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Design Research | Service Design Project Journal Design work by Shu Qi Jiang @makingsenseviadesign

Statement The multilingual designer recently graduated as the master from Design innovation and Service Design at Glasgow School of Art in the UK. Passionate about social design, such as civil rights, social justice, public services. Now ready through design to shape the better world.

Shu Qi Jiang Service Designer | Design Researcher Glasgow School of Art



Beyond Gender Critical design for LGBT community


.Matters X NHS24 Design for mental well-being


Cinematic Experience Analysis and Re-design


Stars’Trace Digital health care for autism family

Beyond Gender

Critical design for LGBT community

Cooperation with LGBT health and wellbeing, Glasgow This project uses design as a critical tool for questioning existing social norms (sexual identities and gender). Focusing on LGBT people (a group defined by sexual identity), the research explores the limitations and complexities of sexuality as a definition of people's identity. Such barriers not only exist in defining what is “different” to the individual and the group, but also the gap between the definition of self-identity and the definition of social identity. For the LGBT community, people usually discuss how to improve awareness to accept what is ‘different’. However, this project uses the minority group's perspective (LGBT) to step back and think about the relativity of difference. Via the workshop, it asks people to discuss sexual identity and rethink the 'different', beyond society’s gender norms: what is the real difference? Moreover, via passing the idea of beyond gender (not only female and male) to build the understanding of different groups and improve people's awareness of existed sexual identities(diversity) rather than educating people to accept or tolerate 'different'. In the end, through the service system map demonstrates that by reflecting on the given social definition and raising awareness of sexual identity, we can interact with each other more respectfully and comfortably.

Design Process Rethink& Redefine Step back thinking


Confirm insight

Research question 02



Research question 01 Deliver Workshop


Design as the question tool

Verification Field Research LGBT talk LGBT individual

Desk Research

Field Re-research


Community discussion

Game as the research method

Expert interview

Participant discussion Test & Feedback Co-creation workshop

What if...

General public

Society perspectives

Overall Research


Evidence Finding

Design exists throughout the research process


Rethinking tool Service system map

Background-Desk Research




General population




Undergone conversion or reparative therapy in an attempt to ‘cure’ them of being LGBT


Accessed mental health services in the 12 months

Respondentation of satisfaction for living in the UK

2/3 + Avoided holding hands with a same-sex partner for fear of a negative reaction from others

2/5 Experienced an incident because they were LGBT

In today's UK, LGBT people have equal and broad human rights. People are also more open to people who are defined as LGBT. However, according to the UK Government Equalities Office's survey of LGBT's experience in the UK in June 2017, LGBT respondents are less satisfied with their life than the general UK population. Although there are increasing laws on protecting the rights of LGBT people, as a minority in society, discrimination and some unfair treatment are still being suffered.

Field Research & Finding

Field Research & Finding

“It’s a safe space which ultimately makes it safe from judgement.” “Without being self-conscious and open for criticsm from unprompted hetero-cisgaze.” “Queer people face today the tags of unuatural or other. These lables need to be consciously unpicked. ” “It’s not of the physical attributes but of the practices, people and community which

“I didn’t want to be gay but started to realise around 13. I was worried about it and I felt so down.”

“I don’t know what is LGBT.”

“I’ve had people treat me differently, and behave coldly when they find out.”

“I don’t mind people with different sexual orientation.”

“I first came out to close friends, who are also LGBT, as I felt they’d be most accepting.”

“They are just people. But I know lots of my friends they are gay, they are They were discriminated against by people who believe they are not "normal".”

“When I was holding hands with my boyfriend, people called name.”

“It is against nature.”

exist within it.” I found that whether the LGBT community, the individual or the general public, the common thing is they all agree with ‘different’ and based on this 'different', they begin to decide acceptance or rejection of it. What does this ‘difference’ mean? Because of the existing social attitudes, an LGBT individual knows their differences, or the people around them cause them to realise their differences. For instance, when a boy shows the personality of a socially defined girl as a child, he is often ridiculed. Unfortunately, this ridicule usually causes a child to fall into self-doubt rather than self-acceptance. When he finds that he likes people of the same gender, the boy knows that he is different from others, and this difference is accompanied by discrimination, disapproval, and self-doubt. According to my interviews with LGBT individuals, such negative attitudes (from themselves and others) have led them to have a much more negative life experience compared to the general population. Then, I raised another question:what is really ‘different’? Can we reduce negative attitudes by accepting 'different'? With this question I explored the LGBT community to get in-depth understanding and find the answer.

Public Engagement

Step back to understand the formation of LGBT community To understand the impact of LGBT's identity on the behaviour of LGBT people in their daily lives and what these effects bring. I use the game as a research method, making the process enjoyable and playful, avoiding the sensitivity of direct interviews and the negative mood of the participants when they talk about their experience. This game simulates the daily context of the participants, allowing me to observe the behaviour of the participants during the game directly, and to understand the reasons and motivation behind the response during the conversation with them.

Game design Game cards This is the guidline and intorduction of the game. These game cards help participants understand the rules of the game and how to play it.

Your Safe Space

Personal Space Participants can put selected characters into their own space and create conversations between them and others

Public Space The public area is a space outside of a personal one. It is divided into four parts: residential area, leisure area, commercial area and stadium area. There are other subdivisions of public spaces in each area, and when participants come out of their own space, they can choose where they want to go(put their characters in the space). Through this map, their choices and behaviours are visible.

Game characters

Familiar people

Stranger Created by yourself

Different characters (self, familiar people, strangers, other roles that can be created) People can choose different roles, or they can create their characters and dialogues with others.

Engaging target group

To understand LGBT people well, I run the workshop with people from my cooperator(LGBT health and wellbeing community Glasgow). According to the rules of the game, first of all, I asked participants to choose different roles to build their own space. When they completed the space construction, they introduced the reason of why they chose these characters and why not. Then, I ask them to come to the public space that I can observe their choices and behaviours.

Personal space building

Jumping to the public space

Insights & Evidence finding


LGBT residence

LGBT company


LGBT group


We-ness space

LGBT restaurant

Huge we-ness space LGBT sth ...

