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A communication service of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation.


CONTENTS//

March 2021

In This Issue 6 / Peanut Industry Updates Staff and board member updates across the peanut industry.

14 / Grass Control Research in Alabama and Mississippi evaluate the grass control efficacy of tank mixing a fungicide with either Select Max or Fusilade.

16 / Palmer amaranth control Auburn University research evaluates the control of Palmer amaranth without the use of PPO herbicides.

18 / Peanut Efficiency Awards The 2021 award applications based on production efficiency are due April 15.

Departments 8 / Checkoff Report Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Florida Peanut Producers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission and Mississippi Peanut Growers Association 20 / Washington Outlook 22 / Southern Peanut Growers Update

Joy Carter Crosby Editor joycrosby@gapeanuts.com 229-386-3690 Director of Advertising Jessie Bland jessie@gapeanuts.com Contributing Writers Abby Himburg abby@alpeanuts.com Southeastern Peanut Farmer P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Ga. 31793 445 Fulwood Blvd., Tifton, Ga. 31794 ISSN: 0038-3694

10 2021 Peanut Weed Guidebook The 2021 Weed Guidebook features information on a program approach to peanut weed management, weed control recommendations, grass control and control of PPO and ALS resistant Palmer amaranth in peanuts. Cover Photo Spraying herbicides in a peanut field. Photo courtesy of Eric Prostko, University of Georgia.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer is published six times a year (Jan./Feb., March, April, May/June, July/Aug., and Oct./Nov.) by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. The publisher is not responsible for copy omission, typographical errors, or any unintentional errors that may occur, other than to correct it in the following issue. Any erroneous reflection which may occur in the columns of Southeastern Peanut Farmer will be corrected upon brought to the attention of the editor. (Phone 229-386-3690.) Postmaster: Send address changes (Form 3579) to Southeastern Peanut Farmer, P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Georgia, 31793. Circulation is free to qualified peanut growers and others allied to the industry. Periodical postage paid at Tifton, Georgia and additional mailing office. Editorial Content: Editorial copy from sources outside of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation is sometimes presented for the information and interest of our members. Such material may, or may not, coincide with official Southern Peanut Farmers Federation policies. Publication of material does not necessarily imply its endorsement by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. For editorial concerns call 229-386-3690. No portion of this or past issues of the Southeastern Peanut Farmer may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the written consent of the editor. By-lined articles appearing in this publication represent views of the authors and not necessarily those of the publisher. Advertising: The Publisher reserves the right to refuse any advertisement. Corrections to advertisements must be made after the first run. All billing offers subject to credit review. Advertisements contained in this publication do not represent an endorsement by the Southeastern Peanut Farmer or the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. Use of trade names in this publication is for the purpose of providing specific information and is not a guarantee nor warranty of products named. For advertising concerns call 229-386-3472.

March 2021 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Editorial

Calendar of Events

The Little Peanut with Big Benefits

 National Ag Day, March 23, 2021. For more information visit agday.org.

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arch is one of my favorite times of the year for many reasons, but one of course, is the fact that we as an industry have the entire month to celebrate the amazing attributes of the humble peanut. Of course, we all know the little peanut has BIG benefits when it comes to nutrition which is why our favorite nut has SUPERFOOD status! So, how are you as a farmer sharing what you love about peanuts to the general public? In case you need a few ideas on what to say, check out the quick facts list below. Feel free to use these quick facts as you communicate with consumers, school children, media or others as you share the importance of peanuts to your local area. The checkoff associations are working hard throughout this month to tout the many benefits of peanuts. Some of the items you may see or hear around your area include digital banner ads, billboards, printed magazine advertisements, television and radio advertisements and more. Each association is working hard to make sure consumers are aware of the many benefits of snacking on peanuts every day of the week. Some of these promotions are specifically reaching consumers outside of the peanut belt and reaching consumers in Chicago, New York and Washington, D.C. In addition to the advertising promotions, the state associations are also focusing on giving back to those in need by donating Peanut Proud peanut butter to food banks throughout the month of March. More than 35,000 jars of peanut butter are being donated across the Southeast and in Washington, D.C. As we discuss the peanut butter donations with food bank representatives, they always mention how peanut butter is one of the most requested food items needed at food banks. In addition to National Peanut Month, the month of March celebrates Ag Day on March 23. The theme this year is “Food Brings Everyone to the Table.” The event provides an avenue for individuals, associations and businesses to help increase the public’s awareness of agriculture’s role in modern society. So, whether you are sharing the benefits of peanuts or agriculture with your neighbor or school children, you are making a difference. Together, we can work to continue the trend of increased consumption with peanuts and a greater education about agriculture. 

Joy Carter Crosby Editor

Quick Facts  Peanuts contain 19 vitamins and minerals, many of which fight heart disease.  Peanuts contain about 7.9 grams of protein per ounce, which is more than any other nut.  Research has shown peanuts can help control blood sugar, and regularly consuming peanuts is associated with lower BMI (body mass index).  Peanuts and peanut butter are tasty, convenient sources of natural folic acid. One ounce of roasted peanuts provides 10 percent of the daily value of folic acid, which helps in preventing birth defects.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021

 Peanut Proud Festival, March 27, 2021, Blakely, Ga. For more information visit peanutproudfestival.com.  Peanut Efficiency Award Deadline, April 15, 2021. For more information visit southeastfarmpress.com or call 662-624-8503.

