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Š 2015 Company Name

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Introduction Johnson Fold is a social housing estate

That perception per sists, but people

located on the outskir ts of Bolton

on the estate are fiercely proud of their

consisting of around 1000 proper ties.

community.

Johnson Fold was or iginally far m land,

today is a place of contr adictions,

sold to the Council post war to create a

r anking highly on the gover nment?s

?garden estate?, a par ticular for m of

indices of depr ivation and an endless

social housing char acter ised by family

tar get for public sector regener ation,

houses,

lar ge

but also thr iving in ter ms of community

gardens and plentiful green space,

assets (including two churches, an

usually on the edge of the countr yside.

outstanding

tree

lined

avenues,

enviable At that point in time garden estates

families

often

overcrowded

displaced

ter r aced

fact

Johnson

pr imar y

number

Fold

school,

and

an

r ange

of

community groups and associations,

were desir able and highly sought after by

In

attr active green spaces, a growing site,

from

a food co- oper ative and so on). In the

housing,

words of one resident:

demolished dur ing what was refer red

"I wouldn't move away, not even if I won the lottery!"

to as slum clear ances, but over the subsequent

30

year s

their

stock

plummeted and by the 90?s Johnson Fold bore all the hallmarks of a ?sink

I

estate?, that is:

have

a

long

ter m

professional

relationship to Johnson Fold as an

"an area of council housing where the

employee of

behavior of tenants is first, under intense

landlord responsible for the estate, in

moral

my role as a creative producer I have

condemnation,

second,

both

with

the registered

the

social

cause and symptom of poor housing

worked

community

to

conditions and neighbourhood malaise?

commission more than 50 socially engaged ar ts projects r anging in scale

Slater, 2018 3

and dur ation over the last 12 year s.


Dur ing that time I have developed a strong bond with this community and the project descr ibed in this repor t was in par t bor n of my fr ustr ation with the difference between how Johnson Fold, and council estates in gener al, are perceived by society compared to the war mth,

generosity

and

sense

of

together ness I have exper ienced on the ground. Over

the

cour se

of

two

year s

I

have developed a ser ies of creative inter ventions using the concepts of ?clean? and ?dir ty? as a pr ism to explore class, gender and place, mir ror ing as an opposition the contr ast in perception inside and outside the estate. Much of this work has been car r ied out in collabor ation with the Foxes of the Fold women?s group, around twelve women r anging in age from 18 to 65, who meet weekly with the aim to ?suppor t one another and all women on Johnson Fold through life?s daily challenges?. Without their effor t, enthusiasm and good humour this project wouldn?t have

Images by Adrian Barber

been possible.

S.Short 4


5


Care I nstructi ons

I will ask eight women living on the Johnson Fold estate to share with me the ?care instructions?for the most precious thing they clean. In return I will take in a bag of washing from each woman, cleaning, drying, ironing and folding. To commemorate this exchange, I will add a new care label to an agreed item of clothing which refers back to the care instructions provided. Although the process will be documented, the individual care labels will remain private between myself and the participant. 6


How are w e to speak of th ese 'common th i ngs' George Perec

7

Image credits: this page Adrian Barber, opposite page Humphrey Spender


TO CARE The

Care

Instr uctions

project

Asked to list the three things they

make

most valued about themselves, ever y

visible par ticular char acter istics of

single member of the group, without

Johnson

or

confer r ing, began with a ?car ing?role

challenge the mainstream nar r ative

? I am a mother, I love my dog, I am a

of ?benefit scum?on their ?sink?estate

good neighbour...

represents an

Fold

attempt

that

to

disturb

by swapping the language of dir t for the language of cleaning.

Equally, they concluded that status in the community was assigned to

It is the culmination of 18 months of

people who are generous, loyal,

work made with and in response to

willing to help other s, involved,

the community on these themes, but

connected.

it was perhaps one conver sation in

In a cash- poor

par ticular that led to the final for m

depends more than most on social

of this project.

networks and reciprocity for sur vival

In early 2018 I led a workshop with the Foxes of the Fold women?s group around the ?values? of the estate, based on a ser ies of exercises which explored what the member s of the group valued about themselves, and what per sonal attr ibutes they felt were most valued by the community.

community that

? pooling money with neighbour s to buy a vacuum cleaner, shar ing seeds, cuttings and produce, a complicated system of loans and repayments based on paydays staggered across the

week,

reciprocal

childcare

ar r angements - being perceived as someone that cares for other s is of 8high

value indeed.


Bev Skeggs descr ibes car ing as a

refer s to as a long histor y of

for m

dividing the working class into

of

?cultur al

capital? for

?rough and respectable? (Skeggs

working class women: ?For

those who had already

experienced the negative allocative function of the education system by

1997). Str ather n's descr iption of respectability as the means by which mor ality is made public (Str ather n

1992) is par ticularly

the age of 16, whose employment

relevant,

in

prospects are bleak and cultural

discussions

capital limited,

group

caring (whether

a

number

with

about

the

of

women?s

cleaning

and

paid or unpaid) offers the means to housework there was a link made value,

trade

and

invest

in

between the outward appear ance

to of the home and mor ality, dir ty net ?make something of themselves?.? cur tains as a signifier for the type of activity that might take place in Skeggs, 1997. such a house, tales of mother s For the women in the Johnson obsessively cleaning their themselves,

an

opportunity

Fold group, their car ing roles ARE

door steps lest they be mistaken for

the something they have made of

a woman of ?poor char acter ?.

themselves, and they are proud to define themselves by and through these roles.

Some of the Care Instr uctions inter views touch upon the weight of

these

judgements

Skeggs also descr ibes car ing as a

respectability (and the fear

signifier of respectability, which is

falling foul thereof):

of of

in itself a marker of class. Both Victor ian attempts to distinguish

?It's like tidy house, tidy mind?

and

you know you don?t have to wor r y

the

about someone coming in your

contempor ar y language of shirker s

house and saying well that was

between

the

undeser ving

deser ving poor,

and

and worker s reflect what Skeggs 9 scr uffy. I?d be so ashamed!?