Extended we-ness space

This definition of identity allows Via this workshop, I found that all the participants chose their familiar people when building their personal space.

the group of ‘us’ (both LGBT and

The most popular ones are partners and LGBT friends. When they come to the public space, they are also more

non-LGBT) to continue to expand,

inclined to choose the space with a rainbow flag.Therefore, I found that the community defined by sexual identi-

and there is always the opposite

ty (LGBT) has certain limitations, and it is constantly limiting its own identity definition. In my field research, I

of ‘us’ and 'them', and also the

initially thought that it was the general public's lack of knowledge about LGBT issues that caused such a lack


of understanding, which leads to the negative attitude towards LGBT people. Simply because of an individual’s


sexual identity, when we see this behaviour, it is defined as ‘different’. When sexual identity is as a definition of people's identity, it limits people's choices. When the social norm tells LGBT that they are different, they will also actively put themselves into this 'different' and choose the same thing as the identity definition.




Evidence finding——Re-research

"They define me as a transgender woman, but I feel that I am a woman. Only when I am a woman, I feel that I am myself." "I hope other people can use 'she' as a pronoun to call and treat me, although I know that I look like a man." "As a non-binary, defining my sexual orientation is not an easy thing for me." “It's just my sexuality, like every part of everyone, but once I'm tagged with LGBT, it becomes the entire definition.”

Community Discussion Based on ‘what I found’ during the workshop, I began to question whether sexual identity can be used as a factor to define a person's identity, or if it can be a reason to put this person in a 'different' group? Does it matter? How can we solve the issue before it becomes a major problem? I brought this insight back to the LGBT community and discussed the sexual identity with members of the community.

What I found——’Very reason’ behind the insight Self


What term I need to use to treat them?





What term I want Born-identity& Social-identity

Self-identity& Feeling


What term I

them use to me?

need to use to Them


treat them? What term I want them use to me?

Gender based


Like girls

In this discussion, I found that the definition of an individual's identity is not the same as the definition of identity given by society, and 'different' not only exists between LGBT and non-LGBT but also the status of the Lesbian





individual within the LGBT community. This difference puts people in a ‘box’ and makes people have to admit it—— put yourself into a community that is defined as ‘different’, or even a community that is different from your own identity. dentity.

Is there anything that 'out of the box', or is there a new definition not just by sexual identity(Female and male )? We determine people's sexual orientation based on our gender and give them various labels. When a person's standard definition is female, if she likes the same gender, then she is placed in the lesbian group. But, if this person's self-definition is male if ‘she’ likes females, how can we directly put ‘her’ into the lesbian group? When we define people using social identity, it may not be in a way that is comfortable and respectful to them. For example, for a ‘female’ (social definition) who self-identifies as male, it is not comfortable to live defined as a ‘female’. Furthermore, for others, this gender definition is confusing –



should we use 'she' or ‘he’ to describe the person? In what way we should treat this person? Especially for non-binary people, society cannot easily define these groups through sexual identity.

What is out of two ‘box’ ?


Expert interview

Zy Evangelista PhD in LGBT psychology The University of Glasgow

“In the study of LGBT people, psychology, education and social sciences have entered a circular circle. Specifically for the LGBT community to solve problems or provide them with specialised services, but no one to question whether such identity definitions(LGBT) are reasonable, whether the differences we discuss are really different."


What if beyond gender(female and male) to let people rethink their sexual identity?

Taking the idea back to the community

I discussed with the community members that I work with about the idea’beyond Gender’. They suggested me to think about different contexts in daily lives, the contexts we are constantly being prompted for the definition of our sexual identity, and also these are places where there is a negative attitude towards sexual identity and controversial definition of sexual identity. For example, one of my interviewees told me that she was rejected when she was using a female bathroom because she is a transgender woman.

Framework Toilet Now


Different contexts

Hospital Airport Social media Clothing store


Tomorrow(chould change)


Rethinking New cognition

Shape the new identity

New ‘norms’

Based on their advice, I developed a framework. The framework is divided into three parts: now, tomorrow (can be changed) and future. Based on the suggestions of the community members, I decided to let people reflect on the definition of sexual identity from different situations in daily life. In discussions with community members, we chose the negative attitudes and disrespectful contexts caused by the definition of sexual identity: toilets, hospitals, airports, social media and clothing stores. Based on the rethinking in these everyday life scenarios, I hope the cognition of sexual identity (diversity) can be gradually improved. And in the future, through this redefinition, 'different' sexual identities become 'normal' and no longer become the whole identity of people.


Game as the start point of rethinking and bringing people together Based on the advice of the community members and the framework, I designed a game and run the workshop. The workshop can lead people to reflect identity by completing small things in different scenes of everyday life in the relaxed, acceptable, playful way rather than serious education, and use empathy to think other's side, to get along with others respectfully and comfortably. For the game, it is similar to a journey, and I set different contexts in everyday life such as clothing stores, meeting, schools and hospitals on this journey. And there are different tasks in each setting. For example, the task in the meeting is to select a stranger, try to know them and introduce them to everyone.

Game design Context card I chose ten scenarios based on different contexts in daily life: airport, hospital, company, subways, parades, social media, school, bar, clothing store and toilet. Each context card is set up with a specific task that requires participants to discuss together or complete.

Journey board The journey map consists of different contexts, and the participants walk on the map by throwing the dice.

Beyond gender workshop

Play and discussion

To verify the use of the game and the effect of the game, I organised a workshop and invited people who identified as LGBT and non-LGBT to discuss together how to reflect on existing sexual definitions and break the use of sexual identity as a definition for people. This workshop is called "Beyond Gender". However, I am not inviting people to work with me to design a world without gender. Instead, we reflect on its limitations and 'differences' based on the existing definitions of sexual identity. I hope that through this workshop, people can recognise the diversity of gender, and start to question if sexual identity is really important as a definition of identity? Are different definitions of sexual identity really 'different'? Based on this question, people could reflect, redefine the identities of people, and weaken the use of sexual identity to define people. At the same time, via this workshop to reduce the limitations which these identities have brought for individuals and groups.

Feedback "In the beginning, I defined gender as male and female, but now I realised its diversity, or it shouldn't have boundaries. I think it should be a personal expression." "I think gender is a thing worth improving, or it's not a person's identity definition." "I realised that everything is treated to everyone in a respectful and consensual way."

