident'. Hout sltouldthepersonbeputished?tAhatis How haoeyou been theroleof ptuishmentin society? punished?

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Ask the studentsto imagine a conversationbetweenthe people (or other people not depicted,e.g. a neighbour) before, during or after the incident depicted. They should write the conversationdown, perhaps with anotherstudent,and then act or read it out.

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Moking tlrc Tticture less antbigrrotrs

pickeLlit .forhcr. 'You 10 StrLldt:rrly n lugc rnttrtsternTtpenred nnd snid, haue entertnrtl food ttrttl slept in nty ltetl,nou you hnue tnken my rosc!' Tht rnerchnrrttold the moilster thnt tfu roseu,nslor l.is tlnuslier. 17'Ciz,t:nE ttour dnuglrtertttltertt,ise I zaillent you!' snid the tttottstcT. 72T|rcrrrcrclntrtu,errtltortte so tlmt lrccould snqgoodbrlc to his L . r n t r t y l(tP a g e l 2 U b o t t t r m r i g h t p i c t u r e ) cltiltlran l:e.ittrt retttrrritrg ttt tlu: ntonsterto bc r:nten.H()lL1erer, I.f tlttu iunrtttd ttt rtnke thc .LticttLre into t't sittirtg rtttnn rntlu,r Btntttrlittsisfcdort rcturttirtgit,ithhin. thntt n clnssrtttutt itlnt sltoultlrlttudtt? 13 So Benttttlrtturtrctl iuith lrcr ftttherto tha cnstle. Ytttt sltottldplrt sontacurtLtirts ttrttlrc it,irtdoia. 11 Ercrll ti,crtitrg thc tnttustercatilc to it,ntchBenuty eat nntl LIou csrt Vor s/ror{'tlnt it is t1 irittl(tu,? Wlnt shttultl qou llrtrtl,tlkt,l firtr'i/rr'r. tlrsiL,? 15 fftis cr-trttittucdfor selernl rnotttls rrtttil BeatLttlsnitl htnu Yctucould dToit,Lt itintltta' /crl.gc nrtd sotrtt'reflectiLttts ort tlt trrucltshe nisscd hcr fntlur. Tht: nrttnstergnt,elrcr n ring and g/nss. told her thnt it tuouldcnrry her hornennd ltLtck ngaininstatly. Ytttt cottltltlrnu, sonretlurtgtltrough tlr itirtdott. etc. L!c rrttttlehcr ngrecto rctirrt itt onc u,eek. 16 Her intlrcr rt,ns7,ervpleasetlto seeher nrul slrcstaycdt'or Ambiguous story sequences(pages121to 122) tnoretlntt n u,t:ek. 77 SudLlettlrl, otte triglt, she u,okc ul1. Sfu felt sonethirrg Actiuitrt42 terrible luttl lmp1terted. These stories mav be copied as thev are or cut up ir-rto l8 Slic tcrrrfttl:r ritts Ltruituntetl it on lrcr t'inger. 19 Irtstnrrtlrl,s/tt,it'as bnck iuith tlte rnorrcter.She fttuntl hint their different frames. There is ,-rc,c,n.-correct storyr 5l tt tt'ri-isd -so/rt thnt she Pairs of students invent a storv. Each makes sure that It1i rtg in tht cttrdcilns if lrc tt'rc dt'n11. kissetihirn. s/he knorvs their storl' and then lloes hr other students to take it in turns to tell ihe storv, referring to the pictures. 20 He ttltt:ttctlli-s rqcs ntttl slretold hint tlnt sheloud hin. 27 T'lis rcns tht trntgic lrc trct:tled!LIe turtted bnck irto a bcautiful Ttrirtct:. A flowchart of random pictures, etc. (Page 125) 22Tltcr1nnrritd Lttd sll tlrcfnnily cnnrcto their iaedditrg. Agree on an interpretation of the pictures. Ask the students to suggest hor,l' to make the picture less ambiguous bv modifving the drau'ing: by adding to it or bv changing parts of its. This activity is very useful for contextualising the follor,r'inglanguage:

Actititrl13 If the stuclents ha'"'enever seen such a thing in their li','es before it lvould be better to invent a story together, orally, based on tiris page. You could .rsk the students tct take a soap opera character through this rnaze of informationl Once the.vhave the idea thev can be asked to make their on'n flolvchart and then to \,\'rite their wav through it. Essentiallv,the studer.rtsare asked to write a storv in r,r'hrcheverv piece of information is taken into accLrunt.The reac'lerof the storv should be able to follolv the route throtrgh the inftrrmatirrrrn'hich the storv n'riter took. Note: three tvpes of line and their possibleinterpretation l.rave been clrar,r,nat the bottom of page 125. These emr:rtionscan add 'flavour' to the storv.

