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TYPO GRAPHIC ATLAS A GUIDE THROUGH TYPOGRAPHIC FUNDAMENTALS


TYPO GRAPHIC ATLAS A GUIDE THROUGH TYPOGRAPHIC FUNDAMENTALS

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Typographic Credit Designed by Shelby Lemon. Class project for Typographic Systems at the University of Kansas, Spring 2013. The text was compiled from the following sources: Elements of Typographic Style by Robert Bringhurst, Getting it Right with Type: the Do’s and

Don’ts of Typography by Victoria Square, Mac is Not A Typewriter by Robin Williams. This book is not to be sold to the public and to only be used by the designer for their reference and student design portfolio.

Shelby Christine Lemon UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS 2013

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Content Guide Use this as a guide to create proper printed and digital text. If navigated correctly, your typographic destination will be quite a sight to see. If you do not follow these fundamentals, your typography will be less than successful. Good luck on your journey.

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6 RULES DEFINED 20 QUOTES APOSTROPHES DASHES 26 HYPHENATION 30 JUSTIFICATION 44 NUMERALS & FIGURES 50 X-HEIGHT 64 COLUMN WIDTH 68 KERNING &LEADING 72 PARAGRAPH BREAKS 86 HEADERS SUBHEADS CROSSHEADS 100 CAPTIONS & NOTES 114 ALIGNMENTS 118 SMALL CAPS 124 GRID STRUCTURES 134 SPECIAL CHARACTERS 138 COMBINING TYPE 146 FONT SPECS


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RULES DEFINED

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Rules Defined

Insert only a single space after punctuation

INSERT SINGLE SPACE

INDENTS

Inserting two spaces after a period was common when using a typewriter. Monospace typefaces were designed to occupy the same amount of space no matter the width of the character. Therefore, two spaces were needed to identify the end of a sentence and the beginning of another sentence. With the introduction of the Mac and digital type, characters are designed proportionately, which allows for the correct practice of using one space after all punctuation.

1VKWV\QV]W][\M`\UIZSITTXIZIOZIXP[IN\MZ\PMÅZ[\ with an indent of at least one “em” (3 spaces). Do NOT use 3 spaces but rather use the tabs or indents option.

Do not put more than one space after puntuation like this. Notice the large gap. Only do this on typewriters. Use only once space after puntucation like this. Notice how the characters are proportionate to the space. How nice.

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Do not use spaces in place of an indent


Use proper em/ en dashes, and hyphens

EM & EN DASHES

HYPHENATION

An em is a unit of measure equal to the point size that you are using. An em dash is a type of punctuation used to offset clauses in a sentence or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. An en dash is equal to half the length of an em dash. En dashes are used to denote time duration.

Don’t rely on software to judge placement of hyphens. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, “elegantly” is acceptable, but “elegant-ly” is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word or any word shorter then four letters as the last line of a paragraph. Avoid consecutive hyphenated lines, or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break.

This is an example of an EM DASH—it is much longer than normal hyphenation. This is an example of an EN DASH– it is half the length of the em dash.

Use proper hyphenation in sentence breaks and titles

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Rules Defined

QUOTATIONS APOSTROPHES Use proper quote and apostrophe

Use true quotation marks and apostrophes instead of using inch marks and feet marks. Place all punctuations inside the quotation marks.

marks "Do not use feet or inch marks like this sentence." “You must use proper quotations marks like this.”

SMALL CAPS When you are setting text that contains acronyms, be sure to select a typeface with family containing small caps. Selecting small caps from the style menus is a poor choice because the computer reduces the overall size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and \PMÆW_WN \PMNWV\-`XMZ\\aXMNIKM[M\[QV\PM)LWJM Type Library have small caps options. THIS IS AN EXAMPLE OF CHOOSING SMALL CAPS FROM STYLE MENUS. DO NOT DO THIS. IT CAN CHANGE THE FEEL OF THE GIVEN TYPEFACE. NOTICE HOW THE STROKE OF THE CAPITAL LETTERS IS DARKER.

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Use true small caps, not computer generated ones


Add letter spacing to capitals and small caps

LETTER SPACING

KERNING

Letter spacing is the amount of space between characters in a word. Some software programs call letter spacing tracking. Use positive number values (to about 2 or 3) to open up letter spacing to capitalized text and small caps, except when periods are used between characters. Line length is a measure of text on one line. Any measure between 45 and 75 characters is comfortable for single columns. The ideal measure for body text length is 66 characters (counting both letters, punctuation, and spaces.) For multiple columns, the ideal measure is between 40 and 50 characters.

Adjust the space between two particular letters to allow for more consistent negative space. It is the part of a metal type projecting beyond its body or shank.

Adjust the kerning between letters

This is an example of not using letter spacing. Notice how the letters are closer together ESPECIALLY WHEN USING ALL CAPITAL LETTERS. This is an example of using letter spacing to make the text more legible. CAPITAL LETTERS ESPECIALLY HAVE MORE READABILITY.

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Rules Defined

Word spacing should be fairly close

WORD SPACING

JUSTIFICATION

For text meant for extended reading, the amount of space between words in a paragraph should be fairly close–about the width of a lowercase “i.” If the word spacing is too close, it appears as one giant word and legibility is decreased. Keep the spaces between words fairly thin, consistent and even.

Justification can be appropriate in certain places. However, it can create certain problems such as rivers and word spacing—not visually appealing. Adjusting size of margins, decreasing body copy size, turning on auto hyphenatation, and manually hyphenating the text are all examples of possible solutions.

This is an example of bad word spacing. Word spacing that is too close isn’t easy to read.

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Justification can be used to balance spacing


Use old style figures when appropriate

OLD STYLE FIGURES

CAPITALS

7TL[\aTMÅO]ZM[IT[WSVW_VI[VWVTQVQVOÅO]ZM[LW not line up on the baseline like regular (lining) numerals do. They can be found in various fonts. If the body text PI[I[QOVQÅKIV\IUW]V\WN V]UJMZ[ZM[MIZKPINWV\ family where they are included. If non-lining numerals are not available, use a slightly smaller point size for the lining numbers. You can think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.

With options given to you by almost any type family (bold, point size, italics, underline, etc.) you will seldom need to use all caps to draw attention to your text. Not all typefaces are legible when set in all caps; this is especially true for script and decorative typefaces. Short headlines may be the exception to this rule.

Notice how some of these oldstyle numbers fall below the baseline.

SCRIPT CAPITALS are hard to read.

Use capitals correctly

CAPITAL LETTERS ARE NOT GOOD TO USE IN LONG SENTENCES SUCH AS THIS ONE.

1234567890

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Rules Defined

SPECIAL CHARACTERS Use copyright, register, and trademark marks properly

The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced in size in order to work with the body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to ZML]KM\PM[XMKQÅKUIZSJM\_MMV IVL <PMOWIT is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. This is unlike the ™ symbol. The © should NOT be superscripted and should remain on the baseline. ™ is usually superscripted depending on the chosen font. ™ and ® are normally set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript ®, reduce it to about 60% of the size. This copyright mark does not match the x-height

©.

The characters may need to be reduced to match the x-height. (© ™ ®)

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ELLIPSIS Use the actual ellipsis character. DO NOT use three periods. You can access the ellipsis key command by typing Option + : (colon). Be sure to allow a small amount of space before and after the ellipsis. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all. This is an example of using three periods instead of the ellipsis tool... This is an example of using an ellipsis…The spacing is smaller between the dots in this case.

Use the correct form of the ellipsis character


Avoid underlined text when possible.

UNDERLINED TEXT

LEADING

This was useful back in the days of the typewriter to draw attention to the text. With digital type and their families, you should not need to use underlined text.

Line spacing (also known as leading) refers to the space between lines of text. It is important for readability and appearance in large bodies of text. Leading is measured from baseline to baseline. As a rule of thumb, allow leading that is 120% of the point size. For sans serif, you may need 130% or more. When setting headlines, solid leading (leading = point size, 12/12) or negative leading (leading =< point size, 12/10) may be appropriate.

Underlining text is unneccessary. Use bold, italics, or font

size to draw attention instead.

Increase line spacing to improve readability

This is an example of poor leading. If you put the lines of text together is difficult to read. The leading is generally larger for best readability. This is font size 8, leading size 11.

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Rules Defined

Don’t make body copy too big or too small

BODY TEXT

ALTERING FONTS

Body text is set anywhere from 9-12 points. When you print text, it is usually larger than what it looked like on \PM[KZMMV;WXZQV\W]\aW]Z\M`\JMNWZMÅVITQbQVOaW]Z layout. Type studies will help you determine the proper size before you proceed with your layout.

Do not alter the original typeface by stretching or condensing the letters improperly. Certain type families XZW^QLMaW]_Q\PITW\WN ÆM`QJQTQ\a[WaW][PW]TLVW\ need to destroy/alter text. This is an example of condensing a font.

Avoid beginning three consecutive lines with the same word. Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens [QUXTaILR][\\PM\M`\\WI^WQLÅ`\PMXZWJTMU This is size 9. This is size 10.

This is size 11.

This is size 12. Going larger than size 12 is generally too big for body copy. Often the text looks differnt on screen, so it is good to test print before going bigger.

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This is an example of stretching a font.

Don not improperly alter an original typeface


Legibility varies with serif and san serif fonts

LEGIBILITY

MARGINS & COLUMNS

Sans serif typefaces work well for headlines and to set text that is aligned to vertical/horizontal lines. Certain sans serif typefaces which are not very geometrical work well for body copy (Frutiger, Meta, Scala Sans, etc.)

Line length is a measure of text on a line. Any measure between 45 and 75 characters is comfortable for single column widths. The ideal measure for body text length is 66 characters (counting letters, punctuation, and spaces.) For multiple columns, a measure between 40 and 50 characters is ideal. For single-column pages, 4.25 inches is ideal. For two column width, columns can be as narrow as 2 inches. Turning on the hyphenation feature can improve word spacing.

A serif is a slight projection off a stroke or letter. And example are the feet at the bottom of the letters, resting on the baseline.

Serif

Decrease line length and increase margins

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Rules Defined

Avoid widows and orphans

WIDOWS & ORPHANS

SERIES

Widows are either single words alone on a line, or single sentences alone on a new page. Orphans are single lines of copy alone at the end of a page.

Items in a series do not use a comma before the word “and.” (i.e., ‘peaches, apples and oranges.’) Do not say “we are having dinner and dessert and coffee.” Say “we are having

This is the example of a sentence with a widow; a word by itself.

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dinner, dessert and coffee.”

Do not use and in series


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QUOTES APOSTROPHES & DASHES

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Quotation Marks Use real quotation marks, never those grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize inch or foot marks. Most software applications will convert the typewriter quotes to the real quotes for you automatically as you type. +PMKS\PMXZMNMZMVKM[NWZaW]ZIXXTQKI\QWV·aW]¼TTÅVL a check box to tell your application to automatically set something like “typographer’s quotes,” “smart quotes,” or “curly quotes.” Then as you type using the standard

ditto key (“), the software will set the correct quotation marks for you. It’s necessary to know how to set smart quotes/real quotes yourself because often the software doesn’t do it or does it wrong. Bridge Clearance: 16’ 7”

Opening double quote: “ Type: Option [

The young man stood 6’ 2”

Closing double quote: ” Type: Option Shift ]

The length of the wall is 153’9”

Opening single quote: ‘ Type: Option [ Closing single quote: ’ Type: Option Shift ]

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Quotes//Apostrophes//Dashes

Apostrophes POSSESSIVES

CONTRACTIONS

OMISSION

To check a possessive apostrophe, turn the phrase around. The apostrophe will be placed after the word you end up with. For example, in the phrase the boys’ camp, to know where to place the apostrophe say to yourself, “The camp belongs to the boy.”

