Special Educational Needs & Disability Issue 12 Nov 2016 / sendmagazine.co.uk
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As we are now in full swing within a ‘not so new’ academic year, there has been a lot going on in the world of special needs and additional support.
Publisher/Editor Nick Clarke 07984 306 664 email@example.com
This month we have a series of excellent articles looking at girls with SEND as a recent study into national literacy from GL Assessment shows that there are 42,000 12-yearold girls with a reading age of just 8 years. The full article can be read on page 7. We take a look at a case study from the Ronnie Gardiner Method, where music and movement is used for learning and co-ordination within special educational needs. See pages 10/11. We have a focus spotlight on leading Special Educational Needs teacher support organisation PATOSS on page 12, and your chance to join the Pearson ‘Shine a Light’ campaign on page 13. In the final recommendations of the DFE funded Complex Learning Difficulties & Disabilities Research Project to the Secretary of State, (Carpenter, Egerton 2011) the mental health of children and young people with CLDD featured large. Professor Barry Carpenter OBE talks more about the research on page 14. The recent IQM awards were held at the IOD (Institute of Directors), Pall Mall, London, and celebrated the superb work and achievements in our schools throughout the UK. Read more about the day and find out how you can get involved on page 20. In the UK today there is an estimated 1-in-4 autistic children who are girls - yet there is very little provided for them. On page 28 the headteacher of Limpsfield Grange School, in Surrey, where autistic girls are taught the keys to self-management and self-belief, helps raise awareness and acceptance of female autism. To round off this edition, regular SEND Magazine writer and founder of ‘The Local Offer’ Heather Stack discusses the balancing act of effective intervention in schools. This issue is the final one of 2016, so I would like to say thank you to all our contributors and readers, without you this magazine would not be possible. I hope you all have a wonderful and deserved break over Christmas and see you in 2017!
SEND Consultant Simon Carnell Office Enquiries 01455 642 234 Accounts firstname.lastname@example.org Subscriptions email@example.com Design/Layout Ashley Simister firstname.lastname@example.org Contributors Professor Barry Carpenter OBE, Arran Smith, Heather Stack, Sarah Wild ©SEND Magazine is published by SEND (UK) Ltd Nick Clarke - Managing Director The views and opinions expressed in SEND Magazine are not necessarily those of the publisher. The publisher cannot be held responsible or liable for any incorrect information, opinions of any third parties or omissions. Postal Address 42 Cumberland Way, Barwell, Leicestershire. LE9 8HX 01455 642 234 www.sendmagazine.co.uk email@example.com @sendmagazine Send Magazine Registered Address C/O David House, Mill Road, Pontnewynydd, Pontypool. NP4 6NG
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Contents P7 NEWS Report by GL Assessment showing a silent army of ‘lost girls’ is struggling to read or understand the written word and their problems are being overlooked.
P20 IQM AWARDS Inclusion Quality Mark host their annual awards in Pall Mall, London.
P9 NEWS Oaka Books Online Resource Library P10 MUSIC & MOVEMENT Case study of 'the Ronnie Gardiner Method' using movement and music within SEND. P12 PATOSS Profile of leading SENCo support organisation Patoss.
P22 TECHNOLOGY & INCLUSION Dyslexia consultant Arran Smith writes about the use of technology within inclusion.
P13 SHINE A LIGHT New 'Shine a Light' campaign from Pearson Assessment.
P24 PUPIL PREMIUM Nessy Learning and pupil premium.
P14 MENTAL HEALTH NEEDS Leading SEND expert Professor Barry Carpenter OBE looks at government report into the needs of mental health and support in schools.
P28 GIRLS WITH AUTISM Sarah Wild, headteacher at Limpsfield Grange School in Surrey, talks about the challenges of autism in girls. P30 SENSE TOOLKIT Disability charity SENSE launch new 'play toolkits'. P32 EFFECTIVE INTERVENTION Local Offer Founder Heather Stack writes about the challenges facing schools in effective intervention.
P17 BOOK SHOP New books previews and reviews
SEND MAGAZINE November 2016
Silent army of 'lost girls' struggle with reading, experts warn A silent army of ‘lost girls’ is struggling to read or understand the written word and their problems are being overlooked because they are better at hiding them, according to a large-scale study into national literacy by GL Assessment. • Study based on data from over 60,000 10 and 12-yearold children • Almost 42,000 12-year-old girls have the reading age of an eight year old • Report writers say issue of reading problems amongst girls has been neglected
silent army of ‘lost girls’ is struggling to read or understand the written word and their problems are being overlooked because they are better at hiding them, according to a large-scale study into national literacy. Hundreds of thousands of girls are struggling with the written word and have reading ages up to four years behind the average, according to the report. But because the focus has traditionally been on the larger number of boys with poor literacy and because girls are often better than boys at masking reading problems, their difficulties are often overlooked, say child experts. The study, which was based on data from more than 60,000 children in England and Wales, looked at two cohorts of pupils; 10-year-olds in primary schools and 12-year-olds in secondary schools. It found that a substantial numbers of girls have severe literacy problems with sentence completion, or with passage comprehension, or both. According to the findings, 16 per cent of 10-year-old girls score so poorly in sentence completion that they are 32 months behind in their reading age, and 19 per cent have trouble with passage comprehension, which means their www.sendmagazine.co.uk
reading age is 33 months behind the average. Eleven per cent of 10-year-old girls score below average in both measures, which means they are 40 months behind. To put that figure in context, it suggests that nationally more than 40,000 10-year-old girls have the reading age of a seven year old. The situation deteriorates in secondary school. The proportion of 12-year-old girls who score poorly in sentence completion rises to 20 per cent, which means they have a reading age 39 months below the average. The same proportion - 20 per cent - has trouble with passage comprehension. They have a reading age 44 months behind the norm. Twelve per cent of 12-year-old girls score poorly on both measures. That suggests that they are 53 months below the average, which indicates that they have a reading age of an eight year old. To put that figure in context, it suggests that nationally almost 42,000 12-year-old girls have the reading age of an eight year old. High scores in sentence completion coupled with weaker performance in passage comprehension could indicate that a child has mastered phonics and how to decode successfully but does not really understand the meaning of words. High scores in passage comprehension and weaker performance in sentence completion could suggest that a child has problems decoding and can be a sign of dyslexia. Child experts say one of the reasons girls with learning difficulties are often overlooked is because they are good at masking their problems. Whereas boys tend to express their frustration in erratic and impulsive behaviour, girls retreat into themselves and daydream. Lorraine Petersen, an independent consultant who has worked with children
with special educational needs for over 25 years, said: ”Recent statistics indicate that more than one million children in the country have a special educational need, with almost twice as many boys being on SEN support compared to girls. ”The question we may need to ask is whether this a true reflection of the school population or is there an underidentification of girls who may elicit very different traits to boys and who therefore get ”lost” in the system? The findings of this report indicate that there is a significant problem with the underidentification of girls.” Greg Watson, Chief Executive of GL Assessment, added: ”It’s understandable why boys have commanded most attention from teaching professionals when it comes to tackling poor literacy. Boys are, on average, weaker readers than girls. But that shouldn’t blind us to the significant numbers of girls in this country who also struggle. Just because they are good at hiding their problems with reading doesn’t mean we should play along.” A free copy of the GL Assessment report Lost Girls: The overlooked children struggling to understand the written word is available at www.gl-assessment. co.uk/lostgirls from Friday 4 November. September 2016 SEND MAGAZINE
New SEN Online Resource Library
AKA Digital has launched a new online SEN resource library, providing topic packs for KS3 geography, history and sciences. The bonus of this online resource is that 3D images, animations and activities can be used to bring topics to life in a very ‘hands-on’ way. The online packs divide subjects into small chunks to help pupils retain focus and interest. All the topics are colourful and highly illustrated and come with active learning activities and quizzes to generate interest, discussion and interaction between pupils. ‘The look of a product is so important to children. For too long, our SEN pupils have been left to struggle with wordy, black and white text books or dull, photocopied sheets. We have broken the mould and are the first company to produce full colour, curriculum-based resources for SEN pupils appropriate to their key stage learning rather than their
reading age,’ explains Bambi Gardiner, founder of Oaka Books. The new Oaka Digital library includes 42 of the Oaka topics for sciences, geography, history and (shortly) French. Each online topic pack includes a Topic Booklet, 3D images, animations or activities as well as two levels of quiz with recordable results to show progression.