 USA Peanut Congress, June 28-July 1, 2021. For information call 229-888-2508 or visit peanut-shellers.org.  American Peanut Research Education Society Annual Meeting, July 13-15, 2021, Omni Las Colinas Hotel, Dallas, Texas. For more information call 229-329-2949 or visit apresinc.com.

 Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 15-17, 2021, Edgewater Beach Resort, Panama City Beach, Fla. For more details visit southernpeanutfarmers.org.  Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day, July 22, 2021, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit sunbeltexpo.com or call 229-985-1968.  American Peanut Shellers Association and National Peanut Buying Points Association Pre-Harvest Meeting, Aug. 10-11, 2021, Albany, Ga. For more information visit peanut-shellers.org or call 229-888-2508.  Brooklet Peanut Festival, Sept. 18, 2021. For more information visit the festival’s website at brookletpeanutfestival.com.  Plains Peanut Festival, Sept. 25, 2021. For more information visit plainsgeorgia.com.  Georgia Peanut Festival, Oct. 16, 2021, Sylvester, Ga. For more information visit gapeanutfestival.org.  Sunbelt Ag Expo, Oct. 19-21, 2021, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit sunbeltexpo.com or call 229-985-1968.  National Peanut Festival, Nov. 5-14, 2021, Dothan, Ala. For more information visit nationalpeanutfestival.com. (Let us know about your event. Please send details to the editor at joycrosby@gapeanuts.com.


Peanut Industry Updates American Peanut Council hires Owen as president & CEO The American Peanut Council is pleased to announce the selection of Richard Owen as its new President & Chief Executive Officer, effective Feb. 1, 2021. He replaces Patrick Archer, who retired earlier this year. Owen has held senior leadership positions at the Produce Marketing Association for the past 11 years, and earlier in his career served as director of agricultural affairs in the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) and as executive vice president of the Montana Grain Growers Association. Starting with a degree in agricultural education from Virginia Tech, Owen has built a strong track record of working to strengthen American agriculture, developing particular Richard Owen expertise in international marketing and market development. “The APC Executive Committee has spent the past several months collaborating with industry stakeholders to identify the key qualities needed in the next leader of the American Peanut Council. With our selection of Richard Owen, we believe we have found the best person to lead the organization into the future,” says Monty Rast, who served as the organization’s chairman for the past year. “Given the American Peanut Council’s main priority and mission of strengthening export sales of U.S. peanuts to global markets, we are excited to work with Richard in laying out a comprehensive strategy to develop international markets, reduce tariff and non-tariff trade barriers, and expand sales of U.S.-origin peanuts around the world in a sustainable manner.” “I’m thrilled to be joining the American Peanut Council as its next president and CEO,” Owen says. “To be able to lead an industry-wide organization of APC’s stature into the next chapter of its growth is a great personal and professional opportunity. Throughout the selection process, I was impressed with the leadership’s commitment to both the organization and the broader peanut industry. I look forward to partnering with all of the industry stakeholders in this new endeavor.”

Alabama Peanut Producers Association board and staff updates from 2021 annual meeting Alabama peanut farmers met for the 2021 Alabama Peanut Producers Association annual meeting in Dothan on Feb. 4. During the meeting farmers elected new board members and received an update on legislative issues from Bob Redding and a market update from Marshall Lamb, research leader at the National Peanut Research Lab. Carl Sanders, peanut farmer from Coffee County, was elected president of association during the annual meeting. This will be Sanders twenty-first year serving as president of APPA. Other officers elected during the annual meeting include Mark Kaiser, Baldwin County, as vice president and Jerry Byrd, Dale County, as treasurer. Delegates at the annual meeting voted to appoint the following peanut farmers to the APPA board of directors: Baldwin County – Mark Kaiser and Joel Sirmon, Coffee County – Carl Sanders, Henry County – Thomas Adams and Ed White. Following the annual meeting, APPA held a reception honoring the retirement of Carole Granger. Granger has been the office manager at APPA for over 28 years. She has always greeted farmers and customers who walked through the door with a welcoming smile. Granger handled the financial business of APPA, Peanut PAC of Alabama and Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. Jamie Courson has been hired as the new office manager for Carole Granger APPA. Born and raised in Geneva, Alabama, she most recently worked for Coldwell Banker in Enterprise. She is a graduate of Geneva High School and attended the University of Montevallo on an academic and music scholarship. After living near Dallas, Texas, for five years, Courson moved back to Alabama to raise her two daughters, Eloise and Sloane. She can be reached by phone at 334-792-6482 or through email at jamie@alpeanuts.com. Jamie Courson

