Master Thesis 2012

Page 1

COSTA DEL MONUMENTO The architectural traces of the global crises Sebastian Seyfarth Universidad de Sevilla Prof. del Dep. Mar Loren MÊndez Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus V.Prof. Dr.-Ing. Dagmar Jäger

Architektur.Studium.Generale.


This Master Thesis project is dealing with the topic of unfinished and abandoned construction sites. This phenomenon has its roots in the time of mass construction and speculation developments, which was followed by the global financial crises. Constructions came to halt and there were no money to either finish or deconstruct them. Nowadays these places are neglected and avoided by local residents and city municipalities. In particular, this project is referring to the example of the Costa del Sol area in the south of Spain.



Table of Contents: 1. Introduction

Summery Hypothesis, Main Goal, Method

2. Description, Motivation, Characteristic Elements

History of Tourism at the Costa del Sol from 1900 - 1950 History of the Costa del Sol from 1950 - today Concrete vs. Nature Spanish Property Bubble and the global crisis The phenomenon in the global context The linear Costa del Sol City Frame of intervention First digital survey of the area Project draft

3. Project

Theory

Project strategy / Elements of implementation Element 1: The discovery of the phenomenon (Information) Element 2: The path and the aim (Infrastructure) Element 3: Activation of the character (Permanent transformation vs. ephemeral intervention)

Practice

Webpage introduction Personal itinerary introduction Sites and transformations -1st site - Concrete Forest -2nd site - Nature mansion -3rd site - Skeleton town -Final site - Ghost town

4. Conclusion 5. Appendix

6 10 14 16 20 22 26 30 33 34-35 38-39 42 44 46 48 59-69 64-77 80-105 106-127 130-151 154-167 169

Essay ‘Costa del Monumento’

172



|Hypothesis| Since the 1950th this area in southern Spain experienced a tremendous urban growth in providing settlements and infrastructure for Mass Tourism. Furthermore since 1998 a enormous amount of housing objects appeared in very short time, due to a mass abuse of a loosened law in building regulations. These developments continued until the Spanish property bubble burst in 2008 due to the global economy and financial crises. Since then plenty of ‘in progress’ buildings and speculation objects stopped in construction and still remain in that very situation as they came to halt four years ago. Some of the developments could continue but even these structures are empty today. Together with other vacant developments they are generating ghost towns as though nobody ever lived there. These very unfinished and abandoned construction sites are generating places of possibilities. They provide a flexible varied basis structure where it is possible to attach new forms of contemporary momentary and permanent interventions.

Main goal Main goal of the work is to investigate the potential of the unfinished and abandoned construction sites, pointing out a future perspective of these structures and the whole coastal area. The project is about introducing a strategy for a balance between natural landscape and dense urbanisation. Due to the crisis the construction developments came to a halt. The project is making use of this situation and reacts, also considering the other characteristic elements of the Costa del Sol, such as the linear outstretch. The project will introduce the area to the contemporary generation of travellers and locals. This new target group will bring more variety in the future developments but without considering mass tourism and 10

mass commerce. The project is more about the real-life of the area. Additionally it has the concept of investing no new money by working with the minimal tools of intervention. The aim is to work with the ruins, natural appearance and decay. It will bring people together with nature and the human creation of concrete structures figuring out the question: How can a participatory design process integrates man, the abandoned and nature into a hybrid ruin construction for the future?

Method I will explain the global phenomenon of unfinished and abandoned construction exemplary on the developments of Costa del Sol. I then describe other areas world wide which were effected by the same situation. Examine Costa del Sol in particular to go into detail to propose a strategy of investigation. I am going to decide for a frame of intervention where i then mark places of interest. At that point I will explain what and how to apply on the chosen sites in order to achieve to activate them. In order to do so i will have one digital and on physical site observation. Major parts of the book texts is an extract from the theoretical paper ‘Costa del Monumento, Neglected places at the Costa del Sol all the way from Malaga to Manilva’ written by Sebastian Seyfarth. The Essay is attached in the appendix of this Book.



12


2. DESCRIPTION, MOTIVATION, CHARACTERISTIC ELEMENTS


History of Tourism at the Costa del Sol from 1900 - 1950

Beginning of tourism

National boost

International boost

For an alternative, people saw the potential in the tourism sector knowing that Málaga has a wonderful benign climate and coastal situation. Advertising the At the beginning region for tourists with of the 20th cen- its best potential, the clitury, the shoremate: line of the Costa del Sol had only 320 sunny days a traditionally 3000 hours of sun agrarian and fishaverage 18.7° (13.8° ing economy. winter, 24.4°summer)

The arrival of the railroad meant a boost for tourism. Narrow lane railroads linked Málaga with Fuengirola at the beginning of the 20th century. This allowed access to the cast of Sundays and Holidays especially for many Andalusians of the interior. These were the beginnings of the Beach Holidays.

The airport of Málaga is built as a key gateway to the Costa del Sol. After the first world war, the first airport appears, in 1921 with the regular line Latécoére linking Toulouse and Casablanca, with stops in Barcelona, Alicante, Málaga, and Tánger.

since the 1900

14

1921

Civil war

The Civil war caused a deciline in the tourism industry

1936

National boost 2

International boost 2

The opening of further railway connections with Madrid meant a large input of tourists, mostly nationals.

