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A communication service of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation.


Contents April 2020

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Joy Carter Crosby Editor joycrosby@gapeanuts.com 229-386-3690

Resistance to Aspergillus flavus is a game changer for those treating peanut seed in 2020. The culprit is causing poor germination of seed. Farmers should keep a sample of seed this year and apply an in-furrow fungicide application.

Director of Advertising Jessie Bland jessie@gapeanuts.com Contributing Writers Kaye Lynn Hataway klhataway@alpeanuts.com Southeastern Peanut Farmer P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Ga. 31793 445 Fulwood Blvd., Tifton, Ga. 31794 ISSN: 0038-3694

Southeastern Peanut Farmer is published six times a year (Jan./Feb., March, April, May/June, July/Aug., and Oct./Nov.) by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. The publisher is not responsible for copy omission, typographical errors, or any unintentional errors that may occur, other than to correct it in the following issue. Any erroneous reflection which may occur in the columns of Southeastern Peanut Farmer will be corrected upon brought to the attention of the editor. (Phone 229-386-3690.) Postmaster: Send address changes (Form 3579) to Southeastern Peanut Farmer, P.O. Box 706, Tifton, Georgia, 31793. Circulation is free to qualified peanut growers and others allied to the industry. Periodical postage paid at Tifton, Georgia and additional mailing office. Editorial Content: Editorial copy from sources outside of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation is sometimes presented for the information and interest of our members. Such material may, or may not, coincide with official Southern Peanut Farmers Federation policies. Publication of material does not necessarily imply its endorsement by the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. For editorial concerns call 229-386-3690. No portion of this or past issues of the Southeastern Peanut Farmer may be reproduced in any form whatsoever without the written consent of the editor. By-lined articles appearing in this publication represent views of the authors and not necessarily those of the publisher. Advertising: The Publisher reserves the right to refuse any advertisement. Corrections to advertisements must be made after the first run. All billing offers subject to credit review. Advertisements contained in this publication do not represent an endorsement by the Southeastern Peanut Farmer or the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation. Use of trade names in this publication is for the purpose of providing specific information and is not a guarantee nor warranty of products named. For advertising concerns call 229-386-3472.

Seed Treatment Game Changer

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Disease and Insect Guidebook The 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer Disease and Insect Guidebook features information on disease and nematode management, identification of leaf spot versus chemical burn, Peanut Rx and insect management.

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FPPA holds 45th Annual Meeting The Florida Peanut Producers Association recently held their 45th annual meeting with 250 farmers in attendance. During the event, Justin Peel, Bonifay, Florida, received the Farm Credit/FPPA Young Peanut Farmer Award. Peel began farming in 2009 and grows approximately 850 acres of peanuts, cotton and corn.

Departments: Checkoff Report .................................................................................. 8 Alabama Peanut Producers Association, Florida Peanut Producers Association, Georgia Peanut Commission and Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Washington Outlook ............................................................................ 24 Southern Peanut Growers Update ........................................................ 26 Cover Photo: Peanut seed ready for planting. Photo by Joy Crosby.

April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Editorial

Calendar of Events

Celebrations and Cancellations he month of March started with a celebration for National Peanut Month and ended drastically different. The National Peanut Month celebration kicked off March 2 with Georgia PB&J Day at the state Capitol. This was the last time that Senator John Wilkinson, chairman of the Senate Ag Committee, and Representative Tom McCall, chairman of the House Ag Committee, would be in attendance at the event and present a resolution recognizing the state’s peanut farmers and the importance of the peanut industry to the state of Georgia. Both are retiring from their work as chairman of the ag committees and should be commended on a job well done representing agriculture throughout the state. Once that event ended, plans continued for National Peanut Month as the number of the coronavirus cases also increased. Little did we know at that time that some of our plans would be postponed, arranged differently and even canceled as the virus spread throughout the United States. The next week included two major promotional events at the Atlanta Motor Speedway NASCAR race and the Atlanta Community Food Bank Hunger Walk. We set up for the NASCAR promotion on Thursday, March 12. A couple hours after setting up the exhibit, we received news that the race would be held without spectators and then eventually canceled for the weekend. The Atlanta Community Food Bank followed suit with canceling the Hunger Walk too. Next, one by one, more events were canceled and schools, restaurants, businesses and church buildings all closed their doors. States were ordering shelter in place restrictions and life as we know it changed drastically in a matter of days. As events were closed, the virus still continued to spread and cause death. Panic set in with some consumers who rushed to grocery stores to stock up and in the process, clearing out shelves of normal every day products and food. Agriculture began to suffer too. Many farmers worried about having enough labor, access to supplies or having to dump milk. So, that’s the negative. However, I choose to look on the bright side. Peanuts and peanut butter sales have increased. Many families are finding time to put those jigsaw puzzles together that have been hid away in a closet. Children are making crafts or decorating windows with crosses. People are taking care of one another by offering to share supplies or go shopping for a senior citizen. In some cities, individuals are ringing bells nightly at a certain time to celebrate the work of healthcare workers. So, in times like this, it is sometimes hard to find the right words. So, I leave you with this Bible verse and urge you to stay safe. t

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So do not fear, for I am with you; do not be dismayed, for I am your God. I will strengthen you and help you; I will uphold you with my righteous right hand. Isaiah 41:10

Joy Carter Crosby Editor

Special Announcement 2020 Southern Peanut Growers Conference In light of the recent spread of COVID-19, the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation is discussing whether to continue planning for the 2020 Southern Peanut Growers Conference, scheduled for July 16-18, 2020, at Edgewater Beach & Golf Resort in Panama City Beach, Florida. The Federation will continue to monitor the guidance of public health officials and will send out conference information after April 16, 2020. For the latest information, please visit www.southernpeanutfarmers.org.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

u Georgia Farm Recovery Block Grant Application Deadline, April 30, 2020. For more information visit farmrecovery.com. u USA Peanut Congress, June 13-17, 2020, Amelia Island, Fla. For information visit peanut-shellers.org. u American Peanut Research Education Society Annual Meeting, July 14-16, 2020, Omni Mandalay Hotel at Las Colinas, Dallas, Texas. For more information visit apresinc.com or call 229-329-2949. u Southern Peanut Growers Conference, July 16-18, 2020, Edgewater Beach Resort, Panama City Beach, Fla. For more details visit southernpeanutfarmers.org. u Sunbelt Ag Expo Field Day, July 23, 2020, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit sunbeltexpo.com or call 229-985-1968. u American Peanut Shellers Association and National Peanut Buying Points Association Pre-Harvest Meeting, Aug. 12, 2020, The Bindery, Leesburg, Ga. For more information visit peanut-shellers.org or call 229-888-2508. u Georgia Peanut Tour, Sept. 15-17, 2020, Bainbridge, Ga. and surrounding area. For more information visit the tour blog at georgiapeanuttour.com. u Brooklet Peanut Festival, Sept. 19, 2020. For more information visit the festival’s website at brookletpeanutfestival.com. u Plains Peanut Festival, Sept. 26, 2020. For more information visit plainsgeorgia.com. u Georgia Peanut Festival, Oct. 17, 2020, Sylvester, Ga. For more information visit gapeanutfestival.org. u Sunbelt Ag Expo, Oct. 20-22, 2020, Moultrie, Ga. For more information visit sunbeltexpo.com or call 229-985-1968. u National Peanut Festival, Nov. 6-15, 2020, Dothan, Ala. For more information visit nationalpeanutfestival.com.

(Let us know about your event. Please send details to the editor at joycrosby@gapeanuts.com.


Seed Treatment Game Changer t’s almost planting time and many seed dealers are now finding themselves in the middle of a game that is quickly changing. The issue, Aspergillus flavus, which is causing poor germination of peanut seed. According to Tim Brenneman, plant pathologist for the University of Georgia, peanut seed treatments are really critical inputs for peanut production. The seed treatments help protect the seeds from seedling diseases. Dynasty has been used throughout the majority of the market for a number of years. In 2016, UPL introduced Rancona to the peanut industry as a seed treatment to control seed rot. Brenneman has experimented with Rancona in his research trials and says it has done well, even though it is used significantly less as a peanut seed treatment than Dynasty, which is sold by Syngenta. His research is becoming increasingly important today as seed dealers are noticing low germination of their seed. For several years peanut growers have had problems with Aspergillus niger, which has black spores and causes crown rot. Aspergillus flavus has yellow-green spores and can also be a seed pathogen, but gets a lot more attention as the source of highly carcinogenic aflatoxin and low-value Seg 3 peanuts. However, this year the peanut industry is facing higher than normal amounts of Aspergillus flavus on the peanut seed. Through the months of August and September 2019, growers witnessed really hot and dry weather, conditions that are favorable for Aspergillus flavus. “Apparently this even occurred in irrigated fields. Normally irrigation is one of the best ways to control Aspergillus infection,” Brenneman says. “We’ve had

Photo credit: Dee Dee Smith, Georgia Department of Agriculture Seed Laboratory.

