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THE

Winery Issue 2013

RAPEVINE G

Your Best Viniculture Source Connecting Suppliers With Buyers

NEW

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Letter tails in the videos. From on Pa The Editor ge 4

From Vine to Wine Talking About Tanks, Pg 7 Social Media for Vineyards & Wineries, Pg 12 Steaming the Bottle Line, Pg 22 Balancing the Vines: Canopy Management, Pg 35 Virus Disease Spread in the Vineyard, Pg 38

Cover Photo Courtesy of DCI Inc. Read more in our feature article: Talking About Tanks, Pg 7.


The Grapevine Magazine • May - June 2013

AGER TANK & EQUIPMENT COMPANY Specializes In The Sale of New & Used Tanks, Processing and Packaging For The Winery, Brewing & Beverage Industries

“Quality Used Winery Equipment – Affordable Prices”

6520 – Wine Filling Line

For Complete List of Equipment and Details Visit Our Website...

www.agertank.com 6507 – Letina 500 Gal Jacketed Slope Bottom Float-Lid Tank

6535 – 6531 – 6163 – 6071 –

Inventory Sample Multilane Bottle Dump/Feed Table 4200 Gallon Stainless Single Wall Tanks W.S. Packaging Pressure Sensitive Neck Labeler Durable Case Sealer

4578 – Waukesha and G&H Positive Displacement Pump 6340 – Ronchi Corker 6527 – Plate Filter, 40cm x 40cm, 30 Plates • G&D Glyco Chillers - 1hp - 50hp • Stainless Steel Kegs

6367 – Label-Aire 2-Head Labeler (Body/Neck)

Tanks - In Stock Now • 1030 Gallon Sloped Bottom, Jacketed, Floating Lid • 1100 Gallon Closed Top, Jacketed, Storage Tank • 500 Gallon Closed Top & Floating Lid Tanks • 125 & 250 Gallon Floating Lid Tanks • 1350 Gallon Jacketed Closed Top Tanks • 500 & 600 Gallon Red Fermenters

AGER TANK & EQUIPMENT COMPANY 3333 NW Front Ave. • P.O. Box 10688 • Portland, OR 97210

Phone: (503) 222-7079 • Fax: (503) 222-7459 Email: info@agertank.com • Website: www.agertank.com Page 1

The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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Editorial Content • May - June 2013

THE

B

ricker Group, LLC

RAPEVINE G

Your Best Viniculture Source Connecting Suppliers With Buyers

President & Publisher

Jeffrey D. Bricker Vice President

Cyndi C. Bowlby

In The Winery

Sales Manager

Bart Crotts Legal

David Hoffman Marketing

Miguel Lecuona Senior Staff Writer

Mike Marino Staff Writers

Robert Gluck April Ingram Jessica Jones-Gorman Nan McCreary Contributing Writers

Is Your Wine’s Label Properly Cleared . . . . . . . . . .5 Talking About Tanks: Exploring the Variety & Versatility of Vineyard Containers . . . . . . . . . . .7 Wine Marketing Guide: Social Media for Vineyards & Wineries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Oxidation Phenomena in Grapes, Musts and Wines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Who Was That Masked Man? The Nitrogen in the Wine Bottle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Daniel Pambianchi Thomas J. Payette Judit Monis, Ph.D.

Steaming the Bottling Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22

Bricker Group, LLC

Borra Vineyards: Growing “Wine” in Lodi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

805 Central Ave., Suite 300 P.O. Box 1590 Fort Dodge, IA 50501 E-mail: jeff@thegrapevinemagazine.net Website: www.thegrapevinemagazine.net The Grapevine Magazine targets the national viniculture market and located in Fort Dodge, Iowa. The Grapevine Magazine is printed bi-monthly and distributed to the most qualified buyers. Opinions expressed in The Grapevine Magazine are not necessarily those of the publication personnel, but of the writers who contribute stories to The Grapevine Magazine. ERROR RESPONSIBILITY: The Grapevine Magazine is responsible only for the cost of the ad for the first incorrect insertion of the ad. Each insertion of an advertisement is proof of publication and it is the responsibility of the advertiser to check the correctness of each insertion. The publisher shall not be liable for slight aesthetic changes or typographical errors that do not lessen the intent of the ad. No adjustment can be made for advertisements not published. In the event of any error in an ad for which the publisher is liable, the liability is limited to adjusting that portion occupied by the error in relationship to the entire value of the advertisement. No adjustments will be made 30 days after initial insertion date. All contents of The Grapevine Magazine are Copywright © by Bricker Group, LLC

Around The Vineyard Fracking & Vineyards: Key Questions Remain About its Impacts on Vineyards . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Balancing the Vines: Canopy Management Techniques May Vary According to the Grape & Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Virus Disease Spread in the Vineyard . . . . . . .38

International News Sogevinus Fine Wines Declares Vintage 2011 . . .40

CHANGE OF ADDRESS: Please send new address and phone number along with “The Grapevine” mailing label or email changes to jeff@thegrapevinemagazine.net

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The Grapevine • May - June 2013


Advertiser Index • May - June 2013 Social Media, simple and inexpensive to utilize as a positive factor for your winery.

E

s

Page 12

Using Nitrogen in the fine art of wine making is as crucial as the type of grapes used.

Page 17

Steaming the bottling line is important and you only get one chance to do it properly.

Page 22

Control Leafroll disease spreading in the vineyard by applying strategic disease diagnostic methods.

Page 38

ON THE COVER: A few tank varieties belonging to DCI Inc., a Minnesota based company. Read more in our feature article: Talking About Tanks, Pg 7.

The Grapevine • May - June 2013

Advertisers Index 3M Purification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 A&K Cooperage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 A1 Mist Sprayers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Ager Tank & Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 All American Container . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 American Colloid Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Blue-X Enterprises Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Cedar Ridge Vineyards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 DCI Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 D'Vine Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Eclipse Process Technologies . . . . . . . . . . .23 Eurofins/STA Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Flame Engineering Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Flex Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Franmara . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC G3 Enterprises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Haak Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Hoffman Patent Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Jingles Barrel Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 KCI Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Kuriyama of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 WS Packaging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Lechler Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 MicroMatic USA Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Munckhof Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 National Storage Tank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Pasco Poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Phase-A-Matic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Pronto Plant, LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34 Raynox Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Reliable Cork Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Rubber Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 S&A Manufacturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Salina Glass Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Shweiki Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Skolink Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Sonoma Cast Stone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Texas Plant & Soil Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 The Hilliard Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Tricor Braun Winepak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC Unitech Scientific LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 Vacuum Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21 Vacuum Barrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Vine Pro/Tree Pro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Vinters Global Resource . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .BC Westfall Company Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 White Oak Vineyards, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Wine Marketing Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Winemaking Consultant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Zemplén Barrels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Page 3


In The Winery • May - June 2013

Letter I

From The Editor

t is finally May and the rain showers have made way for the sunshine, the weather is turning warmer and the vines are in bud! Whether you have a winery or vineyard (or both!), this issue is packed with great information - from Canopy Management to our feature article - Talking About Tanks - an indepth look at the variety and versatility of wine making tanks. We are very pleased to introduce Miguel Lecuona, Wine Marketing Guide, who has joined The Grapevine Magazine as our Marketing columnist! Miguel has 15 years of executive training leadership in smartphone, retail and loyalty marketing, and 5 years of wine industry experience, including an MBA in wine marketing from INSEEC-Bordeaux. He also holds wine education credentials from the Wine School of Philadelphia, TexSom, and the Court of Master Sommeliers. You have asked us to discuss the social media applications, and Miguel's article entitled "Social Media Marketing for Wineries" appears in this issue. We continue to be the leader in national viticulture publications by introducing cutting-edge technology in the magazine.

We are the first to include Augmented Realty Codes in this issue. This is a FREE App you download to your phone, place your phone on any page where you see the logo, then watch informational videos of your Supplier's equipment and products! Look for the instructional insert in this issue to guide you through the simple 3-step process and literally "watch" your Supplier's products come to life! The Grapevine Magazine's first E-Newsletter will be issued in June, 2013. The monthly E-Newsletter will provide you with the news that is timely and relevant to your business area, including National and International Press Releases, Tax, Financial and Legislative changes, as well as special offers from Suppliers serving your area. To be sure you receive your E-Newsletter, please, send email address changes to... Editor@TheGrapevineMagazine.net As I was preparing to write this column, I watched the rain falling steadily on the vineyards. Now the sun is back, and my thoughts have turned to being outside in the warm weather and sharing great times with great friends. This quote says it well, and if you feel compelled, just substitute the word "French" for your favorite wine! "Give me books, French wine, fruit, fine weather, and a little music played out of doors by someone I do not know." - John Keats

Cheers!

Jeff Bricker - Publisher The Grapevine Magazine

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

Is Your Wine’s Label Properly Cleared? By David Hoffman

C

opyrights cover a work, such as a picture, a painting, a literary work or a video, and trademarks cover a word, slogan, phrase, logo, image, or sound when used in connection with a good or service, such as wine or clothing. Although copyright and trademark can appear to overlap, they are separate and distinct types of protection. Ownership of a copyright on an image does not mean you own that image as a trademark, and ownership of a trademark that uses an image does not mean you own a copyright on the image.

CASE STUDY Nova Wines, Inc. v. Adler Fels Winery, LLC In Nova Wines, Inc. v. Adler Fels Winery, LLC, 467 F. Supp. 2d 965 (N.D. Ca 2007), the court explained a key distinction between copyright and trademark: trademark rights can trump copyright, and copyright can trump trademark depending on the situation. In this case, Nova Wines, a St. Helena,

California winery licensed images of Marilyn Monroe from her estate for twenty (20) years for use on wine. Tom Kelley Studios (“TKS”) held copyright in a series of different photos of Ms. Monroe in the nude. A licensing agency, Pacific Licensing, licensed these nude photos to Nova Wines for Nova’s “Red Velvet Collection.” The initially proposed wine label, however, was disapproved by the Tobacco Tax and

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Trade Bureau (“TTB”) due to the nude photos. Subsequently, the label was revised to include a “modesty overlay” over Ms. Monroe’s breasts and buttocks and the label was then approved by the TTB. However, this fractured relations between TKS and Nova Wines. TKS terminated the license of the TKS nude photos to Nova Wines. Fortunately for Nova Wines, Ms. Monroe had multiple nude photo shoots, one of which was with Playboy Enterprises. Nova Wines obtained a license from Playboy and used these nude images (with appropriate modesty overlays) on the label, and the Red Velvet Collection was back in business. Meanwhile, TKS tried to license its nude photos of Ms. Monroe again, this time to Sonoma Wine Company (“SWC”). However, SWC decided not to go forward after being advised by Nova Wines’ counsel that it would be considered infringing on Nova Wines’ trademark. Undaunted, TKS eventually found Adler Fels Winery and “licensed” its nude photos for use on Adler Fels’ wine labels. Nova Wines brought suit for trademark infringement against Adler Fels. Adler Fels argued that because the nude photos that were on the label came from TKS’ nude photos, and because TKS had a signed release from Ms. Monroe allowing use of the photos, her name, and copies thereof, Adler Fels was an authorized licensee of the copyright to use the photos on wine. Nova Wines argued that because it had been the only seller of wines with Marilyn Monroe on the label for years, it owned trademark and trade dress rights in her name and likeness in connection with wine, regardless of who owned the copyright. The court granted Nova Wines the preliminary injunction ordering Adler Fels to refrain from using the pictures of Ms.