Oaka Digital is being offered for a 30 day free trial. A 12 month subscription is then available at a special launch price of £149 for use by up to 300 pupils. At a cost of around 1p per pack per pupil, this new venture makes these exciting SEN resources a reality for all schools. For more information, visit digital. oakabooks.co.uk.
The Ronnie Gardner method (RGM) is a multisensory stimulation method developed by the American drummer and jazz musician Ronnie Gardner. Caroline Russell explains.
GM uses a number of specially developed symbol/sound/movement codes which are used to perform exercises to the rhythm of music. RGM works to improve communication between the left and right hemispheres in the brain; the simplicity of the method providing flexibility to work with all ages from about four years old upwards. The method uses vision, audio, kinetic, tactile and speech to stimulate all areas of the brain. However, due to the variety of challenges faced in a class room, levels of the sensory stimulation can be adjusted to suit the needs of the children (eg RGM has been used successfully with hearing
impaired participants). The physical benefits of RGM are huge; core stability, crossing the midline, exercise tolerance, balance, gross and fine motor skills, co-ordination, timing, pacing etc. It builds self-confidence and can help with socialisation skills and improves concentration and memory. Above all, it uses laughter and fun within the classroom, controlling energy yet allowing creativity to flourish. For information on the next Introduction course, please contact firstname.lastname@example.org
RGM case study from a RGM practitioner I work with an eight-year-old boy with Asperger’s syndrome. He loves RGM and since he has a prodigious memory he remembers all the movements and sound codes instantly. We work one-to-one so he can concentrate on the method and is not distracted by others. Our aim on
starting the method was to improve the movements in his legs which were very stiff and to gain flexion at his hips and knees. This has definitely improved. His mother reports that he is improved in coordination, motion and general participation. In his music class at school he is now
able to follow the beat in rhythmic exercises which was always very difficult for him. He is now able to walk and run more fluidly, without the little jumps that he used before. His swimming teacher also reports that his coordination and quality of swimming has improved.
RGM case study from an RGM practitioner in the classroom I work at a county special school for pupils with moderate learning difficulties and associated complex needs. For the past 15 years, the school has had provision for pupils with high functioning Autism/ Asperger's Syndrome in addition to their learning difficulties. My class of 11 pupils, ranging from 11-13 years, were introduced to RGM at the start of the Autumn term. They were shown the clapping symbol and I did some work with them on keeping a beat through clapping to songs with different tempi just referring to this
symbol. I am only working with one symbol at the moment to ensure they are confident and able to remember it at speed. First it was necessary to demonstrate how the process works by having another adult model with me to establish what I wanted them to do. My pupils need much repetition, overlearning and the support of visuals and gesture. By the end of a 1/2 hour session, pupils were clearly more able to follow a simple beat with me using a pointer and applying a relatively steady tempo to popular songs they had chosen
themselves. The visual aspects of RGM are ideal for supporting visual memory difficulties in our children, who have a range of complex needs, and the nature of RGM with its highly multisensory approach is a good means to tap into the various learning styles of our pupils. Having said this, not all individuals will respond positively since not all enjoy music. Some are averse to this and having 'Hyperacusis' can be a distinct disadvantage. Generally, my pupils were very positive and said they enjoyed the sessions very much.
For more information contact www.ronniegardinermethod.org.uk
RGM Case studies from a Primary School Remedial Therapist ”I work with a young boy with reading issues. He initially resisted participating with the method during the first 2 lessons but I calmly explained what the exercises were all about and what I was hoping to achieve with him. Nowadays he enjoys RGM sessions and does well with the exercises. He reports that he can focus better when reading and has fewer problems with longer
words. There is still work to be done, but there is a distinct improvement.” ”Another boy has difficulty with understanding the content of what he is reading; the reading of the words themselves is not an issue. In addition to the RGM exercises we do together on a weekly basis, he also reads a few pages every morning. Asked at the end of the day what he has read, I get quite a story
nowadays, when previously he could hardly recall the content.” ”A boy in special needs education told me unsolicited: ”after I have done some of the ‘thingy-exercises’, I am much faster at learning!” another reason for me to continue with RGM as part of my approach to reading and learning difficulties.”
to use. She managed to follow the symbols well and worked well with the metronome. The sound codes were great for her as they are so simple. The one she struggled with was ”CLAP”; to start with she was saying ”PLAP” but we soon managed to correct this. Her focus and attention improved in each session and she looked forward to seeing
me each week and learning new choreo scores. Her mother was very pleased with her progress.” Teaching methods are increasingly using sight, speech and music to support learning abilities. RGM is a fun and efficient tool to help children with motor skill difficulties as well as those with reading and/or learning difficulties.
From a Fitness Professional ”I have been using the method on a 6-year-old girl with a growth problem and who has also recently been diagnosed with ADHD and Autism. She has very delayed speech and feeding problems. It was clear from our first session that she was going to enjoy the challenge. I kept it very simple and let her choose what music we were going
For more information contact www.ronniegardinermethod.org.uk
PATOSS Professional support for all those concerned with the teaching and support of individuals with SpLD: dyslexia, dyspraxia, ADHD, dyscalculia and Asperger’s syndrome Helping all those concerned with the teaching and support of individuals with SpLD: dyslexia, dyspraxia, ADHD, dyscalculia and Asperger’s syndrome.
Patoss is the Professional Association of Teachers of Students with Specific Learning Difficulties (SpLD). Patoss can help you gain and further your
knowledge, skills and understanding of how you might recognise someone with such difficulties and how you can help to support them.
1 in 10 people may well have a specific learning difficulty such as dyslexia, dyspraxia, dyscalculia, ADHD. In the light of this, it is so important for all • teachers, teaching assistants and SENCOs in schools • tutors and managers in continuing education • employers and other professionals working with adults • to know about and understand the impact of these specific difficulties on literacy, learning and everyday life.
Membership of Patoss can help you in your day-to-day work by certifying your ability in assessment and teaching. They offer two important ways for you to demonstrate your professional knowledge and competence in assessment, teaching and SpLD: Assessment Practising Certificate (APC) and the Teaching Practising Certificate (TPC). The APC is essential for specialist teachers carrying out assessments for eligibility for the Disabled Student Allowance. Holding an APC is also
considered good practice for specialist teachers who assess at other levels. The TPC is an award for those keen to demonstrate that they are active, specialist teachers with relevant practical experience. Patoss runs a range of SASC-approved CPD events and an annual conference with important keynote speakers and a mix of practical workshops to help you update your skills. The Patoss Bulletin is packed with articles from researchers
PATOSS aims: • to establish and maintain the professional status of those qualified to teach students with specific learning difficulties; • to promote the continued provision and development of appropriate specialist qualifications in the teaching of students with SpLD; • to enable members to update and extend their knowledge and skills and to exchange ideas through an annual conference, bulletins and local groups;
and practitioners giving a lively mix of news from the cutting edge of research and meaningful, hands-on guidance. Patoss is well regarded by Government departments and other agencies enabling them to become involved in the latest consultations on matters affecting individuals with SpLD. Patoss publishes its own books on dyslexia and assessment as well as free downloadable information sheets. Patoss has over 20 local groups offering great networking opportunities, talks and events. PATOSS offers:
• to promote fuller understanding and recognition of SpLD; • to promote links with teachers working with SpLD students in all sectors of education; • to promote links with other professionals involved in the field of SpLD; • to give a professional corporate response to the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) on matters affecting SpLD students; and • to maintain a register of the members of the association.
