SHERI ZON PORTFOLIO | 2009 - 2013
Cover Photo Credit: Gawker.com
Master of Architecture - University of Michigan in Ann Arbor
OUT OF SITE : OUT OF MIND
PRODUCTIVE S U R FA C E S
BRACKETING THE FECUND
Research - University of Michigan in Ann Arbor
T R A N S ALASKAN PIPELINE
B I O F U E L RESEARCH
Professional Work - Hamilton Anderson Associates, Detroit
D E T R O I T FUTURE CITY
Bachelor of Science in Architecture - University of Illinois in Chicago
NEW YORK IS NOT A PLACE
DRAPING D E N S I T Y
G L O R I E S MASTER PLAN + D E S I G N C E N T E R
OAK STREET BEACH + FA C I L I T I E S
2009 2008 2007
OUT OF SITE : OUT OF MIND THESIS: Oil Sands Landscape of Alberta Canada Advisor: Kathy Velikov Spring 2012
above: notation of mining movement on the transitioning oil sands landscape.
The oil sands reserve north of Fort McMurray, Canada occupy 54,000 square miles; larger than the entire country of England. Extraction of oil from the sands is done through both mining and in-situ techniques. The system is reliant on a network of infrastructures continuously be constructed for its increasing capacity. Byproducts of production, such as sulfur, coke and mature fine tailings, are stored on site in huge volumes because of their overabundance and inability to sell in the global market. The production created a vast landscape of open-air storage, pipelines, and roads. It also spurred the development of other related industries in the areas such as tree harvesting and lumber yards, pipeline development, and technological exploration both on site and at academic institutions. The Alberta landscape, once a vast wilderness, was scraped away for a resource fused within its soils. When the oil has been emptied from an area, the land is reclaimed in an attempt to renovate it into its original ecological condition. The ecological landscape is an artificial one; external to ones untouched adjacent to it and functioning on the dependence of human implementations.
MACHINES: BUCKET WHEEL EXCAVATOR Able to excavate 240 000 cubic meters of overburden per day. BUCKET EXCAVATOR EXCAVATOR DUMP TRUCK 400 ton payload. HUMAN
The oil sands reserve in Northern Alberta operates using intense landscape transformations within a subarctic climate. The industry generates a series of surreal landscapes and atmospheric conditions as a byproduct of extraction processes. An opportunity for design lies within the transforming landscape and its infrastructural networks to create another externality of production. Oil sands extraction gives leverage to capitalize on the industrial and post-industrial landscape through enhancing atmospheres and events. An afterlife is generated for the processed landscape in which preservation of the man-made landscape creates curiosity and wonderment.
An opportunity for design lies within the transforming landscape and its infrastructural networks to generate another externality of production â€“ tourism within the borders of operations. Oil sands extraction gives leverage to expose the industrial and post-industrial landscape through enhancing atmospheres and revealing events. It also generates use of the landscape during operations to develop continued use when all the oil is extracted from the sands and corporations move to other resourceful regions. Tourism injects the consumer into a landscape made by consumption to allow visitors to comprehend the co-dependence of not only oil and consumption, but also oil and its extraction processes. During operations, the visitor is able to experience the processes and products made from oil and their associated inputs, outputs and byproducts. They also witness the transformations of the landscape of tree harvesting, mining, storage sites for tailings and sands, and attempted reclamation. After extraction, new uses are generated from the mechanically transformed landscapes of production â€“ one either left as cliffs
top: site plan middle: materials made with out of oil
bottom: section of Phase 1 development of Oil Sands National Preserve
and mounds or ones reclaimed to mimic the surrounding boreal forest. This proposal attempts to give the landscape an afterlife in instances of both post-industrial terrain and landscapes undertaken in reclamation. It allows visitors to marvel or question the technological progress of man in an age of uncontrolled consumption. Four architecture typologies explore ways to overcome inhuman conditions that restrict access or exploration of the site: the viewing tower, underground passage, accommodation modules, and roaming platforms. Architecture facilitates in the goal of engagement by becoming a lens through which to view the condition and eliminate the luxury of ignorance. The material development of the architecture embodies the dual and conflicted nature of our current relationship with oil, landscape and waste products. The architecture reflects a culture both concerned with material reuse and recycling, however at the same time unable to part with the fantastic products, materials and surfaces that oil produces.
The viewing tower is made of recycled machine metals and concrete. Viewport platforms expand to the horizon or the various landscape created by extraction. The top of the tower extents above the emissions and clouds for a view of the norther lights.
top: Preserve viewing tower; each opened level focuses on the various landscapes and atmospheres created by production.