The impact of the workshop Compering the knowledge for the sexual identity of participants before the workshop and after. I found that the workshop guided people to rethink and develop the definition of sexual identity. Hopefully, via the workshop, more and more people can reflect on the thing defined as 'different' (i.e. 'different' sexual identity); is it really different? Perhaps these so-called 'differences' are because of its natural diversity, rather than going beyond norms and given definitions (female and male), not to mention what is accepted and tolerated.

Handbook Based on the workshop, I designed a handbook for people to get conveniently. It is based on the premise of beyond female and male. Participants can bring themselves into different scenes to think (transposition). It includes eight different scenarios (hospital, school, company, clothing store, toilet, bar, airport and social media). In each scene, they have specific events, and according to different events to trigger reflection. This handbook also requires people to use empathy to think from the perspective of the other view. Let the handbook as a touchpoint to stimulate people's reflection on the existing social norms. Gradually shape the for-everyone, comfortable and respectful social environment.


Startpoint Workshop




Shape the new identity

Impact each other

New ‘norms’

Tomorrow(chould change)

Future vision

matters Design for Mental Well-being

One in three people are regularly affected by mental health problems each year (Scottish Government, 2018). Mental health problems are a major public health challenge in Scotland and the current national health system needs to find new ways to promote and support mental well-being and self-management. As such, the project aims to explore new ways of offering both analogue and digital information, and support related to mental health. Through a ‘preferred future’ lens, the purpose of this project was to explore how to better centralise and connect the current health system’s disparate and unconnected services by using a citizen-centric and collaborative approach. The project was carried out in close collaboration with the out-of-hours service of the national health system NHS24 in the UK.

Design Process Step01: Problem Space: Build the right thing

General mental health desk reseach

Step02: Solution Space: Build the thing right


Desk research

Mental health of NHS24

Brief Analysis

NHS24 Interview



Youth Forum

Public Interview

Raise Question Overall Research



Understanding General Information

Understanding Analysis

Overall Understanding


Understanding different visions

Frame Work

What NHS24 trying to do



Gap Redefin brief

Problem finding

What public understand


New Brief Output




Genal NHS24 Research & Public Research

NHS 24

Starting point

clinical out of hour service 111

website NHS 24

CONSTANTS Breathing Space ambulance service 999

webpage info & support

language line

BSL interpretation service

Breathing Space service line 0800 838587

website Breathing Space


Info Websites

webpage services provided

Living Life service line 0800 3289655

webpage Living Life

feedback line 0141 337 4597 webpage information

webpage resources

website NHSinform

webpage symptoms

information after stopping

information how and why to stop

addiction evaluation

Care Information Scotland

NHS inform service line 0800 228888

webpage self-help guides

smoking quit plan

webpage illnesses

webpage mental wellbeing

website NHS

Penumbra 01314752380

Respect Me 08448008600

SAMH 01415687000

website Children‘s Health Scotland

See Me 01415301111

Childline 08001111

webpage care & rights

CIS service line 0800 0113200

Knowledge Lab


website Knowledge Lab

website Telecare Self-Check

NHS24 e-learning

online self-check tool

Scotland‘s Service Directory

webpage palliative care information mental illnesses

practical help

let‘s think ahead ACP app

self-help therapies

information about care homes, money, support, rights, wellbeing, young adults

e-mail contact

online chat with advisor

anonymous live therapy via webcam online community /messanger

free smoking quit pack

Other websites

website CIS


webpage feedback

information about phobias, anxiety, depression, stress, therapy, traumas, anger

webchat with advisor


patient advice & support service 0800 917 2127

webpage healthy living

Quit Your Way service line 0800 848484

4-9 sessions with coach

Personal contact

webpage test & treatments

webpage stop smoking

money calculator


patient reminder service

NHS inform

transition care plan document

website Parent Club website Mood Juice

website Samaritans

Samaritans 116123

website Be Mindful website Living Life

website Overcoming

website Scottish Partnership for Palliative Care

City Council Telecare 01412765615

NHS24 online mental health system The web services provided by the NHS24 are very complex. On the main page, users need to choose options that suit their situation, such as depression and anxiety. But it is difficult for them to make correct choices about their emotions because depression is usually accompanied by fear. And the user does not know the precise boundaries of different emotions in line with the clinical language. When the user makes a choice, the user needs to jump between multiple pages, and the time from finding the service to receiving the service is very long.

d Serv ices S cotla n We ll alt h-p Ca oin us t eLi wa vi y ng NH Li fe S In fo rm

alth e e Lin



S an



g He Work in

The Samaritans


Breathing Space

sit amet, or Lorem ipsum dol


alt He ns re d l i ra Ch mb nu Pe Me See ul indf Be M d


Low self esteem



Generic entry point



t co hS



ary Prim


lH enta

M Care


Based on the knowledge of the network system, we



m Ayr Co

investigated the different services offered by the various channels of the NHS24. And using

Mental Health

Ayr Action for

mapping as a method of building awareness,

Well Connected

connecting the service portal with the services Cross Reach

provided by the user, to understand the service



ity Link









lin ild

ss a

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th al He





ors ect

co ve r

Co ntr o


yC af eD




re c



Sto ne

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onn ty C uni

Clu ent Par

m Com


Co u



Str e


to r





n for

service channels of the NHS24. Men tal H



Str e

types and target users offered by the different

Worker Su


Step p










l dfu




There are many intersections (providing the same service) for the services offered by different entry




points. Although the services provided are detailed and universal, the solutions to various problems are the same and single, such as listening and GP suggestion.




me Wo or ple rt f po g Peo up g S Youn lin sel n and un Co ildre Ch

the Elderly

y Cafe d Bab nt an Pare itiative shire In barton re East Dun ve + Social ca ti for Crea

Tea Parties for

Contact the Elderly

Connec tions

Healthy Readin g Programmes


Quantity Interview “Mental well-being is everyone connected” “It means a lot, it can happen to anyone at anytime” “I don’t have mental health” “...all kinds of emotion together... “Well, it means that someone has logic and common sense to live.” “This is something difficult to ask... it’s something nice.”

In a particular understanding of the NHS24 service, we want to know

For most of the respondents, they don't know what mental health is,

the user's perception of mental health, whether they will have the

or avoid this question. For example, “I don't have mental health.”

same/different views with the service provider. So we picked the

In the interview, most respondents have a negative attitude

question: "What is mental health for you? Can you describe it?"

towards this question.