In contractions, the apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: your’re always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. That’s an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you don’t say: Your going to the store.

In a phrase such as Rock ’n’ Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. Don’t turn \PMÅZ[\IXW[\ZWXPMIZW]VL. Just because it appears in front of the letter does not mean you need to use the opposite single quote. Use an apostrophe in these situations.

“The big exception to this is “its.” “Its” used as a

As previously noted, it’s means “it is”; the

In a phrase such as Gone Fishin’ the same pattern is

possessive never has an apostrophe! The word it

apostrophe is indicating where the i is left out. Don’t

followed — the g is missing.

only has an apostrophe as a contraction — “it’s”

means “do not”; the apostrophe is indicating where

always means “it is” or “it has.”

the o is left out.

It may be easier to remember if you recall that

In a phrase such as House o’ Fashion, the apostrophe

In the 80s would mean the temperature; In the

yours, hers, and his don’t use apostrophes — and

takes the place of the f. There is no earthly reason

’80s would mean the decade. (Notice there is no

neither should its.

for an apostrophe to be set before the o.

apostrophe before the s. Why would there be? It

In a date when part of the year is left out, an apostrophe needs to indicate the missing year.

is not possessive, nor is it a contraction — it is simply plural.

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Dashes hyphen en dash –

Use proper ‘em’ dashes, ‘en’ dashes, and hyphens. Never use two hyphens instead of a dash.

em dash —

Everyone knows what a hyphens is—that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course. You might have been taught to use or given text that uses a double hyphen -- to indicate a dash. This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didn’t have the real dash used in professional typesetting. On a

Mac, no one needs to use the double hyphen—we have a professional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is a little shorter than the em dash. An em is a unit of measure equal to the point size that you are using. An em dash is a type of punctuation used to offset clauses in a sentence or to indicate an abrupt change in thought. An en dash is equal to half the length of an em dash. En dashes are used to denote duration (time.)

HYPHEN

EM DASH

EN DASH

A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used

Hold the Shift and Option keys down, then tap the

Hold the Option key down, then tap the hyphen key

to link words. It serves as a compound modifier

hyphen key.

where two words become one, such as x-height. A

An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a

hyphen is also used to break works at syllables in

The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—it’s

capital N) and is used between words that indicate

text blocks.

about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size

a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it

and typeface you’re using at the moment. This dash

where you might otherwise use the word “to.”

is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or it’s

In a page layout application, the en dash can be used

used in a spot where a period is too strong and a

with a thin space on either side of it. If you want you

comma is too weak. There is no space used on either

can kern it so it is not a full space.

side of the em dash.

October – December 6:30 – 8:45 A.M.

Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double

4 – 6 years of age

hyphen, but now we have the em dash. Using two hyphens (or worse, one) where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional.

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Quotes//Apostrophes//Dashes

YOU CANNOT UNDERSTAND TYPOGRAPHY AND TYPEFACES WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE AND YOU CAN’T KEEP THAT KNOWLEDGE FOR ONLY YOURSELF. TYPE DESIGN IS A CULTURAL ACT, NOT JUST A FEW LINES OF DATA IN THE CORNER OF A HARD DISK.” —JEAN FRANÇOIS PORCHEZ

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HYPHENATION

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Hyphenation Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed

Donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t rely on the software to judge where hyphens should be placed. At the end of lines, leave at least two characters behind and take at least three forward. For example, â&#x20AC;&#x153;ele-gantlyâ&#x20AC;? is acceptable, but â&#x20AC;&#x153;elegant-lyâ&#x20AC;? is not because it takes too little of the word to the next line. Avoid leaving the stub end of a hyphenated word, or any word that is shorter then four letters, as the last line of a paragraph.

PAY ATTENTION TO THESE RULES

Avoid more then 3 consecutive hyphenated lines. Avoid hyphenating or breaking proper names and titles. Creating a non-breaking space before and after the name will ensure that the name will not break. Avoid beginning three consecutive lines with the same word Since software programs deal with line breaks automatically based upon a number of variables, it is possible to have paragraphs with consecutive lines beginning with the same word. When this happens simply adjust the text to avoid/fix the problem.

s HOW THE TEXT IS READ AVOID WIDOWS ONE WORD ON THE LAST LINE OF A PARAGRAPH s AVOID HYPHENATING OR LINE BRAKES OF NAMES AND PROPER NOUNS s LEAVE A LEAST  CHARACTERS ON THE LINE AND  FOLLOWING s AVOID BEGINNING CONSECUTIVE LINES WITH THE SAME WORD s AVOID ENDING CONSECUTIVE LINES WITH THE SAME WORD s AVOID ENDING LINES WITH THE WORDS THE OF AT A BY s NEVER HYPHENATE A WORDS IN A HEADLINE AND AVOID HYPHENATION IN A CALLOUT

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Hyphenation

Hyphenation Rules AVOID WIDOWS

CONSECUTIVE ENDINGS

Do not have widows, it is visually unattractive and confusing

Like starting sentences, don’t end with the same word. It’s awkward and sounds repetitive with the same word.

AVOID PROPER NOUN LINE BREAKS

ENDING SENTENCES WELL

Try to keep names all on the same line. This means Mr. Johnson’s name should be on the same line.

Try your best not to ending the line of your text with a small word. These words include a, of, by, at, etc.

BREAKING IT UP

NEVERHYPHENATE HEADLINES

If you must break a word, leave at least 2 of the characters on the line and 3 on the following.

CONSECUTIVE STARTS HavingOWWL[MV\MVKM[UMIV[_WZL[ÆW_\WOM\PMZ Having two sentences in a row start a line with the same word is bad.

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Never hyphenate words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in a callout.


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JUSTIFICATION 31


Justification Only justify text if you can prevent rivers or gaps in your text.

Justify text only if the line is long enough to prevent awkward and inconsistent word spacing. The only time you can safely justify text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, then as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squashed together.

A general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6. There are 6 picas per inch). 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas. When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page.

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Justification

Justification Problems

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RIVERS

WIDOWS OR ORPHANS

In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text. They can occur with any spacing, though they are most noticeable with wide word spaces caused by either full text R][\QÅKI\QWVWZUWVW[XIKMLNWV\[

Never leave widows and orphans bereft on the page. Avoid both of these situations. If you have editing privileges, rewrite the copy, or at least add or delete a word or two. Sometimes you can remove spacing from the letters, words, or lines, depending on which program you’re working in. Sometimes widening a margin just a hair will do it. But it must be done. Widows and orphans on a page are wrong.

When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer than seven characters (not words, characters) on the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse than leaving one word at the end of a line is leaving part of a word, the other part being paraphrased on the line above. When the last line of a paragraph, be it ever so long, won’t fit at the bottom of a column and must end itself at the top of the next column, that is an orphan. ALWAYS correct this.


Justification Example 1 Word spacing is close to being successful. It is a little spread out at the moment, especially with this serif font.

.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJruary 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Fu\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\ML his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected \ZILQ\QWV[ IVL OTWZQÅML KWV\MUXWrary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[ purposely intended to inspire public

anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the [\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 90% Minimun 25% Desired 50%

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Justification

This spacing is a little more successful, especially with the san serif font. There are still too many spaces between words.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire

public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great â&#x20AC;&#x153;artâ&#x20AC;? movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 90% Minimun 25% Desired 50%

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Justification Example 2 This is similar to what you would see in newspapers. There are large gaps to compensate for space between words.

.]\]ZQ[U _I[ Ă&#x2026;Z[\ IVVW]VKML on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined Ja 5IZQVM\\Q ZMĂ&#x2020;MK\ML PQ[ MUXPI[Q[ on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradi\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNM mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive IVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and

amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: I Ă&#x2026;Z[\ ZILQKIT UQ` WN  IZ\ IVL TQNM the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its :][[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\ â&#x20AC;&#x153;artâ&#x20AC;? movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 180% Minimun 5% Desired 180%

36


Justification

The spacing here is terrible. Notice the large gaps that justifying creates to fill the space.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire

public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great â&#x20AC;&#x153;artâ&#x20AC;? movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 180% Minimun 5% Desired 180%

37


Justification Example 3 The justification is far too large. This has so many rivers you can’t even count them.

.]\]ZQ[U _I[ ÅZ[\ IVVW]VKML on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, ZMÆMK\ML PQ[ MUXPI[Q[ WV LQ[KIZLing what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traLQ\QWV[ IVL OTWZQÅML KWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone _I[ IOOZM[[Q^M IVL QVÆIUUI\WZa and was purposely intended to

inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of \PM _WZTL _IZ" I ÅZ[\ ZILQKIT UQ` of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & 1\ITQIV [QLM[ \PM ÅZ[\ OZMI\ ¹IZ\º movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 270% Minimun 90% Desired 260%

38


Justification

Notice how separated and blocky the text looks. The justification is way too large.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amaze-

ment, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great â&#x20AC;&#x153;artâ&#x20AC;? movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 270% Minimun 90% Desired 260%

39


Justification Example 4 Justification is still too big for the font size.

.]\]ZQ[U _I[ Ă&#x2026;Z[\ IVVW]VKML on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined Ja 5IZQVM\\Q ZMĂ&#x2020;MK\ML PQ[ MUXPI[Q[ on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradi\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNM mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive IVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and

amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: I Ă&#x2026;Z[\ ZILQKIT UQ` WN  IZ\ IVL TQNM the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its :][[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\ â&#x20AC;&#x153;artâ&#x20AC;? movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 220% Minimun 5% Desired 200%

40


Justification

Justification is still too big. It isn’t quite as bad on the san serif, but still not perfectly readable.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amaze-

ment, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 220% Minimun 5% Desired 200%

41


Justification Example 5 This is an instance that you’d have to play with the numbers—notice the first part of the paragraph has more spaces than the end.

.]\]ZQ[U _I[ ÅZ[\ IVVW]VKML on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, KWQVML Ja 5IZQVM\\Q ZMÆMK\ML PQ[ emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tradi\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNM mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive IVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa

intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN  art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

Maximum 90% Minimun 10% Desired 90%

42


Justification

The justification of the San serif is more successful.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire

public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avantgarde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great â&#x20AC;&#x153;artâ&#x20AC;? movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. Maximum 90% Minimun 10% Desired 90%

43


44


NUMERALS & FIGURES

45


Numerals & Figures Oldstyle figures blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy

7TL[\aTMÅO]ZM[IT[WSVW_VI[VWVTQVQVOÅO]ZM[LWVW\ line up on the baseline as regular or lining numerals LW<PMaKIVJMNW]VLQV^IZQW][NWV\[7TL[\aTMÅO]ZM[ are a style of numeral which approximate lowercase letterforms by having an x-height and varying ascenders and descenders. They are considerably different from \PMUWZMKWUUWV¹TQVQVOºWZ¹ITQOVQVOºÅO]ZM[_PQKP are all-cap height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts. 7TL[\aTMÅO]ZM[PI^MUWZMWN I\ZILQ\QWVITKTI[[QKTWWS and are very useful and quite beautiful when set within text. They are only available for certain typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in a font, but more WN\MV_Q\PQVI[]XXTMUMV\IZaWZM`XMZ\NWV\<PMÅO]ZM[ are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces \PI\ZM[]T\NZWUUWVW[XIKMLTQVQVOÅO]ZM[M[XMKQITTa around the numeral one. =VTQSMTQVQVOÅO]ZM[7TL[\aTMÅO]ZM[JTMVLQV_Q\PW]\ disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work

well in headlines since they’re not as intrusive as lining ÅO]ZM[1VNIK\UIVaXMWXTMXZMNMZ\PMUW^MZITTNWZ most uses except charts and tables. It’s well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with WTL[\aTMÅO]ZM[#\PMNWV\[\PI\KWV\IQV\PMUUQOP\_MTT become some of your favorites. 1N \PMJWLa\M`\PI[I[QOVQÅKIV\IUW]V\WN V]UJMZ[ research a font family where they are included. If non-lining numerals are not available, use a slightly smaller point size for the lining numbers. Think of lining numbers as upper case numbers and non-lining numbers as lower case numbers.