Dug from an oil drill hole, the tower is slowly excavated as the oils sands landscape is mined. The structure begins as a deep elevator and tunnel that moves you though the sands. As the ground is excavated, new views and activities of the mined landscape emerge.
fibrous oil collector pre-formed, plastic shell air filter recycled tire plexi-glass movement guide
C A MATERIAL PALETTE
The architecture is made only from oil-based materials and by-products of extraction.
B TAILINGS POD
Floating on the surface of the acres of toxic tailings ponds, these livable pods soaks in oil residue with its hair-like bands for sustained energy generation.
C MOBILE POD With the help of a recycled wheel of an bucket excavator, this pod allows tourists to safely and comfotably maneuver than landscape.
D EXCAVATOR POD After hanging from the claws of the excavator, this pod penetrates the leftover sands to use suck the last of their oil for heat and electricity.
access platform air filtration radiant heater
holding claw oil suction combustion pre-formed shell insulation clean water storage
PRODUCTIVE SURFACES Re-Thinking Power Generation
Instructor: Kathy Velikov Fall 2010 Nominated by instructor for Annual Student Show Productive Surfaces focuses on hijacking fossil powered industrial zones for the production of renewable energy and public programming. On the highly industrialized and contaminated sites along the Rouge River in Detroit, vacant lots are used to cultivate switchgrass that is then transported via industrial rail to the power plant. The switchgrass acts to both remediate contaminated soil too toxic for human use and transform the vacant lots for productive use. Once at the power plant, the switchgrass
replaces coal to generate electricity - reducing emissions commonly produced by fossil powered generation. Also, the nearby wastewater treatment plant is capped to capture sludge gases for transfer and consumption at the local natural gas plant. The final phase of the project focuses specifically on the transformed power plant, which is turned into a public site of education and entertainment. Its wind-capturing faรงade transforms and responds to energy production and wind conditions.
top: plan of Detroit generation plants and infrastructure for electric transmission.
above: changes for conversion of coal power plant to switchgrass power plant
The industrial site next to the River Rouge in Detroit has overlapping conditions of existing and potential energy production. Within site boundaries, there are a coal-fired power plant, natural gas power plant, waste water treatment plant, and a variety of heavy industry. The end goal for the project is the reduction of air and soil pollutants in the area by overriding the existing system with local, alternate energy sources. Vacant lots allow for the growth and harvest of switchgrass plants. These plants not only supply fuel for power plant, but also remove toxins from the soil for future planting. The seeding of the switchgrass alternates locations to allow for recreational neighborhood use. These plants are transported using the existing rail to the power plant for both direct combustion and gasification for electric generation. The gas is transferred via pipeline to the natural gas power plant followed above by a recreation pedestrian pathway. Harnessing the strongest winds in Detroit, wind turbines are placed in locations that do not interfere with industrial activities both on land and in the water. Lastly, the foul methane odors from the wastewater treatments plant are capped and captured to be used as a gaseous fuel at the gas-powered electric plant.
An emphasis was put on the social aspects of hijacking the coal-fired power plant for use as switchgrass-fired power plant. Existing industrial sites are hazardous for human occupation, but by converting the plant these issues are reduced. This concept explores the potential for an industrial corridor to be adventured by city dwellers for an education on the industrial impacts on their environment. Visitors are able to explore the proposed power plant while generating energy during their exploration through nanotechnologies that convert movement to energy. Also, through their exploration, visual stimulants are placed for both the entertainment of electricity and the understanding of its generation. Static electricity becomes a playground above the transformers where electricity is converted before being transported across the region. Designated areas overlook the plant with screens to show the amount of electricity being produced. A sustainable dance for is placed opposite the river from the continuously lit Zug Island. The faรงade was designed to both capture wind energy and illustrate energy produced through structural transformation and visual alterations. The structure adjusts depending on the highest wind speed direction through twisting. LED lights also constantly detect the amount of energy being produced and consumed in the area for the city to visualize the consumption of energy in relation to their personal habits.
RIVER ROUGE POWER PLANT
top: site plan showing locations of existing and potential energy generation
above: infrastructure and landscape phasing and progression over time
2 4 1
SWITCHGRASS BREAKDOWN: locally grown and dried 4 STEAM: steam is created from heat produced from combusted swithgrass is reduced for cumbustion chamber. switchgrass and fed to turbines; wasted steam is used in gasification process. 2 DRYING: switchgrass is dried using borrowed heat from combustion chamber. 5 ASH: the byproduct of burnt switchgrass is dropped below combustion chamber for future reuse to create new products. 3 COMBUSTION: broken down switchgrass and heated in replace of coal to produce steam.