10


These obser vations inspired the

Sisyphean task. This piece has

creation of two pieces of work

since been exhibited in a number

using dollshouses, an apt for m

of community venues as par t of a

consider ing their or iginal use in

wider discussion around women

18th centur y Europe as a tool to

and mental health.

teach young girls how to keep a

The second piece, created for an

home in order.

exhibition in a galler y context, took

The fir st piece was a collabor ation

the for m of a dollshouse in which

with member s of the women?s

all

group

Dani

mir rored, and the house itself is

Gaines, and took as its star ting

visibly gendered female through

point the link between mental

the addition of found objects. The

health

piece includes segments of text

along

with

and

fr ustr ation

ar tist

housework, at

the

the

endless

the

taken

inter nal

from

sur faces

are

inter views

with

repetition of mundane tasks for

member s of the women group

little

about cleaning, chosen because

reward

environment

and both

how

one?s

reflects and

the

par ticular

words

are

impacts on one?s mental state.

emotionally rooted in pr ide or

In this house, the repeating patter n

shame.

of

opposition has been a per sistent

the wallpaper

features the

The

pr ide/shame

packaging of medication used to

emotional

relieve anxiety and depression, a

discussions about cleaning with

bed of nails dominates the sleeping

the women?s group, to the extent

quar ter s and each member of the

that

group, myself included, is tr apped

cleanliness and tidiness goes far

in doll for m, frozen in the action of

beyond a need to maintain a safe,

cleaning or ironing or vacuuming

functional,

but

never

to

complete

the

backdrop

value

to

the

attached

environment,

to

these

this 11 qualities are intr insic to their


identity and self- wor th, a physical

impor tance of ?sticking together ?.

representation of char acter. ?This

handbook

isn?t

just

To care, both in the sense of taking

infor mation, it?s a weapon. It tells

pr ide in one?s house and appear ance,

you what you?r e supposed to get and

and in playing a car ing role within

some ways of getting it, but the

the family and community, was of

str ength to get what you need and

such impor tance to the women?s

live as you want can only come out

sense of self that that I began to see

of fighting with other s.?

it as the key to developing a project fr amed around the values of the

It was apparent that ver y little had

estate, r ather than the middle class,

changed since 1971, and the tactics

neo- liber al

used by the gover nment agencies

values that

tend

to

descr ibed in the handbook were all

dominate mainstream discour se. Just how r arely an alter native to this discour se is heard was reinforced when I found what appear s to be the

too familiar to the women?s group, many of whom were themselves ?unsuppor ted mother s?.

last existing copy of a pamphlet

I wanted then to amplify these

entitled ?The Unsuppor ted Mother s

seldom heard voices (as well as

Handbook?,

the

highlighting the lack of progress in

Claimants Union in the early 1970?s.

ter ms of social justice over the last

It felt sur pr ising to see many of the

fifty

values ar ticulated by the women?s

redistr ibuting the pamphlet. One

group

hundred and fifty free copies of the

in

published

pr int;

by

suspicion

of

year s)

by

repr inting

and

author ity, the weight of the labels

Unsuppor ted

imposed on poor single mother s by

were

society and the implied cor relation

community,

between

mor ality,

Interlude exhibition at PR1 Galler y in

fr ustr ation at attempts to divide

Preston and by request to jour nalists,

working class communities into the

ar tists and activists from across the

pover ty

and

deser ving and undeser ving poor, the

12 countr y

Mother s

distr ibuted; to

Handbook

within

visitor s

to

the the

via a social media call out,


13


with instr uctions to make their

I do not have, or wish to have,

own

author ial control over how the

copy and

pass that

on,

creating the potential for an even

par ticipants

wider

remake their copy, or indeed if

circulation. One of

the

copies will be archived in the MMU

the

or

been for med by the giving and

Both the Unsuppor ted Mother s and

distr ibute

they choose not to, but a bond has

special collections libr ar y.

Handbook

use,

receiving of this gift.

Care

Instr uctions project sit fir mly in the realm

of

socially engaged

pr actice. Claire Bishop (2012) sets out three conditions that define a socially

engaged

process,

the

desire to create an active subject, empowered by the exper ience of par ticipation, the ceding of some or all author ial control and the restor ation of the social bond through a collective elabor ation of meaning. As an ar tistic act, the copying and distr ibution of the Unsuppor ted

The 'Care Instr uctions' project is based on a fair exchange between the ar tist and the par ticipant, both in ter ms of time and labour, reflecting the mutually beneficial relationships that feed the social ecology of Johnson Fold. Each par ticipant has author ial control

Mother s Handbook and the call to action to those who received it, themselves now active par ticipants in

the

process,

collabor ation

represents

across

time

a

and

geogr aphy. 14


over their own contr ibution and the relationship between

work and live within? (Hull, 2007) .

ar tist

I would add that the motivation is

and par ticipant is strengthened by

to affect change, whether in the

the exchange. This process also

people involved, the community or

speaks to Bour r iad?s theor y of

in society, as Anna Paster nak from

relational aesthetics, which judges

Creative Time says, ?social practice

ar tworks ?on the basis of the

artists create forms of living that

inter- human relations which they represent, produce or

activate communities and advance

prompt?

(Bour r iad, 1998).

public awareness of pressing social issues? (Paster nak,

2012).

Is a

It could be ar gued that Bishop?s

feature of socially engaged ar t

three

an

therefore, to care? It could be

implicit act of car ing by the ar tist,

ar gued that it was this shared

towards the par ticipants ? who we

value that has shaped the Care

under stand should be active and

Instr uctions

empowered by the exper ience at

outset.

conditions

suggest

the expense of complete author ial control by the ar tist - and to some for m of positive social change. This type of work is by its nature political, as Hannah Hull (an ar tist who

under took

residency between

on

a

long

ter m

Johnson

Fold

2012- 2016)

says

?the

medium is society, a community, or people; the tools are the systems, social constructs or habits people 15

project

from

the


TO CLEAN

My fascination with the politics of

despite

cleaning began dur ing a shor t

diminutive stature, I was perceived

site- specific project located in the

as a threat.