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Media Chalkboard

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Whenever possible do vour drawinp;s on paper, card or on OHP transparenciesso that vou can use them ag.tin. (Preparing piitures at horne alro m"arls that vou can drau'in peace and produce them the instant vou need thcm.) If you do r,r.ish to dran on the board, it is of tremendous help if vou have at least tried out the dralr'ing beforehand, perhaps copving it from this book or from a photograph. Manv teachers sav that the r.ery inaclequacvof their drarvings catchesthe students' attention. However, er.'en a good joke begins to lose its attraction u'hen relentlessly Story sequence:Beautyand the Beast.(Page126) repeated! Even professional illustrators n,ould find it difficult to drar,r, an_v action, animal or object on the board if thev had not prer.iouslv str-rdiedit. So, if you find Actiuity14 it difficult to drar,v on the board rvithout sLrnle The students can be asked to studv the strips, imagine preparation you are quite normal! the storv and to tell it or r,r'rite it before vou tell it. One wav of retaining interest and class clisciplineu'hile Alternativelv, copv the strips, cut tlrenr up anti give them vou drar,t is to ask the studerrts to guess n'hat vou are to a group of stude.nts.Then ask the students ttr put the d ra r,r'ing. strips into the correct sequenceas vou tell them the story. Making the picture develop or rnodifying the picture is The gist of Bcnuttl tttrtltlr Bcnslis as follolvs: possible on the boarcl;this is impossible if the picture is 1 A riclt nu:rclnttt hoLltltree sonsnrrtl tlrret,tlnttghtcrs. prepared beforeh;rnd. This factor, plus the interest of 2Tltc tlotrrrgt,st tlnuqlter itns cnllt,tlBt:nutt1. :ecing strrnething being made is the board's great 3 Tlrc merclnrtt it,oslnr,irtg,n diificult titrtcttnd hntl rromtttrt:r1 attraction. lcft. 4 Llis cltildrcn lL1erc u(nl ztttrrit:d. Magnet board, flannel board and'Blu-tack' 5 Orrt tlnrl tltr: rnerclnrtt sct ofl to n tlistnttt tottrr tct tlctsonr lrrisircss.Tlte oltlcr sistcrsu,nrttt't/linr to ltrinc thtwt dresscs Solid people rather than stick people are essential for front thc citq: thc ltrofhus uwnteLlsnsrt hnts; Bttttrty just thesemedia. People,animals and objectscan be stuck on the board and movecl around on a setting, providing oskedfor n rost'. reference for the practice of specific language or for less 6 Tlrc fnthcr cnrneto thc cttstlt,. 7 Tltrc iLlosn() (nk' ttbcwtso ht: iacttt ittsidenttd fcttttd n ntanl controlled oral and lr,ritten composition. They can also be used as a support for listening comprehension. ttttitirrg.He ntc it. 'Blu-tack' is a brand name for a substancerather like B Thcrc a{rr?-s nr) o,lr' nbout sttk slapt ttrt ortt of tltc bcds. 9 Nc.t/ nrcrnirtqlt snu n roscnrtd retnt,tnltering Benrrttlht: plasticine. Small balis of it can be stuck onto the back of pictures ancl then stuck to most hard surfaces. it can be

135


Eused many times and doesn't usuallv darnagethe picture 'Blu-tack' or or the rvall, although it does sometimes! more convenient very much are products equivalent than magnet board or flannel graph and offer more or less the same versatilitv.

Wall pictures The scenes in this book rvill prove invaluable in making rvall pictures. As n'ith all pictures it is essentialthat the vital details are big enough and clear enough. Solid figures rt'ould normallv be clearer tl-ranstick figures in .l 'rvall picture-. Picture cards for class use: flashcards Such cards must be one of the most flexible of the media, 'Blu-tack' and its equir.'alentsallow particularlv nou,'that the teacher to stick the cards onto the board or onto cupboards, etc. Their chief role is in intense oral r'r'ork, bolh controlled and open. The ease with l'r'hich a picture can be product-d, shorvn to the class or to an individual and then pu_tawav helps the teacher to create a stlnse ()f urgency ano drama. A picture card can, of course,simply cue a responseas described abo"'e. Hort e'u'er,there are more challenging or inviting activities possible rvith picture cards which make the students want to sPeakl For example, a series of action cards are' shovr'n to the students. When thev are familiar u'ith the ones in vour hancl (about six or seven of them) shou' one card to half the class (Group A). Then tell evervone to concentrate and feel the telepathic u'a','es! Croup B then has three 'ls guesses: irc sztimmlrrg?Is lrc juntpirtg? Is he plnrlirtg ftxttball?'See if telepathv rtorks: trv the erperiment t\\'entv times anti record t'ach time a 8r()up tuesses correctll' u'ithin three guesses. This sirnple sentence pattern is an intrinsic part of the activity. Furthermore, it is used as a genuine question. The students really r'r'ant to knor'r'. Er''e'na drili can be communicativel Here is another erample of the use of a picture card, in this case for open, unguic-ledcommunication. Take anv picture carcl shorving J ferv objects or people on it. Hold lt so that the class sc-ethe reverse side of the card, then spin it r''erv rapidll'l Thei' rvill onlv see a flash of the picture and u'i1l protest! Horvever, experienceof plaving this game shor,r.s that people do see something. Graduallv, as vou spin the card again and c-ncourage discussion the content of the ptcture is established. Picture cards for group use The cards can obviouslv be smaller tht-rnfor class use. Their main purpose ls to cue language in controlled practice. A single sentencePattern or a mini-dialogue is set bv the teacherand u,ritten on the board or on a piece of caid u,'hich all the group can see. The picture cards are usuallv placed face don'n. lVhen it is a student's turn tcr speak, s/he picks r"rpa card and refers to it in his or her sentence. Ernnryle: picturesof t'tttttls likc (chips)? Student A: (picking up a card) Do t1t'tu Yes, I tlo.lNo, I Student B: (answ'ering truthfullv) d o n ' t . f Y e s ,lIo t , et h e m . l N t t , lh a t et h t m . Ertensiott into unguidetl oral fltrurcy Student A: Hotu often do you ent tlrcm? Do you cooktlrcm or butl then? Wrcn did tlou Inst ent thcm? Are chioshnd for uou?

The overhead projector Pictures can be shown on the OHP with ease. They can be prepared beforehand, either by hand or copied on a photocopying machine. They can be produced at the right moment, moved around on the screen, have text added to them and then be stored away to be used again ... and again. The great flexibility of the OHP in terms of the wav in which pictures and text can be used means that all the skills at ail levels can be catered for.

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Computerprogrammes

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Simple drawing packages are readilv available. The technologv to combine lr,'ords, pictures, interactive screens, animation and voice simulation is here. The stickmen and stickwomen in this book have no fear of alternative media and are ready to hop into anv programme vou may like to write.

