STUDIO AIR 2018, SEMESTER 2, Isabelle Jooste Ye Yang (Selena) 825738
Table of Contents Introduction 4 Part A. CONCEPTUALISATION 6 A.1 Design Futuring 7 Case Study 1: Cardboard Cathedral 9 Case Study 2: Peoples Gas Education Pavilion 11 A.2 Design Computation 13 Case Study 3: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16 15 Case Study 4: The Elytra Filament Pavilion 17 A.3 Composition/Generation 19 Case Study 5: As Autumn Leaves 21 Case Study 6: EZCT Architecture 23 A.4 Conclusion 24 A.5 Learning Outcomes 25 A.6 Appendix-Algorithm Sketchbook 26 Bibliography
Introduction Hi, My name is Ye Yang, friends always call me Selena as my preferred name. I’m a third-year architecture student at the University of Melbourne. Due to my father’s influence I choose Architecture as a major and wants to be more creative and get more design skills in the future learning. Thus, I have the interest and passion in this Studio: Air and using a new tool, grasshopper. I have done the “Architecture Studio: Earth” last semester and learned the skill to using Rhino and making 3D models. Due to this subject, I know what I should have in Design. From plans, sections, perspective drawings to show, analysis and explain my design to others. By making models, I understand the relationship between landscape and the building feature better. I also learned “Design Workshop” to get more knowledge in Design. I got more tips to be a better designer and learned more technology in designing. It taught me how to reflect myself and have the analytical thinking in design.
Part A. CONCEPTUALISATION
A.1 Design Futuring
Sustainability and Sustain-ability Designing is a human ability that allows us to think what we want to create before the act of creation itself. In architecture, consideration during designing weather the design lead towards to the future is very important. We need to lead the design to the future not only the architecture but also the method. According to Tony Fry, the design practice we know of today strives not for “sustainability” but rather “sustain-ability”. It is an important feature in design and moving towards sustainability requires a “Massive change” as we need to not only abandon the primary design process and techniques, but also the ideology and the entire mindset.
Fry mansions that, “Whenever we bring something into being we also destroy something.” This relation between creation and destruction is not a problem when a resource is renewable, but it’s a disaster when it is not. The materials, economic, historical context, should be considered in the sustainable design. In addition, As a designer, new design roles, contexts, and methods are required. In Dunne’s reading, the designs to some extent is future oriented, we are very interested in positioning design speculation in relation to futurology, speculative culture with changing reality. The space of design lies somewhere between reality and the impossible and to operate in it effectively.
Case Study 1: Cardboard Cathedral Architect: Shigeru Ban Locate: New Zealand Date: August 2013
Shigeru Ban is a Japanese architecture which always design the architecture after the earthquake. He use recyclable light materials, which pick from the local area. The materials come from the nature and can bring back to the nature which is sustainability. In addition, the light materials reduces the risk in architecture, especially are useful after the earthquake. The Christian Cardboard Cathedral in Christchurch, New Zealand, was officially opened to the public in 2013. In 2011, a magnitude 6.3 earthquake destroyed New Zealand’s Christian town. As a temporary church, this cardboard cathedral replaces the historic Anglican Cathedral, which is expected to last for fifty years until a more permanent church appears. The cardboard church has a simple structure, and it uses a type A structure, the use of 98 cardboard tubes of the same size form the safest earthquake-resistant building. In addition to the integrity and shock resistance of the overall structure, each cardboard tube is coated with a waterproof material polyurethane and a flame retardant
to enhance the building’s safety. And also, the church can accommodate up to 700 people and can also be used as an event space and concert hall. As Shigeru Ban said, this church is very simple and easy to build. He thinks the future of Christ church should be different from the present. It should be built a new Christ church, not to restore the Christ city of the past. Ban’s design expands the future possibilities in sustainability. Due to the Christ Church Cathedral remains gripped in a battle between modernity and heritage, a bold new structure is coming to symbolise progress as the city rebuilds after the earthquake. In addition, as Ban said, Architects often design houses for the rich, but the natural disasters caused the buildings to be damaged, causing casualties and loss of homes. Therefore, architects are more obligated to design for the public, which is social responsibility.