EMISSIONS HEAT: heat expended from the combustion of switchgrass is also used to dry switchgrass before breakdown instead of becoming wasted energy.
7 GASIFICATION: the process of turning organic materials, in this case with switchgrass, into combustible gases using recycled steam.
8 GAS PIPELINE: the gas pipeline feeds gas produced from the
ELECTRIC SUBSTATION: changes voltage of electric power from high to low for distribution to consumers.
12 WIND TURBINES: wind turbines placed on the upper facade of the building harvest wind energy for electric generation.
9 TURBINE: turbine uses steam to produce electricity for the main grid. Noise produced from the turbine is also used to produce
13 SOUND GENERATION: with the use of nanotechnologies,
gasification process to another location for use.
electricity using nano-technologies.
MOVEMENT GENERATION: converts movement from workers continuously walking n it surface and dancing from visiting locals into electricity.
sounds waves from the electric generation turbines are turned into electricity.
above: conversion of power plant from using coal as a fuel source to using locally grown switchgrass.
With Kathleen Johnson and Andrew Stern Instructor: Geoffrey Th端n Fall 2011
BRACKETING THE FECUND Marine Biology Laboratory in Saint Croix, U.S. Virgian Islands
Marine Biology Laboratory
SAINT CROIX, VI
SITE PLAN Plan ecologies, environmental building systems integration, building, and adjacent archeological site.
BUILDING PLAN - LEVEL ONE Plan showing the integration of the water bar, laboratory, courtyard, and dormitories with the natural ecologies under observation.
This Marine Biology Laboratory located in Saint Croix of the Virgin Islands challenges the traditional notions of scientific observation that proliferate across the profession and permeate through popular culture. The process of scientific observation traditionally advocates for highly controlled conditions for the use of petri dishes, cages, tanks, and microscopes. While these models are still incorporated within a few hermetically sealed rooms of the laboratory, this facility actively engages scientific procedures within the ecologies under observation. In a field of study where experimentation is increasingly precise, while simultaneously increasingly achievable, the facility becomes an extrovert.
The Hydrolab intends to be directly affected by the natural ecologies surrounding it. The laboratory space is segmented at one moment when the rush of ocean â€“ the splash of waves, the smell of salt, and unpredictable wave activity â€“ surges into the space. The ecological fecundity of the land segments at another moment, allowing for the free overgrowth of plants, grasses and sand to permeate another space. The articulation of the roof provides holding zones for rainwater that, at times of heavy rain, allow water to channel onto specific points on the laboratory floor, changing the organization the activities below.
The facility also takes advantage of the site through its building systems for deep-water intake, wave energy, and natural airflow. The deep-water intake and energy generation are supported by a platform connecting the lab to these vessels of oceanographic research. It also serves as a support station for the numerous dive sites where the ocean floor drops off quickly. The intention of this architecture is two-fold. At one level, the openness of the laboratory space to the site generates a new idea of observation and scientific study; where control yields to opportunity for study through the direct engagement with the wild. While the laboratory promotes the observation of organisms within their ecologies, the organization of the facility also nurtures human observation to inspire research and education. Openness also allows for direct connections between the areas for meeting, working, and resting as well as observation with pathways set up between spaces. It recognizes that innovation relies more on interactions between colleagues and outsiders than it does on
individual, internalized work. This research facility produces an environment that is ripe for new discoveries. At a second level, this architecture allows for the disruption of scientific exploration to enhance the presence of the natural ecologies. The fieldwork does not only happen outside of the lab, it tumbles through it. Water falling into the space from the roof and the anticipated flooding from a storm surge is intentionally leveraged to break the ability of science to remain insular and unaffected by the wild. The activities and configuration of the lab yield to ecologies at certain moments when it becomes undesirable to exert total scientific control within the space. The aim of this laboratory is not to inhibit scientific study, but xof natural ecologies. The lab of the future is inherently (and architecturally) connected to its setting in a direct way. The architecture enables and elevates the presence of ecologies within scientific study and conflates their activities.
below: time-phased laboratory section before and during hurricane surge. Essential experimental equipment it rolled into the protective vault.
above: vignette of courtyard and view from water bar toward the open Caribbean waters.
left: section of research platform and energy and water tendril.
above: series of sections through water bar, laboratory, courtyard, and dormintories.