• links with other professionals; • opportunities to keep in touch with recent research, and to exchange knowledge and experience; • a range of publications; • reduced fees for PATOSS national conferences and local events; • a growing network of local groups; and • different levels of insurance including professional indemnity (details on application).
More details about PATOSS as well as information sheets can be found at the PATOSS website: www.patoss-dyslexia.org 12
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The Shine a Light awards return for 2016/17 Good communication skills are essential for learning and making friends, and have wide impacts across a child’s development, which is why The Communication Trust and Pearson are launching the fifth Shine a Light Awards. The search is now on for schools, teams, young people and individuals
who champion innovative work and excellent practice in supporting children and young people’s communication development. If your school or setting delivers exceptional support, or if you are a communication champion going above and beyond – find out how to enter at www.shinealightawards.co.uk
Mental Health - Who are the children? What are their needs? Professor Barry Carpenter OBE, writes about a recent government report which outlines the needs in schools within mental health.
N the final recommendations of the DFE-funded Complex Learning Difficulties & Disabilities Research Project to the Secretary of State, (Carpenter, Egerton 2011) the mental health of children and young people with CLDD featured large. A specific recommendation stated: ”Mental Health is the most pervasive and co-occurring need to compound and complicate children's SEND.” The recommendation went on to suggest the creation of a ”Well Being Team” in schools, whose focus could be on building the emotional resilience of those children with CLDD. This theme has been further developed through case studies from real school situations and illuminates how, if the issue is addressed, the attainment of students academically can be raised (Carpenter 2013). The emotional and academic dimensions
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of a child's functioning are inextricably interlinked. For many the busy nature of our schools is a stressful and at times worrying experience: the anxious child is not a learning child. An inquiry-based approach to exploring, investigating and seeking resolution to the complex issues surrounding the mental health needs of children with CLDD is also strongly advocated (Jones, Whitehurst & Egerton, 2012). This inquiry approach to research into classroom practice (Fergusson, 2013) was a catalyst for the work-led NASS (National Association of Special Schools) which developed a suite of on-line training materials to help staff address the mental health needs of children with Complex SEND (www.nasschools.org.uk). These materials endeavour to reduce the confusion that often exists for staff, over attributing behaviour to young person's
special needs or a separate mental health concern. (Allen, 2012) Children with CLDD are a vulnerable group (Carpenter, 2009), who can experience a combination of adverse factors, all of which impinge on their mental health and well-being. A study published by Emerson & Hatton (2007) found that children with a learning disability are 10 times more likely than their non-disabled peers to present with a mental health problem in the course of their lives. The complex reasons behind the high incidence of mental health problems amongst this group are often compounded by academic failure and low self-esteem. This puts the child at even greater risk, and makes them fragile learners, who experience high levels of underachievement in the school system. In their 2007 study, Emerson and Hatton found that these children are far www.sendmagazine.co.uk
more likely than their peers to have to contend with the consequences of socioeconomic disadvantage. In particular, their research reveals that of the children with complex needs who have mental health problems: • 53% live in poverty (compared with 30% of all children); • 48% have been exposed to two or more adverse life events such as homelessness, harassment or abuse (compared with 24% of all children); • 38% live in families in which no adult is in paid employment (compared with 7% of all children); • 44% are supported by a mother who is likely to have a mental health problem (compared with 24% of all children). This latter point is echoed in the research of Pretis and Dimova (2008) who report that over 3 million children in the European Union live with a parent with a mental health problem. They focus on building the emotional resilience of these children, a concept also widely advocated in the ”Count Us In” report (FPLD, 2002). As Pretis & Dimova (2008) state; ”fostering resilience in children of mentally ill parents is like finding pieces of a scattered puzzle - but it is worth www.sendmagazine.co.uk
investing in support for these children as they can create a meaningful picture.” (p158) Emotional resilience is key to emotional well-being. Schools should focus on this as a vital component in the armour a child will need to face the life challenges ahead. What must it be like to live every day of childhood with a disability, a special need, a complex learning difficulty? To be an 8 year old boy with Autistic Spectrum (AS), arriving in the playground of your Primary school, eager to join in the games of your peers, but you cannot - you do not understand the rules of the game; what does that do for your self-confidence? What must it be like to be a 15-yearold young woman with Profound & Multiple Learning Disabilities (PMLD) whose every intimate care need must today be dealt with by another; what does that do for your self-image? To be a bright secondary-aged pupil with Cerebral Palsy (CP), who after the introduction to the History lesson in your secondary school the teacher says ”pick up your pens and write about...”, and much as you try to reach for the pen, the violent shaking in your arm prevents you from ever grasping it; what does that do for your self-esteem? However this cannot be tackled
solely by schools. This level of complex need requires the contribution of a transdisciplinary team able to deliver multi-dimensional assessment which defines behavioural problems, development disorders and mental illness, and, through evidence-based intervention, promotes development and positive mental health in young people with a range of complex special needs and disabilities, (Dossetor, White & Whatson, 2011) In a recent report by NASS/NCERCC & NCB (2012) reported that hardly any schools, (in their survey), had developed curriculum materials for dealing with mental health or for teaching students about emotional well-being. Whilst only two schools in this study mentioned the use of Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning (SEAL) materials, the majority found them inappropriate for teaching children with special educational needs. There were case study examples of augmented programmes such as ”Zippy's Friends” for use with children with
Emotional resilience is key to emotional well being. Schools should focus on this as a vital component. September 2016 SEND MAGAZINE
autistic spectrum (Rowley & Cook, 2005), but most schools appeared to only have considered mental health issues as a peripheral part of a more general approach to health education within PSHE. There is a major imperative for schools to seize the initiative around curriculum development in relation to the emotional well-being of their students with complex SEND. It is still too often the case that the mental health needs of young people with SEND go unnoticed until the problems are severe and entrenched, (Howlin, 1997). This has been particularly highlighted in groups such as Girls on the Autism Spectrum, (Egerton and Carpenter, 2016.) Indeed a curriculum initiative with a focus on
building emotional resilience may bring benefits to a wider group of students in any school when considering the World Health Organisation's estimate that 25% of children and adolescents have a mental health disorder (www. who.int). This has to be set against the broader picture, also for the World Health Organisation (MHF, 2012), which estimates that depression will become the single greatest burden of disease in the world by 2030. We must not underestimate the key role that relationships have to play in both indicating difficulties in the positive adjustment of a child's mental health state, and the potential for a decline in that state. Indeed Dossetor (2012) cites the eminent child psychologist,
Professor Sir Michael Rutter, who would often observe that poor peer relationships are the best measure of childhood adjustment, and the best predictor in childhood mental health problems. Dossetor (2012) goes on to state that “the quality of relationships in the context of a mental disorder has more effect than medical treatment. (p2) Teachers need to remind themselves that teaching is a relationship-based profession. The ethos of the school, the atmosphere of the classroom, the dynamics of the group, all set the context for the relationships in which the vulnerable child with complex/mental health needs may identify how they are valued (or not) as a human being in that setting.