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Further reading Bvrne D TenchingOral ErtglishLongman Nelson Fletcher and Birt Nezssflns/r Granger C. Play GamesWitlt English Heinemann Hadfield I ElenrcntnruCommunicationGamesNelson Hadfield I IntermediateCttmmunicationCamesNelson Hadfield 1 AdttancedCotnnunication Cnmes Nelson Hadfield J and C Writirtg CanresNelson Hill D Visirnllrtpncl Longman Maley and Duff Drnma Techniquesin LanguageLearning Cambridge University Press Maiey, Duff and Grellet Thc Mind's Eye Cambridge Universitv Press Palim and Power lttnrboreeNelson Palim, Por.verand Vannuffel,Tonfuola Nelson Mcrrgan and Rinvolucri Ortce Uport a Tine Cambridge Universitv Press Ur and Wright Fit,e-Minute Actiaities Cambridge University Press Wingate I Fun With PicturesThe Friendly Press Wingate J Fun With FncesPilgrims and the Friendly Press Wcxrlcott I TakeYour Plck Nelson Wright, Betteridge and Buckby Cnmes for Language LearningCambrid ge University Press Wright and Haleem Visuols for the LnnguageClassroom Longman Wright A Pictures for Language Lennting Cambridge Universitv Press Wright A Storynaking nnd Storytelling With Children Oxford Universitv Press Wright and Dudas Son2tOyteras:Class Created Fictional ComntutitiesNelson

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136


Index

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above (prep), 86 a b s e n t( a d j ) , 1 0 4 accident (n), 76 across(prep), 86 acting (n), 68 actor (n), 68 adjectives, 101-172 a d u l t ( n ) ,5 5 a e r o p l a n e6 ) , 3 0 , 4 2 , 7 1 afraid (adj),104 after (prep), 85 against (prep), tt6 aggressive(adj), 1{-}a a g o n i s e d( a d j ) , 1 5 agree (v), E7 alive (adj), 10'1 allow (v), 87 alone (adj), 10,1 along (prep), 86 a m b u l a n c e( n ) , 7 6 among (prep),86 ancient (ad;), 104 angrv (adj),15,125 animal (n), 28 30, 65-66 ankle (n), 75 answer (v), 87 anxious (adj), 15, 33 apart (adj), 104 apartment - US (n), 60 apologise (v), 87 apple (n), 82 architect (n), 58 arm (n),75,76,102 armchair (n), 45, 61 around (prep), 86 arrive (v), 87 arrogant (adj), 15 art gallery (n), 53 artist(n),58 ask (v), 87 a s l e e p( a d j ) ,3 4 , 1 0 4 asparagus(n), 81 assistant(shop) (n), 59 at (prep), 85, 92 attack (v), 87 attic (n), 60 aubergine (n), 81 aunt (n),57 autumn (n),83 avocado (n), U2 away (prep), 86, 94 away from (prep), 85 a x e( n ) , 1 1 3 baby(n),113 back (n), 75 (adj), 104

bacon (n), 80 bad (ady),104 bake (v), 87 baker (n), 46, 58 bald (adj), 55, 104 b a l l( n ) , 1 1 3 ballerina (n), 68 ballet (n), 68 balloon(n),113 b a n a n a( n ) , 8 2 , 1 1 3 band (n),113 bandage n), 50 bank (n), 73 barbecue (v), 80 bare (adj),104 bark (v), 87 baseball (n), 68 basement (n), 60 basketball (n), 68 bat (n), 65 batlr (n), 43,61 (v) , 87 bathe (v), 87 bathroom (n), 43, 60 beach (n), 40 beans (n), 81 bear (n), 65 beard (n), 55, 75 b e a s t( n ) , 1 2 6 beautiful (ady),10a beauty (n), 126 bed (n), 45, 61, 102, 103 bedroom (n), 45, 60 bee (n), 65 beef (n), 80 beer (n), 79 before (prep), 85 begin (v), 87 behind (prep),85 below (prep),86 belt (n),78 bend (n),72 beneath (prep), 85 between (prep),86 b i c y c l e( n ) , 3 0 , 7 1 big (adj), 10a bikini (n),77 bird (n), 30, 65 bird watching (n), 68 biscuit (n), 79 bite (v), 87 bitter (adj), 15 blackboard (n), 51 blame (v),87 blanket (n), 61 bleed (v), 87 blind (adj),104

blissful(adj),15 blond(e)(adj),10a b l o o d y( a d j ) , 1 0 a blouse(n),77 blow (r'),87 blunt (ad;),104 boat (n),40,71 body(n),75 boil(v),80 b o m b ( n ) ,1 1 3 book (n),32,52 bookshelves 6),52,61 boot (n),77,102 bored(adj),15 b o r r o w( v ) , 8 7 b o t t l e( n ) , 8 1 bowl (n),63 box (n), 102,115 box people(n),8-1() boy (n),55,56 bra(n),77 b r a c e l e(tn ) , 7 8 ,1 1 3 brake(v), 87 branch(n),67 b r a v e( a d j ) , 1 0 4 b r e a d( n ) , 4 6 , 7 9 break(v), 87 breast(n),75 b r i c k( n ) , 1 1 3 b r i d g e( n ) , 7 2 bright (adj),104 bring (v), 74,88 broad (adj),105 broad-faced(adj),55 broccoli(n),81 broken(adfl,3a,76 brooch(n),78 brother(n),57 browse(v), 52 bruise(n),76 brush (n),63 brusselsprouts(n),81 build(v),88 bun (n),79 bungalow(n),60 burn (v), 88 burned (partic),88 b u s( n ) , 4 1 , 7 7 , 1 1 3 bus station(n),41 bus stop (n),47, 73 bush (n),67 businessman/woman (n), busy (adj),105 butcher(n),58 butter(n),80 butterfly (n), 65

137


Fbutton (n),113 buv (r'),'16,88 by (prep), 71, 85 cabbage(n), 81 cactus (n), 67 caf6 (n), 47, 73 cake (n), 81 cail (v), 88 calm (adj), 1{J5 camel (n), 65, 71 c a m e r a( n ) , 1 1 3 camplng (n), 68 canal (n), 6;l candy - US 6),79 cap6),77 car (n),30,68,71 r:r