?twisting

and

claustrophobic?

subway under neath Preston bus station. I wanted to both obser ve and engage with the user s of this space, but it became clear that the ver y act of loiter ing without visible pur pose in the subway meant that, 16

my

gender,

age

and

Looking for a way to ?be? in the space without alter ing the behaviour of the people using it, and to open up the possibility of dialogue with them, I bor rowed a pinny and mop and began to clean


the subway. This instantly changed

so much of ?womens work? is to

my relationship to the pedestr ians

society?

passing by. To some I was invisible, they continued to talk amongst themselves, whistle, go about their daily business without fear

of

intr usion, to other s it was an invitation to a conver sation, they?d stop and chat about the weather, offer words of encour agement,

Was the act of cleaning, in effect car ing

for

the

antithesis

of

behaviour

they

subway,

the

the

anti- social

were guarding

against to the extent that I was perceived to be ?safe?? Or do people just not look that hard at the cleaning lady?

lament the state of the place and discuss the r ights or wrongs of the

It was dur ing this project that I

proposed redevelopment.

was introduced to the work of Mierle Lader man Ukeles, who has

Over the cour se of sever al weeks I went back to clean the subway again

and

again, and

despite

exchanging cheer ful greetings with the secur ity guards and other bus station staff as they came and went at no point did anyone question my r ight to be there per for ming

become a seminal influence on my own work. Her 1969 Maintenance Ar t

Manifesto

presents

an

alter native to the idea of an individual

genius

pulling

an

ar twork kicking and screaming from his own imagination in a moment of br illiance.

this action. Instead ever y day acts become ar t, This directed my pr actice to a new line of research around cleaning and status. As a woman, cleaning, (the passer s- by seemed to assume this was a paid role), was my status so low that I became invisible, as 17

the maintenance of life is wor thy of

attention, and the acts of

maintenance that facilitate the moments of br illiance are equally as impor tant.


In her manifesto Ukeles states ?my

context,

working will be the work?, and with

documented,

this in mind I began to consider the

Moleswor th

cleaning of the subway not just a

?Housework and Ar t work?, ?when

research

Ukeles

infor m

method the final

which piece,

would but

here

the

exchange

is

made

public.

As

says

renames

in

her

domestic

essay labour

as

?maintenance?, she uses ideas and

per for mance in and of itself, an

processes usually deemed private to

exchange in which dir t and dust was

open institutions and ideas usually

tr ansfer red from the walls and floor

deemed public? (Moleswor th, 2000).

to my body, my clothes, my tools, a tactile explor ation of the physical space,

a

provocation

to

an

audience

and

an

unsuspecting

invitation to dialogue.

By locating maintenance tasks in an ar t context, Ukeles challenges the low value assigned to domestic work. She talks about the ?lousy status? that

our

culture

confer s

on

The ?working as work?concept would

this work, ?maintenance jobs =

infor m the development of the Care

minimum wage, housewives = no

Instr uctions project, specifically the

pay?. Her proposal for an exhibition

per for mative action of taking in the

of

washing

appropr iately enough, ?CARE?), was

from

par ticipants,

an

activity tr aditionally associated with working

class

women

and

the

domestic economy. The symbolic act of

Maintenance

"zer o in on pur e maintenance, exhibit is as contempor ar y ar t, and yield, by utter opposition,

ironing the laundr y in the ar tist?s speaks to

clar ity of ideas."

a relationship

(Ukeles, 1969).

between the ar tist and par ticipant based

on

a mutually

beneficial

(entitled,

to:

washing, dr ying, folding and

home,

Ar t

Ukeles

under took

a

long

ter m

the

New

York

exchange (of time, care, and ser vice)

residency

with

located in the domestic sphere. This

Sanitation

Depar tment, in

type of labour would usually be

she resolved to shake the hand of

hidden but, by locating it in an ar t

18 ever y

single

public

which

sanitation et


Unsuppor ted

Mother s

Handbook

point out: ?We?r e never ?out of wor k?. If we?r e not at wor k, we?r e cooking, cleaning, looking after kids?. Because this work can?t be measured in economic ter ms, it is perceived by society to have no value (although cooking, cleaning and childcare are respectable enough if car r ied out for other s for financial recompense). How does it change the status of these tasks if they are located in an Mierle Laderman Ukeles, Touch Sanitation, Image: Ronald Feldman Fine Arts, New York

ar t context?

worker

gesture

used per for mance elements to create

intended not only to thank the

an open dialogue with the women?s

individuals for their ser vice but also

group on the theme of cleaning. The

to

the

Down and Dir ty Dinner Par ty was

impor tance of their work, visible, to

hosted in the home of one of the

challenge their ?lousy status?.

women, and all the group were

in

make

the

their

city,

work,

a

and

I began my research with a piece that

invited (in total 8 member s of the I was interested in explor ing these

group attended).

concepts with the member s of the no

I ar r ived late after noon and spent

str anger s to the idea of ?lousy

sever al hour s cleaning the floor, as

status?. There has been much talk

the usual daily activity of the home

from public sector agencies about

car r ied on around me, reminiscent

tackling

of my cleaning in the subway. I

women?s

group,

themselves

?worklessness?

on

the

estate, but as the author s of the 19 then set out a selection of fresh food


directly on to the floor in an ar r angement that spelled out the word clean ? I was interested in whether this would have any influence over the perception of the cleanliness of the food and the par ticipants willingness to eat it, inspired in par t by Sher man and Clore's (2009) exper iments demonstr ating the difficulty we have reading words when ?clean? concepts are pr inted in black and ?dir ty? concepts in white. The guests ar r ived and, reluctantly at fir st, shared the food from the floor while we had a lively conver sation about cleaning.

20


The Down and Dirty Dinner Party A perf ormancef or 8women. Act 1:

I am welcomed by the host. On my hands and knees I clean for some time, then lay out the fresh food directly on to the floor.

Act 2:

The guests arrive. W e eat, drink, and talk about dirt. No one feels unclean.

Act 3:

W e clean together. The floor is repurposed for dancing.

21


The themes r aised in this fir st

approached these themes from a

conver sation, from the association

different direction. Again working

between cleaning and mor ality via

with the women?s group, over a

judgements

respectability,

number of weeks we created a

gendered space and the division of

community garden, using plants

labour (the home and the domestic

that

as a female sphere, public space as

natur al home cleaning remedies,

a male sphere ? as one of the

lavender s, mints etc, or

par ticipants commented, ?street

par ticularly recognised for their air

cleaner s and binmen and window

cleaning proper ties. The plants

cleaner s are always men aren?t

were ar r anged to spell out the

they?), the lack of recognition or

word dir t, although as they have

value of domestic work (?I can

grown the letter s are no longer

spend all day cleaning and the kids

visible.

of

could either

be used in were

just come home and mess it up, no one even notices unless I don?t do

While we worked we talked about

it?) and the mental health impact

dir t, and the positive connotations

of the daily repetition of mundane,

there of, both in real physical

low status chores, have continued

ter ms ? without dir t we wouldn?t

to infor m my work, up to and

be able to grow food ? and as

including the Care Instr uctions

applied to labour and class, ?getting

project.