INFRASTRUCTURE AS TERRITORIAL CONTROL The Development of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline
Instructor: Rania Ghosn Spring 2012 Abstract: The discovery of oil in Alaskaâ€™s North Slope in 1968 and the desire for the oil to reach the rest of the United State led to the construction of an 800 mile long pipeline stretching from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez. While the pipeline only covers an area of 16.3 square miles, the areas affected by its construction process, maintenance and areas affected due oil production are a consequence of its existence. The journey of oil across environments resulted in tensions abetween environmentalist groups, the state of Alaska, Alaskan natives, and oil corporations over vast territories of landscape and land transfers from the late 1960s to the 1980s. Without a viable transportation route, the production of the oil reserve beneath the North Slope would not have been possible. The economic benefits of oil extraction and its access to the lower 48 states outweighed the implausibility of a transportation proposal. Since oil production on the North Slope relies on the ability for its transport, large efforts went into surveying the Alaskan landscape and overcoming obstacles of construction. Spatial concerns were a major factor in the environmental and political debates over the pipelines construction. Environmentalists quickly interfered with development efforts of the pipeline due to its possible impact on surrounding ecologies and species while native groups challenged land ownership rights.
above: media outputs as a result of oil spills in the United States.
Global events concerning the United States economy and security aided in corporate and the state of Alaska tactics for its construction. Also, corporate progress of pipeline technologies suppressed concerns of pipeline failure due to geologic events and extreme climate conditions. This project explores the development of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline from analysis of the tension over land between opposing groups as well as land transfers and leases before and after its construction. It identifies tactics at various levels used by environmentalists, corporations, Alaska, the Federal government, and Alaskan natives to gain territorial ownership.
STATE OF ALASKA
National Parks, Refuges, & Forests
National Petroleum Reserve
General State Lands
Alaskan Native Corporations Lands
bottom: comparison of land top: time line showing key participant ownership before and after events relating to the construction of the pipeline construction. Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System
above: geological forces shaping the development of the pipeline; various alternatives for oil transport from Prudhoe Bay to the United States.
ABOVE GROUND RIGHT-OF-WAY WIDTHS
elevated width 100’
elevated width 54’-300’
BELOW GROUND federal land: underground width 54’
above: pipeline design informed by geologic conditions.
right: pipeline ownership
above: land ownership 2000
STATE APPROVED LANDS
NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE
ANCSA SELECTED LANDS
NATIONAL PETROLEUM RESERVE
STATE WILDLIFE RESERVE
DEBATE LEVERAGE JOB CREATION
US FEDERAL GOVERNMENT Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Bureau of Land Management Federal Water Pollution Control Administration Bureau of Inidan Affairs Bureau of Commercial Fisheries
ECONOMY OIL INDEPENDENCE OIL CRISIS 1973 Oil Embargo xIsrael-Arab War
ENVIRONMENTALISTS/ CONSERVATIONISTS National Parks Association Alaskan Conservation Society Sierra Club Conservation Foundation Izaak Walton League National Audubon Society American Forestry Association Wilderness Society Sport Fishing Insitute National Wildlife Federation Trout Unlimited Wildlife Society
PUBLIC PERCEPTION Advertising Images of the frontier Images of oil spills Industrial Dangers
FEDERAL LEGISLATIONS Mineral Rights Act of 1920 NEPA 1969
STATE OF ALASKA
LAND OWNERSHIP Ancestral Land Rights
Department of the Interior
ALASKAN NATIVES Alaskan Native Federation
HISTORICAL INCIDENTS Santa Barbara Oil Spill
Alyeska Pipeline Service Company BP Pipelines Trans. Alaska, Inc. Exxon Mobil Pipeline Co. Koch Alasaka Pipeline Co., LLC Unocal Pipeline Co.
Oil Production British Petroleum (BP) ExxonMobil ConocoPhillips
FRONTIER CONSERVATION PROTECT WILDLIFE SPECIES ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION
image: oil rig and plant in the northslope
top: key players in the development and construction of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline. right: pipeline ownership
CRUDE RISK United States and the Global Conditions of Oil Use
Instructor: Dwayne Overmyer Jr. Winter 2012
United States has a history of trying to reduce its dependence on foreign oil. After the oil crisis due to the OAPEC Oil Embargo of 1973 the United States realized the risk of relying on foreign oil imports and the effects of global political tensions on the American market. The embargo led increase fuel prices within the United States - known as the oil crisis of 1973. This event impacted the decision for the construction of the Trans-Alaskan Pipeline System in 1973 for the lower fourty-eight states to access oil being extracted from the North Slope, Alaska. Political tensions continue to impact the exploration and production of oil within the United States. Currently, the increase of gas prices due to tensions with Iran are increasing the desire for domestic production in the Alaskan arctic and through the unconventional methods of oil extraction; such as fracking. Though the United States attempts to increase domestic production, trends in imports remain highly unaffected. Still today, the United States imports most of its oil to be consumed for domestic use or refined for profits from foreign export.