Quality Interview 1 2

“Last week actually. I broke up with my girlfriend and got the worst tutorial for this semester. It seems like all the worst things are coming together in one day!”

We qualitatively interviewed 20 respondents. The reasons for their sadness are different. We learned that in different contexts, although respondents showed



“Any time I read of Brexit. It is afundamentally negatively thing because it will cause a lot of problems for this country. I don’t want to leave EU, because of my wife is German.”

the same emotions, the trigger points of emotions were different. It makes us realise that for NHS24, it may not be possible to provide the same service to



“My grandmother died last year”

users with the same feelings. Importantly, understand the context then assist.

Understanding Building & Insights

Understanding the Gap between different visions Public “language”

Reducing complexity by guiding patients’ from their A to their B. Based on the finding of NHS24 complex website, we hope to solve the existing problems, help users who use the website to find the services they need quickly. Take Google map as an example, and we want to help them navigate from point A to point B.

I don't know what is mental health I am afraid that I have mental health. I don't want others to label me. Mental health is negative

Transmission of information



NHS24 “language”


I want them have self-care I hope them can talk about it that that I can help

Transmission of information

Shift in perception and attitude to make mental health a constant, not a condition.




I want to understand what they need

Based on the difference between public attitudes and clinical attitudes, we hope that people can accept mental health and pay attention to their and others' mental health by changing attitudes (from severe issues to relaxed topics).

Recognising patients’ as individuals within their own contexts.



Advanced technical

Industry “language” Clinical treatment Shape their mental health Technical support treatment and prevention

Complete system from engagement to recovery

According to the research, we found that although people show the same emotions, the reasons behind them are different. And there is a gap in information transfer between the user and the service provider (NHS24). If the service provider cannot understand the user's context, they may not be able to provide the service that they need. Thus, we want to close the gap of understanding through research. And once we understand the user's context, we can understand their needs deeply and it will be easier to guide their A to B.

Understanding-based Research: How can NHS24 expand the perspective on mental health and be more inclusive of individual contexts in order to be able to provide tailored access to the digital and analogue information relating to mental health?

Meeting NHS24 Staff

To verify the accuracy of our proposed insight and design direction. We went to the workshop to research NHS24 mental health hub and breathing space office to gain an in-depth understanding of existing service methods and vision.

NHS24 Expert interview After the interview with the expert, his answer testified to our insight. His attitude towards mental health is consistent with us: don't judge people, listen and companion. And he expects people to start paying attention to their mental health. However, he said that although they have these expectations, when they answer the user's phone because they can't communicate face to face, it is hard to understand the user's context, so it is difficult for them to respond to the user's needs. We began to think that if we can communicate face-to-face with users, it can help to understand the context. But our problems have been negated. Compared to telephone communication, face-to-face communication is not a safe way to tell their troubles and is considered to be not respecting privacy. And also, there is an attitude problem behind the inability to face-to-face communication – people think that this issue cannot be said and they worried about being judged (social stigma). So we decided to start thinking from two aspects, on the one hand, how to understand the user's context by phone or webpage, to ensure their privacy and understand their situation. On the other hand, how to change attitudes makes mental health become a part of everyday life, not a sensitive vocabulary.

Co-design Workshop


We hope that people can have self-care We hope people can change attitued: Mental health to Mental well-being We hope that we could understand people’s context in-depthly


We organised and facilitated a co-design workshop with a number of Senior Mental Health nurses working in the existing national health system. In this workshop, we worked with the staff to discern the direction of the new mental health hub and accordingly generated and modified applicable ideas that responded to both the insights we had gathered and from their experiences

Framework & Ideation


The framework is based on our analysis of the current user’s care journey. From our analysis we defined the following five steps: Awareness, Contact, Care Navigation, Care Options, and Care-Journey. The primary focus of this framework was to provide structure and hierarchy to our concepts and to help position them at the appropriate point of the user’s experience. The main feature of our framework was the Care Navigation phase, we defined navigation as the process of the health system remotely understanding the users’ respective context and their individual, appropriate need.


How might we create the digital counterpart and self-care tool to the mental health hub that fits into our framework ?


hour ·

Your mental well-being

· · mat t

s··· er

an · ·




Digital new touchpoint

The platform and accompanying suite of touchpoints aims to make information regarding mental well-being more accessible by offering a more holistic array of touchpoints with the topic, that stand to be more present in people’s daily lives. From the platform itself, to the digital tools, the information, self-help guides and signposting to other services on the website, to the an hour matters awareness campaign that would be present in partner public venues.

Self-care tool

This tea bag is designed according to different themes, such as Being relax and Being caring. And it has words inside of positive attitude about life, helping people to achieve self-care purposes. It can be placed in the workplace and is an ice-breaking tool that can motivate conversation.

When people feel tired, depressed and come to the lounge to drink tea, people pick up the tea bags, open the tea bags and notice the encouraging words inside then exchange them with each other to see the different words in it. It motivates people to communicate, relax and enjoy the rest time.

Service system

Matters is a platform that provides resources and tools that address the

Service strategy

following three things: it promotes mental well-being dialogue and discourse, it helps people to identify their needs and it gives advice to foster self-awareness. Our concept aims centralising information related to mental health and decentralising care.

BECOMING AWARE “This looks interesting”



“I like how this responds to me”

“Let‘s see if they are helpful”

“This is what I like to do”


GIVING FEEDBACK “I want to share my experiences”

“I really care how this will be

Our concept helps people to find the information they need. It tells people what they can do on their own to improve their well-being. Matters aims to deliver and improve their service collaboratively, and would offer users the opportunity to become ‘caretakers’ of the service and to help shape the future direction of it.

Future experience

providing servic

id prov


ing materia l health organisations

families workers

public students

city council

platform .matters

collaboration feedback

collaboration knowledge touchpoints funding


public organisations schools


giving feedbac k

pr ov idin g

charities funding and ac c e


c irc ulate servic e

Collaborations & Partnerships

We recognise the current positioning of the nation health system in the UK, as such we want to place this new system in much more central collaborative position, building strong ties between public and private partners so as to deliver the best possible service and make mental well-being a much more integral part of society.