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Aspergillus flavus is better known for producing aflatoxin, but it is also a serious seed pathogen as evidenced by the yellow-green spores on the peanut seed.

such extreme drought and heat, even in irrigated fields we had heat and drought stress at the level that Aspergillus was able to get into the seed.” So, fast forward to March 2020 and the industry is noticing a much higher incidence of aflatoxin in edible peanuts that were originally thought to be clean. According to Brenneman, some Seg 1 peanuts stored through the winter are now coming out of storage as Seg 3 with aflatoxin. This is a real problem for shellers selling last year’s crop, but the same fungus is also what apparently is causing issues in the germination testing of seed. The Georgia Department of Agriculture Seed Laboratory in Tifton,

Georgia, noticed low seed germination on their tests of different seed lots. Then they noticed Aspergillus flavus growing on the seed samples. “We always have some Aspergillus flavus on seed but not near the amount we have seen this year,” Brenneman says. All of the seed tested at the seed lab in Tifton has been treated with either Dynasty or Rancona. However, the majority of the seed has been tested with Dynasty and some of those tests are showing low germinations and have Aspergillus flavus on them. The seed lab usually tests approximately 13,000 peanut seed samples during a five-month time period once peanuts are continued on page 6

April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Photo credit: Tim Brenneman, University of Georgia.

Peanut seed testing samples show the growth of aspergillus flavus on seed treated with Dynasty.

harvested. According to Dee Dee Smith, director of the seed lab, the samples are peanut seed lots from Alabama, Florida, Georgia and Texas. As the seed samples continued to show low germinations, many seed dealers started taking samples from the same seed lot and treating one sample with Dynasty and one sample with Rancona to compare results of the germination. In some samples, the germinations were coming back much higher for the seed treated with Rancona. In fact, Smith has noticed some seed lot samples showing a 20 to 30 percent increase in germination after being treated with Rancona when compared to the Dynasty treated seed. Peanut seed has to be at least 70 percent germination for standard seed and at least 75 percent germination in order for the seed to be labeled as certified seed and legal to sell. So, the difference in whether you have legal seed or not is based on the germination. “We have not seen this before so we started looking at seed samples from a microbiological standpoint,” Brenneman says. “It became clear very quickly that we had a high infestation level of Aspergillus flavus.” So, Brenneman started comparing the Rancona seed treatment with the Dynasty seed treatment. “There was a huge difference, a night and day difference,” Brenneman says.

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“The Dynasty treated seed had very high levels of Aspergillus flavus and the Rancona treated seed had almost none.” Brenneman sent 70 seed samples from different seed lots through the University of Georgia Plant Molecular Diagnostic Lab in Tifton, Georgia, to look at the samples for potential resistance to azoxystrobin, a key component of Dynasty. “We know the genetic mutations which give it resistance to azoxystrobin,” Brenneman says. “We had resistance in a large percentage of the isolates that we received from peanut seed this year of the Aspergillus flavus. This is not a new pathogen, but it was previously contained by the fungicide which is now no longer effective. The problem was made even worse by the extremely favorable conditions for the fungus, specifically the heat and drought.” Solving the riddle was much easier with the contributions of Emran Ali, director of the UGA Plant Molecular Diagnostic Lab in the Plant Pathology Department in Tifton. He extracted DNA from the pathogen for gene sequencing. This is the most definitive method to determine fungicide resistance in that class of fungicides, Brenneman adds. “Gene sequencing is the gold standard and the best way to document fungicide resistance to QoI fungicides such as azoxystrobin,” Brenneman says. “A high majority, about 80 percent of the

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

Aspergillus flavus isolates tested had one of the known mutations for resistance.” The Georgia Crop Improvement Association has been working closely with Brenneman on the testing and plans to provide funding for further testing. The GCIA inspectors have been collecting samples of suspect seed lots for the molecular testing. The Aspergillus flavus pathogen over time has apparently developed resistance to one of the main chemicals in Dynasty, thus explaining the sudden increase in these isolates and confirmed Brenneman’s prediction of genetic resistance. “Now that we know the resistance is there, we can act accordingly,” Brenneman says. “Unfortunately, we just got this data and it takes a while to manufacture product. The majority of peanut seed is treated with Dynasty so UPL was not expecting to need as much Rancona for 2020. UPL currently only had a small share of the market. Since the resistance has just been discovered, UPL is working as hard as they can to make more product but they simply do not have enough product to treat all of the peanut seed, Brenneman adds. There will be seed treated with Rancona but some seed will also be treated with Dynasty for 2020. “That’s why it is important for growers to ask what their seed has been treated with and what the germination is,” says Scott Monfort, UGA peanut agronomist. “Having good quality seed is very important.” Monfort encourages growers to make sure they do not leave seed in hot and humid environments for a prolonged period of time. He also recommends for growers to save a sample of their seed and store them in a cool, dry place. “If a grower has an issue with their peanuts coming up then we can send the seed sample off to get a germination test so we will know what we are dealing with,” Monfort says. “It’s important for growers to plant at least six seeds per foot in order to get a uniformly emerged stand of four plants per foot.” Kris Balkcom, Auburn University peanut agronomist agrees and recommends for growers to wait until the soil temperature is at least 68 degrees for three consecutive days before planting. “There is a huge difference when you are planting lower germination seed too


early in colder soil temperatures compared to lower germination seed in 68 degrees soil temperature,” Balkcom says. He encourages growers to plant later and give the weaker seed more potential by planting in warmer soil temperatures. “You want to give the seed every advantage you can,” Balkcom says. “The weather can change fast in April and when you plant later in May, the weather is more consistent with weather temperatures and soil temperatures.” Growers can also use in-furrow fungicides to help if their seed has low germination or if it has been treated with Dynasty. However, Brenneman emphasizes that the same active ingredient in the Dynasty seed treatment and the Abound in-furrow fungicide is azoxystrobin, which is now been shown ineffective on many isolates of Aspergillus. Growers have two other options for in-furrow control including Proline and Velum Total, both sold by Bayer CropScience. According to Brenneman, both of these fungicides have different modes of action than Abound.

The active ingredient in Proline is a triazole and Velum Total is a SDHI fungicide. Unfortunately, both products are more expensive than Abound. Velum Total also offers control for nematodes but can cost $30 to $35 per acre. “If someone has seed treated with Dynasty and does not have nematodes then their product of choice for this year should be to use Proline in-furrow,” Brenneman says. “The better the quality of seed you have the less of an issue this is going to be.” Brenneman has seen some seed lots where there is no germination difference between Dynasty and Rancona. “We just don’t have the testing facility capabilities to take all of the seed and test the genetic makeup of it to see which ones have resistance,” Brenneman says. “The best indicator we have is the germination – the better germ seed you can get to start with, the less likely you will have a problem.” “Rancona would be the seed treatment of choice for this year,” Brenneman says. “However, Dynasty still brings something to the table, especially if

we don’t have enough Rancona. With the Dynasty seed treatment, it is more important to have the backup of the in-furrow application of Proline or Velum Total.” In-furrow applications are important for growers to help protect the seed from seedling diseases. The maximum rate application for Velum Total is 18 ounces per acre on single rows and the maximum rate for Proline is 5.7 fluid ounces per acre on single rows. Growers planting twin row peanuts need to be aware that they can only use half of the full rate in each row. “Growers can’t apply more Velum Total or Proline when planting twin rows so I recommend planting single rows and following all label directions,” Balkcom says. “However, in a twin row pattern the seeds are spaced out more so the disease is less likely to travel from seed to seed spreading the seedling disease.” The seed condition may be a game changer for the peanut industry in 2020 and any growers with seed or stand issues should contact their local county Extension agent. t BY JOY CROSBY

April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Checkoff Report Investments Made by Growers for the Future of the Peanut Industry.

National Peanut Month Promotions Alabama The Alabama Peanut Producers Association celebrated National Peanut Month throughout the month of March with radio promotions, social media contests, billboard signs and print items. Radio Promotions - Three commercials aired on 99.7 WOOF F.M. throughout the month of March. Peanut prize packs were given out to 22 adults and 22 kids through the station’s morning show trivia games. A grand prize for both adults and kids was awarded at the end of the month. The promotion reached more than 50,000 consumers in the Wiregrass region. APPA also advertised with 104.7 WZZK in Birmingham, March 2-13. The promotion included two-15 second commercials, and a special sponsorship of the Southern County Kitchen Show with Dana Lundon during the lunch hour for five days. Five prize packs consisting of a mixed case of peanuts and other peanut items were given away each day. Lundon also talked about peanut recipes on the show and on her podcast. The net reach of this programming was 119,400.

The March issue of Neighbors magazine, produced by Alabama Farmers Federation, highlighted the peanut industry in Alabama.

Social Media Posts & Contests APPA held three contests on Facebook. Prizes included a case of peanuts, and a special prize pack supporting the

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#SpreadingGood promotion with the National Peanut Board. APPA also posted on Instagram. These posts reached more than 14,000 consumers. Billboards - APPA advertised on 22 digital billboards throughout the state. An estimated 75,421 impressions were made during this promotion. Print Promotions - A special article appeared in the March issue of the Neighbors magazine, produced by the Alabama Farmers Federation, highlighting the Alabama peanut industry. APPA also published an ad in the March issue of Cooperative Farming News magazine.