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021

Morris elected chairman of the Georgia Peanut Commission Armond Morris, peanut farmer from Tifton, Georgia, was elected chairman of the Georgia Peanut Commission during the monthly board meeting in January. This is Morris’ twentieth term as chairman of the commission. He has also served as chairman of the board previously in 1996 and 1997, 2003 and every year since 2005. “I look forward to serving Georgia’s peanut growers as chairman in 2021. It is a pleasure to serve peanut producers in the state of Georgia and the commission is continually working to serve all peanut farmers in the state through research, promotion and education,” Morris says. “This is a critical time for Georgia agriculture and peanut producers as we work to help educate newly elected officials about the peanut program and importance of agriculture within the state and nation.” Other officers elected during the board meeting include Joe Boddiford, Sylvania, Georgia, as vice chairman and Rodney Dawson, Hawkinsville, Georgia, as treasurer. Additional board members Tim Burch, Newton, Georgia, and Donald Chase, Oglethorpe, Georgia, represent District One and District Five, respectively. The peanut producing counties of Georgia are divided into five districts in which peanut farmers elect a representative to serve on the Georgia Peanut Commission board. On Dec. 16, 2020, the Georgia Farm Bureau Federation conducted nomination meetings for board member positions in District One and District Three. Board members Tim Burch, Baker County farmer, and Joe Boddiford, Screven County farmer, were both re-elected without opposition and will serve for the next three years. Burch and Boddiford were sworn in during the January board meeting by Chief Judge Bill Reinhardt of the Tifton Judicial Circuit. The Georgia Peanut Commission represents more than 4,500 peanut farm families in the state and conducts programs in the areas of research, promotion and education. For more information on the programs of the GPC, visit www.gapeanuts.com.


Checkoff Report Investments Made by Growers for the Future of the Peanut Industry.

Georgia Peanut Commission sponsors Peach Bowl The Georgia Peanut Commission sponsored and exhibited at the Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl at the MercedesBenz Stadium in Atanta, Georgia, Jan. 1, 2021. The game included the University of Georgia and University of Cincinnati vying for the win. During the game, GPC Georgia peanut were promoted through in-game promoted peanuts through an digital ads during the Peach Bowl held Jan. 1, ad in the program booklet, 2021, in Atlanta, Ga. website banner ad and through the videoboard and LED ribbon board in the stadium. Sample packs of Georgia peanuts were distributed to the teams in advance of the game. There were approximately 15,000 fans at the game. Additional exposure was reached through the national broadcast on ESPN with a viewership of 8.73 million.

Georgia Peanut Commission holds Research Report Day The Georgia Peanut Commission held the annual Research Report Day, Feb. 10, 2021, at the GPC headquarters in Tifton, Georgia. The event provided growers and industry representatives an opportunity to hear the latest reports and newest information available on peanut research projects funded by GPC in 2020. GPC awarded $739,693 to peanut research facilities in the state during 2020. This effort funded 40 research projects from the University of Georgia, USDA Agricultural Research Service and Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College. The research programs primarily focus on peanut breeding, conservation methods, irrigation and water management as well as pests, weed and disease management. The annual research reports are available on the Georgia Peanut Commission website at www.gapeanuts.com.

Online Seed Seminar Available The American Peanut Shellers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission and Southern Peanut Farmers Federation have teamed up to present the 2021 Peanut Industry Seed Seminar online. Traditionally, the seed seminar is held during the Georgia Peanut Farm Show which was postponed until 2022. The seed seminar features video presentations highlighting seed quantity for 2021, updates from peanut breeders and information on how to maximize your peanut stand and growth. The videos are available on the GPC website at www.gapeanuts.com.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021

Georgia Peanuts promoted through digital media Throughout the fall, the Georgia Peanut Commission invested in targeted display digital advertising through Salem Media and iHeart Radio. The Salem Media campaign, which ran from Oct. 1 – Dec. 31, highlighted peanut harvest, Peanut Butter Lovers Month and the holidays with banner ads reflecting engaging graphics that led viewers to the GPC website. Overall, the campaign resulted in more than 1.29 million impressions, which were captured via Geofence technology, keyword searches and GPC website visits. The campaign also included YouTube advertising where a :30 second commercial about peanuts was shared with viewers. The YouTube platform garnered more than 250,000 impressions. The campaign through iHeart Radio focused on a “Pick Your Pie” promotion leading up to Thanksgiving and a Holiday Baking Campaign in December. The campaign included on air radio mentions through Power 96.1, social media advertising, two online contests and digital banner ads. The entire campaign targeted moms in the Atlanta area and reached more than 744,000 impressions. As part of the “Pick Your Pie” promotion, three farm families were featured with their favorite peanut pie recipe. The families and recipes include the Cromley Family, Brooklet, Georgia, with Peanut Pie, Grimes Family, Tifton, Georgia, with Southern Peanut Tassies, and the Thompson Family, Donalsonville, Georgia, with their No Bake Peanut Butter Pie. Each recipe was promoted on-air through Power 96.1 radio DJs and online through the contest page. Radio listeners were able to pick their favorite pie to enter the online contest for a chance at winning a gift card to purchase groceries prior to Thanksgiving. As part of the Holiday Baking Campaign in December, iHeart and Power 96.1 followers were encouraged to share baking memories through the online contest. Winners were chosen for a gift card and more than 600 individuals entered the contest. The digital banner ad component of this campaign reached more than 582,000 impressions.