Digital Opportunities

Improved public experience in seeking help online.

Reduction of calls and a relief to the call-centre.


Isolation of resources and services

Centralising information and suppport

Call saturation

Decentralising mental health care

Generic entry and response to people’s needs

Considering individual contexts

Misdiagnosis and uncertainty

Fostering self-management and awareness

Poor and one-sided triage

User-led care navigation

Gap in public awareness

Promoting good mental well-being

Negative attitude towards mental health

Shifting perception on mental health

Relieve emergency rooms and GP surgeries to allow those who genuinely need to access it faster.

A multichanneled service that holistically and is accessible to all.

Impact and Benefits

Cinematic Experience: Analysis and Re-design This project is mainly divided into four parts. The first part is the search for a service target group. We created a design proposal to seek project cooperation. The second part focuses on research, analysis, co-design, and service design tools such as stakeholder map, user journey map. The third part, understanding, is based on pre-research analysis and workshop knowledge, developing insight. In the fourth section, my group and I raised the design concept and tested it with customers in the cinema. The whole project based on the discovery, understanding, define, re-design and new service delivers (storytelling).

Design Process

Research Desk Research



Industry research



Online user feedback research



Ideate Mapping as the method

Co-design as the method


Stakeholder map

Co-design toolkit preparation


Overall user journey map

Persona creation



Journey creation

Persona-based user journey map

Expression of user-centered creative experience Workshop hotreport



Concept development

Concept testing

Service re-design


Re-design Innovative persona Innovative experience Innovative service system

Understanding Building understanding



Put “What if...” into user journey

“What if...” question

Desk Research & Field Research

Interview Industry backgroud

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

13.91 15.27 15.87 17.00 17.40 17.13 17.60 19.17 19.18 19.31 19.35

Average ticket price – 2008-2018

Average annual spending per head population/ £

Research 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018

“In 2018, 80% of the UK population are cinemagoers, increasing 25% since 2008 (64%). Moreover, UK cinema admissions have increased 4% and box office revenue has skyrocketed 50% to £1.28 Billion in 2017.”

5.20 5.44 5.95 6.06 6.37 6.53 6.72 7.21 7.41 7.49 7.22

Before starting the research, we believe that with the development of online video such as Netflix, fewer and fewer people will go to the cinema. But this set of data and literature shows that although the fare of movies is rising almost every year, the annual average of people watching films is still on the rise. The film industry is here to stay. But the way people watch movies has not changed radically. We are starting to think about how to iterate new services to bring new experiences and influence people's behaviour.


Social media feedback

“I don’t like noisy food”

“I hate the self-service machines”

“I like to see it on the big screen, I come for the experience”

“Coming to the cinema compared to watching something at home is like the difference between going to a concert and watching it on Youtube.

“I come to the GFT for the crowd as much as I do for the films”


GFT We collected people's comments about the cinema on social media. These




second-hand data to help us understand the factors that users care about and dissatisfaction within the movie experience. By visiting a large number of feedbacks, we found that friendly employees, comfortable facilities, and a clear guide system are essential reasons for a good experience and vice versa.

Two popular cinemas: Cineworld and GFT. We used the "fly on the wall" and "user perspective" methods. Facilities: Cineworld has six floors, an ample space, each level has a rest area and has its VIP restaurant,partner Starbucks, also advanced facilities, such as ticket machines. GTF is traditional, two floors, people need to buy tickets or collect tickets in the box office, there is only a small space cafe. User: During our two-hour observation period, Cineworld is dominated by young viewers, and GFT's user base is mostly older. Experience: Cineworld: During the ticketing/purchasing process, I found that the user stayed in front of the ticket machine for a long time. During the observation period, nearly half of the users had completed the ticket/purchase after repeated operations on the page. GTF: Need to queue in the process of ticket collection/purchasing, waiting area is crowded. Then, we have personally experienced it from the perspective of the user. For Cineworld, we chose to use the machine to purchase tickets. When I entered the seat selection interface, the system reminded me that I could not select the interface I wanted to choose. I had to quit and choose again. This experience adds to my anxiety. At GFT, we decided online booking and offline buying respectively, but we all picked up tickets and purchased tickets in the same box office, and did not feel the difference between the two ways. In this observation and experience, we have a general understanding of the facilities and service processes of the cinema, and some initial pain points.

We interviewed users to gather their Motivation (the reason for going to cinemas), Behaviours (How often), and Mentality (the most like/dislike of cinemas). People who rarely go to the cinema are often for a specific film. Most of the interviewees who went to the cinema frequently are because of the atmosphere of watching. They mentioned that going to the movies has become an activity to spend time with friends/partners/family, and part of socialising. It is a new point – going to the cinema may be more than a personal experience of watching movies, but a social event or a channel for people to get together.

Research Analysis

Analysis Mapping as the method


Stakeholder map

technicians suppliers invited guests


Based on the research, we analysed the information. Use mapping as a tool to



disabled people


help understand the stakeholders in the cinema and the relationship between them. Spread out from the centre of people who go to cinemas frequently. In the



festival visitors

providers and inviting visitors..

cleaning staff



bar staff

couples middle-aged workers




young people

Overall user journey map



Action description


part-time workers



Awareness Users become aware of

Co-ordination Users schedule date, time and place. (Involving others in this process)


Digital Facebook Twitter Instagram Youtube/TV Website

Digital Facebook Website

Analogue Posters Printed media Word-of-mouth Building

Analogue Posters Printed media Word-of-mouth

Booking (Optional)


Reservation Users can book tickets and seat positions in advance, online or in person.

Entry Users arrive by personal or public transport links.

Digital Website

Analogue Building

Digital Website

Analogue Building

Digital Website (Internal)Screens

Analogue Brochure

Digital Website Email


Digital Website (Internal)Screens

Analogue Brochure

Digital Website Email


Ticket- machine

Ticket collection Ticket Users collect or purchase their tickets from the ticket machines.

Digital Website Email

Analogue Ticket- machine


Screen egress

Cinema egress

Waiting Users elapse time before the start of the screening.

Before screening

Entry Users naviagte to the appropriate screen and use their ticket (usher) to gain entry.