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caravan (n), 60 c a r e f u l( a d j ) , 1 0 5 careless(adj), 105 caricatures(rr), 19-2,1 carrot (n), u1 6311y(r'), 8[3 c a r t( n ) , 1 1 3 cat(n),29,65,103 catch (v), 88 cauliflon,e-r(n), 81 c a u t i o u s( a d j ) ,1 5 , 1 0 5 c a v e( n ) , 1 1 3 cedar (n), 67 celerv (n), El cellar (n), 60 central heating (n), 62 cereal (n), 80 chain (n),113 chair (n), 32, 61 cheap (adj), 105 check (in), .18 cheek (n), 75 cheerfr.rl(adj), 105 cheese(n), 80 chemist (n), 58 chess(n), 6E cirest (n), 75 (n), 61 chest of 4v61a,g1s chick,/chicken(n), 30, 66, 80, 1 0 3 child (n), 55 chimnel' (n), 113 chirr (n), 75 chips (n), 80 chocolate(n), 79 choose (v), 88 c h r v s a n t h e m u m( n ) , 6 7 c h u r c h( n ) , 1 1 3 cinema(n),53,6t3 c i r c u s( n ) , 1 1 3 citv (n), 64 classroom (n), 51 clarv (n), 102 ciean (r'), 88 (adj), 105 clear (adj), 105 clever (adj), 105 climb (v), 70, 88 clock (n), 61 c l o s e( r ' ) , 8 8 ( a d j ) ,1 0 5 clothes 6), 68,77-7E c l o u d y ( a d j ) , 8 3 ,1 0 5 coat (n), 77 coathooks (n), 61

cock (n), 65 cocktail party (n), 74 coconut (n), 82 c o f f e e6 ) , 7 4 , 7 9 cold (n), 76 (adj), 15, 83, 1 0 5 collect (r'), 68 collectecl (partic), 99 comb (n),113 come dorvn (r.), 88 come on (r'), 88 comfortable (adj), 105 c o m p a s s( n ) , 1 1 3 .!rnrnrrfpr

l/n)

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concentrating (adj), 15 c o n c e n t r a t i o n( n ) , 1 1 concerts (n), 68 confident (adj), 15 consonants,l03 content (adj), 105 cook (r.), 88 (n), 58 cooker (n) 32, 43, 61 cookie - US (n), 79 cooking (n), 68 c o o l( a d j ) , 1 0 5 copv (r'), 88 cork(n),114 corn (n), 67 correct (adj), 105 costly (adi), 105 cottage (n), 60 couch (n), 62 cough (n), 76 (r'), 88 count (r.,),88 countrvside (n), 39 courgette (n), 81 cousin (n), 57 con'(n),29,65 crab (n), 65 c r a r v l( v ) , 8 8 crearn (n), 79 cricket (n), 68 crisps (n), 79 crocodile (n), 65 c r o o k e d( a d j ) , 1 0 5 6 1 s s 5( 1 , ) , 8 9 crossrvalk- US (n), 72 c r o r v d( n ) , 1 1 4 c r u s h e d( a d j ) , 1 0 6 crv (r'), 88 cucumber (n), 81 cup (n), 32, 63 cupboard(n),61 curious (adj), 15, 106 c u r l v ( a d j ) ,5 5 , 1 0 2 curtain(n),11't cushion (n), 11:l cut (n), 75 (r') 89 cvcling (n), 68 daffodil (n),67 dance-(r,), 68, 89 dancing (n), 68 d a n g e r o u s( a d j ) , 1 0 6 d a r k ( a d j ) ,1 0 6 UdI

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dead (adj), 106 106 deaf (ac-li), d e a r ( a d j ) ,1 0 6 deckchair (n), 38 deep (ad;), 106

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deer (n), 65 d e l i c a t e( a d j ) , 1 0 6 delighted (adj), 106 delivered (partic), 99 demand (v), 89 dentist (n), 76 denv (r'), 89 descend (v), 89 d e s k ( n ) ,5 1 ,6 1 detached (adj), 60 determined (adj), 15 devil (n),114 different (adj),106 dig (r'), 89 dining room (n), 44, 60 dinner (n), 74 diphthongs, 102 dirty (ad;), 106 disagree (v), 89 disappear (r,), 89 d i s a p p o i n t e d( a d j ) , 1 5 disapproving (adj), 15 disco-dancing (n), 68 disgusted (adj), 15 dishwasher (n), 61 dismayed (ad;), 16 display (n), 35 dive (v), 89 divide (v), 89 dtzz.y (adl,33 do (v), 99 doctor (n), 58, 76 doctor's surgery (n), 73 doctor's waiting room (n), 50 dog (n), 29, 65 d o l 1( n ) , 1 0 3 , 1 1 4 done (partic), 99 down (prep),85,90,94 d r a p e s- U 5 ( n ) , 1 1 4 drar,r'(v), 89 dream (v), 34 d r e s s( v ) , 8 9 ( n ) , 7 7 dressing table (n), 61 clrink (r'), 10,17,74,79, 89 drive (v), 34,68,89 clriver (n), 58 driving (n), 68 drop (r'), 89 ,-lrrrooict

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e a r( n ) , 7 5 , 1 0 2 e a r r i n g( n ) , 7 8 , 1 1 4 eas,v(adj),106 eat (v),44,89 ecstatic(ad;),16 e g g( n ) , 8 0 eggplant- US (n), 81 elborv(n),75 eldest(adj),106 electric(adi),106 electricfire (n),61 electricheater- US (n), 61 elephant6) , 65,71 eievator- US (n), 115 empty (adj),106 endless(adj),106

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en()r[I()Lrs(actj), I 06 enrage.cl(adj), 16 ente.r(r'), 89 entertainment (rr),68-70 (n), 11-l e.rrvelope. e n v i o u s ( a d j ) ,1 6 eclual(aclj),106 eramirre (r'), 89 exasperated(aclj),l6 excited (aclj),125 exhausted (aclj),16 e x h i b i t i o n( n ) , 5 3 e r p e n s i r , e( a d j ) ,1 0 7 eve (n), 75 evebrou' (n), 75 f a c e( n ) , 1 1 - 1 8 , 7 5 factorv (rr), 6.1 factorv r'r'orker (n), 58 fail (r'), 90 fair-hairecl(adj),55 f a l l - 1 1 5( n ) , 8 3 fall off (r'), 90 false (adj), 107 farnilv(n),57,114 fantasv creature (n), 26 farm (n),6.1 farmer (n), 5E f a r _m' "i 'n' b"