The dependence on oil goes far beyond domestic consumption for transportation fuel. Oil imports are needed to supply the oil industry and sustain the economy of products reliant on oil for its energy and as a material input. As domestic oil wells run out, new technologies are invented to extract oil from unconventional sources, such as oil shale in the west and north-west of the United States. Energy shifts begin to emerge for advancement in renewable energies or other finite energy sources such as natural gas. The map illustrated on the next page shows the imports, exports, production, and consumption of the United States and its importing countries. Volumes of imports are shown by line thickness to show those we are most reliant on. Imports, production and consumption are illustrated in arrows to show that many countries we import from may get their oil from other nations and to show the drastic difference in US consumption compared to other nations. The United States reliance on foreign oil is an economic and political risk, while the production of oil within its boundaries puts it at environmental risk.
right: United States imports and production from 1910-2000 left: image of oil spill off Gulf Coast
PRODUCTION 1 Million Bbl/day CONSUMPTION 1 Million Bbl/day U.S. IMPORTS 1 Million Bbl/day
18 March 1967 United Kingdom 919,000 Barrels | 20 March 1970 Sweden 438,000 Barrel | 19 December 1972 Oman 840,000 Barrels | 15 December 1976 United States 183,000 Barrels | 25 February 1977 Pacific 723,000 Barrels | 16 March 1978 France 1,600,000 Barrels | 3 June 1979 Mexico 4,516,129 Barrels | 3 June 1979 Trinidad & Tobago 2,200,000 Barrels | 6 August 1983 South Africa 1,800,000 Barrels | 24 March 1989 United States 240,000 Barrels 19 December 1989 Morocco 804,000 Barrels | 7 February 1990 United States 9,677 Barrels | 26 January 1991 Kuwait 7,742,000 Barrels | 28 May 1991 Angola/Liberia __________ Barrels | 2 March 1992 Uzbekistan 2,839,000 Barrels | 19 September 1992 Indonesia 137,850 Barrels | 3 December 1992 Spain 919,000 Barrels | 5 January 1993 United Kingdom 970,694 Barrels | 21 January 1993 Singapore/ Indonesia/Malaysia 2,000,000 Barrels | 11 February 1993 Netherlands _________ Barrels | 9 March 1993 Germany/Poland 919 Barrels | 3 June 1993 Belgium/united Kingdom 275,700 Barrels | 19 August 1993 France __________ Barrels|15 October 1993 Greece _________ Barrels | 7 January 1994 Puerto Rico 24,194 Barrels | 6 March 1994 Thailand 3,409 Barrels | 16 March 1994 Turkey _________ Barrels | 31 March 1994 United Arab Emirates 182,651 Barrel | 8 May 1994 Vietnam 2,298 Barrels | 14 June 1994 India 68,925 Barrels | 23 June 1994 South Africa _________ Barrels | 11 August 1994 _________ Barrels | 2 October 1994 Portugal 22,975 Barrels | 17 October 1994 China _________ Barrels | 5 June 1995 Singapore 1,489 Barrels | 11 July 1995 Australia 5,744 Barrels | 25 July 1995 South Korea 8,041 Barrels | 20 February 1996 United Kingdom 459,500 Barrels | 19 March 1996 Unites States 135 Barrels | 7 January 1997 Japan 36,400 Barrel | 2 July 1997 Japan 17,231 Barrels | 15 October 1997 Singapore 287,188 Barrels | 12 January 1998 Nigeria 40,000 Barrels | 12 December 1999 France 172,313 Barrels | 27 December 1999 Turkey 525,588 Barrels | 27 December 1999 Angola ___________ Barrels | 4 January 2000 Turkey 10,339 Barrels | 18 January 2000 Brazil 4,194 Barrels | 24 January 2000 United Arab Emirates 11,258 Barrels | 2 February 2000 Bolivia _________ Barrels | 2 February 2000 Philippines _________ Barrels | 7 February 2000 Brazil 16,129 Barrels | 1 April 2000 Indonesia 1,636,469 Barrels | 7 April 2000 Unites States 3,581 Barrels | 23 June 2000 South Africa 16,082 Barrels | 6 July 2000 Unites States 452 Barrels | 16 July 2000 Brazil 1,000,000 Barrels 25 July 2000 Brazil _________ Barrels | 1 August 2000 Canada 8,535 Barrels 8 August 2000 United States __________barrels | 2 September 2000 Malaysia 1,333 Barrels | 4 September 2000 Greece __________ Barrels | 14 September 2000 United States 968 Barrels | 2 October 2000 Sweden __________ Barrels | 4 October 2000 Indonesia 80,413 Barrels | 4 November 2000 Brazil 426 Barrels | 14 November 2000 Hong Kong ___________ Barrels | 28 November 2000 United States 18,290 Barrels | 15 December 2000 Norway 1149 Barrels | 14 January 2001 Taiwan 13,211 Barrels | 15 January 2001 Norway 8,616 Barrels | 16 January 2001 Ecuador 5,1600 Barrels | 16 February 2001 Indonesia 5,514 Barrels | 20 March 2001 Brazil 10,194 Barrels | 25 March 2001 Denmark 24,645 Barrels | 6 April 2001 United Arab Emirates __________ Barrels | 24 May 2001 Brazil 