Georgia The Georgia Peanut Commission promoted peanuts throughout the month of March through a variety of promotions. The annual Georgia PB&J Day was held March 2, 2020, at the Georgia State Capitol in Atlanta. Exhibitors from the peanut industry served grilled PB&Js, country-fried peanuts, peanut candy and more. During the special program, Sen. John Wilkinson and Rep. Tom McCall presented resolutions highlighting the importance of peanuts to Georgia’s economy. Also, GPC and Peanut Proud donated 14,400 jars of peanut butter to the Atlanta Community Food Bank to celebrate National Peanut Month during the annual PB&J Day. GPC sponsored a special series, “Proud to be a Georgia Farmer,” with WTOC-TV in Savannah and WALB-TV in Albany. The program highlighted farmers in the viewing area during the evening news in March through WTOC. The WALB programming has been postponed due to the coronavirus and will air later this year. The WALB programming will feature a special 30-min. show about the Georgia peanut

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

Governor Brian Kemp presents the Georgia Peanut Commission with a proclamation for National Peanut Month in March.

industry including information on production, research, export promotions, peanut nutrition and allergy research and more. WALB re-aired the March 2019 show about Georgia’s peanut industry on March 30 to celebrate National Peanut Month. GPC teamed up with Parker Wallace, an Atlanta based food enthusiast and chef, for a March - National Peanut Month media campaign in Georgia. Wallace is creator of Parker’s Plate and she demonstrated a variety of peanut inspired recipes featuring Instant Pot Chicken and Ramen with Thai Peanut Sauce, Bacon Wrapped Peanut Butter and Pepper Jelly Jalapeño Poppers and Homemade Peanut Milk. The recipe videos are available on the GPC website and aired on television stations in Albany, Atlanta, Augusta, Columbus, Macon and Savannah. GPC provided peanuts and recipes to the state’s 11 welcome centers for tourists and provided television media news teams throughout Georgia with a gift basket of Georgia peanut products. Throughout the month, GPC promoted peanuts through television and radio ads with the Georgia Association of Broadcasters, a Twitter party with Foodiechats, digital advertising with Salem Media and held contests on the GPC’s social media pages.


Reports from the: Alabama Peanut Producers Association Florida Peanut Producers Association Georgia Peanut Commission Mississippi Peanut Growers Association

Georgia Peanuts promoted at National Tractor Pull On Feb. 12, Jefferson County peanut farmer, Barry Cobb, participated in the Championship Tractor Pull hosted at the National Farm Machinery Show, the country’s largest indoor farm show located in Louisville, Kentucky. Cobb is a third-generation farmer from Bartow, Georgia, who grows peanuts, cotton, corn and cattle. Truck pulls are a family affair, where he Georgia Peanuts were promoted on and his wife, along with his son, daughters and the front of Barry Cobb’s truck, Hitman son-in-laws, help out with the pulls. at the National Farm Machinery Show. The championship, an invitation-only event, features the nation’s best drivers competing in front of more than 75,000 fans on-site, as well as many others who stream the competition online. The Georgia Peanut Commission created a custom banner for his truck, known as “Hitman,” to display during the competition. “Hitman” is a 2015 Chevrolet Silverado entered in the Modified 4x4 class. It produces 1600 horsepower with a 650 cubic inch Hemi-headed motor that is naturally aspirated and runs on ethanol. Cobb said he and his family began pulling 12 years ago; however, this is his second year driving for the National Truck Pullers Association (NTPA), where he averages 16,000 miles of travel across the country. In Georgia, he pulls under Southern Pullers, where he “hooks” or pulls 8 to ten times a year. Cobb said his experience as a diesel mechanic got him interested in motors and horsepower. When he’s not at a truck pull or on the farm, he works in sales at Blanchard Equipment.

FPPA announces scholarship money available The Florida Peanut Producers Association announces the opening of their 2020 Scholarship Award Program. Two $1,200 scholarships will be awarded to deserving high school seniors and/or college students. The applicant or someone in the applicant’s family must be an actively producing peanut grower in Florida. It is the intent of the Scholarship Award Committee, however, that the award recipients attend a Florida junior college or four-year university. For an application contact the FPPA office at 850-526-2590 or visit the FPPA website at www.flpeanuts.com. The scholarship applications must be postmarked no later than July 1, 2020.

MPGA and NPB Approve Peanut Research Projects The board of directors for the Mississippi Peanut Growers Association and the National Peanut Board approved 4 research grants. The grower dollars allocated from the NPB Research Committee funded 3 of the research proposals at Mississippi State University. Those projects include a project by Brendan Zurweller and Alan Henn on optimizing fungicide applications for soil-borne disease as influenced by crop rotation, another project by Zurweller on evaluating the impact of row patterns on the performance of peanut varieties with disparate canopy growth habits and a project by Brad Burgess on standardization of Mississippi peanut variety trials. The total dollars allocated to MPGA by the National Peanut Board for use in peanut research since 2009 is $423,537. These research dollars have enabled the association to initiate peanut research through the University and provide the University with support to hire a faculty member for peanut research and extension education.

Peanuts promoted at Nutrition and School Board Conferences Grower organizations in Alabama and Mississippi recently attended conferences where they could highlight peanut nutrition and allergy information to attendees. All of the organizations provided samples of peanuts as well as pamplets regarding health and nutrition as well as allergy information. Alabama Food Service and Nutrition Expo The Alabama Peanut Producers Association provided the latest on peanut allergies in schools and nutrition at the Alabama Food Service and Nutrition EXPO in Montgomery, Ala. on Feb. 28, 2020. APPA staff made contact with nearly 1,000 professionals from the Alabama Association of Nutrition & Foodservice Professionals, Alabama Dietetic Association and Alabama School Nutrition Association in attendance. Visitors at the APPA booth received new research on peanut allergies, allergies in schools and the nutritional value of peanuts, along with Alabama roasted peanuts and peanut butter spreaders. Mississippi School Boards Association Conf. The Mississippi Peanut Growers Association promoted peanuts recently at the at the 48th Annual Conference of the Mississippi School Boards Association in Jackson, Mississippi, Feb. 17-19, 2020. This was the third time for MPGA to have an exhibit booth at the conference with nearly 400 attending from across the state. According to Malcolm Broome, MPGA executive director, through the three years of participation in this event, there continues to be a willingness to discuss managing peanut products when presenting information to the few schools that currently do not allow peanut products. The exhibit provides an avenue for MPGA to help educate school leaders across the state.

April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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2020

DISEASE & INSECT GUIDEBOOK Opportunity, Missed-Opportunity, & Mistakes iseases are a constant, albeit unwanted, companion for peanut growers in the southern United States. There is no ‘magic’ in a peanut field. When I am called by a county agent to help assess a problem, more often than not it can be related to one of the following issues. Crop rotation is a critical strategy in reducing threat of diseases like white mold, leaf spot, Rhizoctonia limb rot, CBR and also nematodes. Planting peanuts behind peanuts in the same field, or planting peanuts in a field more than one out of every three years increases risk. These short rotations can lead to a build-up of pathogens. Because of the very hot and dry weather during harvest last season, followed by a very wet late-fall and winter, peanut seed quality is a real issue in 2020. There is nothing wrong with planting saved-seed in this upcoming season. However, if the seed was not stored correctly or if it is not treated with appropriate fungicides, there could be serious problems getting a good stand. A poor stand not only affects yields, but also can cause a significant problem with spotted wilt disease. In 2020 it is absolutely essential to take steps to protect your seed and stand, whether saved seed or not. Good fungicide programs are absolutely essential to achieving best yields. Growers obviously are going to consider the cost of any product before they appy it to their crop of peanuts. Cheaper products will always be attractive;

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however when risk for disease is elevated, perhaps because of short rotations and/or a more disease-susceptible variety, investing in a stronger, more robust fungicide program will likely better protect yields and also profits.

Opportunities for 2020 Peanuts Growers have one chance to make several important decisions that will have season-long impact on their peanut crop. These decisions include nematode management at planting, protection of the crop from seedling disease, and protection of the crop from tomato spotted wilt. Once growers close the furrow, their decisions on crop rotation, variety, planting date, use of in-furrow products and seed treatments are finished. Growers have the rest of the season to reap the benefits from sound decisions or wish that they had done something different. From planting all the way to harvest, growers have decisions they can make that are going to impact disease and nematode management. Some of these decisions include when to initiate a fungicide program, how often to spray, and which products to use. Disease and nematode management programs are not free; they can be very expensive. Growers can manage these expenses and protect their profitability by assessing risk in the field. Use of Peanut Rx is one way to do this. If a grower takes every opportunity to do everything they could possibly do to protect a peanut crop, then they may over insure themselves. Using a tool like Peanut Rx to assess risk to diseases, or considering the impact of

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

Bob Kemerait, University of Georgia plant pathologist, says growers have one chance to make decisions which include nematode management at planting, protection of the crop from seedling disease and protection of the crop from tomato spotted wilt, that will have season-long impact on their peanut crop.