your hands dir ty?, showing some ?gr it?, ?salt

In the

response oppositions

to

of

the ear th? and

some

of

romanticised representations

thrown

up

(usually male) manual labour. We

by the Down and Dir ty Dinner

also

Par ty, clean/dir ty, public/pr ivate,

dir t=real, and how representations

male/female, I created a second

of (usually male) working class

inter vention, combining dialogical

lives and places are used to sell

and public ar t elements, which

music, film and fashion. 22

talked

about

of

authenticity,


The Clean Garden, 2017 and now:

23


The

Clean

Garden

has

been

pr ior to a ser ies of hypothetical

maintained by women from the

ethical dilemmas consistently gave

group since it was established,

less ?mor al? answer s than a group

with an open invitation to the

placed in a dir ty environment

community to use anything it

(Schnall, Benton, Har vey, 2008)

produces (one of the mint plants

because they already felt 'clean'

has grown so enthusiastically that

and 'good'.

it can now be found in numerous

Lakoff and Johnson introduce the

gardens across the estate). Whilst

researching

concept of or ientational metaphor, these

that

is a metaphor

in

which

inter ventions I came across a text

concepts are spatially related to

about language that was to become

each other, so for example in the

a key influence on my work. In

categor y of metaphor s related to

?Metaphor s We Live By? (1993),

happy=up, sad=down, we might

Lakoff and Johnson make the case

say we are on top of the world or

that metaphor is more than a

down in the dumps.

linguistic tool or poetic device,

vir tue=up and immor ality=down,

there are categor ies of metaphor s

for example a per son of high

that are so per vasive in our society

mor als, a fallen woman. As I was

that they actually impact on our

explor ing the language of dir ty and

behaviour. This has been backed

clean, par ticularly in adver tising,

up

for

the media, and online, I saw how

example explor ing the metaphor

the link between clean=vir tuous

clean=vir tuous,

and

in

scientific

tests,

dir t=immor al, a

dir ty=immor al

is

often

group of researcher s at Plymouth

represented

Univer sity found that test subjects

dir t=down, the per vasive idea that

exposed to a clean environment

cleanliness is next to godliness. 24

as

Similarly,

clean=up

and


For the last inter vention in this

were consider ably dir tier

ser ies, a group of families from

when we set off, and the far m that

Johnson

hosted us anything but clean in a

Fold

per for med

the

metaphor, walking from the ?dir ty? liter al

sense, but

than

this was a

(poor, urban) estate located at the

metaphor ical gesture, dr awing not

bottom of Winter Hill, up and up to

only on clean=up and dir t=down

the ?fresh? and ?clean? air of the

but also the relationship between

countr yside at the top.

local people and Winter Hill. Ever y Easter, thousands of locals walk up

We car r ied with us a ?cleaning in

its steep inclines in a tr adition

progress?sign, and r itually washed

rooted in religious symbolism ? a

away the dir t in streams and r iver s

spir itual cleansing through both

along the way. Of cour se when we

the physical exer tion and a climb

finally reached our destination we

closer to God.

25


Winter Hill was also the site of a

talk

Mass Trespass by disgr untled mill

between dir t and the working

worker s in 1896, protesting against

classes in the next chapter, but

Colonel

suffice to say our gesture left no

Richard

Ainswor th?s

about

the

associations

decision to block public access to

lasting mark on the countr yside.

the moorland, inspir ing a poem by

The subway project too ended with

Allen Clarke which begins:

a walk. The group of students and staff from UCLAN who made up

Will Yo?Come O?Sunday M or ning,

the audience were asked to replace

For a walk o?er

their

Winter H ill?

provided. As we walked, slowly

In

?Creating

the

shoes with the slipper s.

Countr yside? (cover ing a distance of just a few

Rosemar y Shirley talks about a

hundred metres in twenty- five

mor al panic around working class,

minutes), I talked about cleaning,

urban visitor s ?polluting?nature by

subver sive acts and respecting

their ver y presence. I will go on to

invisible women's work:

26


"You might be wonder ing why you?r e wear ing slipper s. In par t it?s because I?m inter ested in how something as simple as what we ar e wear ing changes our per ception of a place. In ver y pr actical ter ms you?ve got no choice but to shuffle along slowly, which in this space is a subver sive act. The ver y idea of being anti- social and intimidating whilst wear ing slipper s is clear ly r idiculous, and yet her e we ar e, ?congr egating?, ?loiter ing?. This footwear belongs to an inside, domestic space, to luxur y hotels and hospitals, spa days and institutions, and for me that r epr esents the contr adictions I?ve found her e. And fr ankly, I?ve spent hour s cleaning this floor, by taking off your outside shoes, by not walking the dir t in as my mum would say, you ar e r especting and pr eser ving my har d wor k. "

27


28


TO LABEL What is dir t? Anthropologist Mar y

in an histor ical context, noting

Douglas offer s the definition ?dir t

that

is simply matter out of context?.

associated with disease, having a

That is to say dir t is not absolute, it

clean house was a status symbol

var ies across time and place - the

simply

perception of a ?dir ty? room for

wealth, the resources to afford

someone who lives in a home with

ser vants, or amongst the lower

a mud floor will be ver y different

middle classes, that one had the

than someone who lives in a house

?leisure?time to clean. (Cox 2011)

with

the

To have a dir ty house then, was to

language of dir t, the embodied

be poor. The conver se was also

metaphor as Lakoff and Johnson

assumed to be tr ue, to be poor was

would have it, is per vasive.

to

cream

car pets.

But

Rosie Cox puts the language of dir t

long

be

before

because

dir ty.

it

The

dir t

was

represented

associations

between dir t and pover ty, and dir t 29


and

immor ality,

entwined

to

unleashed

pervasive

forms

of

become pover ty = immor ality, a territorial stigmatisation, a revolting nar r ative visible in the repor ts of

class discourse that was inscribed

the

working

upon the bodies of those who lived in

conditions amongst the working

these objectified zones? and dr awing

class in the Victor ian er a and in

on Hall, ?the hardening of public

cer tain national newspaper s today.

opinion into consent is constituted

The language of dir t became a way

by the accumulation and repetition

to distinguish between oneself and

of these expressions and beliefs in

a feared other, to categor ise and

every day life? (Tyler, 2013).

pathologise people and places. As

It

Ir is Young says:

expressions

committees

?When

the

into

dominant

is

the

repetition and

of

these

belief,

the

culture language of dir t as used to other

defines some groups as different,

people and places, that became the

as the Other, the members of these focus of a ser ies of text- based groups are imprisoned in their bodies.