1950

It is towards the end of the 1950’s with the appearance of charter flights and the enlargement of the airport’s installations, that the exponential evolution of tourism began in Málaga’s seashore.

since the 1950


COSTA DEL SOL

Source: Google earth


History of the Costa del Sol from 1950 - today Since the 1950th this area in southern Spain experienced a tremendous urban growth in providing settlements and infrastructure for Mass Tourism. Rapidly it became one of the most travelled holiday destinations for Europeans. Short term vacation tourism, as well as long term and constant residents from Spain and abroad, bought a 2nd or summer resident home at the coast. Hence the major part of the developments comprises residential buildings. Most of these developments especially inland, prioritised time efficiency of construction, not quality of the structures. The developments have almost no reference to the history or identity of that area. This creates the feeling of being in a copy-paste-mass-production-urbanisation, with fences and borders. There are isolated settlements, unrelated to their surrounding and even other neighbouring regions. The levelling of the topography to establish infrastructure for roads and houses caused big scale nature destruction and landscape sealing.

16


1956

1984

2009 Source: Antonio Alba Ruiz


18 Source:Greenpeace

1965 Benidorm


2010 Benidorm Source:Greenpeace


Concrete Vs. Nature This Mass construction did not only happen at the Costa del Sol but in most of the coastal regions in all over Spain. In 2010 Greenpeace did a nature survey in Spainish coastal regions and compaired several nowadays situations with ones 50years ago:

Source:Greenpeace

Source:Greenpeace 1945 Gij贸n

2010 Gij贸n

In regions like Malaga and Alicante constructions were built on about 75% of the coast area. Already in 2004 every square Kilometre was covered by 288 Tons of Concrete. Between the years 1987 and 2005 5000 hectare natural coast line turned in to industrial and commercial use. In whole Spain 505 kilometer of coastline are covered with concrete. Due to the still ongoing building construction, every day the size of 8 football fields are destroyed. Source:Greenpeace

Source:Greenpeace

In other area like Altea the historical centres of the traditional villages are affected by the mass constructed concrete structures. Even though lot of this buildings are empty, the construction is still going on. In places like Murcia the inner urban fabric is so dense that there is almost no in between space left.

2010 Marbella

1965 Marbella

Source: msn.com

Source: msn.com Marbella

El Algarrobico in the Spanish province Almer铆a was built in a Natural Resort. Since construction stop in 2006 due to immense protests, it is a never finished ruin.

Altea (down) and Murica (up)

20 Source: msn.com

Source: msn.com


El Algarrobico 2010

Source: msn.com


Spanish Property Bubble and the global crisis 1998 due to an actual housing shortage in Spain, the government changed the building law in order to access more ground and have easier procedure of constructing new buildings. But it resulted in a mass abuse of the loosened law and a mass construction of secondary and holiday residents. At the high point around 2006 Spain built 760.000 new apartments, more then England and France together. During the years of 2001 and 2008 4 million new apartments were established1. Most of these new developments were lacking infrastructure and were impossible to be inhabited. Speculation objects to get sold and sold again2. If the 4 million apartments would be for the housing market there would be no property bubble. But never the less the developments continued until the Spanish property bubble burst in 2008 due to the global economy and financial crises. Hence banks stopped giving mortgages so people stopped buying and the developers were unable to pay their debts to the contractors. Since then plenty of ‘in progress’ buildings stopped in construction and still remain in that very situation as they came to halt four years ago. Some of the developments could continue but even these structures are empty today. Together with other vacant developments they are generating ghost towns as though nobody ever lived there. What is going to happen with that kind of abandoned and neglected urban obstacles, when there is no money to continue, to transform or to destruct? How can one interact with the residential building typology that appears along the coast and has already become part of Costa del Sol identity?

1 Ministerio de Vivienda de Espana, www.mviv.es 2 Maria del Carmen Guisan und Eva Aguayo: „Second Homes in the Spanish Regions. Evolution in 2001–2007 in „Regional and Sectoral Economic Studies Nr. 2, 2010

22


UPDATE

Manilva as one of the agglomeration areas with the highest rate of construction ruins and empty buildings at the Costa del Sol. Source: Google earth


24 Source: Google earth


Costa del Sol Pattern - Street leading into nowhere infrastructure development which stopped after the crises in 2008


The phenomenon in the global context

Architectural projects which were resigned for a variety of reasons like design errors, clashing political decisions, inaccurate cost estimates, contractor bankruptcies, evident disregard of building regulations, disappearance of funds and more, have stopped, leaving just a series of ruins, abandoned even before having been used at all. The phenomenon appears also in other areas of the Mediterranean sea, just a few examples like in Italy, especially on the island Sicily, where a national survey discovered 156 unfinished abandoned construction ruins. Another conglomeration of unfinished and abandoned constructions is near by the resort town KuĹ&#x;adasi in Turkey. Where over 50 abandoned concrete skeleton structures from 4 to 15 floor height are located right next to the Aegean coast.