good crop rotation and variety selection on nematodes, should help growers to make best management decisions to protect a crop. Don’t have a nematode problem? Then save on the cost of a nematicide. Using high quality seed? Then use of an in-furrow fungicide on top of a seed treatment may not be needed. In addition to assessing risk and selecting the best products for a specific situation, growers can make additional decisions to get the most out of any disease management program. Examples of this include applying irrigation to a field within 24 hours after applying fungicide to get the most of white mold control. Growers should also make sure to stay on a timely schedule for applying fungicides and be prepared to call an “audible” and switch fungicides if weather patterns change or if disease begins to develop. Choice of fungicides for timely applications in a well-rotated, disease free field may be very different than in those fields where peanuts are planted every year and disease is beginning to pop-up in the field. t

BY BOB KEMERAIT UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA EXTENSION PLANT PATHOLOGIST


2020 Leaf Spot Management Recognizing the difference between leaf spot and chemical burn nowing the difference between early and late leaf spot and chemical burn will be beneficial for growers in 2020. “Early and late leaf spot are two separate diseases caused by two different fungi,” says Ian Small, University of Florida plant pathologist. “Not all peanut varieties respond the same way and this does have implications for managing the diseases.” In some cases growers may mistake chemical burn for leaf spot and make an unnecessary fungicide application, Small adds. Chemical burns may show up on peanuts due to phytotoxity from Thimet or injury from residual herbicide in their spray system. According to Small, taking note of the location of the spots on the peanut plant can help distinguish chemical burn from leaf spot diseases. Usually, disease spots are found on leaves in the lower canopy of the peanut plant while chemical burn spots appear on the outer leaves in the upper canopy of the peanut plant. Small encourages growers to take a leaf sample and let it sit overnight in a sealed plastic container or bag. If the spot does show spores the next day, then it is leaf spot. If growers are still uncertain then he recommends taking a sample to their local county Extension agent or diagnostic lab for testing.

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If a grower does in fact have early or late leaf spot then there are short-term and long-term ways to manage the diseases. According to Bob Kemerait, University of Georgia plant pathologist, farmers can be more aggressive with their spray program by including fungicides with systemic and curative activity and or tightening their spray interval. For long-term reduction, Small recommends for growers to reduce the inoculum surviving from one season to the next and slow the number of infection cycles happening in each season. “Growers can reduce the pathogen population by rotating the peanuts at least two or three years apart and destroying any volunteer peanuts,” Small says. “To slow the number of infection cycles, growers can choose to plant peanut varieties with resistance to leaf spot and apply fungicide applications. Varieties like Georgia-12Y have excellent leaf spot resistance.” Small recommends for growers to utilize the Peanut Rx tool in order to determine their risk of severity for each field. Then growers should choose the right type of fungicide and mode of action for the disease they are trying to manage. Rotating modes of action is important to prevent fungicide resistance developing in the pathogen population. t

Check out these websites throughout the peanut season for help with management of diseases. www.georgiaweather.net www.awis.com www.frac.info www.ugapeanuts.com

BY JOY CROSBY

Early or Late Leaf Spot versus Chemical Burn Early (ELS) or Late Leaf Spot (LLS)

Chemical Burn

Position of first spots in canopy Inside leaves, lower canopy

Outer leaves, upper canopy

Evidence of spore on leaf surface after incubation

Yes

No

Appearance of spot on upper leaf surface

(ELS) Brown and slightly raised (LLS) Brown to black and smooth

Smooth or sunken lesion Tan color with dark spot or chemical residue in the center

Appearance of spot on lower leaf surface

(ELS) Brown and usually smooth (LLS) Black and rough

Smooth or sunken lesion

Field Pattern

Starts in low lying areas or fairly uniform across field

Sometimes edge effect from drift or pattern from start of first pass after new tank mix

Credit: Peanut Disease Atlas, Texas A&M

April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Disease and Nematode Management Update for 2020 Bob Kemerait University of Georgia Extension Plant Pathologist 1. Growers should use Peanut Rx to develop strategies to reduce risk to diseases in their peanut crop. 2. Prescription fungicide programs based on Peanut Rx are an effective way to reduce costs of a fungicide program. 3. Critical components of a leaf spot fungicide program are variety, crop rotation, timeliness of fungicide application and selection of fungicide.

at planting. Farmer saved seed is often at greatest risk. To manage Aspergillus crown rot, insure quality of seed, insure effective fungicide seed treatment with excellent coverage, use in-furrow fungicides such as Abound or Proline, manage insects like Lesser Cornstalk Borers and irrigate to cool hot soils if possible.

nematicides. 6. Products for management of nematodes in 2020 include Telone II (4.5-9 gallon per acre), AgLogic (7 pounds per acre, 10 pounds per acre at pegging time), Velum Total (18 fluid ounces per acre in-furrow) + Propulse (13.6 fluid ounces per acre at pegging time) and Vydate CLV (see label). 7. Lesion nematodes seems to be an emerging problem on peanuts in some areas, especially when high numbers are present in a field and damage occurs to the pegs. Research continues; however use of Propuls or AgLogic at pegging time is likely to be an important mangement tool.

4. Critical components of a white mold fungicide program are as for a leaf spot program, but also includes timeliness of irrigation or rainfall, preferable within 12-24 hours of application.

8. Aspergillus crown rot is an important seedling disease, especially when conditions are hot and dry

5. Management of nematodes includes a variety selection, crop rotation and selection of

9. Mangement of white mold can be improved by early-season banded applications of Proline, by timely irrigation after application and by spraying some fungicides at night. 10. Other disease of importance include Cylindrocladium Black Rot (CBR), Peanut Rust, Pythium Pod Rot and Diplodia Collar Rot. For more information and timely updates, growers should consult their local Extension agent.

Note 1: Exchange applications: To include systemic activity, chlorothalonil (1.5 pt) on a 14-day spray interval can be replaced with products such as with: Chlorothalonil, 1.0 pint + Alto, 5.5 fluid ounces Chlorothalonil, 1.0 pint + Thiophanate methyl, 5 fluid ounces (no more than two applications) Chlorothalonil, 1.0 pint + Domark 230ME, 2.5 fluid ounces Thiophanate methyl, 10 fluid ounces (no more than one application) Approach Prima, 6.8 fluid ounces (best used earlier in season) Priaxor, 4 fluid ounces (or 6 fluid ounces replace two early applications) Absolute, 3.4 fluid ounces Tebuconazole, 7.2 fluid ounces + Chlorothalonil, 1.0 pints (replaces 1.5 pints of Chlorothalonil and fights white mold) Older products that can be used for leaf spot control, sometimes mixed with Chlorothalonil include sulfur (Microthiol 5 pounds per acre) and mancozeb (Koverall) Note 2: Microthiol Disperss can be tank mixed at a rate of 5 pounds per acre with FRAC 11 (strobilurins) and/or FRAC 3 (triazoles) applications. Topsin 4.5LF, 10 ounces per acre tank mix with Manzate Pro-Stick or Penncozeb 75DF at 1.5 pounds per acre in either the 105 or 120 days after planting applications. Note 3: Below are examples of fungicide programs and the list does not include all possible products. Generic azoxystrobin products exist as do many generic formulations of tebuconazole. Further information on all products can be obtained from your local Extension office.

Fungicide Applications 30

45

60

75

90

105

120

Sipcam Agro

Echo 1.5 pt/A

Echo 1.5 pt/A

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Echo 1.5 pt/A

Sipcam Agro

MAZINGA ADV 32 fl oz

MAZINGA ADV 32 fl oz

Elatus 7.3 oz Miravis 3.4 fl oz

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Elatus 7.3 oz Miravis 3.4 fl oz

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Echo 1.5 pt/A

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Days After Planting

Planting (0)

Bayer CropScience

Absolute 3.5 fl oz

Elatus 7.3 oz

Provost Silver 13 fl oz

Elatus 7.3 oz

Provost Silver 13 fl oz

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Bayer CropScience

Velum Total 18 fl oz in-furrow

Absolute 3.5 fl oz

Elatus 7.3 oz

Provost Silver 13 fl oz

Elatus 7.3 oz

Provost Silver 13 fl oz

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Bayer CropScience

Velum Total 18 fl oz in-furrow

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Propulse 13.6 fl oz/A

Provost Silver 13 fl oz

Non Group 3 White Mold Fungicide

Provost Silver 13 fl oz

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Nichino BASF

Priaxor 6 fl oz/A

Convoy 32 fl oz Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Priaxor 8 fl oz/A

Convoy 32 fl oz Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Nichino BASF

Priaxor 6 fl oz/A

Umbra 36 fl oz Echo 1.0 pt

Priaxor 8 fl oz/A

Umbra 36 fl oz Echo 1.0 pt

Tebuconazole 7.2 fl oz Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Corteva

Approach Prima 6.8 fl oz

Tebuconazole 7.2 fl oz Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Fontelis 16 fl oz

Fontelis 16 fl oz

Fontelis 16 fl oz

Tebuconazole 7.2 fl oz Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Corteva

Approach Prima 6.8 fl oz

Approach Prima 6.8 fl oz

Fontelis 16 fl oz

Fontelis 16 fl oz

Fontelis 16 fl oz

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Priaxor 6 fl oz

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Priaxor 8 fl oz/A

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Muscle ADV 2.0 pt/A

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Lucento 5.5 fl oz

Convoy 21 fl oz Echo 1.5 pt

Tebuconazole 7.2 fl oz Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

BASF FMC

Lucento 5.5 fl oz

Elatus 9.0 fl oz

Alternative Fungicide Applications 30

51

79

105

120

Syngenta

Chlorothalonil 1.0 pt Alto 5.5 fl oz/A

Elatus 9.5 oz Miravis 3.4 fl oz

Elatus 9.5 oz Miravis 3.4 fl oz

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Syngenta

Elatus 7.3 oz/A

Elatus 7.3 oz Miravis 3.4 fl oz

Elatus 7.3 oz Miravis 3.4 fl oz

Chlorothalonil 1.0 pt/A Alto 5.5 fl oz/A

Chlorothalonil 1.5 pt

Days After

12

Planting (0)

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020


Minimize Disease Risk with Peanut Rx he Peanut Rx is a valuable tool for farmers to use every year. By utilizing the Peanut Rx, farmers can reduce costs while maintaining disease control, maintaining yields, and increasing value because of fewer fungicide applications in reduced risk fields. Peanut Rx is a risk index based upon the factors in a grower’s fields. The Peanut Rx is updated annually by the peanut researchers at Auburn University, University of Florida, University of Georgia, Mississippi State University and Clemson University. “The value of Peanut Rx is that you are able to manage your diseases that needs to be managed and you use the right amount of fungicides for the right fields and you save money by maintaining yields where you don’t need as much,” Kemerait says. “Growers can receive help from local extension agents and companies that support Peanut Rx.” Fields where the risk to disease is reduced to a low or moderate level, for example where fields have longer rotations and are planted to more resistant varieties, typically do not need the same fungicide program as a higher risk field in order to maximize yields. Research data from many on-farm and small plot studies conducted at the University of Georgia have demonstrated that growers who manage their crop so as to reduce the risk to leaf spot, white mold, and Rhizoctonia limb rot can also reduce the number of fungicide applications and increase the value of their crop by cutting production costs. In low risk fields, it is quite possible to reduce the number of fungicide applications from seven to four, so long as the grower is willing to watch the field to insure that disease does not begin to develop unnoticed, as can occur when weather is very favorable for onset and spread of disease. Syngenta Crop Protection, Nichino-America, Corteva, SipCam and Bayer CropScience have all developed prescription programs with input from university researchers. Growers who use an industry sponsored prescription program in reduced risk fields can have the confidence that the company will stand behind these programs as long as the risk level has been appropriately assessed and the appropriate fungicide program has been used. t

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BY JOY CROSBY Programs developed through the cooperation of

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

The Peanut Rx For each of the following factors that can influence the incidence of tomato spotted wilt or fungal diseases, the grower or consultant should identify which option best describes the situation for an individual peanut field. An option must be selected for each risk factor unless the information is reported as “unknown.” A score of “0” for any variable does not imply no risk, but that this practice does not increase the risk of disease as compared to the alternative. Add the index numbers associated with each choice to obtain an overall risk index value. Compare that number to the risk scale provided and identify the projected level of risk.

Step 1: Assess Your Disease Risk Variety Selection Spotted Wilt Leaf Spot Points Points

Variety AU NPL 17

2

Soilborne Disease Points White Mold

10

15

15

Bailey3 Florida Fancy2 FloRunTM ‘331’2

10 25 15

25 20 20

10 20 15

Georgia-06G

10

20

20

Georgia-07W

10

20

15

Georgia-09B2

20

25

25

5

15

10

5

15

15

2

10

25

20

Georgia-18RU1

10

25

20

Georgia Green

30

20

25

Sullivan2

10

25

15

4

10

15

15

5

15

15

2

10

25

20

TUFRunnerTM ‘511’2

20

30

15

Georgia-12Y

5

Georgia-14N2,4 Georgia-16HO

Tifguard

TifNV-HiOL2,4 TUFRunner

TM

‘297’

1

Adequate research data is not available for all varieties with regards to all diseases. Additional varities will be included as data to support the assignment of an index value are available. 2 High oleic variety 3 Bailey has increased resistance to Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) compared to other varieties commonly planted in Georgia. 4 Tifguard, TifNV-HiOL and Georgia 14-N have excellent resistance to the peanut root-knot nematode. 5 Georgia-12Y appears to have increased risk to Rhizoctonia limb rot and precautions should be taken to protect against this disease.

Planting Date Peanuts are planted:

Spotted Wilt Leaf Spot Soiborne Disease Points Points Points White Mold Limb Rot

Prior to May 1

30

0

10

0

May 1 - May 10

15

5

5

0

May 11 - May 25

5

10

0

0

May 26 - June 10

10

15

0

5

After June 10

15

15

0

5


Plant Population (final stand, not seeding rate) Plant Stand: Less than 3 plants per foot 3 to 4 plants per foot More than 4 plants per foot

Spotted Leaf Spot Soilborne Disease Wilt Points Points White mold Limb rot 25

NA

0

NA

10 (15)

NA

0 (0)

NA

5

NA

5

NA

Spotted Leaf Spot Wilt Points Points

White mold Limb rot

15

5

NA

NA

Other than Thimet® 20G

15

5

NA

NA

Velum Total

15

0

NA

NA

Thimet 20G

5

0

Row Pattern

Single rows Twin rows

Spotted Leaf Spot Soilborne Disease Wilt Points Points White mold Limb rot NA NA

0 10

0 5

0 10

Spotted Leaf Spot Wilt Points Points 10 5

0 0

Fill in the following table to calculate your severity points for each of the four major peanut diseases given the 10 determining factors. Total each column to establish your disease index values.

Soilborne Disease Points

None

Peanuts are planted in:

Does the field receive irrigation? NO YES

Step 2: Calculate Your Severity Points

At-Plant Insecticide Insecticide used

Irrigation

Soilborne Disease Points White mold Limb rot 5 0 0 0

Spotted Wilt

Peanut Variety Planting Date Plant Population At-Plant Insecticide Row Pattern Tillage Classic® Herbicide Crop Rotation Field History Irrigation

Leaf Spot

White Mold

Rhizoctonia Limb rot

----

-------

----

----

----

-------------

Your Total Index Value

Step 3: Interpret Your Risk Total Once you’ve calculated your index values, utilize the following information to interpret your risk level situation.

Tillage Tillage Type Conventional Reduced

Spotted Leaf Spot Soilborne Disease Points Wilt Points Points White mold Limb rot 15 5

10 0

0 5

0 5

Point Point Point Point

total total total total

range range range range

Classic Herbicide Soilborne Disease Points

Classic usage Classic applied No Classic applied

5 0

NA NA

NA NA

NA NA

Crop Rotation with a non-legume Crop Years Between Peanut Crops

Spotted Leaf Spot Wilt Points Points

High Risk

White mold Limb rot

0

NA

25

25

20

1

NA

15

20

15

2

NA

10

10

10

3 or more

NA

5

5

5

Field History Have you had Soilborne Disease a problem Spotted Leaf Spot Points controlling these Wilt Points Points White mold Limb rot diseases? NO NA 0 0 0 YES NA 10 15 10

> 115

65-105

White Mold Points

Limb rot Points

55-80

To be determined

High Risk for fungal diseases: Growers should always use full fungicide input program in a high-risk situation.

Medium Risk

70-110

40-60

30-50

To be determined

Medium Risk for fungal diseases: Growers can expect better performance from standard fungicide programs. Reduced fungicide programs in research studies have been successfully implemented when conditions are not favorable for disease spread.

Low Risk

Soilborne Disease Points

tomato spotted wilt = 35-155. leaf spot = 10-105. white mold = 10-95. Rhizoctonia limb rot = 15-75.

Spotted Leaf Spot Wilt Points Points

®

Spotted Leaf Spot Wilt Points Points White mold Limb rot

for for for for

< 65

10-35

10-25

To be determined

Low Risk for fungal diseases: These fields are likely to have the least impact from fungal disease. Growers have made the management decisions which offer maximum benefit in reducing the potential for severe disease; these fields are strong candidates for modified disease management programs that require a reduced number of fungicide applications.

When tomato spotted wilt virus incidence is high statewide or in your region, even fields with a low risk level may experience significant losses. Consider the following recommendations to reduce your spotted wilt risk level:  n Use less susceptible varieties. n Adjust your planting date. n Consult the complete Peanut Rx for additional options that may also provide limited benefit.

Step 4: Develop Your Peanut Rx Once you have calculated your total risk for each fungal disease, utilize the most conservative fungicide program as your guide for customizing a per-field prescription spray program.

April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Insect Management for 2020 Five Tips to Improve Your Bottomline

ne of the most important management decisions a farmer can make for 2020 is scouting peanuts. By scouting, farmers will be able to identify insect problems in a timely manner and be able to apply the correct insecticide, says Mark Abney, University of Georgia peanut entomologist. According to Abney, he notices mistakes every year from misinformation. He suggests that farmers take the time to learn from those mistakes and apply what they learned in 2019 as they plan for the 2020 season. “Farmers should take note of what they did last year,” Abney says. “Some mistakes are practically unavoidable but some mistakes are completely unnecessary and can be corrected in 2020.” One example is thrips and caterpillars, which Abney notes will be in basically every peanut field in 2020. So, preparing and having a plan to manage these pests will be important this season, Abney adds.