The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 Monroe on the label stating that Adler Fels had superior trademark rights in the use of Ms. Monroe on wine, and that TKS’ copyright ownership of the nude photos was irrelevant. This was a very expensive lesson for Adler Fels which estimated that revenue from the initial years’ release of 15,000 cases would have totaled four million dollars. Instead, the out of pocket expense spent on product development and bottling equaled $140,000.00, not to mention several tens of thousands of dollars spent in attorneys’ fees. Re-labeling wine is often not an option, because the process of cleanly removing a label can ruin the wine and/or be very costly.

PRACTICE TIP: Adler Fels could have avoided these issues by obtaining a trademark or trade dress clearance search and opinion from an intellectual property attorney. All wine bottles must have a label and a name. Be sure to clear the name and clear the label art of any intellectual property issues before labeling, marketing, or submitting the label to COLA or the TTB. Also remember, simply having government approval of a label is not the same as having the right to go forward with the proposed label design and name. Trademark and/or copyright issues can arise. Taking steps in advance will help reduce the risk of substantial sums in legal fees, in addition to being ordered to re-label and/or pay damages in the end.

Turning New Ideas, Names, Products & Computer Programs Into Powerful Intellectual Property David Hoffman has been an attorney practicing exclusively in intellectual property law (patents, trademarks, copyrights and unfair competition) since 1985. Mr. Hoffman represents multinational companies as well as numerous start up to medium size businesses. He both litigates and procures rights for his clients, and with his philosophy of procuring the broadest rights possible, performing good clearance procedures, and negotiating, has successfully avoided and minimized litigation for clients he counsels. Mr. Hoffman has taught for a patent bar review class, has authored articles and given lectures on intellectual property, and has been named to Who’s Who Millennium Edition and Who’s Who Among Rising Young Americans in American Society & Business.

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P.O. Box 218 Higbee, MO 65257 Website: www.missourioakbarrels.com

Phone: 660-456-7227

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

Talking About Tanks: TANKS Exploring the Variety and Versatility of Vineyard Containers By April Ingram

225 to 4500 Gallons

QUALITY WINE ALWAYS TOP PRIORITY

O

ut in the vineyards, and from the crush pads to the cellars, tanks are vital to the winemaking process and play a multitude of critical roles in shaping the final creation. Tanks and containers are typically classified by the material they are made of and the purpose they serve. The commonly used materials for tanks and containers in the wine industry are wood, plastic, stainless steel and concrete and the functionality of these containers can be specialized, such as rotary fermenters and tanks for mixing or bottling, general for storage, or multipurpose.

Stainless steel has many roles in vineyard tanks and containers and this is likely due to its great versatility and durability. There may be a higher cost associated with stainless steel, but vineyard managers and winemakers have recognized its value in every step of the growing and wine making process, from water storage at the vineyard, to fermenting tanks and storage barrels. Their non-corrosive qualities make them the perfect container for water and particularly for wine, considering its acidic qualities can be harsh on some other materials. National Storage Tank Inc. has been working with vineyards and wineries across the country for 13 years to meet their needs for water harvesting, retention and storage, combining superior functionality while maintaining an esthetic that fits perfectly into the vineyard landscape. They offer plastic poly tanks in a range of sizes, as well as corrugated steel tanks and underground tank systems. Most vineyards require water storage for fire suppression, irrigation and frost protection measures and satisfying the requirement, while managing the design and all the details can be overwhelming. Michael Quesenbury of Jim Murphy and Associates, commends National Storage Tank Inc. for being able to provide a solution to a challenging situation involving the need for a large underground storage tank needed to supply a significant amount of water for a location with a very high water table. He was impressed by the entire process from the design and engineering through to navigating the complexities and coordination of the successful delivery and installation of an extremely large tank. The most popular tanks for vineyard use from National Storage tank are the series of corrugated steel CorGal tanks with replaceable liners and the underground Xerxes fiberglass tanks, which may be more expensive to install but have warranties of 30 years or more. Visit National Storage Tank at the Wine Industry Network Trade Show this December in Santa Rosa. In the early 1960s, Chateau Haut Brion was one of the first wineries in the world to install stainless steel tanks and launched the stainless steel trend. Stainless steel tanks are very efficient at controlling the fermentation temperature by having a chamber surrounding the tank that holds coolant and external controls to set the desired temperature. During the winemaking process, temperature control is critical, particularly the cooling that is required during fermentation and cold stabilization for tartrate discharges. Insulation of stainless steel tanks, using blankets, jackets, foam or panels is often used to mimic the thermal characteristics of wood or concrete. Stainless steel tanks are also efficient at preventing oxidation and monitoring fermentation. Ager Tank and Equipment carries new and used stainless steel specialty tanks for wineries and brewing. They pride themselves on being able to offer their customers, from small wineries just starting to experienced and successful vintners the exact equipment that they need to meet their specific needs.

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The Grapevine • May - June 2013

KiLR-CHiLR™ Temp Control Managed white wine fermentation, storage & stabilization patented

St. Regulus Automatic Fermentor patented Managed red wine fermentation, self-pressing

Pioneers in Polyethylene for Wine 25 Years of Experience Thousands of Tanks in Use

208-549-1861 www.pascopoly.com Page 7


In The Winery • May - June 2013 bility and a quality product. They understand the importance of being punctual and meeting the scheduling requirements of this time-sensitive industry. Early in the design process they review their customer’s individual scenario and make design decisions based on the size and configuration that will best accomplish the task, while keeping in mind potential growth and area regulations and logistics. DCI carries a complete line of stainless steel indoor tanks up to 40' Tall (approx. 50,000 Gallons) and field erected tanks up to 700,000 Gallons, as well as storage and fermenting tanks, with or without cooling dimple jackets.

DCI Inc. is an employee owned company, and since 1955 they have been designing, manufacturing and servicing of stainless steel and higher alloy vessels. They carry a variety of equipment and serve the food, dairy, beverage, chemical, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. This past January, DCI Inc. acquired California based Sanitary Stainless Welding Company to create a powerhouse in stainless steel storage tanks and agitators with decades of experience in the wine industry. They work with wineries ranging from the small start ups to many of the largest in the industry. DCI Inc. is committed to the highest standards of customer service, relia-

Wine barrels are also making the shift to stainless steel and are designed to be functional throughout the stages of winemaking. For the past 15 years Skolnik Industries has been answering this call from wineries around the world. Skolnik Industries has been a leader in heavy industrial drum production for decades but started receiving calls from California wineries, looking for a storage solution for their overage that could be used later for topping off or blending batches where they had previously been repurposing the steel, Coca-Cola kegs which gradually disappeared from production. The Stainless wine barrels are also seeing significant market growth due to recent trend towards "naked" or "un-oaked" wines, as well, in areas such as Australia and New Zealand where there is no oak available and all barrels have to be imported. The Skolnik stainless steel barrels play an important role beyond basic storage and are extremely valuable for small batch experimentation of flavor profiles or new yeasts.

Vintners Affordable Solutions For Storage Variable capacity heavy-walled HDPE plastic tank manufactured with food grade resin and 55, 100, 150 & 200 gallon capacities available . Calibration in gallons and liters are molded in the side wall of the tank. • This thick-walled vessel can be purchased as a stand-alone open top tank or with a stainless steel variable capacity lid. The lid comes with a gasket, airlock, pump, gauge & air hose.

• Options include drain fittings and valves of plastic or stainless steel and more. • Different sized non-variable capacity open and closed top tanks are also available.

200 Gallon HDPE Tank with Variable Capacity Lid

For More Information & Complete Product Line Please Visit Our Website www.westfalltanks.com Westfall Company, Inc. 124 Workman Court Eureka, MO 63025

Phone: Email:

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636.938.3113 awestfall@westfallcompany.com

500 Gallon HDPE Open Top Tanks

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 Many of the University wine programs use and appreciate the versatility of the stainless barrel when working with small batches of product. The pricing is similar to oak barrels, but these barrels are easy to clean and sterilize, are non-corrosive and can last generations. The 55 gallon barrels are also designed to fit right into the same storage systems as standard barrels. Although aging is not primarily done in these barrels, some wineries have used them for non-oak chardonnays or oak alternatives and enjoyed brilliant results. Skolnik Industries place great value on listening to the needs of the winemakers and staying active and knowledgeable in the industry. The most popular size of stainless steel barrel is the 55 US gallons, although capacity ranges from 5 to 55 gallons and thicknesses of 0.9 to 1.5mm. All of their tanks can be customized with valves and fitting to meet the customer’s needs. Plastic tanks, meaning those made from High Density PolyEthylene, have been in use since the early 1970s, are recyclable and a very popular, cost effective alternative to stainless steel. Plastic tanks are easy to clean and are smoother than stainless, reducing the formation of biofilms, however if abrasions occur to the surface it may result in an accumulation of microflora at that site. FlexTank Inc. has been making their

FlexTank Stacker range of plastic tanks since 2006 and has watched the rapid success of their products be used in wineries all over the world. These polyethylene tanks are hygienic, easy to clean, oxygen permeable and an ideal platform for the winemaker controlled use of oak adjuncts. These tanks are about 20% less cost than traditional barrels, require less water for cleaning and can be reused for decades. FlexTank’s 300 gallon cube tanks have been the ‘go to’ tank for winemaker Mark McKenna of Andis Winery for the past five years. He is pleased with this integration of tradition and innovation which allows him a greater control to create diversity of flavors, resulting in a

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 sound product – delicious wine. The plastic tanks are easy to clean, easy to store and a great space saving measure. 18 months ago in Milan, FlexTank debuted the egg-shaped Apollo, which can be used a primary fermentor and as a storage/maturation vessel. Plastic tanks are particularly popular with smaller wineries because of their low costs, oxygen permeability and flavor profile control. Pasco Poly Equipment has been serving the wine industry for over 30 years and has taken the plastic tank design to an entirely exclusive level of innovation. They produce a wide range long lasting, oxygen free storage solutions which have been used to process millions of gallons of wine, in the US and internationally. Pasco’s tanks are made to optimal thick

