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A press gang marches merchant ship crewmen from their vessel to a waiting naval warship. Impressment was legal but generally hated, as it took men against their will from privately owned commercial ships at sea or from their homes ashore to man the Royal Navy fleet. In the era of sailing warships, the navy needed hundreds of men to operate a single ship and man its guns in battle. Frustrations with the British impressment of American sailors was a major factor in the United States declaring war on Great Britain for a second time, the War of 1812. After the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812, both in 1815, the Royal Navy’s manpower needs were significantly decreased and impressment fell out of use. As the 20-gun frigate HMS Rose was patrolling the coast of Massachusetts in April of 1769, it came upon the Pitt Packet as it was heading to port at Marblehead. Lieutenant Henry Gibson Panton and his gang boarded the Pitt Packet on the premise that they were searching for contraband cargo, but with the true intent of pressing some of the Pitt Packet’s crew into the Royal Navy. When Corbet and his mates saw what was happening, they grabbed fishing gear, including a fish gig, or spear, and locked themselves in the forepeak, up in the bow of the ship. It didn’t end well. Lt. Panton demanded that the men come up on deck, to which, according to later testimony by the ship’s cook, Corbet and his mates replied that they were “Freemen born free, and would not go aboard a Man of War.”2 James Siley, a British marine who accompanied the press gang, and John Roney, Pitt Packet’s master, both testified they heard Corbet and his mates “say they wanted nothing but their Liberty.”3 The lieutenant forced his way inside. Corbet took a fistful of salt and threw it across the deck in front of Panton’s feet and threatened the British naval officer with death if he

crossed the line of salt. Panton was undaunted, took a pinch of snuff, and stepped towards the seaman. Corbet grabbed a nearby harpoon and launched it at his attacker. The harpoon struck Panton in the neck, severing his jugular vein. The press gang carried him up to the main deck, where he bled to death. A fight ensued, leaving two of the Pitt Packet’s crew shot and severely wounded. Corbet and his shipmates were arrested and charged with murder.

2

L. Kinvin Wroth and Hiller B. Zobel, eds., The Legal Papers of John Adams, Vol. 2, (Harvard Univ. Press, 1965), 320 3 Wroth and Zobel, eds., The Legal Papers, Vol. 2, 309, 319.

photo by jerry soto

The trial was a sensation. John Adams, then a practicing lawyer in Massachusetts, defended the mariners in a Boston courtroom. Day after day, crowds of people surrounded the courthouse, while newspapers in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia printed coverage of the case as it unfolded in court. Adams succeeded in getting the charges against Corbet dropped on the basis of justifiable homicide in selfdefense. Adams argued that Americans had a right to defend their liberty. The case profoundly influenced public opinion in America. A year later, John Adams would serve as the defense attorney for the British soldiers who fired upon Crispus Attucks and the crowd of protesters in the streets of Boston. Adams never forgot Corbet. When he served on the Marine Committee that established the first American navy, he nominated Corbet for a captain’s commission. Adams knew Corbet would not flinch in the coming fight. Chris Magra is an award-winning author and a professor of history at the University of Tennessee–Knoxville.

HMS Rose (at left) was built in 1970 as a replica of the 20-gun British frigate of the same name from the 18th century. Rose would have been an intimidating sight on the horizon and it is unlikely that the crew of Pitt Packet would have been able to escape a warship of this size. In 2001 the replica ship you see here was cast as HMS Surprise for a starring role in the Hollywood movie Master and Commander: The Far Side of the World. The Rose crew sailed her south from New England, passed through the Panama Canal, and sailed up to California to deliver the ship to the filming location. After the movie was made, the ship, now re-named HMS Surprise, was purchased by the Maritime Museum of San Diego in Southern California, where she is open to the public as an exhibition ship as part of the museum’s fleet of historic and replica vessels. The 250th anniversary of the Pitt Packett affair is on 22 April 2019. (Maritime Museum of San Diego, www.sdmaritime.org)

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SEA SEAHISTORY HISTORY166, 166,SPRING SPRING2019 2019 47

Sea History 166 - Spring 2019  

10 National Maritime Awards Dinner and Washington Invitational Marine Art Exhibition • 20 The Overland Relief Expedition–Saving Whalers 120...

Sea History 166 - Spring 2019  

10 National Maritime Awards Dinner and Washington Invitational Marine Art Exhibition • 20 The Overland Relief Expedition–Saving Whalers 120...