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fast (adj), 1{J7 fat (;idj), 55, 107 father (n), 57 f a u c e t- U S ( n ) , 1 1 7 favourite (adj), 107 feather (n), I03, 11;l feet (n), 75 fence (.,,),69 fencing (n), 69 fetch (r.),90 fields (n), 64 figltt (v), 90 fill (up) (r.'),et) film (n),53,69 finger (n), 75 finish (r'), 90 fir (n),67 f i r e ( n ) , 1 1 4( v ) , 9 0 fireman (n),5E fireplace (n), 11'l first (adj), 107 first floor (n), 60 first floor - U-S(n), 60 f i : h ( n ) ,b - , n 0 ( \ ' ) ,l q , 6 ! , 1 0 2 fishing (n), 69 f i s t( n ) , 1 1 4 flag (n), 11,1 flame (n),114 flashlight - US (n), 63 flat (n), 60 (adj), 64,707 flat country (n), 64 float (v), 90 flower (n), 67,102 fly (v), e0 flying saucer (n), 53 foggy (adj),83 follor,r' (v), 90 fond (adj), i07 food (n),79-81 foot (n), 71,75, 102 football (n), 69

tootball stadir-rm(n), 73 footb;rller(rr),5E for (prep), 86 forehcacl(n), 75 iorest (n), 6'l torgetful (aclj),107 fork (n), 32, 63 (ad1),107 forr.r.r..rl fre.e.time (n), 6E-70 freeze.r(n), 114 French fries - LIS (rr),B0 fresh (acli),107 friencls (n), 7-l frighten (r'), 90 frightenecl(adj), 16 fringe (n), 55 frog (n),65,103 from (prep), 85 fruit (n), 82 fruit juice (n), 79 (acl;),16 frr-rstratecl frv (r'), 80 f u l l ( a d j ) ,1 0 7 f u n n v ( a d j ) ,1 0 7 furniture (n),61-62 garage (n), 60 - L.lS(n), 114 garbage.n.ran (rr), 38, 60 (r') 69 garc'ler.r g ; r r d e n i n g( n ) , 6 9 g a r l i c ( n ) ,8 1 gate(n), 11-i gather (r'), 90 g e n e r o u s( a d j ) , 1 0 7 g e n t l e ( a d j ) ,1 0 7 get (v),90 ghost (rr),33 gift (n),7-l giraffe (n), 66 g i r l ( n ) , 5 5 ,5 6 , 1 0 3 give (r'), 74, 91 glor.'e(n), 32 go (r'), 6E,69 goat (n), 66 goose (n), 66 grain - US (n), 61 grandfather / motl.rer (n), 57 grapefruit (n), 82 grapes (n), 82 grass (n), 67 greedy (ad;), 107 greengrocer (n), 5E grill (v), E0 grim (adj),13 grocer (n), 58, 73 ground floor (n), 60 grorv (v), 91 guide (r'), 91 guitar (n), 32, 114 lrair (n), 75,702 hairdrier(n), l15 half (adj), 107 h a m m e r ( n ) , 3 2 ,6 3 hand (n),75 hand basirr (n), 61 handbag(n),115 handkerchief (n), 115 h a n c l l e( n ) , 1 1 5 handout (n), 35

h..rng(r,), 91 harrg glide (r'), 69 hang glicling (n), 69 lrappv (aclj),13, 107,125 lrat (n), 77, 102 have ('r'),99 head (rr),75 heaclache(n), 76 health (n), 75-76 heart (n), 75 heat(n),33 he.rvv (adj), 107 he.dge(n), 67 h e d g e h o g( n ) , 6 6 help(r.),91 helpful (ad1),107 h e n ( n ) , 3 0 , 6 6 ,1 0 3 h i d e ( r ' ) ,9 1 h i g h ( a d j ) ,1 0 E hike (r'), 69 hiking (n),69 hill (n),64 hips(n),75 Iiit (r,'),91 hitch-hike (r'), 91 hockev (n), 69 hold (v),9] hollor'r,(ad;),1Oti honest (ad1),108 horrified (ad;), 16 h o r s e( n ) , 2 9 , 6 6 , 7 1 horseback (n), 71 hospital (n), 50 hot (adi), 16, 83, 108 hot and cold n'ater (n), 61 hotel (n), 48 house (rr),60 household article (n), 63 n o v e r c r a r t( n ) , / 1 Iiuge (adj), 108 Itumorous (adj), 108 h u n g o v e r ( a d j ) ,1 6 hunt (r,'),69,91 hunting (n),69 hurt (adj), 16 hystcrical (adj), 16 i c e c r e a m( n ) , 1 1 5 icy (adj), 83 i l l ( a d j ) ,1 0 8 imitate (r'), 91 important (adj), 108 impossible (adj), 108 improve (r.'),91 in (prep), 85, 86, 90 in front of (prep), 35 indifferent (adj), 16 industrial area (n), 6,1 information desk (rr),41 information service (n), 73 ink (n),115 innoccnt (adj), 16 irrside (prep), 85, U6 (adj), 108 instant (adj), 108 insult (v),91 inteiligent (adj), 108 interested 6dj),17 into (prep), 85 introduce (r'), 91 [nvffs (v), !]