1,023 Barrels | 25 May 2001 Chile 2,987 Barrels | 28 May 2001 Malaysia 17,231 Barrels | 30 May 2001 Brazil 1,874 Barrels | 10 June 2001 Philippines __________ Barrels | 4 August 2001 United States 1,129 Barrels | 10 August 2010 Micronesia __________ Barrels | 7 September 2001 Vietnam 218,262 Barrels | 22 September 2001 United States 860 Barrels | 4 October 2001 United States 9,677 Barrels | 11 December 2001 Finland __________ Barrels | 22 January 2002 Thailand 852 Barrels | 9 February 2002 New Zealand 8,041 Barrels | 4 April 2002 Japan __________ Barrels | 6 April 2002 United States 2,904 Barrels | 12 June 2002 Singapore 5,169 Barrels | 31 July 2002 Romania __________ Barrels | 12 September 2002 South Africa __________ Barrels | 13 November 2002 Spain 884,537 Barrels | 23 November 2002 China 919,000 Barrels | 5 December 2002 Singapore 4,020 Barrels | 14 February 2003 United States 3,226 Barrels | 18 March 2003 Australia 12,783 Barrels | 20 March 2003 Vietnam 6892 Barrels | 31 May 2003 Sweden 1150 Barrels | 12 June 2003 Singapore 1,723 Barrels | 12 July 2003 Russia 23 Barrels | 13 August 2003 Pakistan 74,000 Barrels | 19 January 2004 Philippines __________ Barrels | 20 January 2004 Norway __________ Barrels | 4 March 2004 China __________ Barrels | 2 October 2004 Indonesia ___________ Barrels | 14 October 2004 United States ___________ Barrels | 18 November 2004 Brazil __________ Barrels | 21 November 2004 Canada 1,419 Barrels | 26 November 2004 United States 15,323 Barrels | 7 December 2004 China 3,330 Barrels | 10 December 2004 United States 15,484 Barrels | 20 December 2004 Egypt 70,968 Barrels | 20 April 2010 United States
Barrels Spilled Since 1967
OIL SPILL SINCE 1969 diameter represents volume
PRESSURE POINT RISK PIRACY ATTACK TRANSPORTATION ROUTE
A TALE OF TWO FUELS Ethanol and Biofuel Production in the Great Lakes Mega-Region
With Leann Dreher Instructor: Geoffrey ThĂźn Winter 2011 Currently, the United States is the leading producer of ethanol in the world and the second largest producer of biodiesel in the world. This chapter analyses the production of the two leading biofuels in the Great Lakes Mega-region: corn-based ethanol and biodiesel made from soy. The support of biofuel through government incentives, laws and regulations, and programs for ethanol and biodiesel production in the last decade is a response to environmental concerns and the United Statesâ€™ ever-increasing consumption of non-domestic fossil fuels. This analysis examines what is driving the biofuel industry, the inputs/outputs/byproducts/volumes of its production, the expanse of its distribution, its impacts on connected markets, and its potential for continued growth in the Great Lakes Mega-region. Biofuel production occurs proximate to soybean and corn agricultural regions. Therefore distribution outside of those areas greatly increases transportation costs; making states outside the Midwest less likely to distribute fuel. This prevents biofuel from being a viable alternative to conventional fossil fuels. Also, the availability of biofuel refueling stations cannot compete with the prevalence of conventional gasoline refueling stations, thus consumers either choose to travel further distances to refuel or choose conventional fuel.
above: consumption in millions
above: corn and soy harvested in the United States by county
Since soybeans and corn are both staple food crops, their use in biofuel production competes with the food market. As the worldwide demand for crops increases, and the farmable land area decreases as development expands, the continued use of these crops could begin to affect their availability and cost. Currently the government subsidizes the production of both of these crops to keep food prices low, as well as the production of biofuel. If government support were to change, food and fuel prices have the potential to increase significantly, as well as the cost to produce biofuel.
fine-milled corn enzymes
While biofuels have been proven to burn cleaner than fossil fuels, the production of biofuels still depends on fossil fuels for their crop growth, material transportation, production, and distribution. Current engine technology also does not allow for the widespread use of 100% biofuel; so while the use of combination fuels such as E85 and B20 decreases the use of fossil fuels, it is still unable to replace them completely. In order to be an environmentally responsive form of fuel, alternative modes of transportation need to be developed within the production and distribution of biofuels to eliminate its dependence on fossil fuels.