Movie Users are shown approximately 30 minutes of advertisements and

Post-movie Users recombobulate then exit the screen (optionally taking/ disposing of their litter)

Post-movie Users exit the cinema.

VIP area Kiosk/bar Facilities Signage

Ticket Usher Signage Seating (Equipment)

Screen Seating (Accessibility features) (Facilities)

Belongings Signage (Bins) (Facilities)

Signage (Facilities)

Kiosk/bar Facilities Signage

Ticket Usher Signage Seating (Equipment)

Screen Seating (Accessibility features) (Facilities)

Belongings Signage (Bins) (Facilities)

Signage (Facilities)

Condition of facilities


Pricing/novelty/quality of snacks Location

Comfort Accessibility

Relevance of ads Quality of projection and sound system Atmosphere

Convenience Other users Queuing (Facilities)

Facility experience Transport links

Condition of facilities


Pricing/novelty/quality of snacks Location

Comfort Accessibility

Relevance of ads Quality of projection and sound system Atmosphere

Convenience Other users Queuing (Facilities)

Facility experience Transport links

Due to the different user groups during the day

XP driver


and night, and the cinema audience is very

Emotional response to trailers Quality/relatability

Convenience of time and date Availability

Emotional response to trailers Quality/relatability

map has no specific group, shows everyone's

Timing Accessibility

Convenience of time and date Availability

Convenience Price + booking options

Timing Accessibility

Convenience of ticket machine Waiting time Atmosphere + people

Waiting time Atmosphere + people

Viewing options


journey map based on previous research. This

Convenience Price + booking options Viewing options Function-hire availibility

diverse. We first sketched the general user

experience of going to the cinema:thinking of

Screen entry

It demonstrates changes in user experience in real time, also the appearance of pain points

Response Post-movie showing, optionally sharing their experience with others.

Digital Reviewerplatforms Facebook Twitter Instagram

Analogue Word-ofmouth

Digital Reviewerplatforms Facebook Twitter Instagram

Analogue Word-ofmouth

Convenience of response

Convenience of response

Finding applicable time and date Co-ordinating with other users

Co-ordination Organisation Convenience Useful interface

Suitable transport links Parking spaces Handicapped accessible Signposted

Get the ticket(s) for the correct price at the correct showing

Food and drinks Facilities Passing time

Finding correct seat

Understanding and enjoying the movie

Gathering things Promptly leaving screen

Final facility use Exiting the building Getting home

Forming and voicing their opinion Sharing their experience

Being informed about current events and new screenings

Finding applicable time and date Co-ordinating with other users

Co-ordination Organisation Convenience

Suitable transport links Parking spaces Handicapped accessible Signposted

Get the ticket(s) for the correct price at the correct showing

Food and drinks Facilities Passing time

Finding correct seat

Understanding and enjoying the movie

Gathering things Promptly leaving screen

Final facility use Exiting the building Getting home

Forming and voicing their opinion Sharing their experience

People asking after your opinion

Exciting atmosphere

High points and pain points

the screenings, watching the movie and leaving.


Being informed about current events and new screenings

films, booking tickets, arriving, waiting, entering Highs Unable to co-ordinate dates and times with others

Online booking slot expires and you have to start again System failures in the payment process

No dedicated parking

Queueing for tickets in a time sensitive environment

No-where to wait (without having to buy something)

Confusing ticket machine interface

Having to provide ID to qualify tickets

The noise of people eating

Queueing to leave rows

seat in the dark


and design opportunities.

Personalised advertisement

Cinema provided co-ordinating and scheduling service Collect the user’s time (?)



box office staff

centre is cinema staff, then the audience, the third party support such as movie


kids elderly

Personalised advertisement

Cinema provided co-ordinating and scheduling service Collect the user’s time (?)

Special interest screenings More incentives

Special interest screenings More incentives Cinema app

More comfortable/engaging ways to spend waiting times Improved ticket machine interface

More engaging ways to spend waiting times E-ticket

Social waiting areas

Improved seating


Parallel movie streaming

Children’s area

Digital group chat

Group activities Live reaction

Improved seating Social area for waitng

Facilitated discussion about the movie

Parallel movie streaming

Facilitated discussion about the movie Group activities Live reaction

Live feedback Digital group chat

Analysis Persona-based User Journey Persona After we analysed the stakeholder and general user journey, we created personas based on the research information. Four different personas represent four different main user groups: young single female student, outgoing, like niche movies. Young individual staff, quiet and like to enjoy time by himself. Couples, watching movies as a social event, like to discuss films with people. Older people, talkative, like a quiet and comfortable watching environment. These user groups allow us to have a comprehensive understanding of cinema users and understand their behaviour and lifestyle..

Persona-based user journey map We put different types of personas to the user journey map, envision their journey from booking to the end of the movie. Depending on the users, the touchpoint they use to engage services and experience is different. For example, Lisa chose online booking and ordered food, enjoying food while watching a movie. John decided to buy tickets at the box office and dislike the noise caused by the food. Peter likes to leave alone after the film and discuss movies online with friends, while Alice and George want to talk with people after the movie. Based on the different targeted user journey maps, we found that they have different behaviours and sometimes they negatively impact each other. We began to think about whether there is a new service that can encompass various types of customer groups and let them have a positive impact on each other.


Co-creating Workshop

To get inspiration for the cinema service and better meet the user's expectations. We held a workshop working together to create a cinematic experience that fits their vision. In this workshop we got a lot of new ideas; many of them are impressing. For example, a participant mentioned a language translation device; the audience can hear the native language without watching the subtitle translation. However, this workshop also has limitations. I found that during the introduction, the participants focused on telling their interesting point rather than the whole journey. For example, a participant focused on the design of the movie ticket; he hopes the ticket can be designed according to different movie themes. And some of the participants created persona just because they find it interesting or creative. Perhaps we did not explain the participants in detail at the beginning, but we did not want to set the rules for this workshop to limit the participants' interest and imagination. However, maybe we need to find a balance between usability information and creative information.

Toolkit Persona creation

User Jounery creation

Expression of experience

Participants created their own persona based on age,

Users create their own user journeys at different stages of

After the user journey map creation, each group explained

gender, hobbies and personality

the experience based on the inspiration card.

the new experiences and the reason for a different journey.