Source: www.ard.de

Due to the contemporary increasing global capitalist economy, buildings no longer just get built due to housing demand, but as a financial investment. This strategy works until the property bubble burst. This did not only happen in the area like the Costa del Sol, but in other places around the Mediterranean and the global world. The city of Kangbashi in Ordos China was build for around 300.000 people, most of the apartments are sold, but just a few people are really living there. There are plenty of this ghost town like cities in the bigger urban fabric of Shanghai like Thames Town, Anting German Town, Holland town and other new towns. We do not have to go that far away because in Spain we can find a lot more ghost town developments for instance the place El QuiĂąon. Areas are usually not able to cope with such high population growth. The problem of missing infrastructure like shopping facilities, schools, hospitals and social establishments is eminent. To live in these buildings is rather secondary, so it is usually meant to buy, possess and sell them.

Source: www.ard.de

In the end, we can only hop that the crisis stops this speculation-based developments, otherwise more ghost cities will grow, and we will be left with more ruins and a failing environment.

26 Source: www.ard.de


Source:Bauwelt Source:http://transform-mag.com/

Incompiuto siciliano

Il collettivo Alterazioni Video conduce una ricerca sulle architetture non terminate in Italia. Giarre, in Sicilia, è l’epicentro di questo fenomeno, documentato nelle fotografie di Gabriele Basilico. Con un commento di Paul Virilio e un breve saggio di Wu Ming

ompletion

ni Video is researching the unfinished . Giarre, in Sicily, is the center of this ented in Gabriele Basilico’s photographs. Paul Virilio and a short essay by Wu Ming Video

foto di / photo by Gabriele Basilico 486

191

Source:Google earth


28


“True luxury is not a 5-star hotel, but an untouched natural beach.” Greenpeace President of Spain Juan Lopez


The linear Costa del Sol City The coastline of the Costa del Sol is an elongated urban agglomeration that stretches from Malaga to Manilva throughout 9 different municipalities. While driving along the coast these municipality boarders are barely visible. There are no tangible borders instead they blend into each other. Is it one never-ending suburb or one lengthened city centre? There are more continuous elements that support this linear perception. Nature surrounds the Costa del Sol from one side with the linear stretch of the Mediterranean coast with the affiliated linear beach plot and on the other side the continuous mountain range. The existing ‘National 340‘ and the ‘AP-7’ toll highway are the main infrastructural backbones for the Costa del Sol. They connect all the urban developments, conglomerations and inhabitant spaces, allowing a fast and direct linear connection. Whereas it is possible to reach more or less every space at the Costa del Sol along the highway, the places among each other are rarely connected and some neighbouring settlements are only accessible from the highway itself. This makes the car more or less the only transportation medium to move around. Even though there are all this linear aspects of the coast there is almost no infrastructure to experience the coastline in itself. The highways are facilitating structures, Marc Augé’s so called non-place1, a transit space mainly to reach a certain destination. Whereas for experiencing the area by walking, this very highway constitutes a boundary which rather blocks accesses than enable them. 1 Augé, Marc: Non-Lieux. Introduction à une anthropologie de la surmodernité. 1992.

Marbella

Málaga

Torremolinos

Benalmádena Fuengirola

Mijas

Estepona

Casares Manilva

30

Municipalities San Roque


Linear stretch of buildings along the coastline


continues Mountain range

32

Highway AP-7 National-340 (A-7)

Beach and Harbour

Waterline


Frame of intervention


Source:Google earth

34


100 CONSTRUCTION RUINS ON 100KM COASTLINE


Source:Google earth

Source:Google earth

Preselection of different types of constrution ruins

Foundation

36

Solitaire


Source:Google earth

Source:Bing map

Building complex

Resort


â‚Ź 38 Source:http://www.graphictec.de/

First draft of how an itinerary path could connect the neglected spaces. each ruin is custom defined with different iconographical attributes.


Iqui doluptatur? Ebit 6_65

Hideout mountain shelter

Costa del Monumento

MANILVA

Bersped quis quo consequunt,

Source:Google earth

Bersped quis quo consequunt, quundit, consequos modicatium qui nosam fuga. Iciae esti doluptatia dendici psapedi ciende vendae plit fuga. Qui cus, odi-

â‚Ź

Bersped quis quo consequunt, quundit, consequos modicatium qui nosam fuga. Iciae esti doluptatia dendici psapedi ciende vendae plit fuga. Qui cus, oditas con natus doluptatem etusapi endeliciti dio. Nam et fuga. Tia ditatem eume aut dis pra voluptaspit quid quae es estiori tiorro con neceperum rest, nis sapis restia excepellabo.

Et ium quo et pos ut rerum arum simendae lab iusdaer eri-

Skeleton - town

Agrarian pavilion

quundit, consequos modicatium qui nosam fuga. Iciae esti doluptatia dendici psapedi ciende vendae plit fuga. Qui cus, oditas con natus doluptatem etusapi endeliciti dio. Nam et fuga. Tia ditatem eume aut dis pra voluptaspit quid quae es estiori tiorro con neceperum rest, nis sapis restia excepellabo. Et ium quo et pos ut rerum arum simendae lab iusdaer eriasita ditenih iliqui ratiae et aute de prectint molor accus doluptatem veliquatur?Ibus aceptam am que estio quatem es dolorporem quam veliquodi coremolupis re, volenim volloria vidiae nessit liquodi de porendae volorem etur ad eos esercia tiumquias il ilit videl ea poreperi ullorTaectorempos quat. Itatem. Nam cullaccus. Occum fuga. Eni ulpa dolut porro iderspe susdaercimus autas imporit imil inctati atenda vent laborernatum labo-