Westfall Company Inc. is a second generation manufacturer of tanks and valves for heavy industry. President of the company, Alan Westfall has been a winemaker in his 2 acre vineyard for 15 years. Friends with other small wineries would contact Alan to discuss storage options of some excess juice they had produced and soon they realized that their 2% high density poly-ethylene tanks were absolutely perfect for winemaking. These tanks are made from high grade, virgin resin, certified for food and water use and are a fraction of the cost of stainless, which is a particularly important to smaller startups. Westfall talks to the winemakers to create a completely custom tank that will meet their needs. These tanks are easily manoeuvrable, simple to clean and make good economic and environmental sense as their life expectancy can be decades long and they are recyclable. George Hoff, of Stone Pillar Vineyard and Winery has experience with stainless and the Westfall tanks and finds that he is really happy with the plastic tanks, because of their variable capacity, they are durable and really easy to clean. Concrete tanks and vessels have been a mainstay in winemaking for over 2000 years, but have had a rediscovery, of sorts, particularly in North America over the past decade. Winemakers are appreciating the insulating thermal mass qualities of concrete, as well; the micropores in concrete provide placid oxygenation during the fermentation process. Concrete tanks can be cleaned using hot water spray or tartartic, but due to their porous nature, cannot be sterilized. Sonoma Stone, based right in the heart of wine country, has applied 19 years of concrete finishing experience to produce wine tanks that combine all the functionality and features that winemakers could want with striking esthetic appeal. These concrete tanks have evolved from their centuries old cousins and been redesigned by Sonoma in consultation with winemakers from around the world. Each tank is made to order from a series of standard sizes, customizable to the customer’s specifications, including valve placements, color and tubing set within the concrete, allowing precise temperature control. Unlike stainless tanks, where the temperatures may spike up and then are

Dave Rule of Pasco Poly in front of a 1500 Gallon KiLR-CHiLR Temperature Controlled Tank with 2 patents recieved and 5 patents pending ness and use a nitrogen-purged molding process which further reduces the possibility of residual taste. The tanks are available in sizes from 225 gallons up to 4500 gallon and the extra thick walls act as good insulation in order to prevent loss of cooling capacity from condensation. The KiLR-CHiLR is a patented, unique product which can eliminate the cost of a glycol system, while performing much better than a glycol system to maintain a controlled, consistent temperature within the tank. Once the temperature is set, the customer can be confident that it will remain even and controlled, which has been a concern with stratification issues in partially jacketed stainless steel tanks. A winemaker that has been using the KiLR-ChiLR since 2004 says, “I know my wine is at stabilization temperature throughout when I see ice forming on the top,” and another states, ”It does exactly what you say it does.” There are five more patents pending on the KilR-ChiLR system.

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Concrete wine tanks, concrete fermentors and wine storage vessels of all shapes and sizes, hand-crafted i n t h ewith Ca l i fglycol o r n isystem, a w i nthe e c oun t r y . walls cooled quickly the thick concrete

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 and the cool liquid running in the walls of the tanks keeps a much more even temperature. In order to answer some of the questions surrounding concrete tanks, Sonoma is taking a scientific approach by conducting laboratory studies. A recent study measured the mineral deposits in samples of wine from concrete tanks compared to controls and found the mineral level to be negligible. Sonoma Stone believes that the wine produced in concrete tanks speaks for itself, and the industry seems to agree, as an impressive proportion of widely awarded and most expensive wines in Europe and North America are made in concrete. Michael Bartier of Okanagan Crush Pad Winery has been using several of the concrete tanks, and has found that, “The yeast lees seemed to stay in suspension longer than a comparably sized stainless tank of the same wine. This meant a higher ratio of yeast cell wall to liquid contact, which translated into a better, more creamy mouthfeel in the wines.” He adds, that the egg shape seems to have an effect on lees suspension during fermentation, especially at the end of fermentation and they are finding much healthier ferments in the concrete tanks. It is clear that each type of tank, whether it is, plastic, stainless or concrete has its own attributes and that the makers of these tanks are listening to the winemaking industry to innovate and meet their needs. The capabilities of the different tanks are providing greater control of temperature and flavor and providing winemakers more freedom of their craft to develop extraordinary wine.

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

Wine Marketing Guide: Social Media For Vineyards & Wineries By Miguel Lecuona

A

s a wine marketing guide, my job is to present marketing topics that are important to successfully running a winery or a vineyard. Whether you are opening a new tasting room, replanting, or expanding your wine portfolio, you will face more marketing choices than your budget will allow you to make. (You do have a marketing budget, right?) I work with winery and vineyard owners to help them think critically about the choices they face, and to think differently about the “demand side” of the business. My journey to wine is probably like yours -- personally held for many years as a dream, and tracked along a path of unpredictable obstacles and opportunities. As a professional marketer, what I appreciate the most about the wine business as compared to many other products is this: wine is unique. Whether you grow it, make it, sell it, or support it, your customers hold wine in greater regard than most consumer products. They desire a high level of involvement with your product. Because wine often marks a social celebration, your customers want to share their love of wine with friends and family, and increasingly, with you. With this kind of consumer interest and commitment, it’s no wonder Social Media is ideal as our first topic. This is particularly true for small to medium wineries, and increasingly, for vineyard owners who sell grapes to them. Simply put, Social Media is online communication - words, images, and video - created and shared by people and organizations using special programs on websites, PC’s and mobile phones. Since much of the content is user-generated, Social Media is, at once, relevant and chaotic. It is firmly established

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in marketing, with specialized firms that are current on the latest tools, thousands of followers and a dizzying flood of content, much of it with questionable relevance. Personally, it’s not my objective to turn you into a platinum level Wine Tweet guru. Yet, when I look at the results of client work on Facebook™, and assess the reach we are getting on Twitter to a key audience, I am convinced that a simple, inexpensive social media presence is a positive factor for your winery. Let’s look at the two biggest players -- Facebook and Twitter.

Social Media Basics for Wineries

Facebook Role: Share the experience visiting your winery with wine lovers; let your customers expand your wine club with referrals; event calendars keep fresh ideas flowing; new tools offer promotional offers; targeted ads to grow your audience.

Who Uses it? These statistics are taken from my own database of Facebook clients in the wine business in Texas. Women use Facebook twice as often as men. The age breakdown indicates strong participation in three brackets, per the table. Notably, wineries with more expensive wines will have fewer users in the younger group and more in the older bracket. This all makes sense, given incomes, lifestyle choices, and what I see at the wineries every weekend.

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 Facebook - General Demographics Texas Hill Country Winery Pages

Who Uses It? Wine Bloggers love Twitter. Amateur and professional alike, wine bloggers and critics have taken up Twitter as a distribution outlet for their work. Now, more vineyard owners, wineries, wine makers, sommeliers, and critics are adding their voice to the conversation. It’s getting fairly deep into professional wine culture.

How they use it: Many Facebook users rely on it as the

How they use it: Like a Headline News service to distrib-

preferred site for the daily flow of life’s many moments, small and large. Often, to the exclusion of websites and other forms of communication. In other words, if you’re not on Facebook you’re invisible to this group!

What Works:

What Works • Be brief. Be bright. Be gone. FB is a great visual medium. Our best posts come from beautiful photography - and wine is very photogenic. Surprisingly so are most wine owners, according to winery fans. • Wine Club Activity: Timely pictures from a wine club event get noticed and quickly pile up the Likes, pushing the word out about a live band, a chef on site, or a special tasting. • Winery Experience: Wine is as much an experience as it is a product. It is often enough to simply show the beauty of the day, the season, or the audience, and keep it approachable. • Wine Education: Have a talented staffer who loves to talk all things wine? Offer her a forum and let her educate your dedicated viewers.

What Doesn’t Work • Do not start a business identity using the standard personal Facebook. Create it using a “Facebook Page” specially made for companies. It properly frames your business, lets you create Milestones for important dates in your history, and allows people to Like and Follow your Page without becoming Friends and sharing personal information. • Constantly peppering your page with trivial posts and without quality images makes your page easy to skip. Trying too hard to start too many conversations also looks desperate for attention. I am old school for marketing -don’t say something unless you have something to say. Then, make it fresh, beautiful, and easily understood. Cut the clutter.

Try this now: Use Facebook’s Event Calendar to place your events on your FB Page and you can use them to drive news and activity to specific dates -- release parties, special weekends, offsite festivals where your wine is featured.

Twitter Role: Best for staying engaged with media. Integrate so Facebook stories are also Tweeted. Useful for live-event updates. A good industry “live news” stream. 877-892-5332

ute blogs, stories, events. Many use it to relay information, and follow specific topics and trends.

• Brevity is the soul of wit: You only get 140 characters per tweet. Luckily, you can now add website links, and they are automatically shrunk (that was 140 on the button). • Plain English names: It’s tempting to get cute with a knick name (PigeagePunk is probably not taken yet, so feel free...) but you will do better to simply create a Twitter ID that reflects you or winery well, and that can be easily found. • Compact Profile: Everything on Twitter is brief, but there is room to define who you are, what you do, and how to get more information with a completed Profile. • #Hash-tagging: Include a keyword to put your tweet into the right stream for those who are following a topic. Most wine commentary in the Texas Wine area includes #TxWine, and that becomes a searchable tag so all such tweets can be easily corralled. #Wine, #Taste, #WW (aka Wine Wednesday) are popular tags. • Tweet now, sell later: Twitter is more relevant and personal, first, as an exchange between people, and second as commerce, akin to texting. Users seem more interested to relate pithy, interesting comments and links rather than a Flash Sale offer. Keep it conversational and flowing. • Facebook, Instagram and Photo integration: Again, where words fail, pictures convey. Twitter can relay your Facebook posts, photos and other photo and video links. Use this well. • Retweet: Wine writers benefit when their posts are relayed from one group of users to the next, and will engage with you more often when they see you distributing their work, too.

What doesn’t work: 141 characters. The Past. Complaints. Explaining yourself. Remember, once it goes out, a tweet can’t be called back from every screen it hits. Keep your tweet sweet. Try this now: Learn the top 10 Wine Bloggers in your region by the size of their twitter followers. Many organize virtual tastings of wines by grape or vintage, and you can often participate as a guest. Follow them, and participate in one of their activities. #TxWine bloggers do this every month.

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 How Do I Manage These Programs, And What Can I Use? Software and Hardware: • The dedicated internet-based Twitter site (www.Twitter.com) is reliable and keeps things simple. TweetDeck is another good one for your desktop, with a column-based display so you can track specific topics at a glance. • You can also link your Facebook Page to Twitter so that what you post on FB Status goes out on your Twitter Feed. This I find useful. • That said, I don’t like the opposite link. I do not like having Twitter drive activity to my Facebook page. I prefer to manage everything on FB for visual appeal, and having a series of abbreviated tagged posts doesn’t work. • There are advanced ways of linking your Tweets to a little robot reader that will scroll your tweets on your website. Ask your webmaster to get you a Twitter Widget and you too can see a parade of Wine-related tweets scrolling up the column of your website!

about it due to the proliferation of questionable user reviews; others embrace it. Trip Advisor: A consumer site focused on destination reviews of restaurants & hotels, and beginning to gain traction with wineries in high tourist areas. Typically, more thoughtful reviews are posted there, in my experience than on Yelp. Instagram: Beautiful photographer’s app tool, with creative tools to let your photos pop on mobile phone screens, and shared among like minded user groups. I like this very much. Your choice to embrace Social Media is a good one. You can immerse yourself deeper than ever, and get bogged down in all of these options. So take a page from your own experience in the vineyard, and in the winery. Keep things simple while you improve your knowledge. Add one or two tools every year and see how they impact your business. You are here for the long run. You have time to get it right. Miguel Lecuona is a wine marketing guide working in the Texas Hill Country. If you have sales and marketing questions or comments, please email them to... Editor: editor@thegrapevinemagazine.net

Mobile This is where things get interesting. I use an iPhone App called “Echofon” to manage Twitter. Since I have both personal and client-based apps, I need a simple, sure-footed mobile app that allows me to work fast, post photos and text easily, as it happens. Facebook is a little more challenging on Mobile. There is both a personal Facebook App, and a business page app called Pages. Both are useful, and both have limitations. It is not easy to update cover photos, crop images or easily navigate between the desk and mobile programs. I am an iPhone and Mac user since the beginning of time, and I understand there is something called Android out there? Kidding. Of course most of these programs run well, or even better, on Google’s Android based OS, and a wide range of great phones, too.