139


E_iron (n),63 island(n),64 jacket(n),77 l a i l( n ) , 1 1 5 jam(n),80 l a r ( n ) ,1 1 5 javelin(n),69 jealous(adj),17,108 jeans(n),77 jelly - US (n),80 j o gf t ) , 6 9 , 9 1 j o g g i n g( n ) , 6 9 j o i n( v ) , 9 1 joiner(n),58 j u g( n ) , 1 1 5 juggler(n), i03 juice(n),79 j u m p( v ) , 6 9 , 9 1 j u m p e r( n ) , 7 7 j u m p i n g( n ) , 6 9 j u n c t i o n( n ) , 7 2 kangaroo(n),66 keep(v), 91 keepquiet (v),91 kettle(n),32,63 k e y( n ) , 1 1 5 kick (v), 92 kind (adj),17,108 k i n g ( n ) ,i 1 5 kiss(v), 92 kitchen(n),43,60 k i t e ( n ) ,1 1 5 kiwifruit (n), 82 knapsack- US (n),40 knee(n), 103 kneel(v), 92 knife (n),32,63 knock (v),33,92 k n o t( n ) , 1 1 5 labourer(n),58 lake (n),64 l a m p( n ) , 6 1 large(ady),108 last (adj),108 late (adj),108 laugh (v), 92 lavatory(n),60 lawnmower(n),38 leaf(n),67 lean(v),92 learn(v),92 leave(v),92 left (adj),108 l e g ( n ) ,7 5 , 1 . 0 3 l e m o n( n ) , 8 2 l e n d( v ) , 9 2 letter(n),74,99 letterbox(n), 32 lettuce(n),81 library (n), 52 lie (v), 92 lift (n), 715ft),92 light (v), 92 (adj),108 lightning (n), 83 like (v), 92 l i m e( n ) , 8 2 line (get in) - US (r,),49,50

l i o n( n ) , 6 6 l i p s t i c k( n ) ,1 1 5 tisten(v), 70,92 little (adj),108 live (v), 92 l o a f( n ) , 1 1 5 lock (v), 92,99 (t't),11.5 l o n e l y( a d j ) ,1 7 , 7 0 9 tong(adj),109 took (v),92 look after ft), 69, 92 look for (v), 93 loose(adj),109 torrv (n),71 tose(v), 93 loud (adj),109 love (r,),3'1,93 lo'"'ers(n), 74 lovestruck(adl, 17 l u g g a g (en ) , 1 1 5 lvchee(n),82 r n a i l- U S ( v ) , 9 4 , 9 9 m a i l b o y U S( n ) , 3 2 m a i l m a n- U S ( n ) , 5 9 , 9 9 make(v), 70,93 m a n g o( n ) , 8 2 (n) m . ^ .r -r .q. rb r. i. n . .e. . - . . . / /

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marry (n), 93 marsh (n), 67 mask (n), 103 matches (n), 115 meal (having a) 6),37, 44,47 meat (n), 80 mechanic (n), 58 meet(v),93 melon (n),82 msnd (r'), 93 microphone (n), 115 middle (ad;), 109 middle-aged (adj), 55, 56,109 milk (n),79 milkman (n),58 miner (n),58 mirror (n), 61 mischievous (adl,17 miserable Gdj),17 mistrustful (adj),17 mix (v),93 mixer (n), 63 model making (n),69 monkev (n),66 moon (n), 83 m o s q u e( n ) , 1 1 6 mosquito(n), 116 mother (n),57 motor scooter (n), 71 motorcycle (n), 30, 71 mountain (n), 40,64 mouse(n),66 moustache (n), 55, 75,776 mouth (n),75,116 move (v), 93 movies - US (n), 53, 69 museum (n),52,73 mushroom (n),81 musician (n), 59 narrow (adj), 109 nauseous- US (adj), 111

near(prep),86 neck(n),75 necklace(n),78 nervous(adj),109,125 n e s t( n ) ,1 1 6 new (adj),109 next (prep),86 (adj),109 nightdress(n),77 noisv (adj),109 noodles(n),80 nose(n),75 nouns,173- 717 nurse(n), 50,59,76 n u t ( n ) ,1 1 6 oak (n),67 obey (v),93 object(n),27,37-32 obstinate(adj),17 off (prep),85,97 offer (v), 74,93 office (n), 59, 73 office worker (n), 59 o i l ( n ) ,1 0 2 o l d ( a d j ) , 5 5 , 5 61, 0 9 olive (n),81 o m e l e t t e( n ) , 8 0 on (prep),86,90,94,97 one-waystreet(n), 72 onion (n),81 onto (prep),85 o p e n( v ) , 9 3( a d j ) , 1 0 9 opera(n),69 opposite(adj),109 optimistic(adf,17 orange(n),82 out (prep),85 outside(prep),85 over (prep),86 overcoat(n), 116 owl (n),66,102 pack (v), 93 p a i n( n ) ,1 1 , 3 3 painful (adj),109 paint (v), 69,93 painted (partic),99 nrinfino r-'-""'b

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peas(n),81 pedesiriancrossing(n),22 p e n( n ) ,1 0 3 , 1 1 6 p e n c i l( n ) ,1 1 6 pepper(n),81 perplexed(adj),17 pets(n),69 phone(v),49,97 photographer(n),59 photography(n),69 pianist(n),59 p i a n o( n ) ,1 1 6 pick (v), 93 p i c k u p ( v ) ,6 , 9 3 picnic(n),69 picture (n), 53, 62 p i e ( n ) ,7 9 , 1 0 2 , 1 1 6 pig(n),30,66 p i g e o n( n ) ,1 1 6 pillow (n),62 pilot (n),59 pineapple(n),82 p i p e ( n ) ,1 1 6 plait (n),55 plane(n), 71 plant (n),62,67 plate(n),32,63 p l a y ( v ) , 6 8 ,6 9 , 7 0 , 9 4 pliers(n),63 plum (n),82 poetrv(n),69 point (v), 94 policeman/woman,51,59 police-station (n), 51,73 p o l i s h( v ) , 9 4 polite (adj),109 p o n d ( n ) ,1 1 6 ponvtail(n),55 poor (adj),109 poplar (n),62 porter (n), 4ti p o s t( v ) , 9 4 , 9 9 p o s to f f i c e( n ) , 4 9 , 7 3 p o s t b o x( n ) , 3 2 posted (partic),99 poster(n),35 postman(n), 59,99 p o t a t o( n ) , 8 1 potatochips- US (n),79 pottedplants(n),62 pour (v), 94 powerful (adj),109 precious(adj),109 prefer (v), 94 prepositions85-86 present(n), 74 prison(n), 116 proud (adj),109 prudish (adj),17 Pub(lichouse)(n), 73 pull (v),94 pullover (n), 77 pupil (n),51 purse (n), 78 p u s h( v ) , 9 4 P u t ( v ) ,9 0 , 9 4 , 9 9 pyjamas(n), 77, 116 quarrel (v), 94 q u e e n( n ) ,1 1 6