Source:Google earth

â‚Ź

Bersped quis quo consequunt, quundit, consequos modicatium qui nosam fuga. Iciae esti doluptatia dendici psapedi ciende vendae plit fuga. Qui cus, oditas con natus doluptatem etusapi endeliciti dio. Nam et fuga. Tia ditatem eume aut dis pra voluptaspit quid quae es estiori tiorro con neceperum rest, nis sapis restia excepellabo. Et

Source:Google earth (map)

Source:Google earth

Ghost - town

Source:Google earth

Bersped quis quo consequunt, quundit, consequos modicatium qui nosam fuga. Iciae esti doluptatia dendici psapedi ciende vendae plit fuga. Qui cus, oditas con natus doluptatem etusapi endeliciti dio. Nam et fuga. Tia ditatem eume aut dis pra voluptaspit quid quae es estiori tiorro con neceperum rest, nis sapis restia excepellabo.

Et ium quo et pos ut rerum arum siSed unt ulpari omnia nonectae nonseque coressim ducimillab is est et impor sendunt dolor alibus aliam hita plabo. Ta voluptio et volore labo. Et a pore quidi rendita tiuscid mincit, odignissenet vel id eosam sin rerovit, nimi, ut enimolupta porem quidit preicienime volupta tionemp orporpos et dolor am que sum

Bersped quis quo consequunt, quundit, consequos modicatium qui nosam fuga. Iciae esti doluptatia dendici psapedi ciende vendae plit fuga. Qui cus, oditas con natus doluptatem etusapi endeliciti dio. Nam et fuga. Tia ditatem eume aut dis pra voluptaspit quid quae es estiori tiorro con neceperum rest, nis sapis restia excepellabo. Et ium quo et pos ut rerum arum simendae lab iusdaer eriasita ditenih iliqui ratiae et aute de prectint molor accus doluptatem veliquatur?


40


3. PROJECT THEORY

PRACTICE


Project strategy Main goal of the work is to investigate the potentials of the unfinished and abandoned construction sites, pointing out a future perspective of these structures and the whole coastal area. The project is about introducing a strategy for a balance between natural landscape and dense urbanisation. Due to the crisis the construction developments came to a halt. The project is making use of this situation and reacts, also considering the other characteristic elements of the Costa del Sol, such as the linear outstretch. The project will introduce the area to the contemporary generation of travellers and locals. This new target group will bring more variety in the future developments but without considering mass tourism and mass commerce. The project is more about the real-life of the area. Additionally it has the concept of investing no new money by working with the minimal tools of intervention. The aim is to work with the ruins, natural appearance and decay. It will bring people together with nature and the human creation of concrete structures figuring out the question: How can a participatory design process integrates man, the abandoned and nature into a hybrid ruin construction for the future?

Elements of implementation The proposed strategy works in different elements whereas the first introduces the area and the phenomenon of abandoned construction ruins and their positive appearance. The second element is describes the connection and infrastructure of the sites. The element 3 is dealing with ephemeral vs. permanent interventions. Empower the specific character and spacial quality with a permanent addition, and the architectural supporting module as a replaceable ephemeral object. 42


Element 1: THE DISCOVERY OF THE PHENOMENON (INFORMATION)

Element 2: THE PATH AND THE AIM (INFRASTRUCTURE)

Element 3: ACTIVATION OF THE CHARACTER (PERMANENT TRANSFORMATION VS EPHEMERAL INTERVENTION)


Element 1: The discovery of the phenomenon (Information): The people should become aware of the positive potentials in the neglected spaces. Residential estates appears in such huge presence in the region of Costa del Sol that we can not deny that this structures became part of the identity already. We have to work with this identity of the stalled ruins before it gets replaced. To just deconstruct what we already destroyed is not an answer. To flatten with bulldozers an area for the second time does not bring us back to nature. Richard Wagner wrote: �What is being built is always a tomb, a memorial to failure and disaster... only ruins have permanence.�1. So the concept is to work with that neglected but permanent structures, in order to give them an additional face and a support on its uniqueness. The places have to remain accessible to everybody. No privatisation, no fences and no boundaries. The place will be for looking, exploring, imagining, thinking, playing, doing, acting and being. Internet as a world wide accessable platform of information and communication: The importance of the digital network in our nowadays daily routine is not comparable with the situation even just 10 years ago. Booking, buying, renting and lending became as easy as accessible. Going through books, streets and museums all over the world from just your laptop is common as well as being connected with thousands of persons, sharing videos, pictures and impressions from everywhere in the world wireless via your smartphone. The digital world is not just something for the young generation and big global companies to sell products. For example problematical urban areas or local discrepancies could get more participation from neighborhoods and global contributions to achieve a contemporary solution. Therefore it seems inevitable to involve that digital layer in contemporary urban developments. The abandoned construction ruins will be explored and facilitated on a webpage, which shows all the ruins with specific informations about the plots and their surroundings. The internet site introduces different categories of ruin types, pictures of the ruins, texts, notes, imaginations, stories, sketches, and others to discover the new view toward the neglected mass. Basically the webpage introduces and communicates in a contemporary way the topic of the Costa del Sol situation and its special objects. On that platform it is possible to exchange opinions and experience, photos, stories and imaginations. Furthermore the web page is able to grow and therefore provide always new sites and updates which keeps the website and the place worth to go. 1 Huyssen, Andreas: Present Pasts. Urban Palimpsests and Politics Memory. Stanfort, California. 2003, p. 45.