Dominant

inter ventions focusing on Johnson

discourse Fold as an archetypal place, ?the

defines them in terms of bodily Council Estate?(Beswick, 2014). characteristics

and

constructs

Early on in the project, I collected

those bodies as ugly, dirty, defiled,

examples of the language of dir t

impure, contaminated or sick.? Young , 1990

(from

newspaper

gover nment

headlines,

statements

and

In her book Revolting Subjects

adver tising), and combined them

Imogen Tyler states ?the moral

into a ser ies of found text poems:

panic

about

council

estates 30


31


The labelling of Johnson Fold as

interested in meditating on the

?dir ty? was ver y apparent in the

language as I worked, giving it the

online comments (over a hundred

time and care that was in all

in total) attached to a negative

probability missing from the intent

newspaper ar ticle about the area,

of the author. Was he or she aware

the place was var iously descr ibed

they were using the language of

as a cesspit and a grotty dump

dir t to label, was this a result of

filled with litter, the people as

exposure to ?accumulation and

infestations, fer al, filthy, animals,

repetition?, and how did these

the dregs of humanity, lowest of

feelings of disgust at the dir ty

the low, bottom feeder s, filth and

?other ?manifest itself in his or her

scum bred by filth and scum.

behaviour in reality?

I used this final line of text to

This was an another example of

create a cross stitch sampler, a

action as ar t in my work, for me

medium

the piece was not contained in the

with

tr aditionally associated

the

domestic

sphere,

physical

product

representing a demonstr ation or

process, the act

test

attention,

of

a

woman?s

needlework

and

skill

in

the

but of

focus

in

the

care and on

the

containing

language and the knowledge that

sentiments expressing pr ide in a

after a cer tain length of time these

home or the recording of bir ths

letter s and words ceased to have

and mar r iages.

any meaning beyond lines and shapes, dissolving the language of

This offered an intr iguing contr ast

dir t as a mechanism of power and

with the online world, public but

control.

anonymous, instantaneous, casual and

throwaway but

available in

My

potentially

per petuity. I

was

or iginal

proposal

for

the

?Interlude? exhibition, held at PR1 32


Galler y in Preston in Febr uar y

value, if in fact they did look

2018, was to work with text from

down - could these examples of

the same source as the cross stitch

the language of dir t used to other

piece

the

people and place be hidden in

concept of or ientational metaphor

plain sight, as in the world outside

by presenting this an ar twork

the white cube?

not on the wall but the floor.

After playing around for some time

I was interested in how the act of

with the for m of the piece, I

looking

view

eventually replaced all of the text

a piece might, based on Lakoff

with the simple visual metaphor of

and

of

a dr ain. The scale of the piece

metaphor, subconsciously shape

ser ved, from a high vantage point,

but

to

incor por ate

down

Johnson?s

to

a

theor y

an audience?s perception of its

to tur n the entire galler y space 33


34


into a sink (refer r ing to the council

heterosexuality? (Skeggs, 2005).

estate

Dr awing

but

presenting

ver y

on

the

tr adition

of

differently in this new archetypal

per for mance ar t that uses the body

place, the white cube itself almost

as

a per sonification of clean) but from

assistance of the women?s group, I

floor level, sitting flush to the

recreated a piece of found text

ground it was all but invisible and

from Johnson Fold (or iginally seen

was repeatedly walked over by

wr itten in dir t on a white van) on

visitor s.

my own body using a spr ay tanning

The language of dir t is used not

machine.

only to label people and places, but

appropr iate not only because of

also individual bodies. For Mar y

the class connotations of fake tan ?

Douglas the body represents the

a natur al tan in this countr y is

ultimate

for

gener ally the preser ve of those

abjection, dir t and taboo (Douglas,

who can afford foreign holidays ?

1966) and Bev Skeggs talks about

but also the chemical process of

the:

?staining?the skin. I ?wore?the text

battleground

a

canvas,

and

This

with

medium

the

felt

for around two weeks until the

?loud, white, excessive, drunk, fat,

stain faded on my skin, engaging in

vulgar, disgusting, hen- partying

dialogue about the project with

woman who exists to embody all

anyone who noticed it.

the moral obsessions historically

associated with the working class Found text and the appropr iation now contained in one body?, of a familiar visual language A

body

that

?signals

around cleaning has been a feature

class

through mor al euphemism? with

of

its

inter ventions under taken across

associations

danger,

distaste

of

?pollution,

and

a number

of

the creative

the cour se of this project.

excess 35


36


For

the Interlude exhibition I

for m for a piece that explores the

adapted a ser ies of ?cleaning in

status of

progress? signs to include text

working class women in society,

relevant to the themes of my

and the invisible but per sistent

work

?

?social

progress?,

?linking

that

links

tasks and

cleansing

in

nar r ative

pover ty

to

mor ality through the language of

mor ality distr acts from str uctur al

class

to

dir t.

inequality? and ?dir t is a social

Annette Messing, an ar tist whose

constr uct?.

work concer ns the ever yday and

These were placed at

different

who often uses found objects, says

locations around the galler y space, deliber ately

domestic

inconspicuous

of this appropr iation:

as ?M ostly,

pieces of ar twork. In fact a number

I

believe

an

ar tist

doesn?t cr eate something, but is

of visitor s I spoke to missed them

ther e to sor t thr ough, to show, to

altogether, as objects they are so

point out what alr eady exists, to

recognisable we don?t need to

put it into for m and sometimes

consciously ?read? them anymore,

r efor mulate it? I t?s a language in

the shape, for m and colour are

itself, which is why we don?t pay

enough to decipher their pur pose.

any attention to it. I didn?t invent Similarly the Care Instr uctions project visual in

anything, I indicated.

dr aws on the familiar language of

clothing,

so

(Messager, 2006)

care labels

ever yday

The act of sewing new care labels

and

unremarkable to seem to be barely

into

wor th our attention, a suitable

ser ves to appropr iate those items 37

the

par ticipants? clothing


as ar twork, and the wear ing of

the new care labels to something

them to some extent becomes a

that we pay no attention?

per for mance,

although

no- one

I

need be aware of this unless the

par ticipant

divulges

made

the

decision

not

to

(publically) document the new care

the

labels in par t to play with the

infor mation.

theme of women?s invisible labour,

I?ve been interested in how what

I have created and ?installed?pieces

we wear changes our exper ience of

that won?t be seen by any audience,

a place for a long time, as I

but the care and attention that the

mentioned

par ticipants devote to cleaning,

dur ing

the

subway

slipper walk, but I am intr igued as

which

to how something invisible might

pr ivate,

alter the behaviour of the per son

?elevated?to ar t status.