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Insect Management Tips 1. Scout 2. Manage the crop to reduce risk. 3. Use the right tools. 4. Be on time. 5. Be informed. 16

Mark Abney, University of Georgia peanut entomologist, encourages growers to scout their peanuts every year and learn from their mistakes in the past.

“Farmers can adjust their planting date to minimize thrips,” Abney says. “Also, I believe a good investment at the beginning of the season is an at plant insecticide to control thrips.”  Velvetbean caterpillars were also abundant in fields in 2019 and some fields were defoliated. Lesser cornstalk borers showed up early in the season and remained a threat all season, Abney adds. “If it is because we missed them then that is a mistake we need to correct by scouting,” Abney says. “If it is because we knew they were there, but didn’t treat on time or used the wrong insecticide then that is also a mistake we can correct in 2020.” He encourages growers to find and manage lesser cornstalk borers, spider mites and velvetbean caterpillars early to prevent lost profit when pest populations reach damaging levels later in the season. Abney also cautions growers on applying insecticides that are not needed, applying the wrong insecticides or applying insecticides too late. “If you spray and the field didn’t need to be treated, then you just spent money that you didn’t need to spend,” Abney says. “Applying insecticides preventatively is not necessarily a mistake, but with the exception of thrips control, it is not usually a good practice.” If farmers are spraying every peanut field every year then Abney encourages

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

them to think about the cost of hiring a scout. The savings from not over applying insecticides will likely pay for hiring the scout, he adds. One issue Abney continues to see every year is the unnecessary flare up of spider mites caused by spraying pyrethroids. Pyrethroids can be a valuable tool for insect management in peanuts, but they are not as effective on many pests as they once were. Applying a pyrethroid as a preventative or to clean up any insects just because a farmer is making a fungicide spray is a mistake and should be avoided, Abney says. “Farmers need to be informed and make sure they are using the right tools at the right time for insect management,” Abney says. “There is no better way to be informed than for you or your scout to be in your field every week.” By having a scout that can tell you what species of caterpillars are in the field, farmers can purchase the correct insecticide to manage the pest with the greatest efficacy and least cost. Peanut insect management is critical for growing peanuts. Abney encourages farmers to visit with their county Extension agent if they have questions. t BY JOY CROSBY

UGA Peanut Entomology Blog https://site.extension.uga.edu/peanutent/


Common Insects in Peanuts Thrips Favorable Conditions: Thrips occur in most peanut fields, but early planting, conventional tillage, single row pattern and no at-plant insecticide increase the risk of injury. Scouting Tips: Look for adult and immature thrips in the first three to four weeks after emergence. Immature thrips are usually found in folded terminal leaflets.

peanuts, but they are difficult to see. Beat sheet sampling or careful examination of vines is required to find nymphs. Decisions to treat TCAH populations should consider the relative abundance of adults, nymphs and stem injury and the risk of flaring secondary pests.

densities, mites are difficult to see and are usually found on the lower surface of leaves. Early detection is important.

Two Spotted Spider Mites

Potato Leafhopper (PLH): Three Cornered Alfalfa Hopper

Thrips Injury

Lesser Cornstalk Borer Favorable Conditions: Hot, dry, well drained sandy soils and open crop canopy Scouting Tips: Look for wilted stems and silk tubes, remove plants and check tap root, pods, and stems for feeding injury and larvae. Moths are a good sign of LCB infestation. Plants in a “skip” or at the end of rows with bare soil around them will usually be attacked first.

Southern Corn Rootworm & Banded Cucumber Beetle Favorable Conditions: Heavy-textured soils with good moisture increase risk. Larvae cannot survive in dry soil. Scouting Tips: Banded Cucumber Beetle larvae live entirely below ground. Dig adjacent to peanut rows or remove plants to examine pods for damage and check the soil for larvae.

Favorable Conditions: PLH is found sporadically in peanut fields every year. Infestations often begin along field margins. Scouting Tips: Adults can be seen flying when disturbed; nymphs are similar in appearance to adults but cannot fly. Look for hopperburn (V-shaped yellowing of leaflet tips), especially near field edges. Hopperburn will persist after the insects have left the field, so it is important to determine if infestations are active before making a treatment decision.

Hopper burn from Potato Leafhopper Southern corn rootworm

Velvetbean Caterpillar Lesser Cornstalk Borer Moth

Banded Cucumber Beetle

Two Spotted Spider Mite (TSSM) Lesser Cornstalk Borer

Three Cornered Alfalfa Hopper Favorable Conditions: TCAH can be found in most fields, but densities tend to be highest when soil moisture is adequate for optimum peanut growth. Low numbers of adults can be found in fields in late spring, but populations increase as the summer progresses. Scouting Tips: Adults can be seen flying when disturbed; they are also easily collected in sweep nets. Nymphs are responsible for much of the injury to

Favorable Conditions: TSSM infestations are most likely to develop when conditions are hot and dry. In out-break years, non-irrigated corners of irrigated fields are often severely injured while the irrigated portion of the field has few or no mites. Areas near field margins, especially near dirt roads, are usually infested first. Mowing infested weedy vegetation adjacent to fields can result in mites migrating to the crop in large numbers. Scouting tips: Check field edges. Small patches of yellowing peanuts are an early indication of infestations. At low

Favorable Conditions: Velvetbean Caterpillar does not overwinter in Georgia, but it migrates into the state each year. The first moths are often detected in June in South Georgia, but infestations do not typically reach threshold densities until later in the summer. Scouting tips: Scouting caterpillars is best accomplished by vigorously shaking vines to dislodge the insects onto the ground or a beat sheet. Sampling three feet of row at ten locations is sufficient for a typical 40 to 80 acre field. All caterpillars should be identified and counted and their size noted. t

Velvetbean Caterpillar

April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Georgia Peanut Commission Increases Funding for Research Projects in 2020 Board approves $739,693 in research projects he Georgia Peanut Commission (GPC) board of directors has approved $739,693 in research project funding for the 2020-21 research budget year. This action was taken during the commission’s March board meeting. The research projects approved include 40 project proposals submitted from the University of Georgia, USDA Agricultural Research Service and Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College. “As a peanut grower, I’m proud to invest in the Georgia Peanut Commission and in the future of the peanut industry by supporting research that continues to demonstrate a return on our investment,” says Donald Chase, GPC Research Committee chairman. “We are proud of

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our partnership with research institutions and look forward to seeing the results which will benefit farmers in the state and the entire peanut industry.” Georgia’s peanut growers invest $2 per ton annually toward GPC programs which includes research, promotion and education. The research programs primarily focus on peanut breeding, conservation methods, irrigation and water management, as well as, pests, weed and disease management. Additionally, GPC manages funding for the Southeastern Peanut Research Initiative which includes research funding of $1,260,682 for projects in Alabama, Florida and Georgia. These projects are funded through the National Peanut Board checkoff dollars from farmers.

For additional information and a complete list of the research projects funded by the Georgia Peanut Commission visit www.gapeanuts.com. t BY JOY CROSBY

Branch named to Georgia Seed Development Professorship illiam “Bill” Branch, a professor in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences and a peanut breeder with the University of Georgia, has been named to the Georgia Seed Development Professorship in Peanut Breeding and Genetics. Since joining the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences in 1978, Branch has worked to develop new peanut varieties to help with the battle against Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), a disease that was ravaging peanut fields across the Southeast. The Georgia Seed Development Professorship in Peanut Breeding and Genetics was established with support from Georgia Seed Development (GSD) to enhance the field of plant breeding, genetics, and genomics programs through professorships and research programs at the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (CAES). Since the beginning of his career at UGA, Branch has developed more than 20 new peanut varieties with the

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consistent goal of increased yield and grade as well as resistance characteristics for the farmer, and better shelling characteristics and enhanced flavor and nutrition for the consumer. Early in the fight against TSWV, Branch developed the Georgia Green variety, a cross between Southern Runner and Sunbelt Runner, that helped set the peanut industry back on track. To improve upon Georgia Green, Branch released Georgia-06G, which is the predominant variety grown in Georgia today. “Peanut breeding is a long-term program that takes a lot of patience,” Branch says. “Today, we have genetic markers available to assist with peanut breeding and help speed up the process. These tools help breeders make selections based on disease resistance for new varieties.” Branch encourages the next generation to look for career opportunities in peanut breeding. “This is exactly what I wanted to do,” he says. “Individuals need to view peanut breeding as a long-term career and

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

have patience when developing the next variety.” Branch can be found in his greenhouse crossing a future line or out in the field, tracking each variety’s growth and watching for potential issues. His ultimate goal is to help peanut farmers make a profit by providing an increased yield and grade variety leading to a higher dollar value per acre while satisfying industry and consumer demands. GSD is a nonprofit, self-supporting organization that provides economic support for the development of new varieties which provides new business opportunities that help keep agriculture as Georgia’s number one industry. It was created in 1959 by the Georgia General Assembly to lead the development of commercial plant materials in the state by promoting varieties developed and released by UGA researchers and was designated as a public, nonprofit corporation by the Georgia Legislature in 2008, allowing the organization to expand its scope. t BY MARIA M. LAMEIRAS UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA


Florida Peanut Producers Association holds 45th Annual Meeting pproximately 250 peanut farmers and their families attended the Florida Peanut Producers Association Annual Membership Meeting held Feb. 20, 2020, in Marianna, Florida. The Farm Credit/FPPA Young Peanut Farmer Award was presented to Justin Peel. He is a native Floridian who grew up in Holmes County where his family has a long history in agriculture dating back several generations. Peel began farming full time in 2009 and currently grows approximately 300 acres of peanuts, 500 acres of cotton and 50 acres of corn. Peel says he would like to slowly expand his operation and continue to diversify his crop rotation to take advantage of any market opportunities. Peel lives in Bonifay, Florida, with his wife Catherine and their son, Judd. Peel received a plaque and $200 from Farm Credit in recognition of being selected the Young Peanut Farmer of the Year for 2020. During the annual meeting, two members were elected to serve three year terms on the FPPA Board of Directors. The newly elected board members are Ernest Fulford of Jefferson County and Scott Robinson of Levy County. They replace two positions vacated by Chuck

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The Florida Peanut Producers Association and Farm Credit present Justin Peel, farmer from Bonifay, Fla., with the Florida Young Peanut Farmer Award during the FPPA Annual Meeting, Feb. 20, 2020. Pictured left to right, Ken Barton, FPPA executive director, Justin, Catherine and Judd Peel and Logan Chappell, loan officer with Farm Credit.