44


WWW.COSTADELMONUMENTO.COM


Element 2: The path and the aim (Infrastructure): The potential is there, we just need to support the way it can get experienced. Since these ‘dead bodies’ are appearing all over the coastline, they form an element of continuity that can be seen as a connected itinerary along the coast. The ‘Costa del Monumento’ pilgrimage, the enlightenment journey is meant to discover the origins and hybridisation in nature landscape and artificial human creation. Hereby the abandoned construction ruins are the eye catching highlights and particular targets to guide you along the path. Possible to create different routes suitable for different extensive day trips. Throughout your trip you discover the exciting ruin typology but you will also experience the coast in its linear outstretch, not just out of a transit non-place. It is important to realise that ‘The way is the aim’. Therefore a new installation of a predetermined ordinary road infrastructure seams counterproductive. Instead visitors will use individual intuitive beattracks to reach destination after destination along the path. In that way frequently used passages will redefine footpath infrastructure to experience the coastal stroll. With that method the available connections are flexible and always in change, non use passages will disappear into nature and new tracks are providing variety. The communication of this contemporary travelling tour for alternative tourism is again accessible through the web page. Users are able to interactively design their own personal itinerary and discover this new layer of the Costa del Sol. The digital tour works on its own but you get inspired to go and experience this phenomenon yourself.

46


WAY ∞

SITE XX WAY ♂♀

SITE Z

WAY ☼

WAY ☺

SITE X

SITE ß


Element 3: Activation of the character (Permanent transformation vs. Ephemeral intervention): The third element is confronting the topic of interaction with the buildings in general and applying a program to the site. Inhabitants and travellers design the neighbourhood and provide a chance to empower the cultural, local and nature activity. That program would also help the ruin to be one. In terms of perception, these reminded me to the words of Robert Smithson in his speech about the Hotel Palenque in Mexico where he talks about the carefulness of how these people tear down a building: “Slowly with a certain degree of sensitivity and grace so that there is time for the foliage to grow through the broken concrete, and there is time for the various colours on the wall to mellow under the sun.”1. Robert Smithons is talking about the potentials in decaying and that it shows us the entropy of the presents. The ruins are witnesses of the ephemeral. The transformed ruin will not ask for anything and the visitors feel invited. Its charismatics and playfulness let people interact with it and they will ask themselves ‘what could be next?’ while having ideas and inspirations the person is taking part of the whole interactive process of observing and imagining possibilities which can be transformed into that structure. Therefore the ruins are also the means for imagination itself. The main element of the already ongoing transformation hereby is the nature which is taking back its original space. So let nature take back its space? Can nature be the client of further developments? How to empower this development?

1 Smithson, Robert: Hotel Palenque. From a lecture University of Utah. 1972.

48


‘The ruins are the means for imagination itself’


The Module (Ephemeral intervention): The ephemeral addition is a supporting module for the stroll, which can be installed in each of the site. The installation will be flexible, easy and just temporary. In fact it is just there as long a person is using it and its space it creates. The Module is using the existing incomplete ruin structure and completes it momentary to an individual defined space for a specific person or group. There will be always the possibility to implement a module for relaxing or sleeping, to have a rest on the way of the ruins. In each site the module will be individual due to its adaption of the ruin and its specific character. The design should communicate the image of the project which also will help to orientate in the ruin itinerary. In order to adjust this flexible structure on all kind of positions an installation of several hock around the whole site will be implemented.

50



The Module

Flexible Mobil Module system

52

1

Adjust on the several hocks

2

Enjoy being on the spot you want

3


Create your space of excitement, ...

...

...fun, relaxation, observation, ...

...

...or the reach a specific place

...


Reference of flexible structures An adoption of certain conditions and working with the existing, while creating a space like a bed, a resting place or an unusual space. Still considering the conditions of a low budget and just a temporary existence.

Source: http://www.decorolo.com/

Source: http

54 Source: http://hiconsumption.com/2012/07/indoor-hammock-bed/

Source: htt images_2/la


Source: http://www.saferoller.com/medias/Pictures/construction-pictures/ Saferoller_ropes%20course-belay-carabiner-safety-safe.jpg

Source: http://nynerd.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/hammock-bed.jpg

p://www.numen.eu/

tp://www.designboom.com/weblog/images/ ara/818_images/tentsile/tensile_04.jpg

Source: http://www.numen.eu/

Source: http://fillinn.com/img/misc/portaledges-hanging-tents/portaledges-hanging-tents02.jpg


56


3. PROJECT THEORY

PRACTICE


58


WWW.COSTADELMONUMENTO.COM


Webpage The webpage listed 100 construction ruins along the 100km of coastline from Malaga until Manilva. Through interactivly clicking on the different sites it is possible to get to know the location, surrounding, possiblilities of accessing the site, the appearence and the already proposed activity and idividual adoption of my module. The web page provides besides the informations of the 100 construction ruins also all theoretical background of the project itself. For accessing the information about the general facts of the Project check the bottons on the centre bottom:

COSTA D 100 NEGLECTED PLACES ALL

NEWS new activities or changes on the webpage or on the ruins sites ABOUT Webpage - how to work on the webpage Costa del Monumento - General facts about the project Itinerary - concept of the itinerary and how it works History - Historical background of Costa del Sol and the phenomenon of the construction ruins COMMUNITY CLOUD Community Cloud - User interface, exchange of ideas, memories, inspirations

60 Source:Google earth (map)


DEL MONUMENTO THE WAY FROM MALAGA TO MANILVA

ADD TO TRIP

NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD


COSTA D

100 construction ruins on 100 km coastline To start looking for some ruins the user has the option to either search within different ruin classifications types or directly by selecting a + symbol on the map. The top right corner button represents the ‘HOME’ function and is going to always link you to this initial starting homepage.