Reports from the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

APPA Publishes Production Guide, Provides Virtual Seminars In lieu of face to face grower production meetings normally held February through March, the Alabama Peanut Producers Association recorded a virtual peanut production seminar and published a peanut production guide. Extension faculty from Auburn University and Alabama Cooperative Extension System recorded a presentation regarding their research findings and recommendations to be viewed by growers online. In addition, they provided a synopsis of the presentation and best recommendations for the Alabama Peanut Production Guide. Marshall Lamb with the National Peanut Research Lab was included as well. Each Alabama peanut grower received a copy of the peanut production guide. Presentations from the researchers are also available online at www.alpeanuts.com/industry-research/.

APPA Sponsors Online Cooking Show The Alabama Peanut Producers Association sponsored a six-week online cooking show, “In the Spirit,” with FEAST magazine. The series ran Nov. 11 - Dec. 22, 2020. The sponsorship includes a :15 second opening and closing spot for each video, a four-week social media campaign, and six full color advertisements in four regional newspapers. There were more than 40,000 impressions across all the campaign elements.

APPA advertises in ALFA Magazine The Alabama Peanut Producers Association advertised in the November 2020 issue of the Alabama Farmers Federation’s Neighbors magazine. The issue was delivered to 330,000 households across Alabama. APPA partnered with National Peanut Board and used co-promotion funds to design and run the ad. The ad encouraged consumers to enjoy the simple pleasures of life with peanuts, and included a peanut butter sweet potato bread recipe developed by Stacey Little of SouthernBite.com.

FPPA welcomes Scott Angle as new vice president at University of Florida IFAS The University of Florida leader in recently named J. Scott Angle, agricultural as the vice president of the science and university’s Institute of Food administration. and Agricultural Sciences (UF/ His passion for IFAS). science, natural Angle will oversee UF’s resources and College of Agricultural and Life Ken Barton, FPPA executive director, service to the welcomes Scott Angle in his new role community will Sciences with more than 6,000 as vice president of the Institute of students, the Florida Cooperative Food and Agricultural Sciences at the advance our work toward Extension Service, and the University of Florida. feeding a Florida Agricultural Experiment growing world Station’s network of research population while reducing our use of centers. resources needed to do it,” UF President The Florida Peanut Producers Kent Fuchs said. Angle spent more than Association is excited to have the opportunity to work with Dr. Angle as the 35 years in agricultural science and vice president for Agriculture and Natural administration, including 25 years as a professor of soil science and administrator Resources with UF IFAS. “Dr. Angle is a nationally recognized (Director of the Maryland Agricultural

Experiment Station and Maryland Cooperative Extension) at the University of Maryland. From 2005 to 2015, Angle served as dean and director of the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at the University of Georgia. “My experience at NIFA gave me the opportunity to see university agriculture operations across the nation, and UF/ IFAS is simply one of, if not the, best. Agriculture is changing faster than I have ever witnessed in my career,” Angle says. “Many challenges lie ahead, not the least of which is COVID-19, and its long-term implications for agriculture. UF/IFAS, however, is up to the challenge and I am honored to be at the helm during such an important time for agriculture.”

March 2021 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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2021 WEED GUIDEBOOK Program Approach for Peanut Weed Management

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s farmers have battled herbicideresistant weeds the last several years, University of Georgia Extension Weed Specialist Eric Prostko has been promoting a program approach for weed control. The program includes five components which include starting clean (using cover crops, tillage, and/or herbicides); planting in twin rows; using multiple residual herbicides; making timely postemergence herbicide applications; and handweeding escapes before seed is produced. One program Prostko recommends at planting is a combination of Prowl, Valor and Strongarm. This initial program is followed by a post-emergence application 30 to 40 days after planting of Cadre, Warrant and 2,4-DB and surfactant. This program has been very effective for Prostko in research trials where populations of Palmer amaranth, Florida beggarweed and multiple annual grasses are prevalent. According to Prostko, farmers can tweak this program by removing Strongarm if there are rotation issues with a sensitive crop like vegetables or dryland field corn. Farmers can also replace Cadre with Cobra or Ultra Blazer, as well as replace Warrant with Dual Magnum, Zidua, Anthem Flex or Outlook. “This is a very effective treatment when you apply your postemergence herbicides on a timely basis and when

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weeds are very small,” Prostko says. Another program Prostko recommends is what he calls “the Gramoxone program.” The program consists of Prowl at planting, followed by Gramoxone, Storm and Dual Magnum at 14 days and then Cadre, Dual Magnum and 2,4-DB at 30 to 40 days after planting. According to Prostko, farmers can also tweak this program by replacing Prowl with Sonalan; replacing Storm with Basagran; replacing Dual with Warrant, Outlook, Zidua or Anthem Flex; and replacing Cadre with Cobra or Ultra Blazer. “Farmers can tailor either one of these programs to fit their specific needs,” Prostko adds. Through the years as a weed scientist Prostko has often been asked which herbicide is better, Sonalan or Prowl. “In my opinion every acre of peanuts

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021

in Georgia needs to be treated with one of these products,” Prostko says. However, Prostko notes that he has not been able to consistently prove, scientifically, that one is better than the other. His only preference is in striptill fields where he prefers for farmers to use Prowl over Sonalan. Over the last few years, peanut farmers have shown a lot of interest in the Group 15 herbicides including Anthem Flex, Dual Magnum, Outlook, Warrant, and Zidua. All of these herbicides provide good to excellent residual control of Palmer amaranth, tropical spiderwort, and many annual grasses. According to Prostko’s research, when these herbicides are used in the recommended UGA peanut weed control programs, there have not been any major differences in performance between the Group 15 herbicides. “I don’t have a preference between any of these five herbicides,” Prostko says. “My preference is that farmers use one or more of these herbicides in their program at least two times. I encourage farmers to utilize our UGA program approach for peanut weed control which includes starting clean, planting in twin rows, using multiple residual herbicides, applying postemergence herbicides to small weeds (<3”) and hand-weeding escapes.”  Bਙ Jਏਙ C਒ਏਓਂਙ