OLD STYLE NUMERALS s #ASLON 

1234567890

s 'OUDY

1234567890

s *ANSON

1234567890

s 7ALBAUM

1234567890

s "ODONI

1234567890

46


Numerals//Figures

Numeral & Figure Examples CASLON 3

GOUDY

Notice how large and clunky these numbers appear:

Notice how large and clunky these numbers appear:

Dear John, please call me at 483-0762 at 3:00 to discuss

Dear John, please call me at 483-0762 at 3:00 to discuss

marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

Notice how beautifully these numbers blen into the next:

Notice how beautifully these numbers blen into the next:

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss

marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

WALBAUM

CHOLLA WIDE

Notice how large and clunky these numbers appear:

Notice how large and clunky these numbers appear:

Dear John, please call me at 483-0762 at 3:00 to

Dear John, please call me at 483-0762 at 3:00 to discuss

discuss marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip

marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

code 87505. Notice how beautifully these numbers blen into the next: Notice how beautifully these numbers blen into the next:

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to

marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

discuss marriage. Or write to me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

47


Numeral Alignment Notice how the numbers align with the baselineâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; Compare the serif and san serif fonts

WALBAUM 12 134 17 1023 323

CASLON 3 12 134 17 1023 323

GOUDY 12 134 17 1023 323

CHOLLA WIDE 12 134 17 1023 323

PLATELET 12 134 17 1023 323

SKIA 12 134 17 1023 323

12.5 134.0 17.8

12.5 134.0 17.8

12.5 134.0 17.8

12.5 134.0 17.8

12.5 134.0 17.8

12.5 134.0 17.8

48


Numerals//Figures

TYPOGRAPHY HAS ONE PLAIN DUTY BEFORE IT AND THAT IS TO CONVEY INFORMATION IN WRITING. NO ARGUMENT OR CONSIDERATION CAN ABSOLVE TYPOGRAPHY FROM THIS DUTY. —EMIL RUDER

49


X-HEIGHT

50


51


X-Height There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color”. In typography, color can also describe the balance between black and white on the page of text. A typeface’s color is determined by stroke width, x-height, character width and serif styles. As a designer, if you are only asked to make the text readable on the page the following questions should be

asked. Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability extended amount of text – such as an article, book, or annual report – is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers to whether a short burst of text – such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign – is instantly recognizable.

WHO IS TO READ IT? Someone that wants to read it? Someone that has to read it?

HOW WILL IT BE BE READ? Quickly. In passing. Focused. Near. Far.

52


X-Height

Xxhg Xxhg

53

55 point

MELIOR HERMANN ZAPF

HELVETICA NEUE 55 MAX MIEDINGER

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: large

x-height: large

character average

character width: average

color: medium

color: medium


Xxhg MRS EAVES ZUZANA LICKO

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Xxhg

50 point

UNIVERS ADRIAN FRUTIGER

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: short

x-height: tall

character width: narrow

character width: wide

color: light

color: dark

54


X-Height

Xxhg

55

Xxhg

50 point

ITC OFFICINA SANS BOOK ERIC SPIEKERMANN

GARAMOND CLAUDE GARAMOND

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: short

x-height: average

character width: narrow

character width: narrow

color: dark

color: light


Xxhg Xxhg VOLTA T KONRAD F. BAUER, WALTER BAUM

FILOSOFIA ZUZANA LICKO

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: short

x-height: short

character width: wide

character width: narrow

color: dark

color: very light

56


X-Height

Xxhg

57

Xxhg

50 point

BASKERVILLE JOHN BASKERVILLE

FUTURA PAUL RENNER

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions h_Zln[c^\mZmma^lZf^mbf^'FZkbg^mmblfZgb_^lmh`ehkb_b^] the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: average

x-height: very tall

character width: wide

character width: narrow

color: light

color: dark


Xxhg

Xxhg

50 point

INTERSTATE TOBIAS FRERE-JONES

GOUDY OLD STYLE FREDERIC WILLIAM GOUDY

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was  first  announced  on  February  20,  1909,  when  the  Paris   newspaper  Le  Figaro  published  a  manifesto  by  the  Italian  poet  and   editor  Filippo  Tommaso  Marinetti.  The  name  Futurism,  coined  by   Marinetti,  reflected  his  emphasis  on  discarding  what  he  conceived   to  be  the  static  and  irrelevant  art  of  the  past  and  celebrating  change,   originality,  and  innovation  in  culture  and  society.  Futurism  rejected   traditions  and  glorified  contemporary  life,  mainly  by  emphasizing   two  dominant  themes,  the  machine  and  motion.  The  works  were   characterized  by  the  depiction  of  several  successive  actions  of  a   subject  at  the  same  time.  Marinetti’s  manifesto  glorified  the  new   technology  of  the  automobile  and  the  beauty  of  its  speed,  power,   and  movement.  He  exalted  violence  and  conflict  and  called  for  the   sweeping  repudiation  of  traditional  cultural,  social,  and  political   values  and  the  destruction  of  such  cultural  institutions  as  museums   and  libraries.

x-height: average

x-height: very tall

character width: narrow

character width: narrow

color: medium

color: dark

58


X-Height

Xxhg

59

Xxhg

50 point

MEMPHIS RUDOLF WOLF

CASLON 3 WILLIAM CASLON

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: short

x-height: average

character width: narrow

character width: narrow

color: dark

color: light


Xxhg

Xxhg

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

x-height: average

x-height: very tall

character width: wide

character width: narrow

color: light

color: dark

BEMBO STANLEY MORRISON

50 point

GILL SANS ERIC GILL

60


X-Height

Xxhg

61

Xxhg

50 point

ROCKWELL MONOTYPE STAFF

BODONI GIAMBATTISTA BONDONI

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrel-­ evant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected tra-­ ditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by empha-­ sizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweep-­ ing repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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50 point

CENTURY GOTHIC MARK SIMONSON

ITC BOOKMAN ED BENGUIAT

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a mani-­ festo by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he con-­ ceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several succes-­ sive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the auto-­ mobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and move-­ ment. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

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PERFECT TYPOGRAPHY IS CERTAINLY THE MOST ELUSIVE OF ALL ARTS. SCULPTURE IN STONE ALONE COMES NEAR IT IN OBSTINACY. —JAN TSCHICHOLD

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COLUMN WIDTH

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Column Width Column width determines the line length

Determining line length is key. A general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type.

COLUMN TIPS s 3KINNY COLUMNS HAVE SHORT LINE LENGTH AND CAN CREATE WIDOWSORPHANS

That is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inchessimply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas.

s 7IDE COLUMNS ARE HARDER FOR A READER TO SKIM AND READ QUICKLY s #OLUMN WIDTH RELIES HEAVILY ON THE JUSTIFICATION OF THE LETTERS

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Column Width

COLUMN WIDTH EXAMPLES .]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\ announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, ZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[ on discarding what

he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions IVLOTWZQÅML contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two

.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name .]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[ emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism ZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant

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dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s UIVQNM[\WOTWZQÅML the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power,

and movement. He exalted violence and KWVÆQK\IVLKITTML for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same \QUM5IZQVM\\Q¼[UIVQNM[\WOTWZQÅML\PM new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. 0MM`IT\ML^QWTMVKMIVLKWVÆQK\IVLKITTML for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

This column width is too small. It makes the line lengths short so it cannot hold very many characters. The text doesn’t flow.

This is a good column width. It allows multiple words per line, creating a flowing text.


KERNING & LEADING

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KERNING Kerning helps make text balanced and easier to read

Kerning is an adjustment of the space between two letters. The characters of the Latin alphabet emerged over time; they were never designed with mechanical or automated spacing in mind. Thus some letter combinations look awkward without special spacing considerations. Gaps occur, for example, around letters whose forms angle outward or frame an open space (W, Y, V, T). In metal type, a kerned letter extends past the lead slug \PI\[]XXWZ\[Q\ITTW_QVO\_WTM\\MZ[\WÅ\UWZMKTW[MTa together. In digital fonts, the space between letter pairs is controlled by a kerning table created by the type designer,

_PQKP[XMKQÅM[[XIKM[JM\_MMVXZWJTMUI\QKTM\\MZKWUbinations. Working in a page layout program, a designer can choose to use metric kerning or optical kerning as well as adjusting the space between letters manually where desired. A well-designed typeface requires little or no additional kerning.

METRIC KERNING

OPTICAL KERNING

This uses the kerning tables that are

Optical kerning is executed auto-

built into the typeface. When you

matically by the page layout program.

select metric kerning in your page

Rather than using the pairs addressed

layout program, you are using the

in the font’s kerning table, optical

spacing that was intended by the type

kerning assesses the shapes of all

designer. Metric kerning usually looks

characters and adjusts the spacing

good, especially at small sizes. Cheap

wherever needed. Some graphic

novelty fonts often have little or no

designers apply optical kerning to

built-in kerning and will need to be

headlines and metric kerning to text.

optically kerned.

You can make this process efficient and consistent by setting kerning as part of your character styles.

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Kerning//Leading

Leading The amount of vertical space between lines of text

Leading comes from the metal-type era when typesetters inserted thin strips of lead (each one point thick) to increase the spacing between lines, for legibility or stylistic effects. Lines of normal text without leading are said to be set solid, and usually give a dense and dark appearance to the text block. Negative leading refers to less than normal spacing and is used to achieve dramatic visual impact in headlines, advertisements, posters, etc. In the desktop printing age, leading manipulation is achieved through pagemaking software

NORMAL LEADING This is an example of normal leading. This creates good legibility and is a relaible option.

NEGATIVE LEADING This is an example of negative leading. This makes the spacing smaller and harder to read.

EXTREME LEADING This is an example of exreme leading. This could mean the spacing is abnormally large or abnormally small. This is to create visual emphasis, but is not ideal for most body text.

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PARAGRAPH BREAKS 72


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Paragraph Breaks

Paragraph Breaks This helps the flow of the text for readers

Paragraph breaks set a rhythm for the reader. The breaks have a relationship with the column of text as well as the page margins. A break may be introduced as an indentation, as a space, or both. The overall page NMMT_QTTJMQVÆ]MVKMLJaaW]ZKPWQKM

PAY ATTENTION TO THESE RULES s FIRST LINE OF AN ARTICLE SHOULD BE FLUSH LEFT DO NOT INDENT first paragraph) s BLOCK PARAGRAPHS ARE FLUSH LEFT AND ARE SEPARATED BY extra leading not a full return s THE AMOUNT INDENT IS EQUAL TO THE LEADING SOMETIMES needs a bit more) s NEVER HIT TWO RETURNS BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS

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Paragraph Break Examples The most common, and effective form of paragraph breaks is tabs

 .]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The VIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\W be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation QVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJa emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZM public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\ and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian [QLM[\PMÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term— still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Paragraph Break Examples FUTURISM WAS FIRST ANNOUNCED ON FEBRUARY 20, 1909, WHEN THE PARIS newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso 5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\ he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, IVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. BUT IS IS THE MOVEMENTS WHICH SURVIVE, ODDLY, HERE WHERE WE LIVE and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All WN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Rus[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[ seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE MARINETTIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S OPENING MANIFESTO FOR ITALIAN FUTURISM BRISTLED with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ , by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

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Paragraph Break Examples .]\]ZQ[U_I[Ă&#x2026;Z[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]JTQ[PMLIUIVQfesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by 5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QKIVLQZZMTM^IV\ art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. FuturQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_WLWUQVIV\ themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVLIUIbMment, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. *]\Q[Q[\PMUW^MUMV\[_PQKP[]Z^Q^MWLLTaPMZM_PMZM_MTQ^MIVL_WZSI[XWM\[IVLIZ\Q[\["WZQN VW\\PM movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply QV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PMMXQ\WUMQV\PM XWXTIZUQVLWN IVI^IV\OIZLM1\_I[WVJW\PQ\[:][[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\Âş movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. ?PQTM5IZQVM\\QÂź[WXMVQVOUIVQNM[\WNWZ1\ITQIV.]\]ZQ[UJZQ[\TML_Q\PIXWTMUQKIT[\IVKMQVNI^WZWN \PM transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ , by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

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Paragraph Breaks

Paragraph Break Examples Decorative lines make tie in the book’s theme and break up text

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.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”


Paragraph Break Examples Simple line breaks break up body text without indentation

.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Paragraph Breaks

Paragraph Break Examples .]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Paragraph Break Examples .]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Paragraph Breaks

Paragraph Break Examples A bolded section of text creates visual breaks to a body text

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by 5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QKIVLQZZMTM^IV\ art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. FuturQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_WLWUQVIV\ themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVLIUIbMment, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by \PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PMMXQ\WUMQV\PMXWXTIZUQVLWN  IVI^IV\OIZLM1\_I[WVJW\PQ\[:][[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TML by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant today â&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ , by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedomof-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

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Paragraph Break Examples Play with color to differentiate lines of text

.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZW published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name .]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture IVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombas\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZ and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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Paragraph Breaks

Paragraph Break Examples Try using tracking to draw attention

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F u t u r i s m w a s f i r s t a n n o u n c e d o n Fe b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 0 9 , w h e n t h e Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo TomUI[W5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLing what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, WZQOQVITQ\aIVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;ML contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The UIVQNM[\WÂź[ZPM\WZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. B u t i s i s t h e m o v e m e n t s w h i c h s u r v i v e , o d d l y, h e r e w h e r e w e l i v e and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All WN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Rus[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[ seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ , by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?


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HEADERS SUBHEADS & CROSSHEADS 87


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Headers//Subheads//Crossheads

Headers Subheads & Crossheads Headers give a first glimpse into what information is laid out

A header is a line or block of text appearing at the top of each page of a book or document. It is used to inform the reader of the main topic of the body text. A subheader is a heading given to a subsection of a piece of writing. A subheader is used to give more context to the header. This can be shown by use of italics, size, color, etc. Subheaders are generally smaller in size to headers, so as not to distract from the main topic.

A crossheader is a heading set in body text to break it into easily readable sections. Cross heads can be set in a different font, point size, or color to create a more visually interesting break.

PAY ATTENTION TO THESE RULES s 4HE HEADER SHOULD BE THE MOST IMPORTANT ITEM ON THE PAGE 7ORKING WITH tracking, and kerning is important if your header is larger than the body text. The letter spacing changes as the point size increases. s 4O AVOID AN AWKWARD BREAK BETWEEN THE HEADER SUBHEADER AND BODY TEXT

adjust the leading to create even spacing. s 5SE YOUR SUBHEADERS AS A WAY TO INTRODUCE THE TEXT SO READERS CAN EASILY FIND the information they are seeking.

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WORDS IN LIBERTY

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM .]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[ newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso 5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\ he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, IVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. )TTWN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"\PMÅZ[\ radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both Q\[:][[QIVIVL1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_ sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Header, Subheader, and Crossheader Examples

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Headers//Subheads//Crossheads

WORDS IN LIBERTY A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

FUTURISM WAS FIRST ANNOUNCED ON FEBRUARY 20, 1909, WHEN THE PARIS newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso 5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\ he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, IVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. RADICAL BUT IS IS THE MOVEMENTS WHICH SURVIVE, ODDLY, HERE WHERE WE LIVE MIX OF ART and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All AND LIFE WN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Rus[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[ seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE MARINETTIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S OPENING MANIFESTO FOR ITALIAN FUTURISM BRISTLED with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ , by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

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Header, Subheader, and Crossheader Examples


?WZL[QV Liberty A Prologue to Futurism

.]\]ZQ[U_I[Ă&#x2026;Z[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]JTQ[PMLIUIVQfesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by 5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QKIVLQZZMTM^IV\ art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. FuturQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_WLWUQVIV\ themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVLIUIbMment, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life

*]\Q[Q[\PMUW^MUMV\[_PQKP[]Z^Q^MWLLTaPMZM_PMZM_MTQ^MIVL_WZSI[XWM\[IVLIZ\Q[\["WZQN VW\\PM movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply QV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PMMXQ\WUMQV\PM XWXTIZUQVLWN IVI^IV\OIZLM1\_I[WVJW\PQ\[:][[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\Âş movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. ?PQTM5IZQVM\\QÂź[WXMVQVOUIVQNM[\WNWZ1\ITQIV.]\]ZQ[UJZQ[\TML_Q\PIXWTMUQKIT[\IVKMQVNI^WZWN \PM transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ , by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

Header, Subheader, and Crossheader Examples

92


Headers//Subheads//Crossheads

S W O R InDLiberty A Prologue to Futurism

.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL Radical Mix of Art and Life amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

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.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

WORDS IN LIBERTY

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Header, Subheader, and Crossheader Examples

94


Headers//Subheads//Crossheads

WORDS IN LIBERTY A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

95

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A PROLOGUE RADICAL MIX OF ART & LIFE TO FUTURISM

WORDS IN LIBERTY .]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Header, Subheader, and Crossheader Examples

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Headers//Subheads//Crossheads

WORDSINLIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto Ja\PM1\ITQIVXWM\IVLMLQ\WZ.QTQXXW<WUUI[W5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMร†MK\MLPQ[ MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QKIVLQZZMTM^IV\IZ\WN \PMXI[\IVLKMTMJZI\QVOKPIVOM WZQOQVITQ\aIVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQร…MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNM UIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_WLWUQVIV\\PMUM["UIKPQVMIVLUW\QWV<PMUIVQNM[\Wยผ[ZPM\WZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTa JWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVร†IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL IUIbMUMV\\WIZW][MKWV\ZW^MZ[aIVL\WI\\ZIK\_QLM[XZMILI\\MV\QWV Radical Mix of Art and Life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements,\PMV\PMQZ[MV[MWN IZ\I[IVTQNMQ\[MTN)TTWN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja \PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"Iร…Z[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PMMXQ\WUMQV\PMXWXTIZUQVLWN IVI^IV\OIZLM 1\_I[WVJW\PQ\[:][[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMร…Z[\OZMI\ยนIZ\ยบUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_ [WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ]VZQXMQVZM\ZW[XMK\\PMaKIZZa_Q\PQV\PMU\PM[MMLWN ITT\PI\_M_MZMTI\MZ\W JMKWUM While Marinettiโ€™s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed XZM[MV\!!\PMTI\MZUIVQNM[\W[WN .]\]ZQ[\XWM\[IVLIZ\Q[\[WNNMZMLNWZUITยน\MKPVQKITยบIXXZWIKPM[ \W\PM_WZS[\PMVOM\\QVO]VLMZ_Ia<PMSMa\MZUยธ[\QTTZM[WVIV\\WLIaยธ_I[XIZWTMQVTQJMZ\oJa_PQKPXWM\Za _I[\WJMKWUMยนIV]VQV\MZZ]X\ML[MY]MVKMWN VM_QUIOM[ยฐI[\ZQK\JM\WN QUIOM[WZIVITWOQM[\WJMKI[\QV\W \PMUa[\MZQW][[MIWN XPMVWUMVIยบ<PQ[NZMMLWUWN\PM_WZTL_PQTMQ\ZM[MUJTMLW\PMZNWZU[WN KWTTIOMIVLWN  QUIOMR]`\IXW[Q\QWVUWZMN]TTaM`XTWZML\PM][MWN QVVW^I\Q^MIVLM`XZM[[Q^M\aXWOZIXPaQV\PM^Q[]ITXZM[MV\I\QWVWN TIVO]IOMI[[M\QVUW\QWVJaNWZMZ]VVMZ[TQSM5ITTIZUu7]\ZIOMW][IVLIOOZM[[Q^M\PM.]\]ZQ[\[ยผ XMZNWZUIVKM[UQ`MLLMKTIUI\QWVIVLOM[\]ZMM^MV\[IVL[]ZZW]VLQVO[QVLQNNMZMVKMIVLMVOIOMUMV\\WJZMIS\PM JIZZQMZ[JM\_MMV\PMU[MT^M[IVL\PW[M_PWKIUM\WRMMZWZKPMMZ\PMU?ZW\M5IZQVM\\Q[MTJ[\KQZKI! ยน-^MZa\PQVOWN IVa^IT]MQ[\PMI\ZQKITยบ

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//WordsInLiberty )8ZWTWO]M\W.]\]ZQ[U .]\]ZQ[U_I[Ă&#x2026;Z[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[ newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso 5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\ he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, IVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. :ILQKIT5Q`WN )Z\IVL4QNM// But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All WN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Rus[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[ seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ , by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

Header, Subheader, and Crossheader Examples

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Headers//Subheads//Crossheads

Words In Liberty A Prologue to Futurism F u t u r i s m w a s f i r s t a n n o u n c e d o n F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 0 9 , w h e n t h e

Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo TomUI[W5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLing what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, WZQOQVITQ\aIVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;ML contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The UIVQNM[\WÂź[ZPM\WZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. Radical Mix of Art and Life B u t i s i s t h e m o v e m e n t s w h i c h s u r v i v e , o d d l y, h e r e w h e r e w e l i v e and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All WN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Rus[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[ seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ , by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

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CAPTIONS & NOTES

100


101


Captions and Notes Captions and notes give additional information

Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing. They’re also frequently ][MLJa_ZQ\MZ[WN ÅK\QWVNZWU0MZUIV5MT^QTTM (Moby-Dick) to contemporary novelists. Whether their intent is academic or artistic, footnotes present special typographic challenges.

footnote might provide deeper background, offer an alternate interpretation or provide a citation for the source of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the same purpose but are grouped together at the end of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the bottom of each page.

;XMKQÅKITTaINWW\VW\MQ[I\M`\MTMUMV\I\\PMJW\\WUWN  a page of a book or manuscript that provides additional information about a point made in the main text. The

Note that academic presses and journals can be

IMPORTANT

sticklers for format: before proceeding, check with

s .UMBERS AND 3YMBOLS

your client or publisher to see if they have a specific

s 0OINT 3IZE

stylesheet that must be followed.

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Captions//Notes

NUMBERS AND SYMBOLS

POINT SIZE

Footnotes are most often indicated by placing a superscript numeral immediately after the text to be referenced. The same superscript numeral then precedes the footnoted text at the bottom of the page. Numbering footnotes is essential when there are many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other symbol instead. Endnotes should always use numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

Footnotes and endnotes are set smaller than body text. The difference in size is usually about two points, but this can vary depending on the size, style and legibility of the main text. Even though theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re smaller, footnotes and endnotes should still remain at a readable size. Captions and footnotes can be important to adding facts and additional information about the body text. This information generally isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t as important as the main text, but helps provide better understanding. It should be a smaller point size so as not to distract the reader.