100 NEGLECTED PLACES ALL

Types of RUINS object size

progress of construction foundation

skeleton

Walls

finished

abandoned

solitaire

Building complex

Resort

SITE 62

HOME Source:Google earth (map)


DEL MONUMENTO THE WAY FROM MALAGA TO MANILVA

FOUNDATION SKELETONS BRICKS, WALLS FINISHED CONSTRUCTION ABANDONED WITH HISTORY

SINGLE UNIT HOUSE HOUSING COMLEX RESORT

ADD TO TRIP

NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD


Add to your personal itinery While exploring or just previewing a specific site you are always able to add the project to your personal itinerary. For more information click on the sites. Exemplary I choose just by the preview the number 87 Skeleton town, so i add it to the ITINERARY CART.

Manilva - Sabinillas

COSTA D 100 NEGLECTED PLACES ALL

Skeleton-town Pictures

Preference Pictos

Description

Scenarios

Drawings

Sketches

ADD TO TRIP

87_Skeleton - town YOUR TRIP

Location: Carretera del Penoncillo Sabinillas - Manilva 36”21’50.37” N 5”14’05.41” W N-340:

km 144

Skeleton

64 Resort Source:Google earth (map)


DEL MONUMENTO THE WAY FROM MALAGA TO MANILVA

FOUNDATION SKELETONS BRICKS, WALLS FINISHED CONSTRUCTION ABANDONED WITH HISTORY

SOLITAIRE BUILDING COMPLEX RESORT

87 / 100 NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD

ADD TO TRIP


YOUR PE

4/100 Selecting the ‘YOUR TRIP’ icon to review my 4 out of 100 chosen ruins to where i decided to travel and which i will hereby introduce in detail. These 4 form the main structure of my personal planed itinerary and they should facilitate the experience to the phenomenon at Costa del Sol. Even though i selected the sites due to diversity and interest, the selected sites are going to be representative for eachone of the 100 sites.

YOUR TRIP

YOUR TRIP

66 Source:Google earth (map)


ERSONAL ITINERARY Manilva - Sabinillas Nature mansion

Estepona

Ghost - town Skeleton-town Pictures

Preference Pictos

Manilva-La Duquesa

Description

Scenarios

Concrete Forest

Panorama

Fuengirola Benalmádena Preference Pictos

Drawings

Sketches

99_Ghost - town

Location: Camino de Martagina Manilva 36”20’29.79” N 5”15’11.69” W N-340:

km 140.5

NEWS

Description

Scenarios

Sketches

87_Skeleton - town 62_Nature mansion 23_Concrete Forest Location: Carretera del Penoncillo Sabinillas - Manilva 36”21’50.37” N 5”14’05.41” W

Location: Urbanización Forest Hills Estepona 36”26’16.00” N 5”06’52.04” W

Location: Avenida de Antonio Machado Fuengirolo - Benalmadena 36”34’18.71” N 4”35’23.72” W

N-340:

N-340:

N-340:

km 144

km 159

km 214

Finished

Skeleton

Skeleton

Foundation

Resort

Resort

Solitaire

Solitaire

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD


Your personal itinerary data sheet Decide for the different way of travelling. This should give you an overview about destinations and consumption to prepare for the trip. I chose mainly walking but for bigger distances i will hope of a lift.

Hitch hiking along the N-340

Length: 80.9 km Time: 1 hour 59 mins Water: 1-2 Liter Food: 0.3 kg Sleep: 0 Advantege: fast and social

YOUR PE

Walking trip based on off road beattracks

Length: 121 km Time: 22 hours 34 mins Water: 10-20 Liter Food: 4 kg Sleep: 3 times Advantege: explore your way

Part 01: 99 - 87: Length: 5.8 km Time: 11 mins

Part 01: 99 - 87: Length: 9.5 km Time: 2 hours 13 mins

Part 02: 87 - 62: Length: 16.t4 km Time: 36 mins

Part 02: 87 - 62: Length: 22.3 km Time: 4 hours 39 mins

Part 03: 62 - 23: Length: 58.7 km Time: 1 hour 12 mins

Part 03: 62 - 23: Length: 89.2 km Time: 15 hours 42 mins

68 Source:Google earth (map)


ERSONAL ITINERARY 99_Ghost - town

87_Skeleton - town 62_Nature mansion 23_Concrete Forest

Walking trip based on off road tracks Part 01: 99 - 87: Length: 9.5 km Time: 2 hours 13 mins Part 02: 87 - 62: Length: 22.3 km Time: 4 hours 39 mins Part 03: 62 - 23: Length: 89.2 km Time: 15 hours 42 mins

NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD

Length: 121 km Time: 22 hours 34 mins Water: 10-20 Liter Food: 4 kg Sleep: 3 times


Pack your Backpack and lets go

70



Arrival Mรกlaga Airport

72



Airport Beach

74 Source:Google earth (map)



Hitch hike trip in one glance Social transportation along the Coast Peoples stories from the trip: -Norwegian + family: summer resident _ his place to reach inner peace -Spanish: adopted the tourism, since the 50’s nothing really changed a lot. -British + husband: works in gibraltar, away from the bad british weather -Spanish and Australian: all the houses on the coast will get sold soon by foreigns

76 Source:Google earth (map)



On the way First encounter: some of the impressions i got already while travelling along the coast towards my first preset ruin place.On one of them i couldn’t await and i took a glance inside.

78



23/100 CONCRETE FOREST

80



23_Concrete Forest reaching the closer area of the first choosen ruin place, i will have a look at the surrounding map. In here i find basic informations of the area. It always tells me where the site is located. For that we have the closest location of the N-340 and the km on which one has to get of. N-340

N-340

23_CON FUENGIROLA_BENALMADENA

km 214

Additionally the page gives information to reach the beach in time and accessablility. The beach constitutes a constisting pedestrian infrastructure which works as a backbone path in case of getting lost. You also have the option to click the location icon to get precice information of the adresses, street names and GPS coordinates. Avenida de Antonio Machado Fuengirolo - Benalmadena 36”34’18.71” N 4”35’23.72” W

furthermore the overview gives again information about the site type specific informations, neighbouring ruin sites and others

82 Source:Google earth (map)


NCRETE FOREST

MAP

N-340

LOCATION

ADD TO TRIP

NEWS

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YOUR TRIP


23_CON

23_Concrete Forest

FUENGIROLA_BENALMADENA

Foundation + Columns

Solitaire

875m2

Street Pattern

Street Patterns All along the Costa del Sol appear street infrastructure which are the beginning of another never realized urban conglomeration.

Read More

1:00 min

84

Neighbouring Ruin Sites

Beige+Green Source:Google earth (map)


NCRETE FOREST

MAP

N-340

LOCATION

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YOUR TRIP


86 Source: Bing map



88



internet site site explaination how does it work?

23_CON FUENGIROLA / BENALMADENA

90

STORY OF THE PLACE


NCRETE TRUNKS

MAP

TOP VIEW

Growing flora

I WANT ...

ADD TO CART

NEWS

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COMMUNITY CLOUD

ADD TO TRIP


Confrontation

92



Site characteristic element

94


THE COLUMN GRID


Transformation Green roof

96


initial site

free the columns from the sealing

add additional structure elements

flora is creating green roof


Module

concrete screw bolt system on 3x 4X7 Concrete Pillars 98


0.5 Meter I

1.5 Meter II

2.5 Meter III


Variety of different option of defined spaces bottom connection options

100

wall options

roofs or beds options


FLEXIBLE MODULE

G1

G2

F1

F2

E1

E2

D1

D2

C1

B1

A1

C2

B2

A2

G3

Example:

G4

F3

Individual Subdivision E4 - E3 - F3 - G3 - D4

F4

E3

E4

D3

Benches E1 - E2, D1 - C1, B3 - B4

D4

C3

Shelter, Rest A3 - A4 A1 - A2 - B2 - B1

C4

B3

B4

A3

A4


water

102

rock


shop

playing cards dancing area

resting spot

beach




62/100 NATURE MANSION

106



62_NAT

62_Nature Mansion

ESTEPONA

Skeleton

Solitaire

1.050m

2

Bike dirt jumps

Bike dirt jumps

Location of bridges and tunnels

Neighbouring Ruin Sites 108

Silient Resort Source:Google earth (map)


TURE MANSION

MAP

N-340

LOCATION

ADD TO TRIP

20:00 Min NEWS

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110 Source: Bing map



112



62_NAT ESTEPONA

114

STORY OF THE PLACE


TURE MANSION

MAP

TOP VIEW

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NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD

ADD TO TRIP


Confrontation

116



Site characteristic element

118


VACANT SPACE AROUND THE RUIN


Transformation unused land

120

farmed land



Module:

122



124


resting spot

flexible, individual farm fields

Q

Q

storage machines, water, seeds, crop, fertilizer campfire

table + benches groundfloor

section Q

-1 floor




On the Way Estepona to Manilva

128



87/100 SKELETON TOWN

130



87_Skeleton Town Feelings and impressions of the stalled concrete Skeletons:

87_SKE MANILVA_Sabinillas

A construction site surrounded by cranes which gives the impression of a still growing urban fabric. However the cranes have been idle for some years and the construction fields abandoned. Even construction debris litters the site, such as ten thousands of bricks still wrapped and unused. The buildings, skeletons, ruins, concrete slaps as floors and columns to support these floors. Simple as it is. The structures are fulfilling the model of basic modern architecture. It is minimalism in its pure form, which means a wide space to move in and a structure to support that space. There is no wall, no separation, no border. It is a minimalistic radical version of the Mies van der Rohe’s Farnsworth house. Landscape, nature, sun, air and views are flowing through the unfinished skeleton structure and let people inside experience a much more natural surrounding related interior feeling than in regular types of housing interiors. The design concept provides users with a defined space like a room, but without being in an enclosed space. It is more like a public square, but rather a multi-layered public square building. Like in Piranesis etchings of the Carceri series, the staircases are the conspicuous elements of attraction in this skeleton structures and you sometimes can not be sure where they lead.