Customers have different attitudes to booking processes Customers would like more (social) space Customers think that the cinema’s target audience is exclusive e.g mothers

Put “What if...” into user jounery (scenario)

Customers have polarised experiences of food Customers have the need to to voice their opinions and thoughts on a film


Customers think the cinema is too expensive

Simplify the ordering process, offer a wide range of options and tips before the movie opens Waiting Diverse social space options, for example, the space for kids. Screenings Independent screenings are available, such as food-free, eating from film screenings and screening rooms for moms. After Screenings With real-time feedback, viewers can use this as a starting point to discuss movies,it can also promote the composition of movie-based social communities. Leaving The viewer can pay after watching the movie.

Concepts & Voting


We visualise the "What if..." question and generated our concepts. With these concepts, we went to the cinema to test and let the audience choose their ideal movie experience.

Show starter

Eating From The Screen

Live Feedback

Voting based concept Based on the voting of the concepts, we selected three of the most popular viewing experiences to elaborate and integrated these three concepts into the entire viewing journey.

Blueprint for New Experience


Digital health care for autism family

Stars’Trace is an innovative service that helps develop the potential of children with autism and supperts their famiies. It includes early in-depth research on autistic children’s centres to establish the new service and solve the different problems. Through this service, we have successfully built autistic children's community and supported hundreds of autistic families, helped their children receive better treatment, and triggered public donations, volunteer support and peer-to-peer support. As community-centric service, we build every new centre expansion in different communities and support to hundreds of new autistic families every year.


In 2017, according to the report on the development of China's autism education service industry, there are more than 10 million people with autism, and more than 2 million of them are children between 0 and 14 years old. Surprisingly, 98.7% of the population did not receive effective services, professional teachers of autism services only covered 1.3%, and autism integration education is almost zero in China. Among them, there are 1345 national registration agencies, but parents of children with autism create about 50% of them. It means that it is difficult to establish uniform standards of service, and the impact of the service is not apparent. The integration of autistic children to society is a huge challenge. For example, there is no professional and complete service system for an autistic child from diagnosing by a hospital to searching for treatment. Once the child is diagnosed with autism, the blow is almost devastating for a family. In medicine, parents don’t know how to find help. In education, traditional schools refuse to accept autistic children. In daily life, parents have to take care of their children throughout the day, because these children have language barriers and cognitive impairments that require constant attention.

Field Research

About Autistic Children


we conducted face-to-face interviews with parents to understand their experiences and expectations. In the process, we gained the challenges and needs at different stages of their child's growth. And alsoďźŒWe used shadow tracking research methods to track five different parents with their children in different contexts (autism institutions, public places, home.) and how they interact with things around them. This method helped us to had an understanding of their daily lives and the diverse needs of interacting with different touchpoint in different scenarios.

Clinical Manifestations


Mental retardation Social barriers to communication Language disability (Main)

Diagnosis Narrow interest and stereotyped behavior patterns

If parents find that their child has these typical clinical manifestations before age 3, the exclusion of other developmental disorders can be diagnosed autism.

Using a shadow-tracking method, we followed five autistic children and their parents that we could understand how they interacted with things around them in different contexts (public, institutional, home).

Participated classes According to the strategic needs of an autism centre (client), we entered the institution for field research. This research is aimed at the managers and teachers of the organisation that can help us to understand the current situation and the vision for strategic transformation. We used ethnography mothed such as “fly on the wall�, via joining day-to-day work and classes to build a comprehensive understanding of the organisation. Based on it, we organised the interview questions and conducted face-to-face interviews with managers and teachers to understand their challenges and needs. At the same time, these interviews also helped us understand the current state of autistic children and parents.

Analysis & Scenario

Problem Tree Main

Parents can’t find anyone who can help them


Parents spend more money Parents feel helpless

Parents are afraid to face, and they afraid to tell others about their children’s symptoms

Institutes are hard to survive Children receive unfair treatment

Children are discriminated

There is no connection between Hospital,

Schools refused to accept these childern

Autistic children are not able to control themselves

institute and parents

Parents have poor expertise of autism.

Institution lacks of funding,they have to

The publicity from the government to the autism is not enough. Lack of attention to autism

Hospital has no specific department

charge parents high fees.

Hospitals have almost no dedicated departments.

Groups are too small and scattered The degree of special-education is uneven Low level of awareness to autism

Empathy Map of Kids Think & Feel

Maybe they like my painting I want my mother

I want to play with other children

I am so confused and I don’t know what are they going to do

The parents of the other

Father and mother

Why are they so hard on me

children told them not to

Other children I am afraid that my mother would leave me

play with me My mother told the teacher that they would give me a chance to go to school


My teacher doesn’t to like me

Some strangers

My teacher

environmrnt arround me is strange

My mother said sorry for me and hope they

My mother forced me to go to school

can understand me They forced me to learn something strange

Some strangers said I’m a bad boy and I’m sick My mother and my special-education teachers told me I’m great

I scream

I hide from others

Other kids draw different painting

I can told them nothing

My mother and my specialeducation teachers repeated their words over and over again

Other kids don’t want to talk to me Nobody likes to play with me

I just do someting I like, sometimes I’m drawing Most of time I don’t feel what other people think of me

Say & Do Pain No one can really uderstand what they want Their parents do not know about their illness and can not properly guide them Schools refuse to accept them, other people prejudice against them,they have no friends

They are afraid that others will bully them

Gain People can understand them People can be kind to them instead of losing their temper

Painting make them be noticed and praised


Stakeholder | Who Affects Them

Scenario 1

care of the child under the guidance of a doctor and takes him


Second Autism

to the aut- ism rehabilitation center for better treatment.


organization Autistic children

When the child is found to have autism, the mother can take





education institution

Autistic children's mums know many parents who share the same experiences with her and often encourage and learn from


each o- ther.

organization 3

The public

Parents learn that there is an event for children with autism on weekends, and she helpes her son to named and prepare for the event.


Parents learn about the child's level of rehabilitation in the organisation and see the child progress.

How to get them linked together


Mary is an office worker and she learned that there was an art exhi- bition of autism children at the weekend and decides to go see it, so on the weekends she comes to the exhibition under navigation.