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WORDS IN LIBERTY

1 Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3

sealbst = himself

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM .]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[ newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso 5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\ he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, IVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. )TTWN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"\PMÅZ[\ radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both Q\[:][[QIVIVL1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_ sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

Captions and Notes

104


Captions//Notes

WORDS IN LIBERTY A PROLOGUE FUTURISM WAS FIRST TO FUTURISM ANNOUNCED ON FEBRUARY 20, 1909, WHEN THE PARIS newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso 5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\ he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. RADICAL BUT IS IS MIX THE MOVEMENTS OF ART AND WHICHLIFE SURVIVE, ODDLY, HERE WHERE WE LIVE and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All WN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Rus[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[ seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. WHILE MARINETTIâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S OPENING MANIFESTO FOR ITALIAN FUTURISM BRISTLED with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ 2, by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

105

1

Philip Meggs, History

of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

2

parole in liberta =

words set free (liberty)

3

selbst= himself

Captions and Notes


?WZL[QV Liberty A Prologue to Futurism

.]\]ZQ[U_I[Ă&#x2026;Z[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]JTQ[PMLIUIVQfesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by 5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QKIVLQZZMTM^IV\ art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society1. FuturQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_WLWUQVIV\ themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVLIUIbMment, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical Mix of Art and Life



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*]\Q[Q[\PMUW^MUMV\[_PQKP[]Z^Q^MWLLTaPMZM_PMZM_MTQ^MIVL_WZSI[XWM\[IVLIZ\Q[\["WZQN VW\\PM movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply QV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PMMXQ\WUMQV\PM XWXTIZUQVLWN IVI^IV\OIZLM1\_I[WVJW\PQ\[:][[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\Âş movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. ?PQTM5IZQVM\\QÂź[WXMVQVOUIVQNM[\WNWZ1\ITQIV.]\]ZQ[UJZQ[\TML_Q\PIXWTMUQKIT[\IVKMQVNI^WZWN \PM transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ 2, by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;? 

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Captions and Notes

106


Captions//Notes

S W O R InDLiberty A Prologue to Futurism .]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and [WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL Radical Mix of Art and Life amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

107

1

Philip Meggs, History

of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

2

parole in liberta =

words set free (liberty) 3

selbst = himself

Captions and Notes


A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

.]\]ZQ[U_I[Ă&#x2026;Z[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society1.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoric was passionately bombas\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZ and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the Ă&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

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WORDS IN LIBERTY

While Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ 2, by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

Captions and Notes

108


Captions//Notes

WORDS IN LIBERTY A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM 1

Philip Meggs, History

of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE 2

parole in liberta = words

set free (liberty) 3

selbst = himself

.]\]ZQ[U_I[ÅZ[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZWX]Jlished a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name FuturQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMÆMK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QK and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQÅMLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_W dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifesto’s rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its \WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVÆIUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IÅZ[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the ÅZ[\OZMI\¹IZ\ºUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term—still resonant today—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmé. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

109

Captions and Notes


A PROLOGUE RADICAL MIX OF ART & LIFE TO FUTURISM

WORDS IN LIBERTY .]\]ZQ[U_I[Ă&#x2026;Z[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[VM_[XIXMZ4M.QOIZW published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name .]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 8PQTQX5MOO[0Q[\WZaWN /ZIXPQK,M[QOV>IV6W[\ZIVL:MQVPWTL! Futurism rejected traditions and OTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNMUIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_WLWUQVIV\\PMUM["UIKPQVMIVLUW\QWV <PMUIVQNM[\WÂź[ZPM\WZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZa and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All of which, as futurism, had KWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PM epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the Ă&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ ,2 XIZWTMQVTQJMZ\I%_WZL[[M\NZMMTQJMZ\a by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 [MTJ[\%PQU[MTN (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

Captions and Notes

110


Captions//Notes

WORDSINLIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto Ja\PM1\ITQIVXWM\IVLMLQ\WZ.QTQXXW<WUUI[W5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMร†MK\MLPQ[ MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\PMKWVKMQ^ML\WJM\PM[\I\QKIVLQZZMTM^IV\IZ\WN \PMXI[\IVLKMTMJZI\QVOKPIVOM WZQOQVITQ\aIVLQVVW^I\QWVQVK]T\]ZMIVL[WKQM\a.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQร…MLKWV\MUXWZIZaTQNM UIQVTaJaMUXPI[QbQVO\_WLWUQVIV\\PMUM["UIKPQVMIVLUW\QWV<PMUIVQNM[\Wยผ[ZPM\WZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTa JWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVร†IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTaQV\MVLML\WQV[XQZMX]JTQKIVOMZIVL IUIbMUMV\\WIZW][MKWV\ZW^MZ[aIVL\WI\\ZIK\_QLM[XZMILI\\MV\QWV Radical Mix of Art and Life But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements,\PMV\PMQZ[MV[MWN IZ\I[IVTQNMQ\[MTN)TTWN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja \PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"Iร…Z[\ZILQKITUQ`WN IZ\IVLTQNM\PMMXQ\WUMQV\PMXWXTIZUQVLWN IVI^IV\OIZLM 1\_I[WVJW\PQ\[:][[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMร…Z[\OZMI\ยนIZ\ยบUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_ [WUM\QUM[[MMUM`IOOMZI\MLWZ]VZQXMQVZM\ZW[XMK\\PMaKIZZa_Q\PQV\PMU\PM[MMLWN ITT\PI\_M_MZMTI\MZ\W JMKWUM While Marinettiโ€™s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed XZM[MV\!!\PMTI\MZUIVQNM[\W[WN .]\]ZQ[\XWM\[IVLIZ\Q[\[WNNMZMLNWZUITยน\MKPVQKITยบIXXZWIKPM[ \W\PM_WZS[\PMVOM\\QVO]VLMZ_Ia<PMSMa\MZUยธ[\QTTZM[WVIV\\WLIaยธ_I[XIZWTMQVTQJMZ\oJa_PQKPXWM\Za _I[\WJMKWUMยนIV]VQV\MZZ]X\ML[MY]MVKMWN VM_QUIOM[ยฐI[\ZQK\JM\WN QUIOM[WZIVITWOQM[\WJMKI[\QV\W \PMUa[\MZQW][[MIWN XPMVWUMVIยบ<PQ[NZMMLWUWN\PM_WZTL_PQTMQ\ZM[MUJTMLW\PMZNWZU[WN KWTTIOMIVLWN  QUIOMR]`\IXW[Q\QWVUWZMN]TTaM`XTWZML\PM][MWN QVVW^I\Q^MIVLM`XZM[[Q^M\aXWOZIXPaQV\PM^Q[]ITXZM[MV\I\QWVWN TIVO]IOMI[[M\QVUW\QWVJaNWZMZ]VVMZ[TQSM5ITTIZUu7]\ZIOMW][IVLIOOZM[[Q^M\PM.]\]ZQ[\[ยผ XMZNWZUIVKM[UQ`MLLMKTIUI\QWVIVLOM[\]ZMM^MV\[IVL[]ZZW]VLQVO[QVLQNNMZMVKMIVLMVOIOMUMV\\WJZMIS\PM JIZZQMZ[JM\_MMV\PMU[MT^M[IVL\PW[M_PWKIUM\WRMMZWZKPMMZ\PMU?ZW\M5IZQVM\\Q[MTJ[\ KQZKI! ยน-^MZa\PQVOWN IVa^IT]MQ[\PMI\ZQKITยบ 1

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 2

parole in liberta = words set free (liberty) 3

111

sealbst = himself

Captions and Notes


//WordsInLiberty )8ZWTWO]M\W.]\]ZQ[U // .]\]ZQ[U_I[Ă&#x2026;Z[\IVVW]VKMLWV.MJZ]IZa!!_PMV\PM8IZQ[ newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso 5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLQVO_PI\ he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;MLKWV\MUXWZIZa life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The manifestoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rhetoZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL_I[X]ZXW[MTa intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. :ILQKIT5Q`WN )Z\IVL4QNM// But is is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All WN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Rus[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[ seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ 2, by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;?

// 8PQTQX5MOO[0Q[\WZaWN /ZIXPQK,M[QOV  >IV6W[\ZIVL:MQVPWTL!

// XIZWTMQVTQJMZ\I%_WZL[[M\NZMMTQJMZ\a // [MITJ[\%PQU[MTN

Captions and Notes

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Words In Liberty A Prologue to Futurism F u t u r i s m w a s f i r s t a n n o u n c e d o n F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 9 0 9 , w h e n t h e

Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo TomUI[W5IZQVM\\Q<PMVIUM.]\]ZQ[UKWQVMLJa5IZQVM\\QZMĂ&#x2020;MK\MLPQ[MUXPI[Q[WVLQ[KIZLing what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1.]\]ZQ[UZMRMK\ML\ZILQ\QWV[IVLOTWZQĂ&#x2026;ML contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes: machine and motion. The UIVQNM[\WÂź[ZPM\WZQK_I[XI[[QWVI\MTaJWUJI[\QK#Q\[\WVM_I[IOOZM[[Q^MIVLQVĂ&#x2020;IUUI\WZaIVL was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 Radical Mix of Art and Life B u t i s i s t h e m o v e m e n t s w h i c h s u r v i v e , o d d l y, h e r e w h e r e w e l i v e and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as an life itself. All WN _PQKPI[N]\]ZQ[UPILKWUM[PIZXTaQV\WNWK][Ja\PM[\IZ\WN \PM_WZTL_IZ"IĂ&#x2026;Z[\ZILQKIT mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Rus[QIV1\ITQIV[QLM[\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\OZMI\šIZ\ÂşUW^MUMV\TMLJaXWM\[#IVLQN Q\[UMIV[VW_[WUM\QUM[ seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinettiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, â&#x20AC;&#x153;technicalâ&#x20AC;? approaches to the works then getting under way. The key termâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;still resonant todayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;was parole in libertĂ 2, by which poetry was to become â&#x20AC;&#x153;an uninterrupted sequence of new imagesâ&#x20AC;Ś (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.â&#x20AC;? This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like MallarmĂŠ. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futuristsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer them. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), â&#x20AC;&#x153;Everything of any value is theatrical.â&#x20AC;? parole in liberta = words set free (liberty). sealbst = himself 1

2

113

3

Captions and Notes


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ALIGNMENTS

115


Alignments 1V]VR][\QĂ&#x2026;ML\M`\\PM\M`\JTWKSQ[[M\_Q\PVWZUITTM\\MZ and word spacing. Because of the even word spacing the text will have an even texture â&#x20AC;&#x201C; no large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. a ragged text block can integrate with the layout and add visual interest \W\PMXIOM<PMLQNĂ&#x2026;K]T\aQ[UISQVO\PMZIOOMLMLOMPI^M a pleasing silhouette. ?PMV\PMĂ&#x2026;Z[\TQVMQV\PM\M`\Q[TWVOMZ\PIV\PM[MKWVLQ\ becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like [PIXM<PQ[LM[\ZWa[WVMWN \PMIL^IV\IOM[WN ]VR][\QĂ&#x2026;ML text. The ragged edge needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or just words that are normally read together can stay together on the same line.

1N [WUMWVMQV[Q[\[\PI\N]TTaR][\QĂ&#x2026;ML\M`\Q[JM\\MZ\PIVTMN\ aligned text, tell them they are wrong. If someone else tells aW]\PI\TMN\ITQOVML\M`\Q[JM\\MZ\PIVR][\QĂ&#x2026;ML\M`\\MTT them they are wrong. If they are both wrong, then whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s right? Alignment is only a small piece of the puzzle. What works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. As with all layouts, it depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design.

TYPES OF ALIGNMENT s *USTIFIED 4EXT s ,EFT ALIGNED 2AGGED 2IGHT s #ENTERED

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Alignments

Types of Alignment Examples As with all layouts, alignment depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design. No matter what alignment you use, remember to pay close attention to hyphenation and word/character spacing as well to insure that your text is as readable as possible.