Hatch and Andy Robinson due to term limits. The evening’s program also consisted of promotional highlights from Ken Barton, executive director of the Florida Peanut Producers Association and Bob Parker, president and CEO of the National Peanut Board. Parker provided an update on the

National Peanut Board’s promotional activities and gave updates on per capita consumption and peanut allergy initiatives. With NPB’s ongoing promotion campaigns and peanut allergy initiatives, Parker says that there is good reason to be optimistic about the market demand for peanuts. t BY KEN BARTON

National Peanut Board allocates $1.8 million for Production Research he National Peanut Board held its quarterly board meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, Feb. 11-12, 2020, where it reviewed and approved 64 state production research projects for FY-21, for a total of $1,825,758 in funding allocations. “Today’s peanut farmers are more efficient, see higher yields and have a smaller footprint thanks to decades of high-quality production research,” says Dan Ward, research chairman and North Carolina member. “Our research dollars continue to give farmers the critical

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information that ensures peanuts remain competitive, now and into the future.” In its 20-year history, the community of peanut farmers through NPB has invested $37 million in production research. This total includes NPB’s leverage of $871,500—of NPB funds and other industry partners’ funds—with NIFA-matching funds to yield over $2.5 million for NIFA-managed peanut production research. Funding production research to increase efficiencies for America’s peanut farmers and their families is a core part of the board’s mission.

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

Also, during the quarterly board meeting, NPB staff gave an update of the 2020 diversity plan. P.J. Haynie, chairman of the National Black Growers Council (NBGC) and a Virginia farmer, presented to the board, focusing on strategies to involve minority peanut farmers. Ebony Webber, executive director of Minorities in Agriculture, Natural Resources and Related Sciences (MANNRS) provided an overview of the organization’s program for minority students. For additional information on the programs of the NPB visit their website online at nationalpeanutboard.org. t


April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Farm Recovery Program Block Grant Application Extended to April 30 eorgia Agriculture Commissioner Gary W. Black announced recently the Farm Recovery Block Grant application deadline is extended to April 30, 2020. “We recognize that normal business operations across the state have been disrupted or altered over the past few weeks,” says Commissioner Black. “We want every eligible producer to have an opportunity to complete their application with full confidence, while continuing the critical work of providing food and fiber during these unsettling times.” Georgia farmers and forest landowners in 95 eligible counties who suffered losses to beef, dairy, fruit and vegetable, pecan, poultry, timber, and uninsured infrastructure are eligible to apply for the recovery program at farmrecovery.com. The federal block grants seek to help recover losses not covered under existing USDA Farm Service Agency programs. The enrollment process can only be completed online through the website, www.farmrecovery.com. While mobile

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phones may be used to sign up and log in, applicants are strongly encouraged to complete the application using a computer to ensure proper upload and attachment of required documentation. Applications must be submitted by the April 30, 2020, deadline. In 2018, Georgia agriculture suffered a $2.5 billion economic loss from Hurricane Michael. Since June 2019, the GDA has worked closely with the USDA to reach an agreement on a disaster relief package. Last November, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) earmarked $800 million in block grant funds to aid states impacted by the storm, allocating $347 million for Georgia farmers and landowners. t

Farm Recovery Block Grants Online Application Only at www.farmrecovery.com. Application deadline extended to April 30, 2020.

Questions: farmrecovery@agr.georgia.gov.

Peanut Industry Provides Online Learning Resources uring these uncertain times, many families are faced with the reality of distance learning and teaching their children at home. To assist their efforts, the peanut industry has a collection of educational materials, games, videos, coloring books and more all available online. The Georgia Peanut Commission recently unveiled a new children’s book, “A Home Run for Peanuts.” A online reading of the book by the author, Amanda Radke, is available on the GPC YouTube page. Copies of the book are also available for purchase at www.GaPeanuts.com. The book takes young readers on fun adventures from a peanut farm to the baseball park. The book even features a kid-friendly, parent-approved recipe for,

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Online Resources about Peanut Farming, George Washington Carver, Nutrition and more . . . www.AboutPeanuts.com www.AgClassroom.org www.AlPeanuts.com www.FlPeanuts.com www.GaPeanuts.com www.MissPeanuts.com www.MyAmericanFarm.org www.nal.usda.gov/exhibits/ipd/carver/ www.NationalPeanutBoard.org www.PeanutButterLovers.com

Game Day Peanut Butter Protein Bites, which also provide a nutrition and math lesson for children. In 2016, the peanut industry launched an online peanut learning game,

Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

Operation Peanut Butter, as part of the American Farm Bureau Foundation for Agriculture’s My American Farm games. Recently, AFBFA released a STEM mobile app for four of its My American Farm games. Operation Peanut Butter is included in the app lineup and corresponds to the STEM component for math. The app can be downloaded at www.myamericanfarm.org/mobile_app_dow nload and from the App Store or Google

Play. Games in the STEM app are ideal for students in grades three to five. The U.S. Department of Agriculture recently unveiled a digital exhibit highlighting the work of George Washington Carver. The exhibit features crop development, farm management, homemaking activities, raising livestock, rural schools and soil productivity. t BY JOY CROSBY


Washington Outlook by Robert L. Redding Jr.

Third Coronavirus Relief Package Becomes Law Contains Numerous Provisions for Agriculture

USPF Asks USDA for Increased Peanut Butter Purchases

The U.S. Senate and House of Representatives moved quickly on the third relief legislation, Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act). The Senate passed the bill 96-0 and the House passed the legislation by a voice vote. President Trump signed the legislation into law March 27. Important for growers are provisions for Commodity Credit Corporation funding and additional nutrition assistance. Specifically, the agricultural provisions include: n $14 billion for the Farm Bill’s Farm Safety Net through the Commodity Credit Corporation n $9.5 billion disaster assistance for specialty crop, beef and dairy farmers n $10 million for Farm and Agribusiness small business interruption loans n $3 million to increase capacity at the USDA Farm Service Agency n $100 million for rural high speed internet expansion n $15.8 billion to fund new food assistance included in the CARES Act n $9 billion to fund child nutrition n $450 in additional resources for food banks n $100 million for food distribution in Tribal communities In addition, the CARES Act contains a new Paycheck Protection Program (PPP) that provides for $350 billion to support loans. According to the U.S. Senate Small Business Committee the PPP “provides 8 weeks of cash-flow assistance through 100 percent federally guaranteed loans to small employers who maintain their payroll during this emergency. If the employer maintains its payroll, then the portion of the loan used for covered payroll costs, interest on mortgage obligations, rent and utilities would be forgiven, which would help workers to remain employed and affected small businesses and our economy to recover quickly from this crisis.” The CARES Act also enhanced the Small Business Administration’s (SBA) Economic Injury Disaster Loans (EIDL) program. For those interested in PPP, they should visit their local banker or credit union. Access is available on the SBA website for the EIDL program at www.sba.gov.

The U.S. Peanut Federation (USPF), comprised of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation, the American Peanut Shellers Association and the National Peanut Buying Points Association requested that the U.S. Department of Agriculture include peanut butter in the coronavirus relief funding being used for nutrition programs. In a letter to USDA Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue, the USPF stated, “As USDA continues to work on providing further assistance, the peanut industry believes that peanut butter is a product that should be considered for those in need.” The USPF sent the letter in response to the passage of the second coronavirus relief act, the Family First Coronavirus Response Act. (See letter on page 25.)

Webinar: Peanut & Agribusiness COVID-19 Relief Act Update The Georgia Peanut Commission hosted a webinar discussion with U.S. Congressmen Sanford Bishop and Austin Scott on Friday, April 3, 2020. The congressmen discussed the $2 trillion Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security (CARES) Act through a question and answer program with Bob Redding, The Redding Firm. To view the webinar visit www.gapeanuts.com.