2021 Peanut Weed Control Recommendations for Georgia by Eric Prostko Professor and Extension Weed Specialist University of Georgia Five Important Things to Consider: 1. Start clean using a combination of tillage, cover crops, and/or herbicides. 2. Use narrow rows (≤ 30”) or twin rows when practical. 3. Use at least 2 residual herbicides in the system. 4. Make timely postemergence applications (tallest weeds ≤ 3” tall, not the average). 5. Hand-remove weed escapes before seed is produced. Table 1: Herbicide Programs for Peanuts. Timing System

Tillage

Preplant Burndown1

PPI

PRE

No Rain in 7-10 DAP

strip-till3

Paraquat + Prowl

Glyphosate or Paraquat + 2,4-D

Rain in 7-10 DPA Paraquat + Prowl + Valor

Non-Irrigated (Dryland)

Prowl or Sonalan + Strongarm4

conventional

No PRE if rain is not expected in 7-10 DAP

Rain in 7-10 DPA Valor Strip-till3

Gyphosate or Paraquat + 2,4-D

Paraquat + Prowl + Valor + Strongarm4

Irrigated

EPOST (~10-20 DAP2)

POST (~30-45 DAP)

Paraquat + Storm or Basagran + ALS Resistance: Dual Magnum or Warrant or Zidua or Cobra or Ultral Blazer Anthem Flex or Outlook + (Dual Magnum or Warrant or Zidua) + 2,4-DB No ALS Resistance: Paraquat + Storm Cadred + (Dual or Basagran + Dual Magnum or Warrant or Magnum or Warrant or Zidua) + 2,4-DB Zidua or Anthem Flex or Outlook ** A 4-way tank-mixture can be used if required (Cadre + Cobra or Ultra Blazer + 2,4-DB + Dual Magnum or Warrant or Zidua)

Prowl or Sonalan + Valor + Strongarm4

Conventional

Apply at least 7 days before planting. If there will be a long delay between the burndown application and planting (>10 days), add a residual herbicide (Valor or Dual Magnum or Warrant or Outlook) to the burndown treatment. 2 DAP = days after planting. 3 Annual grass control in strip-tillage systems is often more difficult thus additional applications of a postemergence grass herbicide (i.e. Fusilade, Poast and Select) will be needed. 4 Before using Cadre and/or Strongarm, rotational crop restrictions must be considered. 1

**SPECIAL NOTE: Dual Magnum/Warrant/Outlook are in the same herbicide family (chloroacetamide) and have the same mode of action (inhibit very long chain fatty acids). Zidua/Anthem Flex are not in the same herbicide family (isoxazoline) but have the same mode of action. Multiple applications (> 2) of these herbicides in a single year should be avoided to prevent or delay the evolution of resistance. These residual herbicides have no postemergence activity.

REMINDER PARAQUAT TRAINING

Pesticide applicators are required by EPA to take an on-line paraquat training every 3 years. Contact your local Extension office for more info. www.epa.gov/pesticide-worker-safety/paraquat-dichloride-training-certified-applicators

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021


Grass Control

Evaluation of potential antagonism of Select Max and Fusilade applied with common peanut fungicides on annual grass control By Steve Li, Auburn University and Connor Ferguson, Mississippi State University

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any farmers routinely apply grass herbicides such as Select Max (clethodim) or Fusilade (fluazifop) to control annual grasses, such as Texas panicum, crabgrass, goosegrass, crowfootgrass, etc., in their peanut fields. Some of them commonly mix a fungicide with the herbicide to control both weeds and diseases and to save a trip to the field. However, little research has been done to evaluate the grass control efficacy as impacted by grass herbicide plus fungicide tank mix. Therefore, a study funded by the National Peanut Board was conducted in summer of 2020 at two locations in Alabama and two locations in Mississippi to evaluate how grass control is affected by tank mixing a fungicide with either Select Max or Fusilade in field. In this study, Select Max and Fusilade rates were 16 and 12 fluid ounces per acre respectively. Either Bravo at 1.5 pints per acre, Elatus at 9.5 ounces per acre, Priaxor at 8 fluid ounces per acre, Fontelis at 24 fluid ounces per acre, or Miravis at 24 fluid ounces per acre was mixed with Select Max or Fusiliade. A NIS (Preference) was added to all treatments at 0.25 percent volume per volume. Treatments were applied with AIXR 11002 nozzles at 15 gallons per acre output to small plots. Each treatment was replicated four times at each site. Annual grasses were between 8-10 inches in height at application. The main grass species at the Alabama sites, Wiregrass Research and Education Center in Headland and EV Smith Research Center in Shorter, were crabgrass and crowfootgrass, while Texas panicum was the main species at the two Mississippi sites. Visual rating was conducted at 28 days after treatment at all sites. Study results showed that no