132 Source:Google earth (map)


ELETON TOWN

MAP

MANILVA

15:00 Min LOCATION

N-340

ADD TO TRIP

NEWS

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YOUR TRIP


87_SKE

87_Skeleton Town

MANILVA_Sabinillas

Skeleton

Resort

49.000m

2

Manivla golf course

Golf course

Location of bridges and tunnels

Neighbouring Ruin Sites 134

Lookout tower Source:Google earth (map)


ELETON TOWN

MAP

MANILVA

15:00 Min LOCATION

N-340

ADD TO TRIP

NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD

YOUR TRIP


Feelings and impressions of the stalled concrete Skeletons: A construction site surrounded by cranes which gives the impression of a still growing urban fabric. However the cranes have been idle for some years and the construction fields abandoned. Even construction debris litters the site, such as ten thousands of bricks still wrapped and unused. The buildings, skeletons, ruins, concrete slaps as floors and columns to support these floors. Simple as it is. The structures are fulfilling the model of basic modern architecture. It is minimalism in its pure form, which means a wide space to move in and a structure to support that space. There is no wall, no separation, no border. It is a minimalistic radical version of the Mies van der Rohe’s Farnsworth house. Landscape, nature, sun, air and views are flowing through the unfinished skeleton structure and let people inside experience a much more natural surrounding related interior feeling than in regular types of housing interiors. The design concept provides users with a defined space like a room, but without being in an enclosed space. It is more like a public square, but rather a multi-layered public square building. Like in Piranesis etchings of the Carceri series, the staircases are the conspicuous elements of attraction in this skeleton structures and you sometimes can not be sure where they lead.

136



87_SKE MANILVA_Sabinillas

138

STORY OF THE PLACE


ELETON TOWN

MAP

MANILVA

TOP VIEW

ADD TO TRIP

NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD

YOUR TRIP


87_SKE MANILVA_Sabinillas

7

cranes

80.000

Bricks

140

STORY OF THE PLACE


ELETON TOWN

MAP

MANILVA

TOP VIEW

ADD TO TRIP

NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD

YOUR TRIP


Confrontation

142



Site characteristic element

144


section

INSIDE THE RUINS AND CRANS


Transformation A Passage through Skeleton town

146



connection

148


resting spot

connection connection

resting spot




On the way Through carved out but already overgrown landscape. With remaining farmer who still cultivate between hundrets of empty new building accumerations.

152



99_GHOST TOWN

154



99_GHO

99_Ghost town

Manilva La duquesa

Finished

Resort

189.000m

2

La Equina _ Manilva hospital de referencia AP-7

15:00 min

Neighbouring Ruin Sites 156

+/- Duplex house Source:Google earth (map)


OST TOWN

MAP

45:00 Min

MANILVA

LOCATION N-340

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NEWS

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YOUR TRIP


158



99_Ghost town Feelings and impressions of finished but never been inhabited Ghost-town urbanization:

99_GHO Manilva La Duquesa

Walking along an empty street with many of the same looking buildings all around. All the blinds are shut and there is no single towel on either balconies or gardens. Everything is new and freshly painted. Walking by, one expects to see somebody sitting in the next garden or opening up a window, maybe the neighborhood kids are skateboarding on the street you are walking on. The wild grass growing out of the curbstones shows slight evidence that something is not right. In fact, this place is vacant and always has been. Somehow there is no soul. There never were any kids skateboarding on the street. There is no history with these buildings, no relation to anybody. Nobody misses the time growing up there because no one ever enjoyed afternoons with a coffee on the terrace. Because it is in no one’s memory, can we easily tear down this place? With or without the people, on site, we see all the images, stories and history even though there is nobody and the history of the area is a history of construction. We see and imagine stories or possibilities. Such a surrendered and exposed man-made fabric automatically lets us think and create scenarios. The ruins are the means for imagination.

160

STORY OF THE PLACE


OST TOWN

MAP

MANILVA

TOP VIEW

ADD TO TRIP

NEWS

ABOUT

COMMUNITY CLOUD

YOUR TRIP


99_GHO Manilva La Duquesa

162

STORY OF THE PLACE


OST TOWN

MAP

MANILVA

TOP VIEW

ADD TO TRIP

YOUR TRIP


Site characteristic elements

164


section

THE STREETS OF GHOST TOWN


Transformation Annually come together at the unofficial final ruin spot on the streets of 99_Ghost town of Costa del Monumento hiking trail.

166


street shade


168


4. CONCLUSION This project is just the beginning of the confrontation of using the traces of speculation. The strategy of transformation creating unique architectural hybrids which generates a forward thinking and contemporary intervention, while strengthening the identity of a region. Architects and planners have to be aware of this character of identity while intervening in the urban and natural fabric. It is important to understand that urban developments are creating large scale environmental changes and could cause nature irregularities. Otherwise, areas will end up as interchangeable non-places with no relation to environment, citizens and traditions.


170


5. APPENDIX














184


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