References Carpenter B, Egerton J, Brooks T, Cockbill B, Fotheringham J, Rawson H (2013) Children and Young People with Complex Learning Difficulties & Disabilities. Routledge: London Bergistra (2012) ”The children are fragile. They have no defences” The Guardian 30th October 2012 Jones P, Whitehouse T, Egerton J. (Eds) (2012) Creating meaningful Inquiry in Inclusive Classrooms London: Routledge Carpenter B (2009) Deprived, Disadvantaged & Disabled ”Special children” 193, 42 – 46 Egerton, J., Carpenter, B. ( 2016) Girls and Autism ; flying under the radar. Tamworth ;
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www. nasen .org.uk Pretis M, Dimova A (2008) ”Vulnerable children of mentally ill parents: towards evidence-based support for improving resilience.” Support for Learning 23, (8) 151-159 Emerson E, Hatton C (2007) The Mental Health of Children & Adolescents with Learning Disabilities in Britain University of Lancaster/Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities www.learningdisabilities.org.uk Dossetor D, White A, Whatson L (2011) Mental Health of Children & Adolescents with Intellectual & Developmental Disabilities. Melbourne, Australia: I P Communications Rowley G, Cook J (2005) ”Zippy's Friends: an
approach to mental health for students with ASD” In B Carpenter & J Egerton (Eds) New Horizons in Special Education Worcestershire: Sunfield Publications Howlin P (1997) Autism: preparing for adulthood London: Routledge Mental Health Foundation (2012) www. Mental Health Day accessed 03.10.15 www.mentalhealth.org Dossetor D (2012) ”How much do we value families and what input does this have on children with intellectual disability?” CHW School Link: Mental Health & Intellectual Disability Sydney: The Children's Hospital
SEND Bookshop Mental Health Matters: A practical guide for primary schools by Paula Nagel Bloomsbury Publishing / £18.99 Current statistics show a significant rise in mental health difficulties in children and young people, and new legislation urges schools to consider whether continuing disruptive behaviour might be the result of an unmet need. However, this is not an area that is universally addressed in teacher training programmes or books. Using real life case studies, this book supports all teachers and school staff in understanding and identifying the early signs of mental health difficulties, and explains how to bring about appropriate early interventions.
Supporting Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities by Cherryl Drabble Bloomsbury Publishing / £22.99 Every teacher is a teacher of children with special educational needs and disabilities, yet often receive little or no training in this area. This comprehensive resource will equip primary and secondary teachers and SENCOs with the training and skills they need to fully support children with SEND in mainstream classrooms. It includes guidance, practical activities and strategies for evaluating and strengthening your practice.
Rona Tutt’s Guide to SEND and Inclusion Rona Tutt Sage Publications / £23.99 How to give children and young people who have SEN and disabilities (SEND) the support they need in the environment where they feel most fully included. Rona Tutt focuses on: Creating a climate where all children can thrive; Describing innovative ways school leaders are meeting the needs of students; and considering the wider context of SEN from local to national level.
Inclusion for Primary School Teachers by Nancy Gedge Bloomsbury Publishers / £16.99 An accessible introduction to the main areas of inclusion to guide primary teachers. Gives an overview of the main aspects of the SEND Code of Practice with practical strategies and ideas. Covering topics such as what an inclusive class looks like, the responsibilities of the teacher as well as providing a jargon buster to ensure their classroom is an inclusive environment for every child. It will also help new teachers to see their place in the grand scheme of educating a child with SEND to give them the skills they will need for an independent life.
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Teaching & Supporting Children with Special Educational Needs & Disabilities in Primary Schools by Jonathan Glazzard, et al. Learning Matters / ÂŁ23.99 Aimed at primary trainee teachers or NQTs this guide explores what is meant by SEND in primary schools and covers the statutory responsibilities for schools. Also the authors cover theories that will help you to support children. Glazzard includes ideas for practical support in the classroom, checklists and useful resources.
A Different Joy by Sarah Jayne Critchley Self-published / ÂŁ13.99 Delight in the company of your amazing child, secure in the knowledge that you know what you need to support them into an independent future where they can feel happy and fulfilled, and how to get it. Are you worried, fearing for your child's future, knowing how very vulnerable they can be? Are you scared of diagnosis, alarmed by terrifying visions of what their future might be and frustrated by judgemental family and friends who don't understand how hard it can be? Are you exhausted by coping, unsure how to help them best and paralysed by your own uncertainty? Learn how to be a stronger, better informed and more joyful parent, whatever your situation. Revel in the things that make your child different whilst developing supportive and helpful relationships with your child's educators. Build an enviable future together with your child.
Word Aware 2: Teaching Vocabulary in the Early Years
ORD Aware 2 is the latest release by Speechmark in their popular series aiming to increase the range and breadth of vocabulary in children. This resource focuses on early years settings and contains their now familiar online access to resources to enhance delivery. Many resources for teachers and practitioners struggle to balance theoretical and practical information for the reader. Getting this right is vital to
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ensure delivery is appropriate and engaging. Speechmark have once again found the correct level and Word Aware 2 is both informative and supportive to the user. Whilst supplying knowledge in a clear and simple format, Word Aware 2 offers a range of delivery tools to improve vocabulary. In addition to songs, planning sheets and printable resources, Word Aware 2 offers STAR strategies and Early Years Concept that are particularly useful.
Making Good Communicators
AKING Good Communicators is one of four books designed to help schools and speech and language therapists improve speaking and listening with their groups. This book focuses on children in Key Stage 2 between the ages of 9-11. The content has been divided into sections that give the teacher a clear focus to their lesson whilst having the option to incorporate a range of aspects from literacy. This holistic approach to delivery is excellent and critical to teachers who are very often under tight time constraints. Most of the activities can be used in a variety of lessons and allow for cross-curricular delivery. This flexibility shows skills across a range
of contexts and allows assessment to take place. The activities are planned and structured clearly and effectively. The teacher can confidently assign delivery to assistants without the need for excessive training and monitoring. In certain cases it is possible to offer some of the activities as extension work for small groups that require minimal support. An example of this is the â&#x20AC;?Thinking Questionsâ&#x20AC;? board game. Pupils are able to play the board game using the resources supplied and could peer assess their work. The wide range of activities on offer in this resource ensures the practitioner can return for ideas on a regular basis and will always have new ways to engage their learners.
Inclusion Quality Mark improving standards in our schools In the UK we seem to focus on problems and not enough about best practice in schools. Inclusion Quality Mark does just that, as highlighted by a recent awards’ ceremony at the prestigious IOD Building, in Pall Mall, London.
HE Inclusion Quality Mark was launched in a small pilot area in 2004 and has grown significantly under the management of Joe McCann to become the prestigious national award it is today with recipient schools in England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. The award was borne out of the objective of supporting both state and independent schools to become truly inclusive. IQM is a standard for assessing schools against a nationally recognised framework on inclusion. It is designed to create a dialogue about inclusion with objective and supportive evaluation by the IQM team and this results in a model for further growth. Managing Director Joe McCann said; ”We believe that for future generations to be able to live in harmony, we all have a responsibility to ensure that we provide an inclusive start for all. This not only begins in the home but in all of our educational establishments. Every child is an individual, unique in every way, with the potential to shape the world in which they live. As educators we have to ensure that our young people develop an inclusive approach to others, however diverse they may seem.” IQM has the largest team of assessors
and advisors in the UK examining how to meet the ever-changing needs of a diverse community in delivering an inclusive education. All of the IQM team are people from senior management positions within schools and local authorities who can bring their significant expertise to bear when supporting schools to become more inclusive. Made up of a dedicated group of experienced educationalists, the team at IQM is committed to helping schools recognise their strengths and identify areas which require improvement, suggesting various strategies to help the schools to evolve their inclusive practices. An ongoing inclusion consultancy is offered to schools at all stages of education in both the state and independent sectors, to maintain the highest standards. Mr David Loomes, Headteacher at Easington Colliery Primary School said: ”We wouldn’t be without IQM now! We absolutely love it and it’s such an integral part of what we do. ”It's down to the assessors who come along, who are a really canny bunch, giving us the opportunity to sit down and have a frank discussion about our school, where we are and what our needs are.