Miguel Lecuona

Wine Marketing Guide

Still More Social Media We are just scratching the surface here. Here is a quick rundown of other savvy social media sites: Pinterest: the best scrapbooking and visual bulletin board program ever. Highly engaging, and a bit distracting, seems easier to get knocked off message and wander around. Skews female even more than FB. Yelp: Used as a substitute for Google when you are searching for specific reviews of local businesses, Yelp is a professionally run site that sells listings and allows you to manage content, events, and even critical reviews to an extent. Many worry

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MiguelLecuona@mac.com

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

Oxidation Phenomena in Grapes, Musts and Wines Managing Oxygen From Vine To Bottle By Daniel Pambianchi

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t is often said that wine is made in the vineyard. Mother Nature oversees grape berry development throughout the growing season and then delivers a healthy harvest perfect for making great wine. But harvest to the winemaker is the beginning of a challenging road in managing oxidative effects towards that lustful bottle of wine. These effects start right in the vineyard with diseased or damaged grapes, if any, and with how grapes are harvested and transported back to the winery. Even sound grapes subjected to rough handling or crushing under the weight of the harvest will set enzymatic and chemical (non-enzymatic) oxidative mechanisms in motion. Although there are overlaps between these mechanisms, enzymatic oxidation mainly occurs in grapes and juice (must) until the end of fermentation, and, while chemical oxidation can also occur in must, it primarily affects wine from fermentation right to bottling (and even serving).

bate oxidation. Laccases are relatively immune to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and have longer-lasting activity, well into the wine aging phase. Moldy or damaged berries and bunches should be removed to the extent possible. Must also contains glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide that acts as a natural antioxidant by reacting with quinones to form colorless glutathione-containing complexes known as grape reaction products (GRP). However, when GSH becomes depleted, any remaining quinones undergo a coupled oxidation that exacerbates browning by forming secondary quinones that can go on to react with other polyphenols to form aggregate complexes and impact color intensity and stability. Some polyphenols are also regenerated during this coupled oxidation therefore renewing the potential for phenolic browning if PPOs and O2 are still available.

OXIDATION IN WINE

OXIDATION IN MUST

Flavanols/tannins are the main substrates of chemical oxidation in wine, but here, oxidation is catalyzed by iron and copper metal ions, which occur naturally in tiny quantities in grapes but can become significant if, for example, brass or copper equipment is used or if vines and wine are treated excessively with copper.

Polyphenols are the main substrates of both enzymatic and chemical oxidation in must. These substrates include flavanols (the building blocks of tannins), anthocyanins (color pigments), phenolic acids, and tannins.

But bisulfite ions (HSO3–) from SO2 additions can also bind directly with quinones (instead of reducing these to colorless polyphenols) to form bisulfite addition products that can no longer be reversed back to colorless forms.

Enzymatic oxidation is activated by naturally occurring polyphenoloxidase enzymes (PPOs) in the presence of oxygen (O2) as soon as grapes are crushed or pressed and cause phenolic acids in grape pulp and flavanols/tannins extracted from grape skins during maceration to oxidize to brown-colored quinones in what is known as phenolic browning. PPOs become inactive by the end of fermentation. Quinones can be reduced back to their polyphenols and reverse browning effects through sulfite or ascorbic acid additions.

In the presence of metal ions, O2 can become reduced into hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which can oxidize bisulfite ions into sulfates (SO42–) and divert free SO2 from performing its protective tasks. H2O2 can also oxidize ethanol into smelly acetaldehyde. If caught quickly, sulfite can be added to get bisulfite ions to bind and deal with the acetaldehyde; otherwise, acetaldehyde will bind with tannins and anthocyanins and even cause tannins to bind with anthocyanins to form complex pigmented polymers that will alter wine color and stability.

Let’s review these mechanisms to understand how they affect must and wine quality; we’ll also look at the effects of microbiological oxidation.

Phenolic browning is particularly problematic at higher pH because of the higher concentration of oxidizable polyphenol ions, and at higher temperatures, which tend to accelerate oxidative effects. This can begin in ruptured grape berries hanging on vines or in grapes damaged from handling or during transportation. And moldy B. cinerea-affected grapes contain naturally occurring laccase enzymes that further exacer-

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If quinones are left untreated or cannot be reduced back to their polyphenols, they too can bind with tannins and anthocyanins to form very complex pigmented polymers that will aggravate color problems. Adding ascorbic acid can become risky if there are no more

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 brown-colored quinones to react with; then, ascorbic acid can start converting O2 into H2O2 and exacerbate oxidation problems. So you must be in tune with the chemistry of your wine before using ascorbic acid. And remember: ascorbic acid must be used with SO2 to allow bisulfite ions to deal with H2O2 and reduce oxidative effects. These effects will manifest themselves somewhat differently throughout wine pH range. The mechanisms are very intricate, but suffice to say here that a greater concentration of oxidizable phenolic ions exist due to the greater dissociation at higher pH. This means that color will be less intense and less stable at higher pH. There is no predicting how the mechanisms will manifest themselves—it’s all one big chemical-reaction race where players keep evolving. And this continues, albeit at a much slower pace, in the bottle as wine ages. How well and how long the wine ages is a function of the amount of oxygen it has consumed in its lifetime prior to bottling, the amount of O2 uptake during bottling and dissolved oxygen (DO) at bottling, headspace volume, and the amount of O2 permeating through and around the closure while aging in the bottle.

MANAGING OXYGEN There are some key practices you can implement to better manage oxygen in your winemaking. Most important is to only harvest sound grapes and discarding any damaged or moldy fruit. Harvest early in the morning when the temperature is cold and the sun has little effect. Invest in a DO meter to monitor dissolved oxygen throughout your winemaking to help you identify potential oxidation problems. Avoid high O2 uptake processes, such as pumping wine at cold temperatures; and bottle wine on an automated line equipped to minimize oxygen uptake. Minimize the use of additives and processing aids, and avoid equipment that introduces contaminants, such as iron and copper, which can catalyze oxidation reactions. Handle wine keeping in mind oxygen properties: 1.O2 solubility increases as temperature decreases, surface area exposed to air increases, ethanol content increases, or carbon dioxide content decreases. 2.O2 consumption increases as temperature increases, polyphenol concentration increases, iron/copper concentrations increase, or as pH increases. Let’s put all this into practical terms: At low temperatures, O2 is more soluble in musts and wines though less reactive; however, higher levels of DO can suddenly become very reactive if temperature increases. DO is not as much of a concern in musts at low temperatures, which are preferable to control spoilage micro-organisms, in spite of greater O2 solubility; what is important is O2 interactions with other wine compounds and its consumption. But in wines, O2 interactions slow down and O2 solubility increases slightly in the presence of ethanol, and so, DO can linger around for longer to interact with other compounds and cause oxidative effects, particularly

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with increasing temperatures even when the wine is protected from oxygen. And remember that SO2 cannot slow down solubility as it does not react with molecular O2.

MICROBIOLOGICAL OXIDATION Microbiological oxidation refers to aerobic activities in S. cerevisiae yeast necessary to support cell growth and survival for alcoholic fermentation (AF) to proceed, and in potentially harmful rogue yeasts and bacteria. During AF, yeast cells need a minimum amount of O2 to produce unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and sterols required for building cell membranes. Yeast lees can continue consuming O2 well past the end of AF for months and longer during sur-lie aging, which can cause wine to become reductive and take on a sulfurous smell. This can be avoided by supplying extra oxygen to yeast during fermentation if you are planning aging on the lees. Wine also ages at a slower rate during the maturation phase since lees consume O2 at a faster rate than polyphenols do, i.e. more polyphenols hang around for longer to deal with O2 being absorbed into wine. During malolactic fermentation (MLF), air ingress should be minimized as lactic acid bacteria can use O2 to convert citric acid into possibly high amounts of diacetyl and acetoin that can make wine overly “buttery,” or to metabolize tartaric acid into objectionable levels of lactic, succinic and acetic acids, which can make wine limp and flat and take on a vinegary smell. Indigenous surface yeast on grapes can use O2 to form a whitish-grey film on the surface of wine along with nasty offaromas and flavors if wine is excessively exposed to air. Detectable levels of acetaldehyde may be an indication that surface yeasts have begun their destructive effects. Given their high resistance to SO2, sulfite is ineffective in preventing or curing surface yeast problems. Brettanomyces yeast can use O2 to convert phenolic acids into ethyl phenols and impart that unmistakable smell of barnyard. “Brett” can be kept in check by maintaining anaerobic conditions as small amounts of DO react more favorably via chemical oxidation with other compounds, giving little chance to this yeast to manifest itself. Dreaded Acetobacter bacteria too thrive in wine left exposed to the elements; they cause ethanol and sugar to be converted into acetaldehyde and acetic acid as well as several other byproducts, such as ethyl acetate, and possibly outright spoilage if left untreated,

Daniel Pambianchi is General Manager of Maleta Estate Winery and author of “Techniques in Home Winemaking” (Véhicule Press, 2008) and “Kit Winemaking” (Véhicule Press, 2009).

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

WHO WAS THAT MASKED MAN?

The Nitrogen in the Wine Bottle... By Mike Marino

T

he use of nitrogen in the fine art of wine making is as crucial as the type of grapes used. It has low solubility in wine, and is an elemental warrior in the constant battle during the production phase to win the war to eliminate oxygen in the final product. In battle terms, it is nitrogen calling on oxygen for an Unconditional Surrender. It is not unlike the genie in the bottle of mythology. Rub the bottle and the genie grants you three wishes. In the wine making process, nitrogen is the nitrogenie in the bottle that may not grant you three wishes, but, it does give the vintner an added tool to fight on their behalf to produce an award winning product for the consumer, and let's face it, consumer acceptance equates to a healthy bottom line.Wine makers love nitrogen as it is used primarily to prevent oxidation which in turn allows for the use of less additives. Another factor to be considered is that the acidity, color, aromas and natural flavor of the wine will be well conserved. So, now, the big question. What exactly is nitrogen? For that answer we have to back to those dreaded chemistry classes we all had to attend in high school and open our study lessons. I remember well sitting in the classroom, confused, staring at all those chemistry symbols on the blackboard. Not to get too technical, as I am not Mr. Wizard or Dr. Science by any stretch of the imagination, nitrogen is an inert gas and it's atomic number ranking is 7 on the chemical hit parade first discovered in 1772. One of the more well known oxide offspring of nitrogen is nitrous oxide. Dentists have been using it for many years as an anesthesia better known as "laughing gas," not that many people find a visit to the dentist a laughing matter. NASCAR fans

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are also familiar with nitrous oxide as it is used in racing to increase the power output of engines as they burn up the track at Talledega. Earths plentiful oxygen is great for humans and sustaining life on this planet, but, there is a real Jekyll and Hyde dark side to oxygen when it comes to producing a fine wine. Oxygen is the natural enemy of wine, and rears it's destructive head by causing natural oxidation in the product during numerous fazes of it's production as it sets sail on it's journey to the consumers table.Oxidation is as silent and deadly as a team of Navy Seals, working quietly, and the end result can be disastrous, turning the end product from an award winning vintage into a vinegar like substance. Make no mistake. Oxygen does not work entirely alone. It has many allies in the form of tiny unseen microbes that occur naturally in wine, and together, they team up to convert ethyl alcohol into acetic acid, which is the main component of vinegar. The good news in this battle of the bottle is that you have an ally. The nitrogen generator. One company, South Tek located in North Carolina, with corporate offices in Raleigh. founded in 1997 is the leading designer and manufacturer of nitrogen generator technology and installations world wide. Molly Hollifield of South Tek explains the detrimental effects of oxygen getting a grip in the wine. “When oxygen and a catalyst are both present within the wine making process, oxidation can occur. Oxidation can affect color, aroma, natural flavor and taste of the wine, sometimes referred to as flattening. By "flooding" or "purging" the area with nitrogen, you can lower the oxygen content within the process. You displace the oxygen by using nitrogen as the source gas into the process or

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

South Tek Co. N2-75 Nitrogen Generator Photo Courtesy of: South Tek Company pushing the oxygen out with a nitrogen flush. Nitrogen does not "attack" oxygen, it simply replaces it,” Hollifield said. Now the scientific part. How does the generator work? “The air contains 78% nitrogen, we use compressed air as a source gas, remove the oxygen from the air through a process called PSA or pressure swing absorption. Nitrogen generators can vary in size depending on the flow rate required for the process” she said. The good news is you don’t have to install the equipment yourself as South Tek handles all aspects of set up, installation and provides on-site training. Visit the South Tek website at www.southteksystems.com or you can email them at info@southteksystems.com or by phone at 888-5266284. Many wineries around the world are using nitrogen generators to improve the quality of their creations. Kunde Family Estate Winery in the pastoral setting of Kenwood, California, near Sonoma is a true believer when it comes to their use. For over a century, five generations of the Kunde family have farmed sustainably their 1,850-acre estate in the heart of Sonoma Valley. Zach Long, wine maker at Kunde has the process down to a science and an art.As to how oxygen can affect the wine, Long gives us some valuable insight. “ Since I am not one who makes Madeiras, tawny ports and such which utilize higher exposure to oxygen, I will stick with the generic table wine category. A very quick summary would be oxygen exposed to wine interacts with phenols and as those phenols decrease because of oxygen, browning may begin to result. If oxidation continues, the flavor of the wine continues to lose those fine points of interest and complexity that winemakers work so hard to achieve, often termed mellowing, and may even cause precipitation of solids which could collect at the bottom of a tank or bottle.”

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The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 There are many steps along the Yellow Brick Road to producing a fine wine, and many of those are susceptible to oxygen invasion. “Every movement we make on a wine in the cellar has at least some potential to introduce oxygen to a wine. Prior to moving wine into a fresh tank or barrel, and as a wine is coming out of it’s current storage vessel, a winemaker has some control to limit the amount of oxygen allowed to get to our precious wine. A nitrogen generator offers a winery that has access to compressed air, the ability to generate, on demand, an unlimited amount of nitrogen at a reasonable level of purity to help prevent oxidation. The benefit to the idea of on demand supply becomes very important because as far as inert gases go, nitrogen is better used as a means to displace oxygen from your storage vessel as opposed to gasses which act better as a blanket such as CO2 or Argon. The reason nitrogen is not as good of a blanket gas include its lack of weight to sink through the air we are trying to avoid and its high level of interest in reattaching to other gasses. Mechanical devises used in the wine making process also offer oxygen easy entry into the process. “Any storage vessel or transfer tool, being hoses or lines, can and likely are causes of oxygen exposure. Having a fitting that will connect your nitrogen source to the end of a transfer line can help to minimize, through displacement, the amount of oxygen present which should result in lower oxygen exposure. One great tool used in many wineries is a racking wand that essentially forms a seal around the bung hole of the barrel and allows the opportunity to pressurize and displace the wine currently in the barrel using nitrogen gas. As the pressure in the barrel builds, the wine is pushed up the racking wand through the lines and into your receiving vessel. The goal is to minimize the oxygen exposure as well as offering the option of using gas pressure as opposed to or in unison with a transfer pump.” A winemaker has enough to do these days with all the new technology of computers, software and generators at their disposal to create an award winner, and nitrogen generators are not all that complicated considering the work they do. Long says, “The concept is simple, porous membranes allow the smallest particles, of nitrogen, to slip through. The membranes are stand alone with minimal moving pieces. Maintenance of the machine is usually performed once per year and can be performed by your staff in house or by the provider. I think of all the toys used in the wine making world, this is one system that is plug and play! No more tucking in cylinders which should decrease your carbon footprint and the dreaded missed delivery. The units are sized according to facility needs and should result in a cost savings when factoring energy use and maintenance vs. cylinder costs, delivery and rental. Payback on our unit for the Kunde facility was about 3 years. Because nitrogen is better at displacing than blanketing, you have the ability to use a higher volume which should result in a more thorough job.” For more information visit their website at http://www.kunde.com or phone them at (707) 833-5501.

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Nitrogen in the soil of the vineyard is just as important. Soil balance in nutrients can make or break your attempts at an

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The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 biochemical energy to fix carbon dioxide and water to produce sugar. This glucose is then stored as starch or made into sucrose, which is then exported in the phloem to various plant parts. Phloem is the actual living tissue that carries these organic nutrients, primarily sucrose, which is a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed by a process known as translocation.

Kunde Winery Tasting Room Photo Courtesy of: Kunde Winery award winning pumpkin in your backyard garden. In the vineyard, nitrogen is the most potent in terms of influencing vine growth and tissue composition and development. Nitrogen is important to vine growth and tissue composition. Nitrogen is also a part of chlorophyll, which captures sunlight, which in turn causes photosynthesis in the leaves. During this natural process the energy from sunlight is transformed into

In a white paper study by Cornell University College of Agriculture and Life Sciences “ Grapes grown in many states often have low yeast available nitrogen in musts. Insufficient yeast available nitrogen is a major cause of stuck or sluggish fermentation in wine production, and is also related to a wine disorder called "atypical aging" which can cause significant losses to the wine industry. Insufficient yeast available nitrogen in grape must is the major cause of stuck or sluggish fermentation in wine production, which contributes to formation of off-flavors in wine. Therefore optimizing vine nitrogen status and yeast available nitrogen level in grape musts via water and nitrogen management in the vineyard appears to be the most effective way of reducing the occurrence of atypical aging.” A nitrogen generator is like the Lone Ranger, riding to the rescue in the nick of time. It uses a simple technology to mechanically separate the nitrogen molecules from the other molecules found in the air, isolating the nitrogen gas in a storage tank until needed. Who was that masked man...simple..it's the Nitrogenie in the Bottle!

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

Steaming The Bottling Line By Thomas J. Payette

S

team is one of the most widely used methods of sanitizing a bottling line and cartridge filter prior to bottling. If done properly a “sterile bottling” can be secured at each bottling run. Steam, for safety reasons, is a nuisance, yet most wineries still find it the bottling sanitation measure of choice. Steam is hazardous to use and the author accepts no liability for error on behalf of the operator. Please be careful if this is your first time! Be careful every time! Bottling is an important time to be on your game. You will only get one chance to bottle properly so it must be taken very seriously.

Why? A winemaker, interested in bottling a wine sterile, will want to eliminate all bacteria and yeast from the bottling line and final filter prior to bottling day. Even winemakers who are

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bottling unfined and unfiltered wines sterilize their bottling lines before bottling for extra security. Steam, when used properly, is lethal to all living organisms.

How? Live steam is the key to doing this procedure properly. If an orifice or filler spout is expected to be sterile, a flow of live steam must be coming from that area. Below are instructions for steaming a bottling line and final filter prior to bottling. Before starting the below procedure, it is recommended to rinse out all the areas that will come into contact with the steam. Do a visual inspection for dust or foreign matter in areas that will come into contact with the wine, filler bowl, filter housing, filler spouts, etc. 1. Secure a source of steam that will be abundant enough to

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 handle the set-up. A six-spout gravity flow filter may require less output from the steamer than a 12 spout filler. 2. Secure a wine hose that will allow steam to flow through it safely and use it for all the connections down stream of the steam. This hose should also be approved for wine. 3. Have the steamer as close to the bottle filler as reasonably possible while also allowing for a filter to be placed prior to the filler. (The closer the items are – the shorter the runs - leading to less error and faster ramp-up in the steaming cycle.) Some bottling units are nicely equipped so a cartridge filter may be attached directly to the bottom of the unit minimizing hose lengths. 4. Place a stainless steel “T” with two valves prior to the cartridge filter and a “T” with two valves after the cartridge. (Remember to use pressure gauges that are designed to be steamed!) [See photo “Pressure gauge on Cartridge”] Credit www.winemakingconsultant.mobi 5. Attach the hoses as if pumping wine through the filter and to the bottling line. 6. Open all valves in the beginning. (If using a mono block – make sure the automated solenoid valve is in the open position to allow steam into the filler bowl.) {If a safety blow off valve is not on your steamer – please install one yourself or take it to a qualified mechanic to install one.}

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7. Turn on the steamer to initiate the creation of steam leaving all the valves down stream of the steamer open. 8. During the ramping up of the steam, condensed water may flow out of these open valves. Allow this to happen until it turns to steam. Then turn the valve toward the closed position but do not fully close. Leave the valve cracked open to allow a small amount of live steam to flow from the valve. This insures that the valve(s) has come up to the steam temperature and that it will remain at that temperature as long as live steam is flowing from it. 9. “Chase” the steam through the complete setup and throttling back valves as steam appears. [ See photo: Caption: Steam surrounding filler spout opening near red gasket] Credit www.winemakingconsultant.mobi 10. When a full set of steam has reached the final destination of the end of the run (This may be the ends of every filler spout or the leveling mechanism in some mono blocks, etc.) – one can start timing the operation. Double check that all the filler spouts are open and that steam is flowing. 11. Places to inspect in the filler bowl area may be a drain valve and other ports. Make sure that these areas are cracked open slightly to allow for a free flow of steam. 12. Step back and look at the operation asking yourself “Is steam getting everywhere and on all the surfaces that may