who wear s it, just as wear ing the

made

public

and

using the methods they have

impor tance they place on the

descr ibed whether or not those

presentation of their homes, and judgements

and

continue to wash, scr ub, wipe, dust

Johnson Fold (as evidenced by the

of

hidden

anything, the women involved will

on some level on the women on

fear

is

usually

As Messager says I didn?t invent

label ?dir ty? clearly has an impact

the

is

processes are offered up as ar t, but

of

through for m I am indicating an

respectability).

alter native to the nar r ative that

Does it change the status of those

labels people and places as dir ty.

items of clothing, and the act of wear ing them, or does using a common visual language relegate 38


39


40


Shelley's Br acelet Michele's Kids Clare's Cabinet

Th e Care I nstructi ons Sharon's Garden Lou's Bedroom Kat's Pictures Dee's Dogs 41


Shelley's Bracelet My bracelet that me husband bought me, the first thing he ever bought me. I was 18, I?m 34 now so? a good while ago. It?s a gold curved one, really lovely. I used to sell roses round pubs and clubs, and he come to the office this one night to sell them himself as a joke, between him and the boss and that?s how we met. Our first date was at his apartment, and he made me a meal, that were the first date. Its not often I wear it now, I used to wear it constantly when I first got it but then I went through a phase of wearing silver a lot, so it got put in me jewellery box. But I always get it out occasionally and have a look at it. And it makes me smile. I clean it once, twice a year? If its been in my jewellery box collecting dust I definitely clean it up before I put it on. First of all I soak it in me jewellery cleaner that I?ve got, don?t ask me the make of it cos I?ve not got a clue, and then, for a good five minutes, take it out,42toothbrush, bit of washing up


liquid and water, give it a scrub, dunk it again in water pull it out then dry it off, and that?s it, that?s all how I clean it. Then I dry it with a tea towel. Or a polish, you know a yellow cloth thing. I enjoy it. Gives me a dead nice warm feeling, brings it all flooding back you know. I?d be gutted if I lost it. It actually snapped at one point and I lost the clasp on it, and we went to go and get it fixed and they said you?re better off just buying another gold bracelet for what it will cost. Keith, he offered to buy me another bracelet and I said no. Because, that were the first thing he bought me. I didn?t care how much, if it cost the same as the bracelet, I wanted the clasp. K is allowed to touch it. She likes asking questions about it. Where?s this from? Who bought you this? How long have you had it? ? Why don?t you wear it? I say? cos I like to keep it safe, where I know where it is in my jewellery box? and I only wear it on special occasions. She thinks its like a fairytale. When she gets married, I?ll lend it her, it can be her ?something old?. But then I want it back, she can have it when I pass. I?ll probably put some instructions in there, ?Look after it? Or else I?ll come back and haunt you!?

43


Michele's Kids What?s precious to me is my children. And grandchildren. Especially when they were little, and you used to wash their faces, and they screw right up, like this, and it makes me all, you know. I do it the old fashioned way, bit of tissue and spit? As old as my kids are, ranging from 33 this year right down to 21, old as they are, a bit of tissue, scrub their face and it?s their face ?mahhhh muuuum!!!? I?ve learned by my own mistakes, by taking care. You wet your tissue and then wash their face - I learnt from my mum, I remember her doing it to me and my brother and sister and then when she met my five kids, Deanah will remember that won?t you, Nana getting a tissue and wiping your face? screwing their faces up, and I remember me screwing my face up. I do miss me mum. It?s the silly things, if you?ve lost people you love, the most silliest things going like cleaning me children?s faces reminds me of my mum doing it to me. 44


I?ve seen my kids doing it, Maryann she does it to her kids and Deanah does it to her niece and nephews and my granddaughter, I?ve seen her do it a couple of times to me granddaughter too.

45


Kat's Pictures Me pictures. Pictures of me family, me kids, wedding day, me mum, me dad, his grandparents. They?re all on me walls, I?ve got some on me fire then I?ve got some in me bedroom. I tend to keep same coloured picture frames together, grouped up, and then I?ve got some which are laminated as well so there?s more than one in a frame. They?re mostly my photos. Well, my pictures but pictures of other people. I don?t like having me photo took. I?ve only got one picture of me and that?s hidden in my bedroom where no one can see it. That?s my wedding canvas. I hate having me picture taken. I clean them every other day. Just a damp cloth, a damp cloth with lukewarm water. That way you?re getting all the dust off, you?re not spreading it all around and there?s no chemicals in it that can discolour. I just use a normal dishcloth. There?s only me that can clean them the way I like it. If I did let someone else do it then I?d be right at the back of them doing it again. Its my job. I don? t trust Liam to do it? I don?t 46


trust him not to break them. They couldn?t be replaced. The frames are actually what my mother in law picked up from Ikea, limited edition. They came with different pictures, like stock pictures, and I took them out. They all get done on the same day. I work me way room to room. My favourite is the living room. The pictures of the kids? it?s a family room as well. Its where people tend to put their best photos. I love cleaning them, like compared to things like mopping or squeegeeing the rug I definitely enjoy doing me pictures a lot more. What do I think about? I look at them and it reminds me of how things were back then and how small me babies were and it makes me feel old and how old they are now. We go through old pictures quite a lot. Not the frames, the kids can?t touch them. They?re too high up. That?s deliberate. I don?t like them being dirty. It drives me potty when my house is a mess. How can I describe it, it?s like tidy house, tidy mind. You don?t have to worry about what if someone comes round, you know where everything is, you know you don?t have to worry about someone coming in your house and saying well that was scruffy. I?d be so ashamed! 47