Case Study 2: Peoples Gas Education Pavilion Architect: Studio Gang Architects Locate: Lincoln Park, Chicago Date: 2010
This education pavilion is built of prefabricated wooden planks milled into parabolas and joined together at their ends. Inspired by the tortoise shell, the structure fits well into an aquatic habitat in a zoo and consists of a series of pre-fabricated pods inter-connected to give overall curvature to the surface. Its column-free shell structure is made of bent wood elements and clad with fibreglass “pods”. Double-curved, micro-laminated beams reveal the wood’s inherent pliability and structural integrity. Both prefabricated wood elements and fibreglass pods are light enough to be lifted by a single person, reducing construction time and cost. The pavilion is made of prefabricated glu-lam wood “ribs” and
fibreglass domes. Each piece was designed to be light enough for workers to lift and install by hand. And similar to the last case study, the lightness of the material is not only easy for constructing and also reduces the risks. In addition, With the design’s improvements to water quality, hydrology, landscape, accessibility, and shelter, the site is able to function as an outdoor classroom that demonstrates the coexistence of nature and city. To hosting educational activities, the structure creates engaging public space that has been adopted for a variety of community uses. This pavilion suit well to the surroundings in the zoo. Simultaneously urban and ecological, the project is a model for future public spaces in cities.
A.2 Design Computation
Computation and Computerization Computation is the procedure of calculation. Computation is about the exploration of indeterminate, vague, unclear, and often ill-defined processes; because of its exploratory nature, computation aims at emulating or extending the human intellect. It is about rationalization, reasoning, logic, algorithm, deduction, induction, extrapolation, exploration, and estimation. Computerization is the act of entering, processing, or storing information in a computer or a computer system. Computerization is about automation, mechanization, digitization, and conversion. Generally, it involves the digitization of entities or processes that are preconceived, predetermined, and well defined. While the relationships between “a computerized thing” and “a computational thing” are still very close to each other. We might even say that a computerized design is the reason of computational design.
According to Oxman’s reading, in seeking to investigate and to develop systems in which there is an integral relationship between these models and concepts, a great source of knowledge exists in the design principles of nature. For example the biometry, it can be used in computation in architecture design. The definition and formalization of biometric principles of design is potentially a significant contribution to design knowledge. Digital morphogenesis can combine the tectonics of digital material and per-formative simulation to create naturally ecological systems. It is in the computational modelling of natural principles of per-formative design of material systems that we can potentially create a second nature, or a sounder architecture with respect to material ecology.
Case Study 3: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2015-16 Architect: Achim Menges Locate: Stuttgart, Germany Date: 2016
In this pavilion, the studies on sea urchins by the research partners led to the transfer of constructional principles and the development of new construction methods for timber plate shells. In this project, natural segmented shell structures were further analysed in an interdisciplinary cooperation. By researching the growth of sea urchin and sand dollar, pictures and scanning electron microscopy in order to understand the intricate internal structures of sea urchins and sand dollars. Based on both the biological principles as well as the material characteristics, the material system was developed as a double-layered structure similar to the secondary growth in sand dollars. The building elements consist of extremely thin wood strips and the initially planar strips can be elastically bent to find the specific shape pre-programmed into their laminate. In this
deformed state, the elements are locked in shape by robotic sewing. In this way, 151 geometrically different elements could be produced, which result in a stiff doubly curved shell structure when assembled. And the distinctive articulation of laced connections that transfer the tensile forces between segments, plays a role similar as the fibrous connections between the sea urchins plates. This pavilion demonstrating robotic textile fabrication techniques for segmented timber shells. The fabrication process comes from the growth of sea urchin. It realise in how each pattern join together, it sew the wood elements on an architectural scale. It shows the potential of computational design, simulation and fabrication processes in architecture.
Case Study 4: The Elytra Filament Pavilion Architect: Achim Menges Locate: V&A museum, London Date: 2016
Drawing on research into lightweight construction principles found in nature, the canopy is inspired by the filament structures of the shells of flying beetles, known as elytra. The Elytra Filament Pavilion comprises 40 unique hexagonal components that have been robotic-ally fabricated from a combination of white strands of the canopy which made of a soft glass fibre, while the black strands are a much more rigid carbon fibre, providing a stronger framework for each component of the pavilion. The fibres are saturated with a polymer resin, before being wound onto the frame by the robot, giving each cell its own individual and distinctive pattern of strands. Just like the wing cases of the beetle that lend the structure its name, the Elytra Filament Pavilion is very light and very strong. This pavilion is like a living experiment, and the garden it located is its laboratory that collect the data from Elytra.
Those data includes the environmental factors such as temperature and the force exerted on the pavilion, and the behaviour of those who interact with it. A thermal imaging camera embedded in the pavilion tracks the movement of the visitor â€“ where to go, when to stay, where the crowd likes to gather. A fibre optic sensor woven into the structure measures temperature and internal forces. This pavilion come from the biometrics and the technology of computation improves the design process and contribute to evidence and performance-oriented designing. In addition, the unique fabrication process ties together both the design and making of the structure, with each component being produced using a robotic winding technique. Unlike other fabrication methods, this does not rely on moulds and can produce an infinite variety of spun shapes, while keeping waste To a minimum.
Composition and Generation Generation can follow by the rule based. A “simple” rule created by the design can results complex outcomes. The complex results are composition and the process of having those design is design generation. As my understanding, composition are part of the generation. Generated designs based on a series of set rules can be studied by architects by computation technology. Consider different factors with different outcomes generate the design and also let architecture improve the rethinking skills.
According to the reading, algorithm is not only describes what the function is but also how the function is computed. Many generative software requires the knowledge of mathematical theory and visual programming. Thus, the structure of architectures are changing in response to the work of computational designers. Complex matrix of compositions are made by computational designers to generate designs. In the other word, Architecture here is active, to be able “to sense, to learn, to understand and to get bored”, it is able to attain active emotive communication between the build and the user.
Case Study 5: As Autumn Leaves Architect: Laboratory for Computational Design (LCD) Locate: Beijing, China Date: 2013
The concept of this design is based on ephemerides of nature. As temperatures change, autumn turns to winter, and trees shed their leaves, this design recalls the passage of time through changing seasons. As Autumn Leaves process involved studying geometric growth patterns and the natural movement of leaves in the wind using parametric design tools. Designers used physics based modelling programs to generate and evaluate wind and gravitational forces in their installations. By hybridizing material and spatial research with advanced structural calculations â€˜As Autumn Leavesâ€™ float above, around, and through existing spaces.
They began by studying geometric growth patterns and geometries related to natural logics and materials. They used parametric design tools that not only define systemic and formal languages but also the catalogue and locate components for ease of assembly. They are transforming the paper to different shapes by cutting different parts of paper. By changing the number of edges, the shapes of patterns, luminousness analysis and the deformation of the whole model, they got further understanding to how patterns grow using the logic of nature. The complexity in computational design and the generation methods of the design encourage them to create work and rooting design in the emotive and ephemeral.
Case Study 6: EZCT Architecture Architect: Philippe Morel Date: 2000
The pixel-form, laminated wood chair is designed by a computer algorithm that generates thousands of potential shapes, from which the designer selects a limited number for production. An edition of 25 chairs has been produced. It comes from complex different composition of the pixel-form to generate the design. The form of the chair were generated by computer. Then chose the most aesthetically pleasing and practical versions, which were hand-fabricated.
EZCT architecture focuses not only on the cuttingedge digital technologies applied to design, but investigates their theoretical and historical implications for architecture and society. Morelâ€™s greatest contribution to the thinking of technology in architecture, is to question the production and implication of computational and algorithmic design techniques. His research is in the pursuit of finding relevant methods to connect the advancements of technology within our field to the wide and more pressing concerns of socio-political and economic issues, above that of form creation.
A.4 Conclusion In A1 Design Futuring, it is where we set architecture goal. As a designer, sustainability is essential for the future. For the sustainability I show two study case which is more focus on the lightness materials. The recyclable light material is easier for construction and also reduce the risk of architecture. In addition, the futuring design should have strong relationship to the nature. The material in education pavilion is quite suit in the surrounding in the zoo, make it like a whole. In A2 Design Computation, I understand the difference between computation and computerization, Computation is a method while computerization is a way to come true the method. I also the evolution of the design computation. We can use parametric software to generate forms. Use computer coding to create a new language. For example, the case study I used are more focus on the biometrics method in computation architectures. The data collection,the shape of patterns and the fabrication method are all comes from animals. In A3 Composition/Generation, I know how generative design work in architectures. By trying different composition outcomes to get the generation of the computation design. By trying different matrix to compare the results and select the best one or to improve more. Like the two case study I showed. As my understanding, the process of getting composition is the generation. In total, the technology of using computation method can better improve the architectures in the future. For lots factors in design, computation is better to use for the complex composition to form the generation of the design. And the software Grasshopper is better to be used.
A.5 Learning Outcomes The main leaning outcome of this subject to me was changing my thinking way to computation design. The use of grasshopper surprised me and the generation design method sorts bring me to a new world in data collection and using. Compare to the rhino, grasshopper turns all the lines, curves to the data and then form then, itâ€™s easier to control and easier to see the its generative. By studying and researching the precedents, I have a better understand in how to combined the biometric techniques to the computation architecture design. And also lots fabrication method are used in the precedents that give me some suggest in the later assignments. In addition, the computational design is a one of the method that gives the opportunity to reach the sustainable future.
A.6 Appendix-Algorithm Sketchbook
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