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 fices are steaming as needed. Then turn off the steam source and allow for cooling of the lines, spouts and cartridge(s), etc. 17. Allow the system to come to room temperature and perform an integrity check (procedure to be covered in the next issue) on the membrane filter to insure the unit will perform properly at the rated micron level. Make sure the parts used to do this are free from microbes and that they have been cleaned with a 70% ethanol (Everclear ™ and water) solution or equivalent protocol. 18. Do not disconnect any of the lines at this juncture. Use a spray bottle of the ethanol referenced above on all areas that have a possibility of compromised sterility. When in doubt – spray it! Filler spouts – too! The winemaker has a totally sterile system from the final filter down stream to the filler spout! 19. Aseptically close the filler spouts so they will retain wine when wine flows to them. 20. Attach the upstream line that was connected to the steamer to a source of pre-filtered wine. 21. Start the flow of wine slowly through the system once again “chasing” the wine through the cracked valves. Some water may be allowed to drain off before wine reaches its destinations. 22. Once the wine is completely through the system – complete the cycle by running several sets of bottles through

Pressure gauge on Cartridge come into contact with the wine?” If the answer is – “YES” proceed to timing the operation. 13. Most winemakers steam for a minimum of 18 minutes and up to 25 or more should do little or no harm. 14. During the steaming operation – one may take steaming temperature crayons around to double-check they have achieved the desired temperature at a specific location on the bottling line. Steaming crayons are pencil like devices made of materials that melt at certain temperatures. Caution is important when using these crayons on parts that may contact the wine. If wishing to test an area coming into contact with the wine – run a trial steaming operation – use the crayons – allow the line to cool and then thoroughly clean the area the crayons have contacted. 15. During the steaming operation – continue to check on the operation to make sure the function is continuing as planned and for safety reasons. Check that filler spouts have not jostled into the closed position. 16. After the steaming operation time limit has been met, the operator may once again check to make sure all the ori-

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Steam surrounding filler spout opening near red gasket

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 the filler and returning that wine to the wine tank being bottled. This will insure the first bottle of wine off the line will be the same composition as the last bottle of wine. 23. Resume the normal bottling operation. 24. Once bottling is complete, make sure to rinse all the areas of the filler and final filter to remove any residue of wine. Some winemakers will actually rinse and then resteam the line without the final filter. This is a great idea especially after running a cuvee for sparkling wine on your everyday bottling line. Remember one will still want to steam and test the membrane again prior to the next bottling - too! 25. Send a bottle off to a certified lab or test in house under a microscope to make sure the wine is indeed clean and refermentation or a malo-lactic is not a concern. Taking samples at different times of the days bottling run can be a great idea to help identify any problem areas if they should occur later during the bottling day.

Some Other Helpful Hints: • Use water that is clean and free of minerals to extend the life of the steamer. The author recommends distilled water to be used in the steamer. Also, some water

issues may clog the filters prematurely or during the steaming cycle. • If the bottling line has ball valves on the filler or other areas - make sure these are physically clean and sterilized properly with steam. This is an area that can create cross-contamination issues with bottling. • Contact your final filter supplier to make sure the procedures about to be incorporated are in line with their recommendations and to see if they recommend other helpful advice about their product and the specifications of their product. • Contact your equipment dealer to make sure the equipment will hold up to the procedure and to learn other potential areas of concerns. They may be familiar with other wineries that have done these procedures so they may be able to give helpful tips and suggestions. If looking to sterile bottle your wines for the first time - take the above steps and recommendations and implement them to cater to your specific bottling line setup. Every line is different with a new set of places on which to focus or of which to be aware. Open the lines of communication with your suppliers, winemaker and bottling crew to make sure the above can be implemented successfully.

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In The Winery • May - June 2013

BORRA VINEYARDS: Growing “Wine” In Lodi

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teve Borra of award-winning Borra Vineyards in Lodi, CA. is a modest farmer with a big ambition: to produce quality wines that display the best characteristics of the Lodi Appellation. To accomplish that goal, Borra practices an old-world style of viticulture. Put simply, he brings the terroir from the soil directly to the bottle without any manipulation. “I am not a grape grower,” Borra told the Grapevine Magazine. “I am a wine grower. When the grapes come to the winery, they possess all the qualities they need. All we do is take care of them and make sure we don’t screw it up.” While this approach may seem “old-fashioned” to many of today’s high-tech vineyard operators, it comes naturally to Borra. A third-generation winemaker, he built his winery on land settled by his grandfather, Giuseppe Manassero, who emigrated from Italy in 1905 and raised and sold grapes, plus made wine for his own personal use. Now Borra farms that

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By Nan McCreary

same land, and makes his wine basically the same way. He uses native yeast for fermentation and he doesn’t inoculate to encourage malolactic fermentation ? he lets it all happen naturally. ” I have been doing it this way for 47 years,” Borra reflected, “and my grandfather did it that way for 60 years before me. That’s how I started and it worked well for me so we just continued that. Everything is natural.” Borra started his winery in 1975 on his grandfather’s original 30 acres. Today, he grows Barbera and Alicante Bouschet on that property. In 9992, he purchased 200 additional acres of property that runs along the north bank of the Mokelumne River. The vineyard is called the Gill Creek Ranch, and borders the Amador County Clements Hill Appellation. There Borra grows Old Vine Zinfandel, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Petit Syrah, Malbec, Chardonnay and Viognier. The Viognier is planted on 11 acres at the foot of a 40-foot bluff that drops down to the river. “I call it my Little Rhone Valley,” Borra noted.

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 sary. “When we do spray,” Borra told Grapevine Magazine, “we use sprays that are the least damaging to Mother Nature. She is my partner and we’ve been partners for a lot of years, even though she’s not always the nicest to us.” Once the grapes come to the winery, there’s no compromising on the quality, said Borra. “These wines are already made, and we care for them religiously. When it’s time to rack, we rack. When it’s time to top off barrels, we top off. We don’t slough off, we don’t cut corners.” Sanitation in the winery is critical, too, Borra added. “If you keep everything clean, the grapes will take care of themselves and make the wine.” According to Borra, this is ideal terroir for grape-growing. Located directly east of San Francisco Bay, Lodi enjoys a classic Mediterranean climate with warm days and cool nights. Temperatures may fluctuate as much as 40 degrees, which allows the fruit to ripen by day and rest at night, producing rich, fresh flavors and highly-concentrated grapes. In the vineyard, Borra practices sustainable farming. He and his crew use composting for nutrients, plant cover crops in winter to reduce dust and only spray for insects when neces-

Borra produces 600 to 700 tons of grapes annually, but he only crushes 60 or 70 tons for his own use. The rest he sells to winemakers all over the country, including those in Texas, Minnesota, Pennsylvania and, most recently, Virginia. “We let folks know that there’s no manipulation, just the grape that came from the vineyard,” said Borra. “If you can make a wine that good out of a grape without doing any inoculations of any kind, it says a lot about the quality of the fruit that I grow.” Today, Borra delivers grapes to 45 wineries. These grapes

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In The Winery • May - June 2013 are all hand-harvested and placed in bins with dry ice. That same day, they are loaded onto refrigerated trucks for delivery. If the customer prefers juice, Borra’s crew will crush and destem the grapes and load them into bins for cold-soaking or fermentation during transport. To Borra, quality is more important than tonnage, even if means sacrificing a few dollars. “I won’t ship bad grapes,” he told Grapevine Magazine. “If the grapes aren’t good enough to go in my tank, I won’t ship them.” In addition, Borra and his winemaker of 7 years, Markus Niggli, make an effort to be available and answer questions even after the grapes have been delivered. This is a personal service that one rarely finds in today’s world of big, corporate grape growers, Borra observed, and customers really appreciate it. Borra’s uncompromising viticulture practices have paid off, not just in business, but in recognition. In 2012, his 2008 Fusion Red was included in the twelve Wall Street Journal Wine Awards Annual Dozen. The 2009 vintage of that same wine scored a Double Gold Medal at the 2012 San Francisco Chronicle Wine Competition in the Rhone Blend category. As if these prestigious awards weren’t enough, Borra Vineyards was chosen as 2012 Winery of the Year by Visit Lodi! Conference and Visitors Bureau for promoting tourism in the Lodi area.

www.aacwine.com As Borra looks to the future, he considers expanding his winery to meet increasing demand for his wine, which is bound to grow now that people are discovering the area. Lodi is already the largest grape-growing district in entire U.S., with over 100,000 acres of wine grapes. In the 90s, there were six wineries in Lodi. Today, there are over 60. Wherever Borra’s future takes him, his old family values will follow. "This has been a family operation ever since day one," he told Grapevine Magazine. Borra’s wife, Beverly, operates the financial side of the business. Their daughter, Gina, oversees the tasting room, and a son, Steve, Jr., manages another business on the farm. Both live on either side of the farm with their families.

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Steve Borra may be “just” a farmer, but his love of grapes has delivered the Lodi terroir to many a bottle of wine. And it has helped spread the word on Lodi to wine aficionados all over the country. Steve Borra is achieving his goals “the oldfashioned way,” and that’s not likely to change anytime soon. Borra Vineyards is located at 1301 Armstrong Rd Lodi, CA. The tasting room is open Monday through Friday from 12:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. For more information, visit...

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The Grapevine Product & Service

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Around The Vineyard • May - June 2013

FRACKING AND VINEYARDS: Key Questions Remain About Its Impacts on Vineyards By Robert Gluck

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hen it comes to fracking and its impacts on vineyards, many questions remain unanswered. According to Heather Cooley, co-director of the water program at the Oakland, CA-based Pacific Institute, fracking could increase tensions among water stakeholders. Cooley authored scientific papers and co-authored five books, including The World's Water, A 21st Century U.S. Water Policy, and The Water-Energy Nexus in the American West. She received the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Award for Outstanding Achievement and her work was recognized when the Institute received the first U.S. Water Prize in 2011. She testified before Congress on the impacts of climate change for agriculture and on innovative approaches to solving water problems in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The Pacific Institute works to create a healthier planet and sustainable communities. It conducts interdisciplinary research and partners with stakeholders to produce solutions that advance environmental protection, economic development, and social equity—in California, nationally, and internationally “There is an increase in interest in using the technology of fracking to get at oil shale in parts of California,” Cooley told The Grapevine. “This technology uses large amounts of water and there are concerns about water quality, impacts on groundwater and aquifers. For the agricultural community there could be increased tension on limited water resources. Water availability, water scarcity is an issue in California, so as we add in a new water intensive approach for extracting oil and gas resources that can create further tension on limited water resources.” According to the Institute’s study “Hydraulic Fracturing and Water Resources: Separating the Frack from the Fiction", coauthored by Cooley, much of what has been written about the interaction of hydraulic fracturing and water resources is either industry or advocacy reports that have not been peer-reviewed, and the discourse around the issue is marked by opinion and obfuscation “More and better research is needed to clearly assess the key water-related risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and develop sound policies to minimize those risks,” Cooley said. “Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” has generated growing controversy in the past few years. New research from the