It’s now completely embedded and part of our ethos and sits alongside the Ofsted framework.” The success of IQM and the importance of obtaining and maintaining best practice was evident at their annual awards in London where over 300 school representatives who had achieved the national benchmark were present on the day to collect their awards. One of the guest speakers, Dr Adam Boddison, CEO of NASEN (National Association of Special Educational Needs) said: ”We are often guilty in this country of not shining a light enough on best practice, so we can learn from each other. IQM does just that, looking at exactly what is going on in schools and allowing them to benchmark that with what’s going on around the country.” Currently more than 5,500 schools in the UK have achieved, or are actively working towards achieving the Inclusion Quality Mark Award. The success of the standard has meant the adoption of the process not only in the UK but has also led to approaches from overseas. There are currently 160 schools which have gained the prestigious IQM Centre of Excellence Award with a further 66 schools gaining Flagship status.
For further information please visit www.inclusionmark.co.uk 20
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Recipients of the IQM award
All Saints C of E Primary School
Castle Bromwich Junior School
George Green's School
Jubilee Academy Mossley
Kingswood Community School
Topcliffe Primary School
West Thornton Primary School
Wolsey Junior School
Yeading Infant & Nursery School
November 2016 SEND MAGAZINE
Using technology for inclusion Are we doing enough to ensure that SEND students are included within our classroom? Are we thinking outside the box? Are we using technology to its full advantage? Arran Smith writes.
HEN we look at inclusion within our classroom situation are we sure we are including all the people with SEND? Inclusion means we should be aware and ensure that all people are included despite their gender, their race or their disability, and ensuring that all young people are engaged and connected with the learning that is going on. When we look at inclusion in the current education system are we doing the right thing? Think about your school, think about your situation within your learning environment, what do we use to be inclusive, are we using teaching assistants, are we taking young people out in groups, are we working in the classroom, are we using a teacher or are we using peer support. What about using technology? Technology is evolving, every day we see great advances in technology but
SEND MAGAZINE November 2016
have we stopped to think about how we can use that within the classroom situation? Back in June 2016 I thought about this more closely and did a webinar looking at inclusion and how we can use technology in the classroom. I came up with three areas; collaborative, productive and supportive. By looking at these headings how we can grow the use of technology within the classroom to ensure that we are being inclusive to all our students? Collaborative This is a great concept, ensuring that we are being collaborative within the classroom can really support people with SEN by using things like an interactive whiteboard which has handwriting recognition and can really help to build self-confidence and also mean that any child that has a handwriting difficulty
can also get involved. Using the free Office 365 for Education and in particular OneNote we can create a class book and collaborate with peers and with teachers. If we are using a virtual learning environment (VLE) are we ensuring that we are sending information to parents about childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s homework? Are we also ensuring that all the resources for the lessons that the child has done are on the VLE so that they can go back to it and revise? These are three ideas that most probably will really support a child without doing a lot of work. Productive We know that many young people have difficulties, if we look at dyslexia some people will have difficulties with reading, maybe spelling and maybe writing. Looking at software or hardware that helps these young people achieve is a www.sendmagazine.co.uk
great productivity tool. If we look at hardware as a prime example, are we really using the equipment within school to its full advantage, is the laptop or iPad being used? Do you have a ”Bring your own device” policy which allows the child to use a mobile phone which is familiar to them and should break down some barriers to learning? Devices that link to your interactive whiteboard, Reading Pens, voice recorders and cameras are all great to help with specific things. The Reading Pen enables a child to be an independent learner, you can scan a word and use headphones. A voice recorder can be used to record what the teacher is saying as well as the student's own notes and bullet points. Allowing young people to take pictures of what is on the interactive whiteboard is a great memory aid and another way of being inclusive. Embedding dictation software within our computers really speeds up productivity, converting text to speech also helps to create an independent learner. For organising thoughts using Mind Mapping software and Notetaking software can really help young people grow and take down the barrier of the pen because of that difficulty to form letters - but also will make them more productive. Allowing young people to use the full features of Office 365 including calendars, by sharing a calendar www.sendmagazine.co.uk
across devices such as laptops, iPhone and on a computer at home means that young people get notifications as well as their parents and it shows what is coming up, what homework needs to be done etc. this is very beneficial to help with organisational skills. Supportive Is that enough to be inclusive, what about thinking of ways of growing their learning skills and looking at their difficulties by supporting them through computer software? There are many educational software providers out there; in particular we are looking at supporting people with dyslexia products like Nessy Reading and Spelling, Word Shark and Touch Type Read and Spell - they can really help to improve the children’s reading and spelling abilities through computerbased learning. These are supportive tools that support the learning within the classroom but then also improve the learning. So does technology work, what can it do? Well technology can bring peers together, it can be self-motivating and help to grow self-esteem, it also means that young people can achieve and therefore we should be inclusive. I feel if we use technology to support children in the classroom this really makes children succeed and improve
their self-learning abilities. Even now due to my dyslexia I have to use assistive software to help me write this article. I’m no different to anyone else apart from one thing and that is that it will take me two days rather than two hours to write an article and then proof read it. Embedding sustainable change is always the way we have to think within education; if we can ensure that what we are putting in place is sustainable through the young person’s time at school we can ensure that they are going to have a great education. Quality teaching must also be used and by using technology as an aid to help and support teachers as well as young people. Start thinking outside the box of how you can use technology to grow inclusion and support children with SEND. Check out my e-book on technology and inclusion. For more information of how the SEND Group can support you go www. sendgroup.co.uk/inclusion
We see great advances in technology but have we stopped to think about how we can use that within the classroom? September 2016 SEND MAGAZINE
Nessy believes that all students should be screened for dyslexia by the age of 7 to identify and support all struggling readers in the classroom. This tool provides a snapshot of learning abilities linked to dyslexia and because it's games-based, students have fun without realising they are being assessed. • Covers age ranges: 5-7 years, 8-10 years, 11-16 years and 17+
• Each assessment game tests memory and learning skills in key areas affected by dyslexia.
• Children play games so they don’t realise they are taking a test.
• The games are designed to assess working memory, phonological awareness, processing speed, visual memory, auditory memory and sequencing skills.
• They are motivated to complete the assessments by collecting yetis.
• Teachers can review all their student results in one place.
Assessment game 1 Visual Word Memory Using commonly misspelled words, hold a visual memory of a word and find the correct match.
Assessment game 4 Processing Speed How quickly can a sequence of symbols be matched to numbers.
Assessment game 2 Auditory Sequential Memory Listen to a series of instructions and follow them in the correct sequence.
Assessment game 5 Phonological Awareness Complete a variety of phonological activities: Phoneme omission and addition. Phoneme manipulation. Phoneme sequencing.
Assessment game 3 Visual Sequential Memory See a sequence of graphic symbols and find the correct match. Speed and accuracy are scored.
Assessment game 6 Working Memory Listen, then recall a sequence of numbers in reverse order.