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Image from research plot 209 in Mississippi. The treatment included Fontelis + Select Max which was rated at 99 percent grass control.

fungicide consistently reduced Select Max and Fusilade efficacy across all three sites. Grass control achieved at the Mississippi sites were consistently higher than Alabama sites with over 80 percent grass control at the Mississippi sites versus below 45 percent control at Alabama sites 28 days after treatment. Image from research plot 201 in Mississippi. The treatment included Fontelis + Fusilade which was rated at 70% grass It was very clear that control. Select Max and Fusilade showed increased efficacy Study findings also suggested peanut on Texas panicum than crabgrass and growers should spray grass herbicides crowfootgrass. Select Max and Fusilade before crabgrass and crowfootgrass are alone did not provide more than 45 too big and avoid spraying in a drought percent control at Alabama sites on these period if possible. This study will be two species due to combined effect of repeated in the summer of 2021 to further large grass size and drought stress at capture grass responses following grass application, fortunately, addition of a herbicide plus fungicide treatments.  fungicide did not further reduce control efficacy.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021


Control of PPO and ALS resistant Palmer amaranth in Peanuts Image of the non treated check research plot study funded by the National Peanut Board to evaluate control of Palmer amaranth without using PPO herbicides in Alabama.

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almer amaranth is the worst weed in peanuts grown in the Southeast. It is very competitive, grows rapidly and utilizes water and sunlight very efficiently. Currently, most of the Palmer amaranth populations in major peanut production areas around Dothan, Alabama, are glyphosate and ALS resistant. However, PPO-resistant types are very widespread across the Midsouth. It is estimated by Extension weed scientists that around 80 percent of the Palmer populations are PPO-resistant, and 20-30 percent are DNA herbicide (yellow herbicides such as Prowl, Treflan and Sonalan) resistant. The PPO resistant type poses the biggest concern to the peanut industry since they are also resistant to ALS chemistry. ALS-herbicides such as Cadre, Classic and Strongarm have all been lost to Palmer amaranth. If the industry keeps losing PPO herbicides (Cobra, Ultra Blazer, Aim, Valor), controlling Palmer amaranth will be very difficult if not totally impossible. Gramoxone and 2,4-DB use will skyrocket as expected, illegal use of Gramoxone beyond application window will not be rare. Gramoxone is highly toxic to humans and very injurious to peanuts, particularly on older peanuts 30 days after planting (DAP). Abusing Gramoxone can also lead to the development of paraquat resistance

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in the future. Therefore, alternative approaches are urgently needed in case PPO-resistance gene flows to peanut production area and hybrid with local populations. A study was funded by the National Peanut Board to evaluate controlling Palmer amaranth without using PPO herbicides in Alabama. Two locations in Alabama at Headland and Shorter, with high Palmer amaranth pressure were used for this study in the summer of 2020. Half of the study was done in conventional till area and the other half had cover crop residue from cereal rye planted the previous fall. Both tillage types received the same PRE treatments. The peanut variety, Georgia-06G, was planted between May 12 to June 5, 2020, at both locations. Both single and twin row pattern were used in conventional till area, and only single row was used in cover crop area. Each treatment was replicated 4 times at both locations. Gramoxone 2lb 12 oz + 2,4-DB 16 oz + Dual Magnum 1 pt/A + NIS was used only on the conventional tilled area around 28 days after cracking. Cadre 3 oz + 2,4-DB 16 oz + Dual Magnum 1 pt/A + NIS was applied only on cover crop area around 35-40 DAP. Select Max + NIS was applied at 51 DAP to control annual grasses. Study results indicated that cover crop residues at both sites reached 5,0007,000 pounds per acre range. About 50 percent of the residue remained on the

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021

Twin row, conventional till. PRE (May 27): Warrant 3 pt/A + Prowl H2O pt/A POST (July 1): Gramoxone 2 lb. 12 oz. + 2,4-DB 16 oz. + Dual Magnum 1 pt./A + NIS

Twin row, conventional till PRE (May 2): Warrant 3 pt + Brake 24 oz + Prowl H2O 2 pt/A POST (July 1): Gramoxone 2lb 12 oz + 2,4-DB 16 oz + Dual Magnum 1 pt/A + NIS

soil surface 35 days after termination. Twin row peanuts did not offer significant weed control benefits compared to single row peanut in a bare ground area. Peanut canopy width was widest for peanuts planted in a cover crop - Continued on page 18


Control of PPO and ALS resistant Palmer amaranth in Peanuts - Continued from page 16

compared to conventional single row and conventional twin rows at 65 DAP, possibly due to moisture retention of the cover crop. PRE treatments containing Warrant, Solicam and Brake provided excellent control of Palmer (>90 percent control) in both tillage systems (Prowl H2O was used only in conventional tilled area). Two PRE treatments in bare ground area and one treatment in a cover crop area controlled Palmer amaranth 100 percent at 130 DAP. Cover crop residue by itself provided ~75 percent control of Palmer plant number reduction compared to bare ground counterpart when no herbicide was applied. Preliminary results suggested sufficient control of Palmer can be achieved with soil herbicides, timely POST applications and cover crops. However, this study was done in small plots (4 rows by 25 ft.) and received

Single row, cereal rye residue PRE (May 27): Warrant 3 pt + Brake 24 oz/A POST (July 3): Cadre 3 oz + 2,4-DB 16 oz + Dual Magnum 1 pt/A + NIS

adequate rainfall/irrigation after planting. The efficacy of these treatments combined cover crop residues still need to be assessed in dryland fields with high pressure of Palmer in 2021.  Bਙ Sਔਅਖਅ Lਉ Aਕਂਕ਒਎ U਎ਉਖਅ਒ਓਉਔਙ Editor’s Note: Brake is a herbicide without a peanut label yet. However, a section 18 label may be submitted for use in peanut.