JUSTIFIED TEXT

CENTERED

LEFT ALIGNED/ RAGGED RIGHT

s /FTEN CONSIDERED MORE FORMAL LESS FRIENDLY THAN

s There is nothing inherently wrong with centered

s /FTEN CONSIDERED MORE INFORMAL FRIENDLIER THAN

left-aligned text.

text. As with ragged right or fully-justified text

justified text.

s 5SUALLY ALLOWS FOR MORE CHARACTERS PER LINE

alignment, what works for one design might be

s 4HE RAGGED RIGHT EDGE ADDS AN ELEMENT OF WHITE

packing more into the same amount of space (than

totally inappropriate for another layout. There are

space.

the same text set left-aligned).

simply fewer situations where centered text is

s 4HIS MAY NEED EXTRA ATTENTION TO HYPHENATION TO

s -AY REQUIRE EXTRA ATTENTION TO WORD AND CHARACTER

appropriate. When in doubt, don’t center it.

keep the right margin from being too ragged.

spacing and hyphenation to avoid unsightly rivers of

s 'ENERALLY TYPE SET LEFT ALIGNED IS EASIER TO WORK

white space running through the text.

with (i.e. requires less time, attention, and tweaking

s -AY BE MORE FAMILIAR TO READERS IN SOME TYPES OF

from the designer to make it look good).

publications, such as books and newspapers. s 3OME PEOPLE ARE NATURALLY DRAWN TO THE hNEATNESSv of text that lines up perfectly on the left and right.

117

There will undoubtedly be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared to change it (and make necessary adjustments to keep it looking good) if \PMXMZ[WV_Q\PÅVITIXXZW^IT[\QTTQV[Q[\[WV[WUM\PQVO different.


SMALL CAPS

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119


Small Caps Use true small cap fonts

Small caps are uppercase (capital) letters that are about the size of normal lowercase letters in any given typeface. Small caps are less intrusive when all uppercase appears within normal text or can be used for special emphasis. Computer programs can generate small caps for a any typeface, but those are not the same as true small caps. True small caps have line weights that are proportionally correct for the typeface, which means they can be used within a body of copy without looking noticeably wrong.

When setting text that contains acronyms, select a typeface with a small caps family. Selecting small caps from the style menu is a poor choice because the computer reduces the size of the type by 80%. This changes the stroke weight and feel of the font. Expert sets in the Adobe Type Library have small caps options. Use small caps for acronyms. Set acronyms such as NASA or NASDAQ in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines. Use small caps for common abbreviations. Set common abbreviations such as AM or PM in small caps so they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and P.M.; space once after the number, and use periods. (if the font does not have small caps reduce the font size slightly) Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specifically created as small caps.

120


Small Caps

Where to Use Small Caps If you set acronymns in regular all caps, their visual presence is unnecessarily overwhelming. One standard and practical place to use small caps is in acronyms such as FBI, NRC, CBS, or SIMM.

121

Traditionally, “A.M.” and “P.M.” are set with small caps. Originally there were no small caps on typewriters, so everyone was taught to capitalize them. Now that you have the capability, you can and should set them properly.


Small Caps Examples TRUE DRAWN SMALL CAPS There are quite a few font families that include “true-drawn” small caps—letterforms that have been redesigned to match the proportions and thicknesses of the uppercase letter forms. The result is a smooth, uniform, undisturbing tone throughout the text.

STROKE WIDTH

THE WICKED ARE VERY WEARY

ACRONYMS Harriet, an FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA

The weight of the computer-drawn small caps is

before going to bed at 9:30 P.M.

thinner than the weight of the regular initial (first letter) caps. The typeface used for the example is

Harriet, an fbi agent, turned on

Futura Condensed Medium.

cnn to get the dirt on the cia before going to bed at 9:30 p.m. The capital letters in the top sentence call too much

There Is No Rest For the Wicked.

attention to themselves. Notice how the small caps blend in with the text better than the capital letters. The capital letters for P.M. are much to large—the

These typefaces are in Caslon. Other small cap fonts

abbreviation is not that important.

include Sabon, Walbaum, and Granjon.

122


Small Caps

Right and wrong do not exist in graphic design. There is only effective and non-effective communication. â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Peter Bilak

123


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GRIDS STRUCTURES 125


Grid Structures Grids are the key to a successful layout

When Designing a layout and working with text and/or images the use of a grid is essential, as it is the basis on _PQKPQVNWZUI\QWVQ[WZOIVQbMLIVLKTIZQÅMLMV[]ZQVO legibility. The grid provides a framework were text, image and space can be combined into a cohesive manner. A grid subdivides a page vertically and horizontally into margins, columns, inter-column spaces, lines of type, and spaces between blocks of type and images. These subdivisions form the basis of a modular and systematic approach to the layout, particularly for multipage documents, making the design process quicker, and ensuring visual consistency between related pages. At its most basic, the sizes of a grid’s component parts are determined by ease of reading and handling. From the sizes of type to the overall page or sheet size, decision-making is derived from physiology and the psychology of perception as much as by aesthetics.

Type sizes are generally determined by hierarchy—captions smaller than body text and so on—column widths by optimum word counts of eight to ten words to the line, and overall layout by the need to group related items. This all sounds rather formulaic, and easy. But designers whose grids produce dynamic or very subtle results take these rules as a starting point only, and go WV\WLM^MTWXÆM`QJTM[\Z]K\]ZM[QV_PQKP\PMQZ[MV[QJQTQ\aKIVÆW]ZQ[P /ZQL[WN\MVVMML\WJMLM[QOVML\WOQ^MUWZMÆM`QJQTQ\a than the single column of text per page (Jan Tschichold’s grid). This is due to to a change in our reading patterns. Grid structures have to accommodate a greater variety of material such as photographs, illustrations, headings, captions, references, charts; they need to be more complicated than a grid using only text and may utilize more modules. The design of the grid had to be relevant to the purpose.

126


Grid Structures

Baseline Grids Baseline Grids create a common rhythm on a page

127

Modular grids are created by positioning horizontal guidelines in relation to a baseline grid that governs the whole document. Baseline grids serve to anchor all (or nearly all) layout elements to a common rhythm. Create a baseline grid by choosing the typesize and leading of your text, such as 10-pt Scala Pro with 12 pts leading (10/12). Avoid auto leading so that you can work with whole numbers that multiply and divide cleanly. Use this line space increment to set the baseline grid in your document preferences.

Adjust the top or bottom page margin to absorb any space left over by the baseline grid. Determine the number of horizontal page units in relation to the numer WN TQVM[QVaW]ZJI[MTQVMOZQL+W]V\PW_UIVaTQVM[Ă&#x2026;\ in a full column of text and then choose a number that divides evenly into the line count to create horizontal page divisions. A column with forty-two lines of text divides neatly into seven horizontal modules with six lines each. If your line count is not neatly divisible, adjust the top and/or bottom page margins to absorb the leftover lines.


Golden Section Grids often need to be designed to give more flexibility than the single column of text per page. This is due to a change in our reading patterns. Although we still read consecutively, our attention is drawn to both magazines and coffee table books which are often larger in format and highly illustrated. The grid structures for these formats have to accommodate a greater variety of material such as photographs, illustrations, headings, captions, references, charts; they need to be more complicated than those for a grid using only text and may utilize more modules.

The golden section has been used for centuries. The Greeks used the golden section to establish balance in the design for architecture, for example the Parthenon, and it was re-discovered by artists and architects during the Renaissance period. The golden section is constructed through mathematical calculations : the ration being 1:1:61803. The Fibonacci sequence is a mathematical series discovered in the 12th century by Leonardo Fibonacci and is used to establish proportion.

128


Grid Structures

Fibonacci Sequence /ZQL[IZMWN\MVLM[QOVML\WOQ^MUWZMĂ&#x2020;M`QJQTQ\aNWZ things other than the single column of text per page. This is due to a change in our reading patterns. Although we still read consecutively, our attention is drawn to both magazines and coffee table books which are often larger in format and highly illustrated. The grid structures for these formats have to accommodate a greater variety of material such as photographs, illustrations, headings, captions, references, charts; they need to be more complicated than those for a grid using only

text and may utilize more modules. The golden section has been used for centuries. The Greeks used the golden section to establish balance in the design for architecture, for example the Parthenon, and it was re-discovered by artists and architects during the Renaissance period. The golden section is constructed through mathematical calculations : the ration being 1:1:61803. The Fibonacci sequence is a mathematical series discovered in the 12th century by Leonardo Fibonacci and is used to establish proportion.

2

3

1 1 8 5

129


Simple Typographic Grids These may consist of a number of vertical columns used to position text and images; these can also include the space between columns (the gutters) and the margins of the page. It may be necessary to produce grids with VIZZW_MZ[]JKWT]UV[\WMVIJTMIOZMI\MZLMOZMMWN Ă&#x2020;M`-

ibility in the design and layout of pages. Text widths can be set to multiples of the narrower columns, allowing the design to accommodate different content. This then allows for a change of style from one page or section to the next, while still keeping a common layout.

EXAMPLE This example shows a grid where the proportions of the text area are established from the shape of the page. The height of the text area is the same as the width of the full page. Note that the text area will always remain the same, regardless of the scale of the page.

130


Grid Structures

Modular Grids Modular grids are associated with Swiss typography or the ‘International style’ of the 1950’s and 60s. Along with a vertical division of space, modular grids divide space horizontally too. This creates units or cells. The depth of the cell may depend upon the size of the text type and leading being used. Multiples of the line depth (leading size) form a good basis on which to construct the cells.

131

TAKE NOTE Grids are often constructed as simple columns of vertical lines but may be devised as more complex modular systems for greater flexibility.


Symmetry is typically very pleasing to the eye

Symmetrical Grids

Asymmetrical Grids

Symmetrical grids sit centrally on a single page so that the left and right margins are equal. A common example would be how text in a chapter book is laid out in the center of the page. The margins are equal on both sides. This is looking at single pages, not spreads.

<PM[MOZQL[IZMOMVMZITTaWNNKMV\MZI\ÅZ[\OTIVKM This is true for both single pages, and spreads. If used in spreads, the grid is not mirrored from one page to the next (as in symmetrical grids), but is more likely to appear repeated in a single position from page to page. Keeping the grid in the same position on each page doesn’t allow for it to be mirrored across spreads. As with all grid systems, attention to the relationship of the margins is important. Simply changing one margin to a different size makes a grid asymmetrical.

The term can also be applied to a grid system that is being used across facing pages. The position of the margins IVL\M`\IZMI[IZM[aUUM\ZQKITTaZMÆMK\MLWZUQZZWZML1N  you are looking at this as facing pages then the margins are not necessarily equal on all sides of the text. The margins then are symmetrical on the far right and left of the facing pages. (Remember that you are looking at this one as a spread.)

This book is an example of an asymmetrical grid

132


Grid Structures

Columns & Layouts Notice how this page is layout out on the illustrated columns

When layouts for books or magazines are designed, text is positioned on the grid within columns, whicare formed by modules, allowing for more than on module or column per page. Using columns enables the designer to maintain consistent length.

HELPFUL HINTS s (OW MANY PAGES WILL THERE BE s 7HAT IS THE PAGE SIZE s )S THE PUBLICATION TEXT HEAVY OR IMAGE HEAVY s 7HAT IS THE OPTIMUM LINE LENGTH FOR THE TEXT 4HIS will establish the column width.)

Before a layout and number of columns each can be established for a printed work it is essential to consider our helpful hints.

133

s 7HAT LEADING WILL BE USED 4HIS WILL ESTABLISH THE column depth.) s 7HAT WILL THE BINDING BE LIKE


SPECIAL CHARACTERS

134


135


Special Characters Special characters and accent mark key commands.

The following is a list of the most often-used special characters and accent marks. On the following pages are the key combinations for just about every accent you might need.

the baseline. ™ is usually superscripted for the chosen font. ™ and ® are normally set higher then other marks. If you choose to superscript ®, reduce it to about 60% of the size.