Their behaviors

Use Wechat to contact and get information


It is hard to reach other people


only in Wechat group, basical-

know and expand

ly the yare just parents and

their infl- uence to

teachers of the in- stitution,

solve the pr- oblem.

which is a small circle and still can not solve the pr- oblems they are facing, but it is a good starting point.


Mary thinks these kids are really talented and she really likes one of the paintings and bought the picture.

people 7

The exhibition donated the money to the institutions to help them run and provide children with a better teaching and learning environment.

Insights & Visions

Insights from managers For the centre, they help autistic children with a limited scope, and lack of professional teachers and volunteers. In interviews with managers, we learned that the primary source of autistic children treated at institutions is the recommendation from parents of children who have been treated in the institution. The institution is mainly responsible for the clinical treatment of children, but the management of daily treatment and care of children outside the institution is not uniform. Managers hope that their institution can reach different communities that they can help more children, and also provide a variety of services, such as social activities to communicate with the "outside world", assisting children in joining a fusion school after the clinical treatment.

Visions for managers Expand the touchpoints of the autistic centre. Expand the scope of services and diversified services, provide autistic children with integrated services from diagnosis, treatment, education and integration with society.

Insights from teachers Via participating classes and interviewing teachers, we learned that they usually provide clinical treatment to children, including language and attention training. They told us because of the nature of autism; it is difficult for them to help children in ways other than clinical treatment.What's more, they mentioned that the family plays a significant role in the growth of autistic children, and the way of conversation between parents and children is substantial. Therefore, they hope that even when the child is not in the institution, the parents can professionally treat their children and support each other with autistic families.

Visions from teachers Provide professional treatment knowledge to parents

Insights from parents For parents, once a child is diagnosed as autism, the impact on a family is destructive, they have to bear the pressure of the spirit and life. After the hospital diagnoses the child, the parents do not know who to ask for help and do not know how to guide the child professionally. It shows that there is a lack of bridges between institutions and hospitals. At the same time, we learned in the interview that due to the nature of autism, many parents had to give up their work and accompany their children for 24 hours. They also suffered a lot of psychological pressure about worries of a child's future, public discrimination and less social acceptance

Visions from parents Reduce mental stress, understand the professional ways to get along with children, time for themselves, their children can have a functional integration with society.

Insights from children Based on observations of children, we found that it is difficult for these children to interact with people around them, and also people around them do not understand their behaviour, but most of them can focus on painting and building blocks.

Visions from children Be understood and concerned.

Insights from public In our quantitative questionnaire survey of the public, 80% of people do not understand autism and do notknow how to help them. In our shadow tracking of children with autism, we also found that in public places,the public has a negative attitude towards children with autism.

Insights from public

Understand autism, reduce discrimination.


Solution We divide services into online and offline based on the insights of different stakeholders and propose a community-based strategy. Online services help expand information channels. Offline services include lectures, workshops and exhibitions to promote people's real-life communication. Through the transformation of the overall strategy and the combination of online and offline services, we engaged all stakeholders and matched their needs.

Community Strategy

Digital Service

In terms of strategy, we propose to transform from institutional centralisation to the community. Each community can have three professional teachers and also combine parents and volunteers to work together in the community. In conjunction with local hospitals and schools, to ensure that children can be connected from diagnosis, treatment to education without gaps. Moreover, the community-based strategy moves from institutional centralisation to user-centred service, enabling organisations to enter each community and ensure that children in each district receive professional treatment and participate in diverse community activities. This strategy solves the problem of teachers are concentrated but limited in the institution, limited service coverage and single service.

Star's trace is an app that combines online and offline services together. Linking information online with offline entity activity. Star's trace engages institutions, experts, parents and the public, connect all stakeholders. It provides parents with autism expertise and online monitoring services. Parents can keep an eye on children‘s development and consult experts online in the meantime. Also, they can get in touch with other parents, support each other or join an offline event together. For the public, Star's trace provides volunteer support activities and online donation activities, and the public can access activity information online, do offline participation, such as community support activities and autistic children's art exhibitions. Help the public understand autism, reduce discrimination and contribute support.

Offline Activities Community-centered, based on workshops, lectures and social activities organised by community leaders and volenteers. On the one hand, parents got professinal konwledege about autitism and how to treat their children in daily life via paticipating the community. On the other hand, parents gather together through offline activities to conduct peer-to-peer communication and support. And also, some activities are open to the public, such as autistic children's art exhibitions, giving the public an opportunity to understand the autitism and support the community. These offline activities bring all stakeholders together to ensure that the service works at every different stage and meets the needs of various stakeholders.

Digital Service LOGO Why choose these colors ?





Blue is the color of autistic children, quiet and mysterious. Hope that through this color to people to convey a quiet, comfortable, healing feeling.

Why designed this App? Parents can consult doctors online, access to professional knowledge, better understand their children, and timely contact with autism rehabilitation agencies, so that children can receive early treatment. And also parents can find their peers onlie that they can encourage each other. Via this App, we hope to increase positive social influence and reduce discrimination.





Online consultation

Online Gallery

Activities & Exhibition Collect Children's Paintings


Institution teachers

Design Posters and Exhibition Tag

Activities in community

Exhibition Tag




Outdoor activities

Service Conclusion

System & Impact

Daily necessities

Rehabilitation facilities Rehabilitation training


Financial Flow


Information Flow



Tuition fee

Autistic children

Institution&School Offline activity information

The progress of kids in the institution Offline activity information

The progress of kids in the institution

Online reference services Pantings

Online reference services

Pantings Offline activity information




Buy kids’ painting online


Stars’Trace (An app) Offline activity information

Offline treatment costs

Offline activity information

Material Flow

Via this project, we helped our client achieve a strategic transformation from organisation-centric to community-centric and user-centric. It solved the existing problems and expanded the scope of services and the influence of the organisation in the form of innovation. At the same time, through the research and analysis of the industry background and different stakeholders, we established a correct understanding, defined problems and gaps. Based on this evidence, we re-integrated the decentralised services, proposed new solutions, and continuously updated and revised through prototype testing (such as app prototype testing). Ultimately, we developed a favourable ecosystem of services that serve hundreds of families of children with autism each year successfully. In the future, we will continue to help our client explore their communities and improve the service based on user feedback.


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Design Research & Service Design projects  

Design Research & Service Design projects