Single row, conventional till PRE (June 3): Dual Magnum 16 oz + Strongarm 0.45 oz/A POST 1 (June 26): Gramoxone 2lb 12 oz + 2,4-DB 16 oz + Dual Magnum 1 pt/A + NIS POST 2 (July 16): Cadre 3 oz + 2,4-DB 16 oz + Outlook 1 pt/A + NIS

Looking for peanut efficiency and a fond return

M

any growers say they didn’t realize just how efficiency their peanut operations were, and other growers found they might could do even better. The Farm Press Peanut Efficiency Award is based on production efficiency, and with it we are honored to honor growers who produce the highest yields by using their way to use inputs the best way. The confidential program is setup to help the producer look at the entire peanut operation and not on individual farms or small plots. We’ve had outstanding winners during the program’s more than two decades, including last year’s winners. Kirk Jones said mentors and timeliness are key to his Virginia farm. Alabama’s Mullek family delivered sustainable peanuts with their unique, no-till system. The Martin family have yielded generations of Texas efficiency winners. Van Hensarling, who has grown peanuts for 23 years on the south Mississippi farm, looked at every aspect — rotation, fertility, weed control, the fungicide

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program, and harvest efficiency. The Farm Press Peanut Efficiency Awards are presented to winners during the annual Southern Peanut Growers Conference in Panama City Beach, Fla., each year. We pay for the winner and a guest to attend the conference and to enjoy the best beaches in the country. As we all know, though, 2020 was a monkey wrench of a year. The 2020 conference was delayed until 2021. We are looking forward to getting back to that good industry conference, which is now slated for July 15-1w7.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021

Awards are presented to growers from the four major production regions: Lower Southeast, including Alabama, Georgia, Florida; the Upper Southeast, including Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina; the Southwest, including Texas, Oklahoma and New Mexico; and the Delta, including Mississippi, Arkansas and Missouri. “The elements of production cost and price are equally important factors in our evaluation of nominees. Marketing expertise definitely has given an edge to recent winners of the award,” says Marshall Lamb, research director for the National Peanut Research Laboratory and primary advisor of the PEA program. We try to wrap up nominations by the end of April and contact winners soon after. If you want to find out more about PEA or submit a nomination, email Marshall or me. My email is brad.haire@ farmprogress.com. Marshall’s email is marshall.lamb@usda.gov. We’re happy to talk about the PEA program and anything related.  Bਙ B਒ਁ਄ Hਁਉ਒ਅ Sਏਕਔਈਅਁਓਔ Fਁ਒਍ P਒ਅਓਓ


Washington Outlook by Robert L. Redding Jr.

GPC Raises Concerns with Quality Loss Adjustment Program The Georgia Peanut Commission has contacted the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and members of Congress regarding the Farm Service Agency’s Quality Loss Adjustment Program. Growers attempting to participate in the program have received inconsistent information regarding how to qualify. The current deadline for the program is March 5, 2021 yet some county offices have indicated that they were waiting on additional information. The U.S. Congress established the Quality Loss Adjustment Program after Hurricane Michael in the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2020. According to USDA, assistance through the Quality Loss Adjustment Program is available for eligible crops that suffered quality loss due to one or more of the following disaster events including tornado, typhoon, volcanic activity, snowstorm, wildfire, hurricane, flood, excessive moisture or qualifying drought. The disaster event must have occurred in calendar year 2018 or 2019.

U.S. House Agriculture Committee Passes Next Ag COVID-19 Economic Stimulus Legislation The U.S House committees of jurisdiction are putting together the next round of COVID19 Economic Stimulus assistance. Please note that USDA has not finalized the latest economic stimulus law but the GPC expects this to be completed soon. The House Agriculture Committee passed legislation includes:  Food supply chain and agricultural pandemic response funding  Emergency grants for rural health care  Farm loan assistance and support for socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers  Funding for U.S. led humanitarian food aid  Continuation of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program increases  Additional funding for Nutrition Assistance Programs  Additional Commodity Supplemental Food Program funding

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Georgia Delegation Members Receive Key Ag Appointments U.S. Senator Raphael Warnock, D-Georgia, has been appointed to the U.S. Senate Agriculture Committee. U.S. Senator Jon Ossoff, D-Georgia, is a new member of the U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee which has jurisdiction over Agricultural labor issues. As previously reported, U.S. Congressman David Scott, D-Georgia, is the new chairman of the U.S. House Agriculture Committee. Congressman Austin Scott, R-Georgia, is the ranking member of the General Farm Commodities and Risk Management Subcommittee on the House Agriculture Committee. This Subcommittee is the major subcommittee for row crops during the farm bill process. U.S. Congressman Rick Allen, R-Georgia, is also a member of the committee. U.S. Congressman Sanford Bishop, D-Georgia, continues as chairman of the House Appropriations Committee’s Subcommittee on Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration and Related Agencies.