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Pacific Institute finds the real issues around its impacts on water are shared by stakeholders from government to industry to environmental groups – and point to the need for better and more transparent information in order to clearly assess the key water-related risks and develop sound policies to minimize those risks,” Cooley wrote in the study. “Much of the public attention on hydraulic fracturing has centered on the use of chemicals in the fracturing fluids and the risk of groundwater contamination. But the new study finds that while chemical disclosure can be useful for tracking contamination, risks associated with fracking chemicals are not the only issues that must be addressed. The massive water requirements for fracking and the potential conflicts with other water needs, including for agriculture and for ecosystems, pose major challenges. Methane contamination of drinking water wells is also a concern according to some field studies, as are the serious challenges associated with storing, transporting, treating, and disposing of wastewater.” In the heart of California’s wine country is Monterey County. An important voice in the fracking discussion, Simon Salinas is a member of the Monterey County Board of Supervisors. As a Supervisor Salinas represents people involved in grape vineyards, some planted by world-famous vintners. In an article published in the Post-Gazette, Salinas expressed fear that fracking could taint the food and water supply needed to grow crops or produce wine. His approach to fracking in Monterey County is a cautious one. “In the Post-Gazette article I expressed a concern about anything that could taint our water supply. It wouldn’t matter the source of that contamination. We know the value of our water asset and strive to protect it,” Salinas told The Grapevine. “Water from Southern Monterey County flows north to an outlet at the Monterey Bay. Along the way it recharges ground water and feeds other sources used for agricultural purposes. We have a robust economy rooted in our soil and any actions that put that economy at risk will have to be thoroughly analyzed before being allowed.” Many questions arise when discussing this topic. Salinas was more than happy to answer them.

Should fracking be expanded in California? Salinas answered this question by saying that companies that

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Around The Vineyard • May - June 2013

perform fracking in California should demonstrate that their processes and procedures are safe and compliant before being allowed to proceed. According to the Post Gazette, gas drilling here is entering a land of wine vineyards and farmlands that cover almost 200,000 acres -- fields of grapes and produce that local politicians and residents see as a key part of their economic future. According to the Gazette, they worry that the marketability of Monterey vegetables or Monterey wine could be damaged by an association with the Monterey Shale. Six months ago, Salinas told the Post Gazette that "the area's $8 billion agriculture business can't be compromised by any activity that threatens food quality or water supply. Anything that can taint our water and food supply could be devastating to our economy.” Asked what has changed since that time, Salinas said his feelings about the potential impacts have not changed. “My position has been, and continues to be, that certain disclosures about the process need to be made so that local officials can make decisions based on facts,” he said. “Water supply in the Salinas Valley, where oil drilling occurs, relies solely on groundwater. We need to understand the chemicals used for implications to the impact on this water in case there is contamination across the aquifers." Salinas said in Monterey County they have a traditional oil

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field located in San Ardo, that “we know has been producing oil for decades“. “Industry has been drilling here for years without problems and we welcome their transparency. They have been good neighbors and worked with the community to provide jobs and domestic oil production. In regards to fracking, we know that a few test wells were sunk by some out of state outfits. After those initial forays we made sure that our permitting process took the new method into consideration during the permitting process and have not had anyone else apply to drill. Our new permitting process asked some simple questions about contents and disposal of materials,” he added. Environmentalists say the industry can hurt the environment and the oil/gas industry continues to say that their operations are safe, they don't taint the water, they don't use that much water, and they create jobs, so desperately needed in this down economy. “Both sides have valid arguments,” Salinas noted. “My job as an elected official is to figure out what is in the best interest of my constituency. We have done a good job of balancing the environment and the economy here in Monterey County and will continue to do our best to maintain that equilibrium. To make these decisions we need the clearest picture of the plans and process available. We welcome anyone to apply to our process so that their plan can be approved by the appropriate agencies, but no one gets a carte blanche when their actions

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Around The Vineyard • May - June 2013 could threaten our $8 billion dollar economic engine. “ Wine Institute is the voice for California wine representing more than 1,000 wineries and affiliated businesses from the beautiful and diverse wine regions throughout the state. As the largest advocacy and public policy association for California wine, and the only group representing the industry at the state, federal and international levels, Wine Institute's Officers, Board of Directors and professional staff work to create an environment where the wine community can flourish and contribute in a positive fashion. According to Gladys Horiuchi, communications manager at the San Francisco, CA-based Wine Institute, when it comes to fracking, we need more information. “The California wine business is an environmentally focused and energy dependent industry and we are following developments in this area. Wine Institute is in the information gathering phase and is determining what impact, if any, fracking might have on California wineries and vineyards,” Horiuchi said. Regarding the water issue, does Salinas believe the industry will use so much water to frack that this will upset the already existing stakeholders' usage of water in his region? “I asked our water agency to look into this question and they pointed out two significant issues in the proposed drilling area. The first is that the area has a shallow aquifer that gets deeper as it moves North towards the Salinas Valley. This means there is less water at that end of the spectrum. It is recharged by the dams built at the South end of the County of Monterey by the Monterey County Water Resource Agency. It is able to recharge relatively quickly. No industry plans have yet shown us where the water for the fracking process would come from, but assuming they were buying their water from someone near that end of the aquifer the quantity issue would appear not to be a major concern, however, groundwater is limited and pumping potable water reduces water available at the north end of the system. We are not clear on impacts of fracking near faults, we are well aware of faults that run under the dams that feed our agriculture industry. This obviously raises some concerns both from an impact to the water supply and hazard of dam failure. Many of the proposed sale sites under BLM’s control would raise this concern.” According to Cooley, in California, agriculture uses around 70-80% of water resources used by humans. Some oil/gas industry experts say fracking uses a small percentage of water in its processes. “I take issue with that industry argument,” Cooley said. “We’re not all drawing from a single pool of water. Water is unevenly distributed, so, yes, overall it may represent a small fraction of the water use, but in any particular area, it can actually be a large percentage of the water. “ The environmental effects fracking will have directly on vineyards remains unknown, Salinas claims. “Without knowing what is being placed underground, at

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Around The Vineyard • May - June 2013 what concentrations, at what velocity, with what half life, what potential damage could affect a vineyard or row crop is largely unknown,” Salinas added. “The process I support, and continue to push for, would make this information known, allowing elected decision makers to determine what is in their communities best interest.” According to EcoWatch, several members of New York’s upstate wineries asked Gov. Andrew Cuomo to ban fracking in New York due to fears that groundwater contamination will force them to close or relocate. If fracking goes forward in his area, what does Salinas think will be the economic impacts on agriculture in general and specifically the wine industry? "Without more information the measure of potential impacts it is not possible to estimate," he said. "One could point at a worst-case scenario, but that is not realistic. As an elected official, I would like to see more scientific studies done to prove that the impacts are negligible as some industry officials claim. One certainty is that if exploration proves valuable in areas such as the Hames Valley, the rural character of the region will be hard to preserve. This would hurt the longterm viability of the region’s presence as a wine country destination. No one wants to vacation in a place where they would look out of a tasting room window to gaze upon rolling hills dotted with oil rigs, or be forced to compete with 18 wheelers for space on a rural road.” Salinas said he is not necessarily opposed to fracking. “I am not opposed to fracking. I am opposed to a lack of transparency so far in the process. I think it may have a place in California and that it may very well help wean our dependence on foreign oil. I want to make sure that we do not forsake our assets for a technology that might not be compatible with our agricultural industry. If it is proven safe and we can openly talk about the process, contents and disposal of the materials used, I welcome the conversation. Until that time comes I continue to welcome the nation and the world to visit Monterey County, where we have some of the finest wines in the world, and more microclimates than you can shake a grape bunch at,” Salinas concluded. Cooley told The Grapevine she agrees with Salinas on this point. “He touches on an issue we touch on in our report, the lack of information, the lack of transparency, the lack of data about the impacts,” she said. “It makes it hard to determine what the real risks are, and therefore what we need to do to mitigate those risks. There is data available, but much of it is held by industry and it’s not being shared publicly including data about how much water they’re using, the chemicals being used, and the fate of those chemicals, how the wastewater is being disposed of, and issues of groundwater contamination and the causes of that, issues around spills, and what streams and rivers have been adversely impacted. “

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Around The Vineyard • May - June 2013

Balancing The Vines: Canopy Management techniques may vary according to the grape and climate, but the process’ objectives remain the same By Jessica Jones-Gorman

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f vineyards were naturally perfect and climate conditions always cooperated, there would be absolutely no need for vineyard intervention or manipulation. But because of factors like fungus, disease and sometimes unforgiving sunlight, it’s simply an industry given that growers must guide their vines. “Wine growing is really divided into two parts every season,” noted Evan McKibben, Vineyard Manager and Winemaker with Red Caboose Winery and Vineyards, which is located on 20 acres in Meridian, Texas and produces a quality, handcrafted wine. “During the first part you want to grow the canopy as lush and green as possible, waiting for bud break and then ripening,” McKibben detailed. “And once the vines begin to produce fruit, growers can begin to manage the canopies.” McKibben, who also serves as the Viticulture Enology Science and Technology Alliance (VESTA) state coordinator at Texas State Technical College, teaching programs in grape growing and winemaking, says it’s no secret that the condition of the canopy fuels the ripeness of the fruit. So, in order to have a successful yield, shoots and leaves need to be managed. “Right before the clusters ripen, there needs to be enough green to produce photosynthesis,” McKibben said. “That’s

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why it’s important to eliminate fungus, which can kill your leaves. And shoots should be tucked or thinned to allow just the right amount of sunlight.” There are several methods to the canopy management madness, McKibben explained, but all strategies basically yield the same end result. “Leaf pulling involves pulling leaves out of the way to let sunlight and fungicide spray in,” McKibben said. “Tucking will also help to both expose and shade the fruit properly, which is important, especially here in Texas, where we don’t want the cluster sitting out in the direct sun.” It’s a delicate balance that needs to be addressed by individual wine growers based upon each vineyard’s particular location and conditions. “The last 10 years have taught me a lot about how to properly care for my vines,” McKibben said. “My rows need to go North to South so they are properly ripened by the sun, so I thin the East side of my vineyard a little more than the West. In Texas when the sun rises hitting that East side, it’s still hot – 85 to 95 degrees – but at noon when the sun is moving West, it’s 110. So that West side needs to be thicker to protect and better shade the grapes.”

The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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Around The Vineyard • May - June 2013 Without that added protection, McKibben said, the clusters on the West side could scald and shrivel. And without a little additional exposure, the clusters on the East side would never fully ripen. “That’s what canopy management is about, finding just the right balance,” the winemaker said. As McKibben explained, there are several strategies such as pulling, tucking and hedging used to achieve the perfect vineyard stability. “I think the basic rule of thumb is to have 13 to 15 leaves per shoot in order to properly ripen the two clusters on that shoot,” McKibben said. “Here, we do a lot of stuff by hand, tucking or pulling the leaves to get that perfect balance.” Different growing and training practices are also part of the canopy management picture. “Here at our vineyard we use Vertical Shoot Positioning or VSP,” McKibben said. “We train our shoots to grow vertically. I know many California vineyards do it differently, but they have cooler nights and aren’t subjected to the scalding Texas sun. VSP is what works for us. Our canopies are so thick you can barely put your arm through. But in the hot, temperate Southern climate that’s what you need to do. Up in Napa, there are cool nights and no scalding sun so they can thin more than us.” According to research performed by the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station, the tucking method works for VSP, which uses a low cordon trellis system, allowing winemakers to tuck canes upward. Other shoot positioning methods like the Geneva Double Curtain (GDC), a high and bi-lateral cordon system, makes use of combing techniques, which encourage shoots to grow downward. Two distinct canopies are formed with this planting method and winemakers position shoots internally to maintain the double-sided form. No matter what the method, shoots are positioned either manually or mechanically at least two or three times starting about two weeks after the first bloom. According to McKibben, there should be at least three feet of canopy measured from the cordon. “Three feet is the rule,” the winemaker said. “It’s very important to have at least that much otherwise there’s not enough surface area for the sun to ripen. You can even go higher to four foot, but there has to be at least three feet or more.” McKibben also lists a good spraying program as an important part of canopy management. “People think insects are the biggest thing winemakers fight, but it’s actually fungus,” McKibben said. “Grapes like to get wet and then never properly dry so it’s important to treat the vines regularly with fungicide.”

if continuously treated with the same type. “We rotate between three different types,” he noted. “A very important part of our spraying regimen is the inclusion of Stylet oil which we’ve been using for several years. It’s completely organic, derived from sunflower seeds and it protects against both insects and fungus. We try to use it more than the chemicals to avoid any chemical taste in the wine and basically to be a good steward to the land. We’ll also do a chemical/oil mix which yields a much better retention rate. The neat thing about the Stylet oil is that you could spray it and still pick on the same day. When using a chemical you have wait 14 days. So at the end of the year when you really don’t know until the day before that you’re picking, the oil really comes into play. That’s all a part of proper canopy management.” Mark L. Chien, a Viticulture Educator with the Penn State Cooperative Extension, agrees.“The objective and principles of canopy management are the same but the methods can be undeniably different,” Chien said. In order to perform successful canopy management Chien says it’s important for winemakers to acknowledge their training and trellice system first and build a canopy that will allow for the fruit to fully mature. “You need fully ripe fruit to produce good wine,” Chien said. “Going into the winter winemakers need fully ripe wood as well. So growers must do everything possible to obtain that ripeness and balance the canopy.” It’s the part of canopy management that begins long before the vine is even planted. “Winemakers define their form of canopy management by deciding what type of wine they are making,” Chien said. The style, type and even price point of the wine you want to make will determine what type of canopy you grow.” Site evaluation for a Concord will be very different than that for a Bordeaux blend, Chien noted. “Those two types of canopies will be very different,” the educator said. “Site capacity will determine vine size, density and spacing. But all of those things point toward a specific goal of keeping your vine in balance.”Chien referred to the writings and research of Dr. Richard Smart, an Australian viticulturist whose work on canopy management techniques have been considered by many to have revolutionized the grape growing business. “Vine balance can be a very scientific thing,” Chien said, detailing Smart’s canopy management formula of leaf layers, fruit per gram and pruning weight. “A mature vine up on the wire will basically tell you if you’re successful in canopy management and vineyard design,” Chien concluded. “The pruning, shoot thinning, hedging, positioning - there’s a sequence of canopy management during the growing season that will be easy or hard depending on how well you developed and planned your vineyard.”

McKibben says growers also need to regularly alternate the fungicide they use because vines tend to build up a resistance

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The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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Around The Vineyard • May - June 2013

Spread of leafroll symptoms in a Napa Valley vineyard

Virus Disease Spread in the Vineyard By Judit Monis, Ph.D. • STA Laboratories, Gilroy, CA

D

ifferent types of mealybugs and soft scale insects transmit certain species of leafroll virus, and Vitiviruses, such as Grapevine Virus A and Grapevine Virus B. In addition, these viruses are also transmitted when grafting cuttings of infected vines. At the moment there is no knowledge of how the newly discovered Grapevine red blotch

associated virus is transmitted, other than by grafting. This article will focus on the management and control of leafroll disease spread in the vineyard by the application of strategic disease diagnostic methods. Plants infected with leafroll disease produce smaller grape clusters that ripen unevenly and have lower sugar content. Foliar symptoms include downward rolling, reddening, or yellowing of leaves. Other foliar colors associated with leafroll infection include purple, crimson-orange, and varies depending on the grapevine variety. The leaf veins may remain green or take many other colors (yellow, purple, red, etc.). At least nine different virus species are associated with grapevine leafroll disease. Although, all leafroll associated viruses belong to the Closteroviridae (Greek, clostero: threadlike) family, the only species known to be transmitted by mealybugs are classified within the Ampelovirus genera (Greek, ampelos: grapevine). Ampleloviruses include the majority of leafroll associated viruses (GLRaV-1, -3, -4, -5, -6, and -9). Recent research has shown that leafroll viruses are able to recombine in mixed infections, generating many variants of similar viruses. This phenomenon has serious implications on the diagnostics and detection of these viruses in the vineyard. Vitiviruses are associated with rugose wood diseases such as Kober stem grooving, corky bark, and graft incompatibility. Research from South Africa and Australia documented the spread of leafroll disease in their vineyards over 30 years ago. In California, the spread of GLRaV-3 was reported to occur as early as of 2002. Presently it is known that many different mealybug species are able to transmit GLRaV-3 in a non-specific manner. For exam-

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The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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Around The Vineyard • May - June 2013 ple citrus (Planococcus citri), grape (Pseudococcus maritimus), long-tailed (Pseudococcus longispinus), obscure (Pseudococcus viburni), and vine (Planococcus ficus) mealybugs are able to transmit GLRaV-3. The long-tailed mealybug can also transmit GLRaV-5, and the Vitiviruses GVA and GVB (which can also transmitted by obscure and vine mealybug). Furthermore, work in South Africa has shown that a single individual of vine or long-tailed mealybugs were capable to transmit GLRaV-3 to healthy grapevines. Research suggests that Vitiviruses are transmitted cooperatively when occur mixed with GLRaV-3 and other Ampeloviruses. The correct identification of the disease causal agent is critical for devising a control strategy. Regular visual inspections and sampling of grapevines should be performed to monitor the disease status of a vineyard. It might not always be possible to correlate the presence of virus infection with symptoms, especially with new viral infections. Complicating matters, other viruses and fungi cause similar symptoms in the vineyard. Further, many scion-rootstock combinations may never develop symptoms. Symptoms may appear two or more years after top-working a vineyard with a new variety. Viruses associated with leafroll move slowly and distributed unevenly in the vine. This is why it is so important to follow precise sampling directions. The collection of representative samples allows the timely detection of viruses associated with disease at the laboratory. The season for testing is important; samples can be collected from vines starting in the fall throughout dormancy. Testing both rootstock and scion plant material is recommended, especially if the vineyard was “top worked” or “field budded” recently. Effective disease control requires the use of clean planting stock (i.e., certified disease-free tested status). However, to ensure that the vineyard remains disease free, the grower must be vigilant of virus infection in neighboring blocks. The grower must devise procedures to protect the newly planted vineyard from potential external infection. Mealybugs should be constantly monitored and controlled.

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Mealybugs are not always easy to spot in the vineyard. Special traps (with specific pheromones) are available to monitor the presence of mealybug infestation. For proper identification samples should be collected and brought to a pest control advisor (PCA) or a local extension office. The extension agent or PCA will recommend the necessary treatment based on specific mealybug identification.

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The dispersal of mealybugs by field equipment, birds, workers, or wind may contribute to long distance spread of the virus. In South Africa studies have shown that it is possible to eradicate GLRaV-3 infection by applying strict sanitary practices such as: fallow periods, sanitation of equipment, and sanitation of worker’s clothing. In addition the removal of infected vines and mealybugs (through use of systemic herbicide/ insecticide) helped reduce and or eliminate the source of virus-infected blocks. The results of these studies provide guidelines for disease control in other areas where leafroll disease is endemic.

PLANTING

The control of the spread of harmful viruses’ calls for rigorous protocols while handling vines and performing cultural practices in the vineyard. Hot water treatment of vine cuttings is effective in controlling the movement of mealybugs from one site to another. Other suggestions include establishing wind traps, planting insecticidal cover or border crops, using site-dedicated clothing and shoes for workers, and avoiding the use of equipment potentially contaminated with insect vectors in the vineyard. The control of virus spread will need to be based on a concerted effort among growers rather than on individual accomplishments. As an example, the recent establishment of neighbor grower groups in California may allow open discussion, education, and outreach. The application of cultural practices such as extensive vine removal and insect control (mealybugs do not recognize property boundaries) should be coordinated as an areawide strategy rather than by individual vineyards.

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The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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International News • May - June 2013

SOGEVINUS Fine Wines Declares VINTAGE 2011

S

ogevinus Fine Wines is proud to declare Vintage 2011 for its four houses – KOPKE, BURMESTER, CÁLEM AND BARROS – presenting the first classical Vintage of the decade. Vila Nova de Gaia, April 17th, 2013 - Produced in only years of exceptional quality, a rare event that only occurs two or three times a decade, these Vintage Ports embody the alliance between the weather conditions, the rich terroir and the enology work. The viticultural year of 2011 was a challenging one, with unusual characteristics that required additional efforts to ensure a balanced evolution of the grapes. As the enology director Pedro Sá refers, despite the weather conditions it was possible to achieve an excellent fruit development: “An unusual wet winter was followed by a very dry spring, resulting in an early bud burst and flowering yet with great quality potential. September began hot and dry, causing a rapid yet balanced advance in maturation. On 12th September, when the harvesting began, the grapes were in excellent condition, healthy and at the right stage of maturation,

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combining the ideal characteristics for the making of great Port Wines”. Sogevinus’ Vintage Port Wines are produced from a selection of the best plots and the best grapes from the Quinta de S. Luiz and Quinta do Arnozelo Wine Estates, combining the prodigy of the technique with the art of the lot to preserve the style and identity of each Port House. Sogevinus Fine Wines can therefore confirm the excellent expectations about 2011 harvest and is pleased to witness the quality achieved: “the result could not have been better. These are complete wines, full of colour, characterized by flawless freshness and complexity. Powerful wines that seduce and delight while young, but that, mainly, show a remarkable evolution potential and are capable of crossing and remaining in History”, says Pedro Sá, the master taster. The wines will be bottled in June 2013 and will be available for purchase in July. Rare wines, with limited production, that confirm the tradition of Sogevinus brands producing Port Wine of superior quality. For more information, please contact:

YoungNetwork Porto Sara Guerreiro Tel.: +351 22 618 04 51 | Tlm.: +351 91 058 98 37 E-mail: saraguerreiro@youngnetwork.pt

The Grapevine • May - June 2013

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The Grapevine 2013  

Winery Issue 2013

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