55°C 32°C 18°C
WDG HIGH INTENSIVE DRYER
wet distiller grains (WDG)
yeast urea water
wastewater carbon ethanol dioxide
95% ethanol 5% water
12 ETHANOL TRANSPORT emissions
95% ethanol 5% water zeolite absorbants
9 10 11
above: plant and processing section of ethanol production facility illustrating inputs and outputs. Graph shows heat needed for different stages of processing.
top: US exports of ethanol and DDGS; line width illustrates volumes exported per year
above: Great Lake Megaregion map showing corn production by county, ethanol production plants and capacity, and E85 distribution facilities.
above: Great Lake Megaregion map showing soy production by county, biodiesel production plants and capacity, and biodiesel distribution facilities.
DETROIT FUTURE CITY Collaboration for the city of Detroit
Firm: Hamilton Anderson Associates - Detroit Project Lead: Dan Kinkead June 2012 - March 2013 PROJECT BRIEF:
Detroit Future City was published for use by the City of Detroit and other supporting organizations. HAA collaborated with numerous firms and organizations for the success of the book and its distribution to the public.
Design, production, and refinement of graphics, maps, and architecture/landscape drawings for visual consistency within the book.
above: inside cover of Detroit Future City
right: graphic content designed and produced with Technical Team.
RogueHAA - INSTALLATIONS
Firm: Hamilton Anderson Associates - Detroit Project Lead: Melissa Dittmer May 2012 - March 2013 PROJECT BRIEF:
RogueHAA is a design, architecture, and urban advocacy collaborative. RogueHAA hosts events, talks, and design installations in Detroit.
Graphic design for event marketing. Design input and fabrication of installations for two events: Dlectricity and archiCULTURAL SHIFT.
above: Dlectricity right: installation and post installation in Detroit. card for RogueHAA event.
NEW YORK IS NOT A PLACE Strategies for Over-Population
With Laetitia Croize-Pourcelet Instructor: Jimenez Lai Spring 2009 Published in MAS Context and 2012 UIC Catalog Manhattan is home to thousands of corporate headquarters, televisions and talk shows, movie locations, artists, fashion labels, etc. In a highly globalized and technologically driven society, Manhattan does not need to be bound to one physical place. Manhattan could drift off with its workforce and maintain its prominence in the world market.
Physical strategies for densification were observed from various highly populated cities around the globe; Tokyo, Beijing, Rotterdam, Paris, etc. Each of these strategies are consciously applied to Manhattans various neighborhood typologies to either enhance icons (such as Central Park and Times Square) or reactivate weaker neighborhoods.
New York Is Not A Place explores strategies of densification on an over-populated landmass. It is a political non-fiction in which Manhattanâ€™s population increases by 77% when the powers of the city unite and realize they are part of a larger concept, detached from any physical place. Without consent, Manhattan detaches itself from its surrounding and drifts off allowing it to physically connect to other parts of the world.
Central Park is EXPANDED to allow for more open space. The buildings of Wall Street are CONNECTED for efficient access between corporate entities. Chinatown is SATURATED to increase living density while maintaining the low building elevation. Time Square is DESCENDED to increase surface area for advertisements. The Empire State building is STRETCHED vertically to increase floor area while its iconic recognition is preserved. The northern neighborhoods, which are economically weaker, are LIFTED to increase of views toward the city and therefore raise their real-estate values. Lifting also adds space for underground built forms. All of these strategies are applied to create an urban composition of Manhattan while avoiding interrupting its life and character.