USPF Signs on Crop Insurance Support Letters The U.S. Peanut Federation (USPF) signed on letters of support for crop insurance to Congress and the Administration. Agricultural organizations have been concerned that there may be attempts to cut programs in the upcoming budget process as well as during the Fiscal Year 2022 appropriations legislative process.

Biden Adminstration Nominees Move Forward The USPF has signed on with other agricultural organizations in support of former USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack’s nomination for Secretary of Agriculture in the Biden Administration. Secretary Vilsack’s nomination has been approved by the U.S. Senate Agriculture Committee and is expected to move on the Senate floor in February. The USPF also expressed support for Katherine Tai to be U.S. Trade Representative note in a letter submitted to the U.S. Senate Finance Committee by agricultural organizations stating, “Ms. Tai is eminently qualified and deeply familiar with the mission of the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative in opening foreign markets and reducing barriers for U.S. food and agriculture workers and exporters for the benefit of consumers in the U.S. and across the globe. We especially value Ms. Tai’s demonstrated ability to build bipartisan support for trade policies. We submit that these capabilities are essential to the success of the next Trade Representative in addressing the most pressing trade policy issues, including trade relationship challenges with China and the European Union, as well as enforcement of existing trade agreements and tackling non-tariff barriers to trade. We believe that Ms. Tai has the experience and expertise to secure greater market access for U.S. products and ensure enforcement of clear and fair rules with our trade partners so U.S. food and agriculture workers and our industry sectors may fairly compete in the global economy.” Ms. Tai’s Senate hearing is scheduled for February.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer March 2021


PAID ADVERTISEMENT

March 2021 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Southern Peanut Growers March is National Peanut Month March is National Peanut Month and National Nutrition Month so Southern Peanut Growers is kicking the celebration off with a Satellite Media Tour featuring Frances Largeman-Roth, RDN on March 1. Frances is a New York Times best-selling author and nationally recognized health expert. She writes and develops recipes for Parents, BabyCenter, Today.com, Cooking Light magazine and other publications. She is a sought-after spokesperson and provides private nutrition counseling to clients through her Healthy House Call program. The celebration will continue with a special Chef Peanut Lover package mailing featuring a host of peanut and peanut butter items for the chef’s the experiment with and share. This package will kick off a six-month program with the chefs through Eat Y’all. On March 18, Southern Peanut Growers will team up Chef Amy Sins to host a virtual cooking school on the Eat Y’all and Find Family Farms social media platforms. Chef Sins is the founder of Langlois - a traveling culinary entertainment group, cookbook author, and host of the weekly radio program “New Orleans by Mouth”. This will be a fun class where you’ll learn some great cooking and entertaining techniques from a chef known for her “contagious joy, southern charm, and barefoot shenanigans”! Look for details on the Southern Peanut Growers social media channels. Throughout the month, look on Southern Peanut Grower’s Facebook and Instagram pages for recipes celebrating peanuts, nutrition information, and even a contest or two!

Peanut Butter Banana Oatmeal Ingredients: 1 ripe banana ½ cup quick cooking oats 1 cup water 1 tablespoon milk 2 tablespoons peanut butter Servings: 2

Directions: Preheat oven to 425 degrees. Peel the ripe banana and place on a cookie sheet. Mash with a fork and roast in the preheated oven for about 12 minutes. Microwave the oats and water in a microwave-safe bowl for 2 minutes. Stir in roasted banana, milk, and peanut butter until creamy.

Per serving: 228 calories, 9.7 g fat, 2.1 g saturated fat, 1 mg cholesterol, 82 mg sodium, 30.9 carbohydrates, 4.6 g fiber, 9.3 g total sugar, 7.6 g protein, 0% vitamin D, 2% calcium, 14% iron, 8% potassium Note: You can add a little brown sugar or honey to taste, but the sugars in a ripe banana caramelize when roasted so it really isn’t necessary.

Visit SPG online at www.peanutbutterlovers.com for additional recipes.

Southern Peanut Growers

1025 Sugar Pike Way · Canton, Georgia 30115 Phone: (770) 751-6615 email: lpwagner@comcast.net Visit our website at http://www.peanutbutterlovers.com


Southern Peanut Growers Conference EDGEWATER BEACH & GOLF RESORT July 15-17, 2021 Panama City Beach, Florida

l a u n n A 23rd nt! Eve

Key topics: Legislation, Research and Promotion For more information contact: Alabama Peanut Producers Association P.O. Box 8805 Dothan, AL 36304 334-792-6482 Florida Peanut Producers Association 2741 Penn Avenue, Suite 1 Marianna, FL 32448 850-526-2590 Georgia Peanut Commission P.O. Box 967 Tifton, GA 31793 229-386-3470

Brought to you by the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Mississippi Peanut Growers Association P.O. Box 284 Petal, MS 39465 601-606-3547

Registration opens April 1, 2021. www.southernpeanutfarmers.org

Profile for SEPF

March 2021 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer