did not start these stories, but neither does she seem to have discouraged them. On 1 January 1992, Grace Murray Hopper died peacefully in her sleep at her home in Washington, DC. She was buried with full military honors in Arlington National Cemetery. Eight years later, in a review of a book on early modern European warfare, Steven Ross of the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island, wrote: “military organizations not only by their very existence but also by their effectiveness in battle act as engines of social and political change.”4 An engine of change—a perfect metaphor for Grace Hopper. Kathleen Broome Williams is a naval historian with four books on naval history and one on Marine Corps history. Her interests center on 20th-century naval science and technology. Dr. Williams recently completed an appointment as Class of 1957 Distinguished Chair in Naval Heritage at the US Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland. Her most recent book, Painting War: George Plante’s Combat Art in World War II, was published by the Naval Institute Press in May.
Exp E r iE
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photo by mc specialist 1st class charles e. white, usn
USS Hopper (DDG 70)
NOTES 1 Grace Hopper interview by Charles Evans, 1976, p. 1, OHI81, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, MN; Grace Murray Hopper Officer Fitness Report, 26 February 1967, Official Military Personnel File, National Personnel Records Center, NARA, St. Louis, MO; Charlene W. Billings, Grace Hopper: Navy Admiral and Computer Pioneer (Hillside, NJ: Enslow Publishers, Inc.,
f loAt A r ii A o r ld W W f o Actio n
rt e libe h t d a boa r
1989), 87. 2 Author’s telephone interview with John F. Lehman, 26 June 1998. 3 Ken Olsen, president and founder of Digital Equipment Corporation, quoted in Williams, Grace Hopper: Admiral of the Cyber Sea, (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 2004), 187. 4 2.25x4.5_HNSA_FleetCOL#1085.pdf The Journal of Military History, Vol. 64,6/5/12 No.1, January 2000, 186.
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