queue(r'),49,50 cluiet(aclj),1i0 rabbit(n),30,66 race(r'),68 radiabr(n),62 radio (n), 32,70,102 radish(rr),81 railroadstation- US (n),73 raih.,r'ay station(n), 73 rain (v),83,103 raincoat(n),ZZ r a i n y( a d j ) , 8 3 , 1 1 0 raise(v),94 r a p i d( a d j ) , 1 1 0 raspberry(n),82 r a t ( n ) ,1 1 6 r a z o r( n ) , 1 1 6 r e a d( v ) , 3 9 , 7 0 , 9 4 , reading(n),Z0 r e c e i v e( v ) , 7 4 , 9 0 , 9 4 record (n), 70 record player (rt),32,62, 70 r e d r i d i n g h o o d6 ) , 1 2 7 refrigerator(n),62 refuse(v), 94 region(n),64 relax(v), 38 relieved(adj),1T remain(v), 94 r e m i n d( v ) , 9 4 repair(v), 94 respectful(adj),110 responsible (adj),110 rest(v), 94 restaurant(n),47 return (\/),95 rice (n),80 r i c h( a d j ) , 1 1 0 r i d e( v ) ,7 , 7 0 , 9 5 n o l n g ( n) , , / t ) right (adj),110 ring (n),78 r i p e ( a d j ) ,1 1 0 rise (r,),95 risky (adj),110 river (n),64 road (n), 102 roast(v),80 rock climbing(n),Z0 rollerskates(n),71 r o o m( n ) , 6 0 root (n),67 rose(n),67 r o u g h( a d j ) , 1 1 0 r o u n d( a d j ) ,1 1 0 roundabout(n),72 rucksack(n),40 r u d e( a d j ) , 1 1 0 rug (n),43 run(v),21,34,70,95 runnrng(n), 70 r u s t y( a d j ) , 1 1 0 s a c k( n ) , 1 1 7 sad (adj),72,110 s a d d l e( n ) , 1 7 7 sail (v), 70,95 sailing(n),70 sandal(n),77

s a n d w i c h( n ) , 7 9 sauce(n),80 saucepan(n),32,63 s a u c e r(/n ) , 3 2 , 6 3 sausage(n),80 save(v), 95 s a w( n ) , 6 3 s c a r f( n ) ,/ 6 scenes(n),25,3l school(n), 73 s c i s s o r(sn ) , 6 3 scooter(n),71 screwdriver(n),63 seaman(n),59 search(v), 95 seasitle(n),64 secondfloor - US (n), 60 s e e o( n ) ,b , / serze(r'), 95 self-service(n), 42 selfish(adj),110 sell (v), 95 semi-detached (adi),60 send(v), 95 s e r i o u s( a d j ) , 1 1 0 serve(v), 95 settee(n), 62 shake(v),33,95 s h a l l o w( a d j ) ,1 1 0 share(v), 95 s h a r k( n ) ,6 6 , 1 0 3 s h a r p( a d j ) , 1 1 0 shave(v), 95 s h e e p( n ) ,3 0 , 6 6 , 1 0 2 sheet(n),62 s h i p( n ) , 7 1 s h i r t( n ) ,7 7 , 1 1 7 shoe(n),32,77 s h o p( n ) , 7 0 shopassistant(n), 46,59 shopping(go)(v), 46,70 s h o r t( a d j ) , 5 5 , 1 1 0 shorts(n),ZZ shoulders(n),75 shout(v), 95 s h o w( v ) , 9 5 shower(n, v), 43,62 shut (v), 95 s h y( a d j ) , 1 i 1 sick(adj),111 sick- US (adj),108 signal (traffic) (n), 72 s i l l y( a d j ) , 1 1 1 s i m i l a r( a d j ) ,1 1 1 s i n g( v ) , 3 4 , 7 0 , 9 5 s i n g i n g( n ) , 2 0 sink (n),62 sister(n),57 sit (v), 38,39,47, 95 s i t t i n gr o o m ( n ) , 4 5 , 6 0 skate(v),96 ski (v), 70 s k i i n g( n ) , 7 0 s k i l f u l( a d j ) ,1 1 1 skirt (n),78 sleep(v), 39,96 s l e e p y( a d j ) , 1 1 1 s l e e v e( n ) ,1 1 7 slide(v), 96 slip (v), 96

741


S: slipper(n),78 slorv(adj),111 s l y ( a d j ) ,1 7 s m a l l( a d j ) ,1 i 1 smell(v), 96 smile(v), 96 s m o o t h( a d j ) ,1 1 1 snake(n),66 snorkel(v), 70 snorkelling(n),70 snowing(n),83 s n o w y( a d j ) ,1 1 1 soccerball - US (n), 69 soccerplayer- US (n),58 soccerstadium- US (n), 73 socket(n),62 socks(n),79,103, sofa(n),45 soldier(n),59 s o r e( a d j ) ,7 6 , 7 1 1 sorted(partic),99 soup (n),.80 s p a d e( n ) , 1 1 7 spaghetti(n),B0 spanner(n),63 sparkle(v), 34 speak(v), 96 specialeffect(n), 33-3,1 s p e e d( n ) , 3 4 spill (v), 96 splash(v), 96 spoon(n),63 sprain(n),76 spring(n),83 squash(n),70 stampcollecting(n),68 s t a n d( v ) , 9 6 star (n),83 start(v), 96 stay (v), 96 steal(r'),96 s t e a m( n ) , 3 3 s t i c k( n ) , 1 1 7 stickpeople6), 4-7 sting (v), 96 stir (v), 96 (n),75 stclmach (n),76 stomachache stool(n),62 stooped(adj),55 storm (n),83 s t o r m v( a dj ) , 1 1 1 s t o v e- U S ( n ) ,3 2 , 4 3 , 6 1 s t r a i g h (t a d j ) , 5 51, 1 1 strawberry(n),82 s t r e e(tn ) , 3 1 , 3 7 , 7 2 s t r e e ct l e a n e(rn ) , 5 9 stretcher(n),76 s t r i c t( a d j ) , 1 1 1 stroke(v),96 s t r o n g( a d j ) , 5 51, 1 1 study (v),96 suit (n),79 suitcase(n),45,,18 summer(n),83 sun (n),83,102 sunbathe(v), ,10,7t) (n),70 sunbathing sunburn(n), 76 (n),78 sunglasses