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Southeastern Peanut Farmer April 2020

Peanut Industry Requests CCC Funding The USPF joined an ag industry coalition supporting funding for the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). The coalition emphasized in a letter to Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, House Speaker Nancy Pelosi, U.S. Senate Democratic Leader Chuck Schumer and Republican Leader Kevin McCarthy: “Farmers and ranchers are proud to be trusted to feed nearly 330 million Americans and we’ll continue working every day to do so, but Congress must ensure the CCC has ample authority and funding to help farmers and ranchers survive during this emergency. The inclusion of these provisions would ensure the Secretary of Agriculture has the tools needed to meet this crisis head-on for all of agriculture.” (See letter on page 25.)

Ag coalition Writes President on Importance of Food Supply Chain The USPF and other national agricultural organizations signed on a letter to President Trump discussing the importance of keeping agriculture’s needs in mind during the COVID-19 response. Agricultural organizations requested the following of the White House: “As you consider additional steps to restrict movement to protect our nation from COVID-19, we ask your Administration to be mindful of the food, feed, and agricultural supply chain and workforce impacts on the ability of U.S. agriculture to meet the needs of consumers. These include but are certainly not limited to impacts on accessibility of seed, fertilizer, crop protection products, agricultural labor, equipment, feed and ingredients for food-producing animals, modes of transportation, the availability of required U.S. government inspection services, and daily movement of milk.” (See letter on page 25.)


Increased Peanut Butter Purchases

Importance of Food Supply Chain

Dear Secretary Perdue:

Dear Mr. President:

The United States Peanut Federation (USPF) is comprised of the Southern Peanut Farmers Federation, the American Peanut Shellers Association and the National Peanut Buying Points Association. The USPF would like to express our appreciation to USDA for working with Congress to pass the Family First Coronavirus Response Act which includes $1.2 billion in food assistance. These resources will be essential in providing food to those in need during this evolving pandemic, as well as ensure that the products Americans are receiving are safe and accessible. As USDA continues to work on providing further assistance, the peanut industry believes that peanut butter is a product that should be considered for those in need. Peanuts and peanut butter provide health benefits for Americans at every stage of life, including pregnancy, infancy, childhood, adulthood, and older adulthood. Peanut butter contains 8 grams of high-quality protein, which contributes to proper body and brain development in children. Dollar for dollar, peanuts and peanut butter are less expensive than almost all nut and meat proteins. Peanut butter contains 19 vitamins and minerals, some of which are considered “hard-to-get” nutrients in the American diet. One of these vitamins, folate, is especially crucial for pregnant women to ensure adequate fetal development. Regular consumption of peanuts and peanut butter has also been associated with reduced risks of three of the most prevalent diseases in the United States, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes. As a staple for American households, peanut butter fits well into many dietary patterns. Pairing the affordability with nutrition and a very long shelf life – peanuts and peanut butter are excellent staples for most pantries. There is already a sufficient amount of peanut butter available for use. Also, there is an ample amount of peanuts to be shelled, graded and manufactured into peanut butter. Again, we welcome any and every opportunity to help during this time of need, and we look forward to continuing to work with you on this and other issues of common interest in the future. If you have any questions or would like to discuss further, please don’t hesitate to contact us.

Thank you for Administration’s efforts to protect our nation during these unprecedented times. Like you, we take very seriously the health and safety of our nation, as well as the ability to maintain a steady supply of U.S.-produced food, fiber, feed, and fuel. We request your assistance in ensuring this steady supply continues. As the COVID-19 situation evolves, concerns have been raised regarding the availability of food and supplies. Members of our organizations - farmers, ranchers, input manufacturers and suppliers, processors, retailers, grain handlers, feed and ingredient manufacturers, lenders, applicators, and many others - contribute to the production, distribution, and availability of this supply to consumers. We are proud to have a role to play in the great success story of American agriculture, including the abundance produced to feed and sustain U.S. and global consumers. However, this has not been without challenge. In 2019, over 19 million acres in the United States were left unplanted due to severe weather challenges. A difficult planting season in the spring was followed by production and harvest season challenges. Global trade issues impacted agricultural commodity markets. With this year’s spring planting season upon us, we face not only the potential for weather and price-related challenges but new uncertainties. As you consider additional steps to restrict movement to protect our nation from COVID-19, we ask your Administration to be mindful of the food, feed, and agricultural supply chain and workforce impacts on the ability of U.S. agriculture to meet the needs of consumers. These include but are certainly not limited to impacts on accessibility of seed, fertilizer, crop protection products, agricultural labor, equipment, feed and ingredients for foodproducing animals, modes of transportation, the availability of required U.S. government inspection services, and daily movement of milk. Our organizations look forward to sharing questions, needs, and concerns with the Administration in the coming days and weeks.

CCC Funding Letter Dear Majority Leader McConnell, Speaker Pelosi, Leader Schumer and Leader McCarthy, America’s farmers and ranchers commend your work to assist Americans affected by the coronavirus. As they work to ensure that the necessities of life such as food, feed, fuel, and fiber continue to be produced, we urge you to ensure that they have the necessary support in these very trying times. Farmers, ranchers and the supply chain that support them will not let Americans down during this unprecedented crisis and they are asking the same of you. Millions of producers will need help with cash flow given the rapid and unanticipated decline in commodity prices, the likely closure of ethanol processing plants, the effective elimination of direct-to-consumer sales and decline in full-service restaurant and school meal demand. Congress must have farmers’ and ranchers’ backs by expanding and replenishing USDA’s borrowing authority under the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC). Farmers and ranchers are proud to be trusted to feed nearly 330 million Americans and we’ll continue working every day to do so, but Congress must ensure the CCC has ample authority and funding to help farmers and ranchers survive during this emergency. The inclusion of these provisions would ensure the Secretary of Agriculture has the tools needed to meet this crisis head-on for all of agriculture. We respectfully urge you to address these vital needs in the relief package you are developing now. Thank you for your consideration. April 2020 Southeastern Peanut Farmer

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Southern Peanut Growers SPG and GPC Exhibit at Southern Women’s Show in Savannah The Southern Peanut Growers and Georgia Peanut Commission teamed up promote peanuts to approximately 13,000 attendees at the Southern Women’s Show in Savannah, Georgia, Feb. 28 - March 1, 2020. Farmers Joe Boddiford and Andy Owens from Screven County, Georgia, Don Koehler, Georgia Peanut helped staff the exhibit. Commission, visits with consumers The organizations promoted peanuts during the Southern Women’s Show in Savannah, Ga. with bags of Georgia Peanuts, peanut butter spreaders, recipe cards, Peanut Fuel brochures, peanut candy samples, Peanuts & Diabetes brochures, sandwich keepers, JIF to Go samples, early introduction information, Food Allergy Facts brochures, and the new Georgia Peanuts health information card. Don Koehler and Leslie Wagner presented three cooking demonstrations during the three-day show sharing with guests where to find Georgia Peanuts in common grocery store products while making peanut candies and trail mix. Other topics covered during the demonstrations included nutrition information, peanut sustainability, and early introduction to help prevent peanut allergy. Two videos posted to Instagram from the show, featuring the making of peanut trail mix and products where Georgia Peanuts are found, had more than 150 views each. Koehler and Wagner also provided information and business cards to several people with a broader reach, including a retired home economist who still does group programs and a pediatric nursing professor.

Peanut Butter Chocolate Banana Bites

March National Peanut Month Celebrations March is usually a great month for promoting peanuts since it’s National Peanut Month and features National Ag Week, but 2020 featured a different kind of March. This March took a turn in the second week as it was consumed by constant media coverage of the COVID-19 virus and the closing of schools, restaurant dining rooms, and cancellations of pretty much every conference and event Southern Peanut Growers had planned for the next couple of months. In a matter of about about a week everyone who possibly could transitioned to a work-from-home reality, children began differing versions of online school at home, colleges closed and young adults moved back home, and small businesses and service-industry employees faced closures and lay-offs. Southern Peanut Growers pivoted its online National Peanut Month promotions to focus on sharing peanut butter with friends, family and those in need. The SPG online contests shifted to peanut butter to share and books for kids doing lessons at home. Also, SPG shared ways to give back through Peanut Proud and National Peanut Board’s #SpreadingGood Twitter campaign. SPG also shared posts about peanut farmers and easy three ingredient recipes for consumers staying home. Try one of these simple recipes today!

Flourless Peanut Butter Cookies Ingredients: 1 cup peanut butter 1 cup granulated sugar 1 large egg

Ingredients: Ripe Banana Peanut Butter Dark Chocolate Melting Wafers

Directions:

Directions: Peel and slice bananas. Top each slice with peanut butter. Dip in melted dark chocolate, draining excess chocolate as the bite rests on the tines of a fork. Cool completely on waxed or parchment paper. Freeze in an airtight container until ready to eat.

Preheat oven to 350 degrees. Thoroughly combine all ingredients in a bowl. Using a small cookie scoop, place scoops of dough onto a parchment-lined cookie sheet. Flatten with a fork to make the traditional peanut butter cookie criss-cross pattern. Bake for 8-10 minutes until done. Cook thoroughly before removing from the cookie sheet. Store in an air-tight container.

Southern Peanut Growers 1025 Sugar Pike Way · Canton, Georgia 30115

Phone: (770) 751-6615

email: lpwagner@comcast.net

Visit our website at www.peanutbutterlovers.com


Profile for SEPF

April 2020 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer  

April 2020 - Southeastern Peanut Farmer