Clare's Cabinet I like all my little crystals and things. They?re in a special cabinet in my hallway. The crystals are like, you know, my rose quartz, and I think its called amethyst, then all my little angel ornaments and my cherubs. If the kids didn?t keep opening the cabinet and dragging them out, it?d be in my front room. They bring me comfort, if I?m honest. I don?t even know if it?s true, I?d like to think its true. I have bought crystals specifically for a purpose. Rose quartz is love, I like rose quartz. Amethyst, that?s like a purple colour, and then I like my turquoise-y green one as well, I can?t remember what that?s called. Some of them are meant to help you with aches and pains? I?ve got hypo thyroid, I?ve thought about looking at the right crystals for that but I?ve never? I think it?s like half believing and half not. I clean the crystals in water. Just water. Just run them under the tap. They?re kinda a bit like pebbles, well they?re not pebbles are they but the way that you?d clean them and rinse 48


them under water. I don?t let them all go in together, apparently that ruins the energy. I don?t even know if you?re meant to put them in water. You?re meant to put them in the sunlight to recharge them, I know that much, I?ve not done that with any of mine for years because they were all put away til I moved in here. I used to though. I used to clean the crystal that was right for a certain mood when I was in that mood, but not any more really. I just like the idea of angels to be honest. I don?t believe in God or anything like that, I?m atheist so with my mum being a born again Christian it?s.. I don?t know, nothing could ever make me believe in it I don?t think, but I believe in my angels. To clean the angels I just dust them. Normally with a baby wipe. I use baby wipes for a lot, make up, clean the floor, clean up spills, clean the dogs paws when she?s sandy? I don?t clean them often. When did I move in here? October, Nov, Dec? in the eight months that I?ve been here they?ve probably only been cleaned twice. When I?ve noticed that its really dusty inside the glass cabinet, and the kids aren?t about, and I know that I can get everything out. I?m really strange, I take pictures of it on49my phone so that I know


exactly where I?m putting everything back. Sometimes I find it relaxing. But sometimes? the shelves are glass so making them not streaky? I like it to be perfect. It takes me about an hour and half, two hours. That?s a mirror at the back as well as? 1,2,3,4,5 shelves. On the top shelf I have three ?in memory?cards for my best friend Shaunna, her husband and then my friend?s dad and they are all surrounded by my crystals and angels. When Shaunna was in the hospice I got that little bear, and then that?s the necklace she got married in. That?s one thing I clean, I?m not sure if I?m meant to, but I clean it in coke, because apparently coke is meant to be good for cleaning silver. I leave it in for a bit, it?s still discoloured, I can?t seem to get it back silver. I don?t wear it. Maybe if I ever got married which is very highly doubtful! I wouldn?t call it a shrine or anything, its just about remembering her. I hope she looks down on me. I?d like to think so. I look in the cabinet everyday. `And I smell it, I open it up and smell it. The candles, I?ve got really really scented candles in there that have come from a spiritualist. I don?t light them but they smell really nice. And my angel sprays, ?Archangel Michael?s Empowerment?, it?s50 really musky that one, and I


like this one ?Aphrodite?, goddess of love, beauty and compassion. I mean you can see how dusty it is. A lot of the crystals are dull because they?ve not been cleaned in a while. I do like them when they?re shiny. When the kids are older I?m going to put the cabinet back in the front room, pride of place. I?ll have to dust it more then!

51


Sharon's Garden Are you recording this now? Oh my god? My garden. Its peaceful, I can lose myself? and plant different things, know where things are going, try different things. Even when its raining? Not when it?s absolutely chucking it down, like buckets, but the rest of the time. If I go out and sit in it I feel proud of what I?ve achieved. Firstly pull up all the weeds. Weeds are just the ones you don?t like, because some weeds have such delicate little flowers? Secondly, sweep it. Check if the grass needs cutting, if it does, give it a trim. And then sit in it and enjoy it. That?s it, you know?

52


Lou's Bedroom I clean my room first. Cos I like to make it more tidier. Before my other half comes over. Not just cos he?s coming over, I do it for me. Definitely for me. I get nice new bedding. New bedding every week. New bedding on, polish and everything. I got a new quilt yesterday, put it on. But it was thick, I was sweating all night. That smell though, heaven. I light candles, and I put my perfume on my bed. Britney Spears, Paradise. Or Black Opium. My candles smell of strawberry. I like a fruity smell. Like the Britney Spears perfume, that?s coconutty. I spray it all on my pillows, on my bed, then I have to do C?s bed as well. If I don?t spray his bed he gets in with me. Its for comfort. I spray it on C?s blanket too. He takes that everywhere. First, I put shake and vac on the floor. I get it from the pound shop. After I put it down its got to stay down for two hours. 53


Then I hoover it and.. ahhh It?s the smell. You walk it right in . Then I gotta strip my bed, make my bed, then I pick everything up. I even put shake and vac on my clothes before I put them in the washer. But then I bleach everything as well. My drawers. My bed frame. Windowsill. And my TV unit. I do my room before anything else.

54


Dee's Dogs My pups. Chase and Demon. They?re a Staff cross Lab cross German Shepherd cross Rottweiler. They?re a year, year and a half old now. I wash them in the shower. I have to blackmail them with dog biscuits to get in it. You have to try and get them to eat them before they get soggy, they get all wet. If they wanna get back out, bend down and let em kiss your chin and stroke em while you wash them. I wash them one at a time. With? well we use normal water with dog shampoo. It don?t take that long, depends how panicky they are. They like it after a while. I don?t, I get covered in dog hair, I end up more wet than the dogs, it?s not good. I?m thinking ?Hurry up! Just hurry up and get out!?? I dry them with a towel. They?ve got their own towel. One each. An old towel that we used to use on the other dogs. 55


I wear my old shorts. The bathroom is usually drowning in water. I clean it with the same towel and then stick it in the wash. They come out silky, soft. Then they go in the back garden and get muddy again. You?re supposed to wash them once a year but I wash them more than that? about 3 times a year. Them two anyway, they?ve got loads of fur. You can usually tell when they need doing by their paws, or their stomach, if they?ve got a load of mud on their fur. I?ve done them quite a few times since they were born. Chase likes mud. Poppy, the mum, we don?t need to train, she?s older, but the puppies... I?ve always had dogs, since I was a kid. I?d rather dogs that cats, I don?t like cats. I have scars on the legs from my neighbours cat. The dogs only scratch when they get over giddy, when they?re playing. I get on better with dogs than humans. 56


57


58


Reflections When I told my family and fr iends that I was embarking on a project about housework, I was met with laughter and gener al bemusement. Par tly because I am what you might call a natur al hoarder, which makes keeping a clean house difficult, although I have on occasion tr ied to rebr and the matter out of context that fills my home as a ?carefully cur ated collection?. While this project hasn?t made me any fonder of domestic dr udger y (?dir t is a social constr uct? is my new battle cr y), I have collected a fresh set of influences and research interests which will continue to infor m my pr actice for some time to come. As a hoarder/collector, the use of found objects and text within my work that I?ve explored for the fir st time through this project feels like a ver y natur al development, and one that I am keen to investigate fur ther.