s u n n y ( a dj ) , 8 3 , I l 1 supermarket (n), 46 support (r'), 96 s u r p r i s e( n ) , 1 1 s u r p r i s e d( a d j ) , 1 2 suspicious (ad;), 17 srvan (n), 66 - US 6),77 sr,r.eater sr'veep(r'), 96 srveet (n), 79 swim (r.),70 srvimming(n),70 srvimming costume (n), 78 s'"vimming pool (n),73 swimming trunks (n),78 sr'vimsuit - U5 (n), 7u sn ing (n), 32, 38 su'itch (n), 62, 99 srvorcl(n), 117 t-shirt (n), 78 table (n), 62 table tennls (n), 70 tablecloth (n), 62 tablets (n), 76 take (r'), 97 taken (partic), 99 talk (r,), 97 t a l l ( a d j ) , 5 5 ,1 1 1 , 11 t a m e ( a d y )1 tap(n),117 tart (n), 79 1 6 s 1 (sr ' ) , 9 7 taxi (n), 71 t e a6 ) , 7 4 , 7 9 teacher (n), 51, 59 teapot (n), 32, 63 t e l e p h o n e( n ) , 5 1 , 6 2 , 7 4 , 9 7 telephone booth (n), 49 teler.isicrn(n), 32, 45, 62,70 tell (r'),97 temperature (n),76 tennis (n), 70 t e n s e( a d j ) , 1 1 1 tenses1 , 0 0- 1 0 1 tent (n), 60 t e r r a c e( n ) , 3 9 terraced (adj), 6t) thank (v),97 theatre (n), 70 thick (adj),111 thigh (n),75 thin (adi), 55,172 thin-faced (aclj),55 think (r,), 97 t h i r s t v( a d j ) , 1 1 2 thoughtful {adj), 17, 112 three (adj), 103 throat (n), 76 thrrrrroh (nren)

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tlrron (v), 6, 69,97 t h r o w i n g( n ) , 6 9 thr,rmb(n),75 (n),83 thunderstorm tte (v), 97, 103,117 tiger (n),66 tights(n),78 t 1 l l( n ) , 4 6 , 4 7 t i n y( a d j ) , 1 1 2 to (prep),85

t o e( n ) , 7 5 toilet(n),60,62 t o m a t o( n ) , 8 1 t o n g u e( n ) , 7 5 tool (n),63 t o o t h( n ) , 7 5 toothache(n),76 n ) ,1 1 7 t o o t h b r u s h / p a s (t e torch(n),63 tortoise(n),66 touch(v), 97 tour (r,),70 t o u r i n g( n ) , 7 0 tor,r'ards(prep),B5 t o w e l( n ) ,1 1 7 town (n),64,73 tractor(n), 117 trafficlights/signals(n),72 trailer- US (n),60 train (n),42,71 transistorradio (n),32 travel (n), 71-72 travelagent(n),48 trav (n),47 treasure(n), 103 tree(n),38 trolley(n),46 trousers(n),78 truck - US (n),77 trunk (n),67 trv (v),97 tulip(n),67 turn (r'),97,99 t u r n i p( n ) , 8 1 turtle (n),66 type (r'), 59 typewriter(n),59 tvpist (n),59 t y r e ( n ) ,1 1 7 umbrella(n),83 uncle(n),57 (adj),112 unconscious under (prep),86 rrnrJoror,rrrn,-l

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unicycie (n), 71 untidv (adj), 112 u n r v i l l i n g ( a d j ) ,1 1 2 up (prep), 85, 90, 96 , 12 u s c . f u l( a c l j ) 1 vacuum clearrer(n), 63 valler' (n),'10,6'l v a n ( n ) ,7 1 , 1 7 7 v a s e( n ) , 1 1 7 vegetable(n), 81 verbs, 87-98 vest - US (n), 78 video (n),70,103 village (n), 64 violent Gdj),112 violin (n),117 visit (v), 97 v o l c a n o( n ) , 1 1 7 vowels, 102

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n'eather (n), 83 r,r.'elfare(n), 7S-76 r v e t ( a d i ) , 8 3 , 9 01, 1 2 u,'hale(n),66 n'icked (adj), 112 n i d e ( a d j ) ,1 1 2 n ' i l d ( a d j ) ,1 1 2 win (r'),98 r v i n c l m i l l( n ) , 1 1 7 r,r'indon'(n),34 n.indv (adj),83 n'rne (n),79 u'ing (n), 103 \,r'lnter (n), 83 rvipe (v), 98 r,r'ise(acij), 112 r,r'ish(r'), 98 n'itch (n), 103 n ith (prep), 85 n.ithout (prep), g5 n ' o o l l e n ( a d j ) ,l l 2 lr,ork (v), 98

PearsonEducationLimited Edinburgh Gate,Harlow, EssexCM20 2jE, England and AssociatedCompaniesthroughout the world. www.longman.com O A n d r e wW r i g h t1 9 8 4 This edition publishedby Addison Wesley Longman Ltd 1996 ISBN 0-17-556878-2 Eleventhimpression2004 Al1 RightsReserved'This publicationis protected in the United Kingdom Act-i.e88and in the.tt'*;;;;.,es oy comparabte P:_,1:S"oflghr legrslation.No part of it may be reproduced or recordedbV #v *"un, without

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1000 pictures for teachers to copy  

Arquivo para dividir om quem desejar

1000 pictures for teachers to copy  

Arquivo para dividir om quem desejar

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