This screening tool is an ideal partner to the intervention program, Nessy Reading & Spelling
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Nessy suite of products support attainment in the following ways: 1. By raising awareness through its dyslexia training 2. By identifying students learning strengths and weaknesses and screening for signs of dyslexia 3. By continued use of the intervention program attainments and impact may be evidenced within the detailed reports.
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September 2016 SEND MAGAZINE
Empowering Autistic Girls In the UK today there is an estimated 1-in-4 autistic children who are girls yet there is very little provided for them. Sarah Wild of Limpsfield Grange School in Surrey takes SEND readers through her journey as headteacher.
HAT sort of a life can a young woman with autism expect to live? A happy one, with a job and maybe even a relationship? The traditional trappings of ‘normality’ may seem beyond the realms of possibility if coping with feelings can be a daily struggle; with the result that only 15% of autistic adults in the UK are in fulltime paid employment. At Limpsfield Grange School in Surrey, where autistic girls are taught the keys to self-management and selfbelief, my aim is to help raise awareness and acceptance of female autism and to equip our girls to lead the most successful lives they can. When they first come to Limpsfield Grange at age 11, quite often the girls lack self-awareness when it comes to their emotional range. They don’t really understand what they feel, or how their feelings impact on their behaviour. We get them to work on this, and to gradually take the lead in labelling and
SEND MAGAZINE November 2016
controlling their responses. For too long the biggest misconception about autism has been that girls don’t have it. In the last five years there’s been an increased awareness in the medical profession that autistic girls present very differently to boys, with anxiety being an over-riding emotion. Gaining a diagnosis and support can be hard, as there are still GPs who say: ‘Your daughter can’t be on the spectrum because she can make conversation and eye contact.’ But lots of girls on the spectrum can do exactly that. Many of them don’t understand what’s going on socially but want to make conversation, while not understanding its subtext. The stereotype of someone with autism being locked into themselves and obsessive doesn’t necessarily apply with girls, who are reaching out and trying to socially engage with other people. Some girls on the spectrum mask their behaviour, or copy other people.
At Limpsfield Grange we call it social formatting - copying and pasting someone else’s behaviour and trying to make it your own - without understanding where that comes from. This can lead to serious problems. It’s mentally exhausting to continually supress your natural social reactions. In places like school or college or work often autistic girls and women are surrounded by people who really don’t get them. They have to mask their difficulties all day. This is why understanding, regulating and managing their emotions is absolutely crucial to autistic girls’ happiness in adult life. It’s key to feeling well, happy and together and to accessing a variety of jobs. It’s the difference between being a contained, emotionally functioning adult, or being stranded in their bedroom by their anxiety. Nearly all Limpsfield alumnae have gone on to college, and have taken
up retail work, equine management, veterinary nursing and health and social care as their subsequent careers. Lots of our ex-students want to work in schools or work with children. And that challenges perceptions about autism. We don’t think of adults with autism working; and we should. Being allowed to be different and understanding those differences is key to positive outcomes for autistic young people, and in mainstream school this isn’t always possible. In fact, 34% of children on the autistic spectrum say the worst thing about being at school is being picked on by other pupils. We need to build greater awareness and
acceptance in mainstream schools so that autistic girls can succeed. At Limpsfield Grange we believe that we have a part to play in raising awareness of female autism. The girls, along with author Vicky Martin, have written two novels about an autistic girl, ”M in the Middle” and ”M is for Autism” - both available on Amazon. Both novels allow the reader to view the world through the anxiety-ridden eyes of an autistic girl called M. We also made a documentary with ITV called ”Girls with Autism” to try and show people what it is really like to be an autistic teenage girl. The girls at Limpsfield Grange really
want to tell people what it’s like to be autistic and to help others. They’ve spent a long time feeling really alone, and don’t want other girls to feel as isolated. They’re proud of their coolness and quirkiness, and want other kids to feel part of a cool community. What’s really different about Limpsfield Grange is the fact that it’s a community where autistic girls are in the majority. I would hope that outcomes for autistic girls in all environments get much better because schools are becoming more aware of the kind of support autistic girls need for them to thrive and flourish.
Girls and autism insights The nasen miniguide Nasen’s Girls and Autism: Flying under the radar, a free download from www. nasen.org.uk/resources/resources.girlsand-autism-flying-under-the-radar. html, gives teachers a quick insight into today’s essential issues for girls and autism. Researchers now suggest that the ratio of girls to boys is higher than suspected - 1:2 girls instead
of 1:4. Girls with equal severity of symptoms to boys are diagnosed later or not at all. There is also a ‘hidden’ group of higher functioning girls who mask their symptoms. The stress of continuously ‘flying under the radar’ can cost a child their mental health. It may end with school refusal, eating disorders, self-harm, anxiety
disorders, for example. Nasen’s minguide provides practical schoolbased support strategies, and shares family, professional and academic perspectives. It gives pointers for schools on considering their own pupil population, how to identify girls under the radar, and how to help them.
Girls on the Autism Spectrum 'The Big Shout' conference, London (27 January 2017) Girls on the autism spectrum are often unrecognised and vulnerable. Many of our assumptions, diagnostic approaches and interventions in education, psychology or therapies relate to male populations. An emerging group of girls with autism present differently than the stereotyped male profile, but we do not have the tools to identify or support them. ‘Because our diagnostic systems and stereotypes of ASD are based on males, we just don’t know how many girls with very high autistic traits are out there, unrecognised.’ Professor Francesca Happé, Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience, King’s College London (Nasen miniguide)
‘In their teenage years, these girls are often referred to services with
mental ill-health conditions, and only then we discover their undiagnosed autism. They have lived for years of their childhood without the support that could have enabled them to live more fruitfully and at peace with themselves.’ Professor Barry Carpenter, CBE, Chair of the NAHT’s ASC and Girls Forum
This conference is a synthesis of the work to date of the National Association of Head Teachers’ National Forum on Girls with Autism. It aims to: • Provide an update on the work of the Girls with Autism Forum • Gain an insight from the perspective of girls on the autism spectrum • Share effective practice emerging in the field • Prepare a ‘Call for Action’ that
highlights future areas for development. It will be relevant to senior and middle leaders from all phases of education, health professionals, parents, carers and adults with autism. ‘What my girls carry is an overwhelming level of unseen anxiety. My teenager wears make-up, has her skirt rolled over and is obsessed with social media, just like her friends… except that often she does not understand the nuances of teenage girls’ conversation… Look beyond the exterior and understand that they are often feeling like isolated misfits who will never be like the other girls around them.’ Carrie Grant, broadcaster and parent (Nasen miniguide)
September 2016 SEND MAGAZINE
National disability charity releases instructional guides and video mini-series to: - Help make play settings accessible for children with multiple needs - Increase parents’ confidence playing with their children Earlier in the year, an inquiry co-led by Lord Blunkett revealed that one in two disabled children have been turned away from play settings and activities. Nine out of ten parents of disabled children claimed their child didn’t have the same opportunities to access play, compared to non-disabled children.