Use copyright, register, and trademark marks properly The copyright, register, and trademark characters need to be reduced to work with body text. At times, depending on the typeface, you may need to reduce the mark between 50% and 70%. The goal is to match the x-height. The copyright mark should be approximately 70% of the surrounding text. Unlike the ™ symbol, the © should NOT be superscripted and should remain on

Use the ellipsis character and NOT three periods. Access the ellipsis by typing Option + : (colon). Allow a small amount of space before and after. However if it is not crowding the text, leave no space at all. Remember, to set an accent mark over a letter, press the Option key and the letter, then press the letter you want under it.

136


Special Characters

Special Character Key Commands Option [ “ opening double quote

Option 2 ™ trademark

Option e ´ accute accent

Option Shift [ ” closing double quote

Option r ® registered

Option ~ ` grave accent

Option ] ‘ opening single quote Option Shift ] ’ closing single quote

Option $ ¢ cent symbol

Option Hyphen – en dash

Option Shift 2 € Euro symbol

Option Shift Hyphen — em dash

Option Shift 1 Á fraction bar

Option ; … ellipsis Option 8 Œ bullet (it’s the asterisk key) Option Shift 5 Å ligature of f and i Option Shift 6 Æ ligature of f and l Option g © copyright

137

Option Shift 8 ° degree symbol

Option 1 ¡ upside down exclamation Option Shift ? ¿ upside down question mark Option 3 £ pound sign Option c ç latin small with cedilla Option Shift c Ç latin capital with cedilla

Option u ¨ diaeresis Option n ˜ small tilde Option i ˆ circumflex accent


138


COMBINING TYPEFACES

139


Combining Typefaces When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one shroud try and match the characteristics of form and type color: proportion, x-heights. â&#x20AC;&#x153;There is not binding recipe for type combinations. It is a matter of typographic sensitivity and experience. Expert typographers, as well as careless amateurs permit themselves combinations that would horrify colleagues with more traditional sympathies.â&#x20AC;?

Although there is not recipe there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letter form. A well designed page contains no more than two different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style. {Using 2 different serif fonts or 2 different sans serifs fonts in the same composition is never a good idea}

Combine Serif with Sans Serif 1. Old Style Gerald / with Humanist sans serif 2. Old Style Gerald / with Grotesque sans serif 3. Transitional / with Geometric sans serif 4. Transitional / with Humanist sans serif 5. Modern / Geometric sans serif 6. Modern / Grotesque sans serif 7. New Transitional / Geometric sans serif 8. New Transitional / Grotesque sans serif 9. Slab serif / Geometric sans serif 10. Slab serif / Humanist sans serif

140


Combining Typefaces

Font Combinations WHY FREUD & LEWIS The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or not, all of us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all gradually formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of random events and life on this planet a matter of chance; or we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the universe order, and life meaning. So each one of us embraces some form of either Freud’s secular worldview or Lewis’s spiritual worldview.

141

WHY FREUD & LEWIS

Whether we realize it or not, all of us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all gradually formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of random events and life on this planet a matter of chance; or we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the universe order, and life meaning. So each one of us embraces some form of either Freud’s secular worldview or Lewis’s spiritual worldview. The Question of God Series:

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

Bembo 8 pt: Oldstyle and Gill Sans 9 pt: Humanist

Bembo 8 pt: Oldstyle and Helevetica 6 pt: Grotesque

These two work together based on the curves of the letteers nad the stoke of the

I used helvetica for the titles because of its neutral style; it goes with many fonts.

non bolded typefaces. I used bold Gill Sans for the title to create emphasis. I made

The x-height of helvetica is much larger than Bembo, so to make them more equal

Gill Sans one point higher so the x heights were more similar.

I brought helvetica down 2 points.


Font Combinations WHY FREUD & LEWIS

WHY FREUD & LEWIS

The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or

The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or not,

not, all of us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all gradually formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of random events and life on this planet a matter of chance; or we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the universe order, and life meaning. So each one of us embraces some form of either Freud’s secular worldview or Lewis’s spiritual worldview.

all of us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all gradually formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of random events and life on this planet a matter of chance; or we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the universe order, and life meaning. So each one of us embraces some form of either Freud’s secular worldview or Lewis’s spiritual worldview.

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

Baskerville 8 pt: Transitional and Futura 7 pt: Geometric

Baskerville 8 pt: Transitional and Gill Sans 7 pt: Humanist

I choose to pair futura, as a geometric font, with baskerville because of similar

Pairing Baskerville with a humanist font, such as GIll Sans, is similar to pairing

letter widths. I went with medium futura for the thicker stroke width and a slight

it with a geometric font (like to the left). I choose regular GIll Sans because the

contrast to baskerville. The x-height of both fonts is very close in size.

curves of the letters and varying line widths; that makes it more like baskerville.

142


Combining Typefaces

Font Combinations WHY FREUD & LEWIS

WHY FREUD & LEWIS

The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or not,

The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or not, all

all of us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all

of us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all

gradually formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of

gradually formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of

two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of

two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of

random events and life on this planet a matter of chance;

random events and life on this planet a matter of chance;

or we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives

or we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives

the universe order, and life meaning. So each one of us

the universe order, and life meaning. So each one of us

embraces some form of either Freud’s secular worldview or

embraces some form of either Freud’s secular worldview or

Lewis’s spiritual worldview.

Lewis’s spiritual worldview.

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

Bodoni 7 pt: Modern and Futura 7 pt: Geometric

Bodoni 7 pt: Modern and Helvetica 6 pt: Grotesque

I used the bold version of Bodoni to emphasize the contrast of the thin and thick

I used a roman style of Bodoni for the body text, making it easier to read because

lines. The thickest part of the bodoni typeface is similar to the consistent line of

the thick strokes aren’t so drastic. The x-height of Helvetica (I used light) is

futura. The x-heights were close enough to keep the point size the same.

similar to the Bodoni, but the capitals are a little smaller in comparison. The clarity of Helvetica light makes it a good contrasting title.

143


Font Combinations WHY FREUD & LEWIS

WHY FREUD & LEWIS

The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or not,

The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or not, all

all of us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all

of us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all

gradually formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of

gradually formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of

two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of

two basic assumptions: we view the universe as a result of

random events and life on this planet a matter of chance; or

random events and life on this planet a matter of chance; or

we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the

we assume an Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the

universe order, and life meaning. So each one of us embraces

universe order, and life meaning. So each one of us embraces

some form of either Freud’s secular worldview or Lewis’s

some form of either Freud’s secular worldview or Lewis’s

spiritual worldview.

spiritual worldview.

aa BB ee GG gg aa BB ee GG gg

Bookman Light 6 pt: New Transitional and Helvetica 6 pt: Grotesque

Bookman Light 6 pt: New Transitional and Futura 7 pt: Geometric

The stroke width of Bookman Light and Mrs Eaves is very similar. This makes

These make a good pair because both typefaces are short and widee. The rounded

them blend well together, but may be hard to differentiate at a small point size.

curves of the letters match well.

The open-ness sets up the serif font to be a successful read.

144


Combining Typefaces

Font Combinations WHY FREUD & LEWIS

WHY FREUD & LEWIS

The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or not, all of us

The Question of God Series: Whether we realize it or not, all of

possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all gradually

us possess a worldview. A few years after birth, we all gradually

formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of two basic

formulate our philosophy of life. We make one of two basic

assumptions: we view the universe as a result of random events

assumptions: we view the universe as a result of random events

and life on this planet a matter of chance; or we assume an

and life on this planet a matter of chance; or we assume an

Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the universe order,

Intelligence beyond the universe who gives the universe order,

and life meaning. So each one of us embraces some form of either

and life meaning. So each one of us embraces some form of either

Freud’s secular worldview or Lewis’s spiritual worldview.

Freud’s secular worldview or Lewis’s spiritual worldview.

aa BB ee GG gg

aa BB ee GG gg

Memphis 6 pt: Slab Serif and Futura 7 pt: Geometric

Memphis 6 pt: Slab Serif and Gill Sans 6 pt: Humanist

Here is an example of Memphis light and Futura condensed. Both the widths and

The flow of Memphis and Gill Sans is consistent. The round qualities and clear

heights of the typefaces are different. Memphis is short and squat and Futura is

strokes make them similar. The only major difference are the slab serifs on

tall and skinny. Because both fonts do not vary much in line width, the contrast

Memphis. I bolded Gill Sans for more contrast as the title.

helps set them apart.

145


146


FONT SPECS

147


Font Specs These are examples of different families of typefaces. The fonts vary by x-height, stroke weight, alignment, KTI[[QÅKI\QWVM\K.WV\;XMK[IZMI[\Z]K\]ZM][ML\W[\WZM information about a font, including the font family, style, and point size. In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of characters that share common de-

[QOVNMI\]ZM[)[QVOTM\aXMNIKMQ[ZMXZM[MV\MLJaI[XMKQÅK weight, style, condensation, width, slant, italicization, ornamentation, and designer or foundry, but not by size.

CLASSIFICATION TYPES Humanist

Modern

Grotesque

Grid Based San Serif

Sans Serif

Black Letter

Transitional

Geometric

Slab Serif

Script

Old Style

Transitional Serif

New Transitional

Scala Sans

148


Font Specs

A type designer does not draw letters. A type designer designs words and words are structures that contain patterns of black and white shapes, form and counterform. It is a game that deals with space and rhythm. â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Cyrus Highsmith

149


CLASSIFICATION Humanist

Archer

MaxogGdQRst BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new

HAIRLINE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

typefaces based on historic characteristics. SEMI-BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

BOLD ITALIC

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

on historic characteristics.

150


Font Specs

Akzidenz Grotesk

CLASSIFICATION Grostesque

MaxogGdQRst ROMAN A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

151

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


Baskerville

CLASSIFICATION Transitional

MxaogGdQRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* SMALL CAPS

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and BOLD

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*

152


Font Specs

Belizio

CLASSIFICATION Slab Serif

MxagGdQrR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&*

and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

new typefaces based on historic

BOLD

characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii

A basic system for classifying type-

Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr

faces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely con-

Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

nected to calligraphy and the move-

BLACK ITALIC

ment of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

153

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


Bell Gothic

CLASSIFICATION Groteque

MxagGdQrRI A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern type-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* BOLD

faces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*

154


Font Specs

Bembo

CLASSIFICATION Old Style

MxnogGdQrRst A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* ITALIC

abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transi-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*

tional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

155

EXTRA

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu

Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


Bookman

CLASSIFICATION New Transitional

MxaogGdQrR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* ITALIC

movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BOLD

based on historic characteristics. A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first cen-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

turies have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

156


Font Specs

Bodoni

CLASSIFICATION Modern

MxaogGdQrRst REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*123456789

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

157

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* ORNAMENTS

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYy Zz1234567890(){}?!@&*


Caslon

CLASSIFICATION Transitional

MxanogGdQRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * ALTERNATE

A basic system for classifying typefaces

! " # k $ %ſ ' (

was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

SWASH

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ORNAMENT

! " #$ % & ' ( )* + , - . / 0 12 34 56 78 9: ;< = >? @A B C D E FG HI

JK L M N O P Q R S T

158


Font Specs

CLASSIFICATION Transitional

Century Schoolbook

MxaogGdQrRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letter-­ forms are closely connected to callig-­ raphy and the movement of the hand.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*123456789

Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth DQGWZHQW\ÀUVWFHQWXULHVKDYHFRQWLQ-­ ued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letter-­ forms are closely connected to callig-­ raphy and the movement of the hand.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and lit-­ erature. Designers in the twentieth and WZHQW\ÀUVWFHQWXULHVKDYHFRQWLQXHGWR create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

159

BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*


Cheltenham

CLASSIFICATION Old Style

MaxogGdQrRs REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

characteristics.