Interestingly when the member s of the women?s group from Johnson Fold visited my house, they declared it to be ever so ar ty, the piles of clutter simply evidence of a creative per sonality. All the judgements of respectability they apply to their own homes were ir relevant here, because I am, as they tell me, ?posh?. That?s not exactly how I see myself, but it does expose some of the politics around class and cleaning, it is those par ticular groups of people labelled dir ty that are under the greatest pressure (inter nal and exter nal) to present as clean. 59


The more aware I?ve become of the language of cleaning and dir t, and how it is used to other people and places, the more examples of it I find, just like ?women?s work? it is hidden in plain sight, so familiar as to be unremarkable. My aim for this project was to make public a realm that is usually pr ivate, make visible a nar r ative that is usually masked ? as the sign said ?caution: linking pover ty to mor ality distr acts from str uctur al inequality? ? and by holding up a mir ror to these ever yday things to perhaps encour age other s to see them anew.

The same pr inciple applies to my relationship with Johnson Fold, I want people to see what I see, to consider the place on its own ter ms r ather than through the middle class values imposed by mainstream discour se, and to use my position as a creative to amplify the voices of the women?s group. I am lucky enough to have relationships with these women for ged, in some cases, over nearly a decade, and in consider ing the ethics of this project my star ting point was how to build on these relationships r ather than to benefit from them. Mierle Lader man Ukeles asks, after the revolution, on Monday mor ning, who is going to pick up the garbage? On Monday mor ning, once Care Instr uctions has finished, I will still be employed by the housing association to deliver creative projects on Johnson Fold, life, ar t, maintenance goes on. 60


61


I star ted this project as a ?Creative Producer ?but at times I?ve felt more like an ar tist- activist, dr iven by the sense of injustice the per vasive nature of the language of dir t has provoked. As Lakoff and Johnson ar gue this metaphor is more than just descr iptive, it impacts on our behavior, allows us to ignore the inequalities inherent in the system, it's more convenient to link pover ty to mor ality than to tr y and change this system. The fact remains that a child?s chances in life are now more deter mined by where and to whom they were bor n as compared to any other date in last 651 year s (Darling, 2007).

This shift towards activism has had a significant impact on my work as a creative producer, I?m now constantly asking the question as to whether a piece of work, however well meaning, will in effect impose a set of exter nal values on a community and therefore potentially reinforce social inequality, or is it genuinely fr amed by the values of the place.

I began the MA in Fine Ar t at UCLAN interested in ?the project?, at what point does it cease to become a neo- liber al economic trope and star t to become an ar tistic for m in and of itself. That?s cer tainly for med par t of my investigations along the way but I?m finishing the progr amme more interested not in where project becomes ar t but in where life becomes ar t (and vice ver sa). 62


As Mierle Lader man Ukeles states in her Maintenance Manifesto: "I am an artist. I am a woman. I am a wife. I am a mother. (Random order). I do a hell of a lot of washing, cleaning, cooking, renewing, supporting, preserving, etc. Also, (up to now separately) I ?do? Art. Now, I will simply do these maintenance everyday things, and flush them up to consciousness, exhibit them, as Art." The laughter I mentioned from my loved ones when I fir st talked about this piece of work was in par t because they didn?t consider housework as a suitably weighty topic for ar t. I hope, if they are reading this, I?ve done enough to change their minds.

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Image from The Unsuppor ted Mother 's Handbook

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Bibliography Benton, J., Har vey, S. & Schnall, S., Univer sity of Plymouth, With a Clean Conscience, Psychological Science, Volume 19, Number 12, 2008, p1219 - 1222 Beswick, K., The Council Estate in Performance: Performance Practice and the Production of Space, The Univer sity of Leeds, School of Per for mance and Cultur al Industr ies, 2014 Bour r iad, N., Relational Aesthetic, Dijon, Presses du RĂŠel, 1998 Bishop, C., Artificial Hells: Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship, London, Ver so, 2012 Clore, G. & Sher man, G., Univer sity of Vir ginia, The Color of Sin, Psychological Science, SCIENCE, Volume 20, Number 9, p1019- 1025 Cox, R., Dishing the Dirt: Dirt in the Home, in Dirt: The Filthy Reality of Everyday Life, London, Profile Books, 2011 Douglas, M., Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo, New York: Pr aeger. 1966 Hull, H., The Scales of Socially- Engaged Practice: Towards a Shared Language, available at www.hannahhull.co.uk, 2007 Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M., Metaphors We Live By, Chicago, Univer sity of Chicago Press, 2003 Messager, A., Word for Word, Ed. Ber nadac, M., New York, D.A.P., 2006 Moleswor th, H., House work and Art Work, October, Vol 92, 2000, p71- 97 65


Pasternak in LivingasForm: Socially Engaged Art from 1991- 2011, Thompson, N., (Ed), New York, Creative Time Books, 2012, p7- 9 Perec, G., Especesd?espaces, Paris, Galilee, 1974, trans Sturrock, J., Speciesof Spacesand Other Pieces, London, Penguin, 1997 Skeggs, B., Formulationsof Class& Gender, London, Sage, 1997 Skeggs, B., The Makingof Classand Gender through VisualizingMoral Subject Formation, Sociology Volume 39, Number 5, 2005, p965- 990 Sheringham, M., Configuringthe Everyday, in The Everyday, Documents of Contemporary Art series, Ed Johnstone, M., London, Whitechapel Gallery, 2008 Shirley, R. (Ed) & Elson, V. (Ed), Creatingthe Countryside: The Rural Idyll Past and Present, London, Paul Holberton Publishing, 2017 Slater, T., The Invention of the ?Sink Estate?: Consequential Categorization and the UK HousingCrisis, in Tyler, I. & Slater, T. (Eds), The Sociology of Stigma, London, Sage, 2018. Strathern, M., After Nature: English Kinship in the Late Twentieth Century, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1992 Thompson, N., (Ed), LivingasForm: Socially Engaged Art from 1991- 2011, New York, Creative Time Books, 2012 Tyler, I., RevoltingSubjects: Social Abjection and Resistance in Neoliberal Britain, London/New York, Zed Books, 2013 Ukeles, Mierle Laderman, Manifesto for Maintenance Art 1969! Proposal for an exhibition CARE, transcript from www.feldmangallery.com, 1969 Young, I., The Scalingof Bodiesand the Politicsof Identity, Princeton N.J., Princeton University Press, 1990 66


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Profile for Shonagh Short

Care Instructions  

A series of creative interventions exploring how the language of dirt is used to other people and places.

Care Instructions  

A series of creative interventions exploring how the language of dirt is used to other people and places.

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