ATIONAL disability charity, Sense, has launched brand new ‘Play Toolkits’ aimed at mainstream play settings and parents of children with sensory impairments and multiple needs. The toolkits, which include a video miniseries and instructional guide, have been created to help make play opportunities inclusive and accessible for all children, and follow the charity’s recent inquiry into play, co-led by Lord Blunkett. The toolkits have been developed by the charity’s Children’s Specialist Services team, in partnership with families they support. They contain simple ideas and practical tips on how to tailor play activities so that they can be enjoyed by the entire family. There is also information on the importance of play, and useful details on the legal responsibilities of play settings. To bring the inclusive play guide to life, Sense has also created a series of fun instructional videos that can be watched with children. For the past year Sense has been campaigning for greater access to play for disabled children, following its Inquiry into the provision of play opportunities for
children aged 0-5 with multiple needs in England and Wales. The Play Inquiry, which was co-chaired by Lord Blunkett, found that disabled children have significantly fewer opportunities to access play settings and activities than their non-disabled peers, with nine out of ten parents of disabled children feeling they had fewer opportunities to play than their nondisabled peers. Sense’s Play Inquiry highlighted a number of barriers currently restricting disabled children from the play opportunities that are vital for their emotional, physical and social development, including negative attitudes from other parents, insufficient funding and a lack of attention from Government. The charity is campaigning for national and local policy changes to address the inequalities faced by families and children with multiple needs when trying to access play settings. Steve Rose, Head of Children’s Specialist Services at Sense, said: ”Play is a vital tool for disabled children, which helps them develop physically, socially and emotionally. However, during our inquiry, we found
parents across the country that were struggling to ensure their young disabled children had access to engaging play opportunities and as a result, children with multiple needs were missing out on the play they need. “The Play report published earlier in the year revealed that 95% of parents of children with multiple needs required support finding ways to play with their children. To help tackle this problem, we’ve produced these fun toolkits, which are packed with tips for developmental games and activities that the whole family can enjoy together. “We hope the Play Toolkits give families the confidence and knowledge to engage in a range of simple and engaging play activities, designed to open up the amazing world of play to children with multiple needs.” Sense Children Specialist Services provides support to schools and settings to include children with multiple needs. Play toolkits and video mini-series can be downloaded here: www.sense.org.uk/ play/toolkits
ABOUT SENSE Sense is a national charity that supports people who are deafblind, have sensory impairments or complex needs, to enjoy more independent lives. Our expertise in supporting individuals with communication needs benefits people of all ages, as well as their families and carers. We provide information and advice, offer a wide range of flexible services and campaign passionately for the rights of the people we serve.
SEND MAGAZINE November 2016
The challenge of effective intervention Some schools are still struggling to provide high quality teaching and additional support for their learners. Heather Stack, Founder of The Local Offer, a social enterprise championing public, private and third-sector specialist and targeted provision, writes about the balancing act of effective intervention.
have been mulling recently over Education Secretary Justine Greening’s recent announcement (19th October 2016) that there will no longer be mandatory resits in Year 7 for children who fail Year 6 Sats. The news is to be welcomed and I applaud the brave decision to denounce the previous policy position, which marks a quick step in the right direction. There is as yet, little clarity on what constitutes a ‘targeted package of support’ for Year 7 pupils who fall into that category, the majority of whom will have special educational need or disability. Early in the New Year a consultation will be launched on primary assessment
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and accountability implications, to consider the best starting point for measuring a child’s progress in primary school. Malcolm Trobe, Interim General Secretary of the Association of School and College Leaders commented: ”We share the Secretary of State’s view that it is very important to assist those pupils who are struggling when they move into secondary schools, and fully support her priority to promote and fund effective interventions.” I am mulling also the nature of effective intervention, aware of the myriad complexities and periods of vulnerability that children and young people with SEND can experience. The Driver Youth Trust report, ”Joining
the Dots,” (October 2015) found that in relation to SEND, some schools are ”struggling to provide high quality teaching and additional support for their learners.” In its recommendations, the report emphasises the need for school leaders to make it clear that SEND pupils’ achievement is a whole school priority, rather than just the domain of specialist staff. In this climate of constant change, of reform and post-reform tensions, it is more important than ever before that we engage with the question, what makes for effective, high quality support and intervention? So many assumptions are made, when www.sendmagazine.co.uk
we speak of effective interventions. They arise from a myriad of conscious and subconscious influences, the wider political agenda, Ofsted outcomes, the school’s own ethos and drivers, parental concerns, professional opinion, and increasingly, the child’s own perspective and views. Successive government policy in SEN and disability has given strength to the voice of the child at the heart of the support process. The co-production model of agencies working as active partners with parents and young people, lends weight to that voice. Yet the child’s voice, willing or reticent, speaks from the context of their own current reality. And when that current reality is far removed from an ideal, is fraught with challenge or beset with emerging learning, emotional social or mental health difficulties, there is a need for all involved to be sensitive to
Successful interventions can be measured by a notable increase in selfconfidence and a greater appetite for learning, www.sendmagazine.co.uk
that context and mindful of self-limiting beliefs. The child struggling to achieve academically, or bowed down with the stresses and anxieties of social isolation, may assent to a changing timetable or curriculum, the additional burden of support interventions, the loss of a playtime or assembly here, or participation in a favoured lesson there. The drive in mainstream schools for all students to achieve secure academic skills, blinkers many to the need for balance, for enjoyment to be a feature of learning, and for support interventions to give more than they take away. When determining the needs of the child and the outcomes sought, the highest priority must be given to this balancing act. Just as Anthony Buckeridge’s brilliant creations, Darbishire and Jennings, wrestled with the issue of the squaw on the hippopotamus, when we play around with menus of support, it is balance that is needed. Weighing up our options ensures that whatever is added does not detract from the child’s existing skills, confidence, enjoyment and experiences of belonging or success. An effective intervention is one that fosters a sense of wellbeing and confidence in the child, builds on success,
creates opportunities to experience a pleasure in learning and achievement, sparks motivation and enables the child to accelerate in their progress across multiple contexts. Making time to evaluate the impact of the support intervention periodically through the duration of the programme is essential. Satisfying systems and processes too often dominates the agenda when time is precious and resources scarce, but it is the human touch that will ultimately determine successful outcomes. Monitoring the effectiveness of an intervention is a challenge in busy schools, given the highly complex support timetables often in place for pupils across all year groups. But the need to monitor remains a constant. The following measures of an effective intervention (within-child factors) can be tracked using qualitative data collection methods, which may include • Observations of the pupil or a group of pupils • One-to-one interviews with the pupil • Interviews with those engaged in the intervention • Anecdotal evidence from other educators • Feedback from parents or carers • Motivational Gantt charts September 2016 SEND MAGAZINE
Measures of Effective Interventions (within-child factors) Enthusiasm, interest and appetite for the intervention The enthusiasm we seek to observe must be natural, intrinsic and not dependent on extrinsic motivators, such as reward systems, or scenarios that are based upon, ‘If you do this, then you can…’ Engagement that is above that which is normally shown in the target area The prerequisite is to have a base line understanding of the levels of engagement the child most usually displays in the target area. For most children, this will fall somewhere along the continuum from a defensive or hostile response through to excitement and eager participation (and if the latter, why change what is clearly working well?) Extended interest before and after the activity The child who anticipates with pleasure a