1.62M CURRENT INHABITANTS
22.96 MILESÂ˛ top: clips from film made to illustrate Manhattan drifting off leaving weak boroughs behind middle: manhattan drifting past Tokyo
above: population change when Manhattan drifts will all its workforce
strategies for densification of over-populated Manhattan
DRAPING DENSITY Utilizing open space
45 MILES | SUBURBS
10 MILES | NEIGHBORHOODS
0 MILES | DOWNTOWN
PERMEABLE SURFACE Social Gatherings
FLOWER GARDEN Neighborhood Compost PRODUCE GARDEN Neighborhood Food PRAIRIE LANDSCAPE Ecological System
GLÒRIES MASTER PLAN
+ DESIGN CENTER Complexity, Urbanity, and Hybridization
With: Jillian Duran & Benjamin Durdle Instructor: Claudi Aguiló & Eileen Liebman Spring 2008
URBAN DESIGN PROCESS OVERLAY
The dynamics between various
systems; a whole made up of
complicated or interrelated parts.
psychological) that compose the
a new element different from
fuse separate elements so that they
1 private 2 public 3 semi-public 4 neighborhood based 5 city based 6 young families 7 all ages
8 elderly, family visitors 9 young adults 10 adults 11 employees only 12 weekday day 13 weekday nights 14 all hours 15 weekend day 16 weekend night
17 varied hours 18 seasonal use 19 year round use 20 educational 21 health 22 residential 23 shopping/social 24 office 25 cultural 26 green space/open space
MIXED-USE PROGRAM STRATEGY
PROPOSED SITE PLAN
PROPOSED SITE SECTION
PLAN - LEVEL 3
DESIGN CENTER SECTION
AXONOMETRIC DETAIL - ACCESSIBLE ROOF
FACADE DETAIL + ELEVATION
DESIGN CENTER ELEVATION
OAK STREET BEACH & FACILITIES
The Ecological Landscape Integrated with Infrastructure in Chicago, IL
Instructor: Juan Rois Fall 2007 Pollution is a current problem among the Great Lakes and especially in areas adjacent to large cities. The Chicago lakefront beaches often close its doors to the population because of e.coli bacteria on the beach and in the shallow waters. Solutions to pollution include the filtration of road runoff and appropraite facilities to keep the beachs and water clean. The Chicago lakefront beaches are artificially built for public use. The miles of concrete and sand dug up from the center of the lake produce a huge string of infrastructure spanning from 31st Street to North Chicago. The hard, impermeable surfaces make water flow quickly from the urban fabric to the shore carrying many toxics with it. This proposal softens the Chicago Lakefront, allowing ecological landscapes for filtration, growth, and exploration.
The proposal begins at the urban level at Oak Street Beach. At this point, the beach and city are separated by Lake Shore Drive, a major lakefront highway. The underground access from the city fabric to the lakefront is widened to create an experiential path. A large canopy spans the open air, below ground entrace to give a visual reference from the shopping corridor nearby. Once underground, once passes under the highway through a tunnel which wides towards its end, below the horizon of the beach to expose the sand and sky. An ecological landscape is created to separate the hard surface of pedestrian and vehicular ciruclation and the lake. A range of vegetation and swales filter runoff. Visitors are able to explore the new ecological system on raised platform weaving through and above the wetland. The beach facilities include washrooms, showers, a
B BUILDING ELEVATION
WALKING PATH ECOLOGICAL GARDEN PERMEABLE PAVERS BIOSWALE
A SITE SECTION
locker room, a cafe, seating and a roof terrace. Its structure is integrated into the infrastructure of Lake Shore Drive, producing a low and horizontal form. The existing bike path is raised adajcent to cars above th building to produce a new view of the lakeshoreâ€™s horizon and its adjacent cityscape for active pedestrians. The facilites materials consist of concrete, wood, and steel to accompany the existing city fabric and infrastructure with and ecological feel.
Because of often beach closings, three pools are added near a terraces landscape. Each pool captures different levels and views of the waterâ€™s horizon on Michigan Lake and allows for different types of users and activities. The terraces filter runoff from the nearby facilities before it enters the lake.
C BUILDING SECTION
HOLLYWOOD BEACH CONSTRUCTION
FOSTER BEACH CONSTRUCTION
MONROE BEACH CONSTRUCTION
NORTH AVENUE BEACH CONSTRUCTION
MONROE BEACH GROWTH
NORTH AVENUE BEACH GROWTH
OAK STREET BEACH CONSTRUCTION
2010 CHICAGO LAKEFRONT RENOVATION PHASING - COPY + PASTE
HOLLYWOOD BEACH CONSTRUCTION
FOSTER BEACH CONSTRUCTION
MONROE BEACH IMPROVED WATER QUALITY
NORTH AVENUE BEACH IMPROVED WATER QUALITY
OAK STREET BEACH GROWTH
OHIO STREET BEACH CONSTRUCTION
12TH STREET BEACH CONSTRUCTION
31ST STREET BEACH CONSTRUCTION
The design for Oak Street Beach is meant to be repeated along the 8-mile Chicago Lakefront. As the ecological process continues, water quality will improve. A phased time-frame is proposed for when construction, growth, and expected water quality improvement will happen. It considers beaches remaining open for Chicago’s active population.
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