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

160


Font Specs

Cholla

CLASSIFICATION Modern

MaxnogGdQrRst UNICASE

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

connected to calligraphy and the moveREGULAR

ment of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

161

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


Clarendon

CLASSIFICATION Slab Serif

MxagGdQrRt LIGHT

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* REGULAR

movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD

based on historic characteristics.

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

162


Font Specs

CLASSIFICATION Grid Based Sans Serif

Clicker

MaxnogGdQRs REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

163

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt

6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5


Didot

CLASSIFICATION Modern

MxaogGdQrRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&*123456789

Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth ERHX[IRX]Ă VWXcenturies have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

164


Font Specs

DIN

CLASSIFICATION Grotesque

MaxnogGdQrRt LIGHT

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*123456789

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic

REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

characteristics.

MEDIUM

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

165

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & *


CLASSIFICATION Slab Serif

Disturbance

MxnatQbWFGdR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo

devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own

Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligra-

890(){}?!@&*123456789 ITALIC

phy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp

Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first

Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0

centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&*

166


Font Specs

CLASSIFICATION Blackletter

Fette Fraktur

MxnaopQrRtfg REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the

Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

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167


Filosofia

CLASSIFICATION Modern

MxnaopQrRtfGg REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 23 4567890(){}?!@&*

to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on

FRACTIONS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll

Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

historic characteristics.

UNICASE

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk

Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*

calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

168


Font Specs

Franklin Gothic

CLASSIFICATION Grotesque

MaxodQRtfGg BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*

DEMI

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* HEAVY

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

169

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


Frutiger

CLASSIFICATION Humanist

MaxodQRtfGg CONDENSED

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

calligraphy and the movement of

REGULAR

the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ULTRA BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

170


Font Specs

Futura

CLASSIFICATION Geometric

MxaopQRstGg BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* EXTRA BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

171

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


Gill Sans

CLASSIFICATION Humanist

MaxnbyogGQRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*

are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers LQWKHWZHQWLHWKDQGWZHQW\ÀUVWFHQWXULHV have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth DQGWZHQW\ÀUVWFHQWXULHVKDYHFRQWLQued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

172


Font Specs

Gotham

CLASSIFICATION Geometric

MayogGdQRt BOOK

A basic  system  for  classifying  typefaces  was  devised  in  the  nineteenth   century,  when  printers  sought  to   identify  a  heritage  for  their  own   craft  analogous  to  that  of  art  history.  Humanist  letterforms  are  closely   connected  to  calligraphy  and  the   movement  of  the  hand.  Transitional   and  modern  typefaces  are  more  abstract  and  less  organic.  These  three   main  groups  correspond  roughly   to  the  Renaissance,  Baroque,  and   Enlightenment  periods  in  art  and   literature.  Designers  in  the  twentieth  and  twenty-first  centuries  have  

Aa Bb  Cc  Dd  Ee  Ff  Gg  Hh  Ii  Jj  Kk   Ll  Mm  Nn  Oo  Pp  Qq  Rr  Ss  Tt  Uu   Vv  Ww  Xx  Yy  Zz  1  2  3    4  5  6  7  8   9  0  (  )  {  }  ?  !  @  &  *

Aa Bb  Cc  Dd  Ee  Ff  Gg  Hh  Ii  Jj  Kk   Ll  Mm  Nn  Oo  Pp  Qq  Rr  Ss  Tt  Uu   Vv  Ww  Xx  Yy  Zz  1  2  3    4  5  6  7  8   9  0  (  )  {  }  ?  !  @  &  * ITALIC

continued to  create  new  typefaces   based  on  historic  characteristics. A  basic  system  for  classifying   typefaces  was  devised  in  the   nineteenth  century,  when  printers  sought  to  identify  a  heritage   for  their  own  craft  analogous  to   that  of  art  history.  Humanist  letterforms  are  closely  connected  to  

BOLD

Aa Bb  Cc  Dd  Ee  Ff  Gg  Hh  Ii  Jj  Kk   Ll  Mm  Nn  Oo  Pp  Qq  Rr  Ss  Tt  Uu   Vv  Ww  Xx  Yy  Zz  1  2  3    4  5  6  7  8  9   0  (  )  {  }  ?  !  @  &  *

calligraphy and  the  movement  of   the  hand.  Transitional  and  modern   typefaces  are  more  abstract  and   less  organic.  These  three  main   groups  correspond  roughly  to   the  Renaissance,  Baroque,  and   Enlightenment  periods  in  art  and   literature.  Designers  in  the  twentieth  and  twenty-first  centuries  have   continued  to  create  new  typefaces   based  on  historic  characteristics.

173

LIGHT

Aa Bb  Cc  Dd  Ee  Ff  Gg  Hh  Ii  Jj  Kk   Ll  Mm  Nn  Oo  Pp  Qq  Rr  Ss  Tt  Uu   Vv  Ww  Xx  Yy  Zz  1  2  3    4  5  6  7  8  9   0  (  )  {  }  ?  !  @  &  *


Helvetica

CLASSIFICATION Grotesque

MaoygGdQrRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the [^LU[PL[OHUK[^LU[`Ă&#x201E;YZ[centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* BLACK EXTENDED

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renais-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

sance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ULTRA LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

174


Font Specs

Interstate

CLASSIFICATION Neo-Grotesque

MaoygGdQrRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* BOLD

hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the move-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD CONDENSED

ment of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

175

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


Kunstler Script

CLASSIFICATION Script

xyogGdQrRst REGULAR

Pat. San ea consectet ad duis dolorem eu facil dit am, summy nisim ipit, quat, velit pratismodo diat. Et lorperi liquat lor sequam zzrilit, velese facin ut verosti nciduis modit, qui erosto odit ut verit nos nos amet iure doluptatisl digna facin hendre ming ea feum incilla ad dunt dunt ipit vulput lorper sumsand ionsenit num ip erit la feu feumsan henis exerci esto etumsan hent am, velit, quisit nummy nosto dolutat irit veniam zzrilit, qui tincilit wis eum zzriustis ex eraestrud delit lamcon vero exercidunt aliscidui bla facip et veniam eum illan veros dignit alit vullandiat nis nisl dunt aliquam consent alit etuero odionsecte dunt nulla faci et in vulla feugait lore eum zzril ullamco nsequi bla autpatet nummodipisi. Ed etummodit vullamcon utat ulluptat delendit nonsenim inciliqui tio odoloreet ver sum velis aliquis del irit aut nosto consequam zzrit aut ipsum diamcon sequam num et wisi tio dolorem elesto dolobor iuscilisci et, quis endre te dolobor sum volenibh exerit utpat. Uptat, vel dolese molorem eraessis nit niamcorperos autat, venit in etum erilissit irit eui bla feum iurem nonsequi e

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*

176


Font Specs

Melior

CLASSIFICATION Transitional Serif

MayogGdQrRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*

Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*

177


Memphis

CLASSIFICATION Slab Serif

MxagGdQrRt LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*

MEDIUM

more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*

EXTRA BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

178


Font Specs

CLASSIFICATION Humanist

Meta

MaxogGdQrRst regular

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and caps

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

characteristics.

black

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

179

italic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


Mrs Eaves

CLASSIFICATION Transitional

MaxogGdQrRst REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 1 2 3456789 ITALIC

abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance,

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* FRACTIONS

Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*

180


Font Specs

News Gothic

CLASSIFICATION Grotesque

MaxogGdQrRst REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 123456789 ITALIC

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

characteristics.

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

181

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&*


CLASSIFICATION San Serif Monospaced

OCR A

MaopQRfGg REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3

4 5 6 7 8

9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more historic characteristics.

182


Font Specs

Optima

CLASSIFICATION Humanist

MxaopQRstGg BOOK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and ITALIC

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the [^LU[PL[OHUK[^LU[`Ă&#x201E;YZ[JLU[\YPLZOH]L continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

183

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*


Palatino

CLASSIFICATION Old Style

MxaopQRstGg LIGHT

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*

OLD STYLE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ()

{}?!@&* MEDIUM

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BLACK

and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

184


Font Specs

Perpetua

CLASSIFICATION Transitional

MxaopQRstGgq REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less ITALIC

organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces

based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

185

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*


Platelet

CLASSIFICATION Geometric

MaxbyogGQrRt THIN A basic system for classifying typefac-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll

es was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a

Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx

heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist let-

Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }

terforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.

? ! @ & *

REGULAR

Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll

three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlight-

Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx

enment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-

Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }

first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic

? ! & * HEAVY

characteristics.

A basic system for classifying typefac-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll

es was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a

Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx

heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist let-

Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }

terforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.

? ! @ & *

Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

186


Font Specs

Priori Sans

CLASSIFICATION Geometric

MxanopdrRtSfGg REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

are closely connected to calligraphy and ALTERNATE

the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics. BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

187

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&*


CLASSIFICATION New Transitional

Priori Serif

MxanodQrRtSfg REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and ALTERNATE

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

characteristics. BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

188


Font Specs

Rotis

CLASSIFICATION Humanist

MxanopQrRtGg (55) SANS

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely con-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

nected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces ITALIC

are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* SERIF

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* ITALIC

typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&*

189


Sabon

CLASSIFICATION Old Style

MxayogGQfR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

SMALL CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

BOLD ITALIC

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*

190


Font Specs

CLASSIFICATION Scala Sans

Scala Sans

MxabyogGdQrR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

connected to calligraphy and the movement CAPS

of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! & *

typefaces based on historic characteristics.

ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

191

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


Serifa

CLASSIFICATION Slab Serif

MxaoygGdQR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the move-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* ITALIC

ment of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BLACK

and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

192


Font Specs

Snell Roundhand

CLASSIFICATION Script

axogbGdQrRst REGULAR Dolessecte ver sim er aut wismod mincilit loboreet praessed tat. Iquis eu feuis dolore faci ercil eriurer sisi tet, quamconse do odolor amcommodit vulla feugait luptatisl dolorer augait praessi. Lut vel iriuscil et luptat. Nullandre magna feugiam, quis aute conullu ptatincip ea alit wis et volore dip et, cortin henisi. Quis autet, veros accum ipit vel ute mod ting eumsandreet am, qui te faciniat nummod eu feugiat ex essim vent vendre tat venibh et pratuer ipsum volortio eniat praessed mincilit dolobortie tat. Lam dolut amcommy nos eraessed tin ulput ut vulputat, quat, volobor incip et essi. orper sum quamconsed magniam, quisit accum voloborem alit iuscipit la consequam dit nulput acing eu feum quat. Ut luptat at.

193

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*


CLASSIFICATION New Transitional/Humanist Serif

Swift

MxaoygGdQrR BOLD CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* REGULAR

and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more BOLD

abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*

194


Font Specs

Syntax

CLASSIFICATION Humanist

MxaoygGdQrR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv

Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BLACK

modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

195

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*


Trade Gothic

CLASSIFICATION Humanist

MxanyogGdQrR CONDENSED

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

MEDIUM

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and

BOLD NO.2

less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*

196


Font Specs

Walbaum

CLASSIFICATION Modern

MxyagGdQrR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefac-

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

es based on historic characteristics. A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the

ITALIC

SMALL CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

197

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*


Volta

CLASSIFICATION Slab Serif

MyogGdQrR REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* MEDIUM

movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

based on historic characteristics. MEDIUM ITALIC

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BOLD

Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* 198


Typography, a perfect fusion of form and meaning in which beauty is born, is raised from mere craft and can claim the title of a philosophy; for it also includes ethics, that enabling factor of man's destiny. Thus the printed word is in touch with the spirit. â&#x20AC;&#x201D;Raul Mario Rosarivo, 1951

199


Typographic Atlas  

Typographic Atlas is a compilation of design tips, techniques and sources. Use this book to guide your way through great design.

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