If we regard all support interventions as essential we can appreciate more the value of the human touch 34
SEND MAGAZINE November 2016
support activity, or initiates conversation and shows a heightened desire to be there on time, or who relives the event afterwards and revels in retelling incidental moments, is clearly benefiting on many levels from a highly effective support intervention. Wider social interactions with adults or peers The goal of all support must be to increase skills and confidence. As a natural extension, effective interventions must enable the child to forge greater social connections, allowing new and emerging friendships to form and increasing the child’s capacity for an optimistic outlook across a broad range of learning and social contexts. Increased confidence across a range of social and academic contexts Successful interventions can be measured by a notable increase in self-confidence, a greater appetite for learning, increased resilience in the face of difficulty or challenge, and the child’s ability to take risks without fearing failure or ridicule. Our task is to spot and identify these telling indicators of successful strategies and to be alert to the antecedents. Note that there is no reference here to baseline assessments or postintervention checks. This is not to deny
their significance, but in approaching the activity from another perspective - that of the child’s responses to the support intervention - highly valuable information is gained that gives a narrative to what the school is getting right. ”Having a sense of meaningful connection and belongingness with peers remains one of the strongest indicators of psychological health during teenage years…” Mental Health Foundation (May 2016) Relationships in the 21st Century. London. If we regard all support interventions as essential not just to satisfy external pressures and demands, but to help foster a child’s sense of meaningful connection, we can appreciate more the value of the human touch and measure success not just through scores and test results, but by its impact on a child’s life, outlook and optimism for the future. Heather Stack is Founder of The Local Offer, a social enterprise championing public, private and third-sector specialist and targeted provision. She can be contacted on heather@thelocaloffer. co.uk. The website can be found at www. thelocaloffer.co.uk www.sendmagazine.co.uk
SEND Abbreviations AAC Alternative and Augmentative Communication ACE Advisory Centre for Education ACfE A Curriculum for Excellence ACPC Area Child Protection Committee ACCAC Qualifications Curriculum and Assessment Authority for Wales ADD Attention Defect Disorder ADDiS Attention Deficit Disorder Information and Support Service ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder AEN Additional Educational Needs AENCo Additional Educational Needs Co-ordinator AET Autism Education Trust AfA Achievement for All AfL Assessment for Learning AGT Able, Gifted and Talented ALD Adults with Learning Difficulties ALS Additional Learning Support AoL Assessment of Learning AQA Assessment and Qualifications Alliance ARB Area/Autistic Resource Base ARM Annual Review Meeting ASD Autistic Spectrum Disorder ASDAN Award Scheme Development and Accreditation Network ASN Additional Support Need ASL Additional Support for Learning AST Advanced Skills Teacher AUT Autism AWPU Age Weighted Pupil Unit BATOD British Association of Teachers of the Deaf BDA British Dyslexia Association BDD Body Dysmorphic Disorder BECTA British Educational Communications and Technology Agency BESD Behaviour, Emotional and Social Difficulties BEST Behaviour and Education Support Teams BILD British Institute of Learning Difficulties BIP Behaviour Improvement Programme BME Black and Minority Ethnic BSF Building Schools for the Future BSL British Sign Language BSP Behaviour Support Plan BST Behaviour Support Team BSU Behaviour Support Unit C&FS Child and Family Service CA Classroom Assistant CAF Common Assessment Framework CAFCASS Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service CAMHS Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service CAT Cognitive Ability Test CBAC Welsh Joint Education Committee CCEA Northern Ireland Council
for the Curriculum, Examinations and Assessment CD Conduct Disorders CDC Council for Disabled Children CF Cystic Fibrosis CFS Chronic Fatigue Syndrome CHEN Children with Mental Health and Educational Needs CLD Complex Learning Needs CP Cerebral Palsy CRE Commission for Racial Equality CSCI Commission for Social Care Inspections CSP Coordinated Support Plan CoP Code of Practice CRE Commission for Racial Equality DAMP Deficits in Attention, Motor Control and Perceptual Abilities DCD Development Co-ordination Difficulties (Dyspraxia) DDA Disability Discrimination Act DED Disability Equality Duty DEE Disability Equality in Education DELLS Department for Education, Learning and Lifelong Skills DENI Department of Education for Northern Ireland DfES Department for Education and Skills DLA Disability Living Allowance DRC Disability Rights Commission DS Downs Syndrome DSD Developmental Coordination Disorder DSP Dedicated Specialist Provision DVD Developmental Verbal Dyspraxia DYSC Dyscaculia DYSL Dyslexia DYSP Dyspraxia EAL English as an Additional Language EAT Eating Disorders EBD Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties ECM Every Child Matters ELBs Education and Library Board EOTAS Education Other than at School EP Educational Psychologist EPi Epilepsy ERA Education Reform Act ESA Educational Support Assistant Estyn Office of Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector and Training in Wales ESL English as a Second Language EWO Education Welfare Officer EYA Early Years Action EYAP Early Years Action Plus EYDCP Early Years Development and Childcare Partnership FLS Further Literacy Support FLT Foundation Learning Tier FRX Fragile X Syndrome FSP Foundation Stage Profile G & T Gifted and Talented GLD Generic Learning Difficulties GTC General Teaching Council
GTCS General Teaching Council for Scotland HI Hearing Impairment HMCI Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector (of schools) HMI Her Majesty’s Inspectorate HMIE Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education in Scotland HLTA Higher Level Teaching Assistant HSA Home School Agreement IBP Individual Behaviour Plan IEP Individual Education Plan ILP Individual Learning Plan INCO Inclusion Co-ordinator IPSEA Independent Panel for Special Education Advice IQM Inclusion Quality Mark ISP Individual Support Plan KS Key stage LA Local Authority LAC Looked After Children LDD Learning Difficulties and Disabilities LM Learning Mentor LSA Learning Support Assistant LSC Learning and Skills Council LSP Learning Support Practitioner LSU Learning Support Unit LTS Learning & Teaching Scotland MDT Multi-Disciplinary Team MLD Moderate Learning Difficulties MD Muscular Dystrophy ME Myalgic Encephalomelitis MND Motor Neurone Disease MSI Multi-Sensory Impairment NAS National Autistic Society NBCS National Blind Children’s Society NDCS National Deaf Children’s Society NEYTCO National Early Years Trainers and Consultants NMSS Non-Maintained Special School NRWS New Relationship with Schools NSF National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services NSSEN Non-Statemented Special Educational Needs NWRSENP North West Regional Special Educational Needs Partnership Ofqual Office of the Qualifications and Examinations Regulator Ofsted Office for Standards in Education PATOSS Professional Association for Teachers Of Students with Specific Learning Disabilities PCTs Primary Care Trusts PD Physical Difficulties/ Disabilities PDD Pervasive Development Disorder PMLD Profound and Multiple Difficulties PSP Personal Support Plan OCD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder ODD Oppositional Defiance Disorder OT Occupational Therapist
PDA Pathological Demand Avoidance Syndrome PDD Pervasive Development Disorder PECs Picture Exchange Communication System PMD Physical and Medical Difficulties PMLD Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties PNI Physical and neurological impairment PRU Pupil Referral Unit PPS Parent Partnership Service PSI Physical and Sensory Impairment PT Physiotherapist QCA Qualifications and Curriculum Authority RAD Rapid Attachment Disorder RAISE Reporting and Analysis for Improvement through School Self Evaluation RAP Reasonable Adjustment Project RoA Record of Achievement RoN Record of Need RNIB Royal National Institute of Blind People S & L Speech and Language SA School Action SA+ School Action Plus SaLT Speech and Language Therapist SCD Speech and Communication Difficulties SEAL Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning SEBD Social, Emotional and Behaviour Difficulties SEF Self Evaluation Form SENAG Special Educational Needs Advisory Group SENATS SEN Advisory and Teaching Service SENCO Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator SEND Special Educational Needs & Disability SENDA Special Educational Needs and Disability Act SENDIST Special Educational Needs and Disability Tribunal SENJIT Special Educational Needs Joint Initiative for Training SLCN Speech, language and Communication Needs SLD Severe Learning Difficulties SMA Spinal Muscular Atrophy SIP School Improvement Partner SPD Semantic Pragmatic Disorder SpLCN Specific Language and Communication Difficulties SpLD Specific Learning Difficulties SQA Scottish Qualifications Authority SSEN Statement of Special Educational Needs TA Teaching Assistant TDA Training and Development Agency TLR Teaching and Learning Responsibility TS Tourettes Syndrome VI Visual Impairment WJEC Welsh Joint Education Committee
September 2016 SEND MAGAZINE