South Carolina Psychological Association
A DAY ON THE HILL FOR SCPA
FEEDBACK SUMMER 2011
President’s Column One Thing I Love About SCPA-Networking SCPA Has Its First Summer Social In recent months, the Executive and Membership Committees have been taking a closer look at what SCPA offers psychologists around the state and what we can do to improve our organization. One invaluable aspect of SCPA is that it affords us opportunities to network and socialize with other psychologists both within and outside of our areas of interest and expertise. Our spring conference is one place where this occurs; however, we believe that more networking opportunities will make our organization even better. To that end, I recently hosted a lemonade social on my back porch. And what a great time we had! I got to meet SCPA members whose names I knew but whose faces I had not seen before. I think all of the attendees shared that experience. We had another gathering on July 12 at my home and a CE/social opportunity on August 19 at Grecian Gardens. I hope that those of you who could not come this month will attend our events in the future. We have a Bullying Workshop on Friday, September 16, and a Trust Ethics workshop on Friday, October 28. As you read Feedback, you will be reminded that networking is just one benefit of membership in SCPA. Of particular note is our legislative activity of late. Please make sure you read the article on our visit with the Democratic Caucus and to the South Carolina State Hospital Association. One of my goals as president is to ensure that our members are satisfied and are getting their needs met by SCPA. I encourage all of you to share with me your thoughts on what SCPA does for you and how you and I might can make SCPA an even better organization. Remember, your participation is crucial to the success of SCPA. I also challenge each of you to encourage your non-member colleagues to consider membership in our organization—perhaps as you reflect on the benefits of SCPA membership, you can share this with others. Hope to see you soon!
How the APA Practice Assessment Benefits SC Psychology Written by: Shirley Vickery SC Representative to the APA Council of Representatives Recently psychologists across the country have questioned the need to pay the Practice Assessment fee collected in addition to APA dues. Licensed psychologists note that APA dues seem high and that they are not certain they receive adequate benefits from the Practice Assessment. In fact, receipt of Practice Assessment fees is reportedly down 15%. Many psychologists in small states do not realize that their practice assessment fees come directly back to their state associations. SCPA, along with many other small state psychological associations, has received for several years a grant from APA to assist in state operations and activities. These grants, called CAPP grants, come from funds provided directly by Practice Assessment fees. In fact, the CAPP grant provided approximately 27 % of SCPA’s budget this year. Without these funds, SCPA would be unable to maintain the professional caliber of our association or continue legislative lobbying efforts. It is certainly true that every state association needs to develop means of financing operations that do not directly relate to CAPP funds. And in SCPA we are actively doing that through membership drives and the provision of quality Continuing Education programs that appeal to a broad audience. BUT we still need the CAPP grant funds to continue to have a meaningful organization. Please do your part when your APA Dues Notice comes this fall. If you are a licensed psychologist, consider your Practice Assessment dues an extra source of support for our home state. All of us in South Carolina will benefit!
Your President, Michele Burnette, PhD
Kurt Lewin and Women in Psychology Written by: By Bob Heckel, Ph.D., ABPP Kurt Lewin today is remembered mostly as one of the 100 most important psychologists of all time. He is known as one of the founders of social psychology, and the mentor for many of the distinguished psychologists of the 20th century. He is less remembered for his recruitment and active support for female students seeking doctoral level training during his years in Berlin, and later in this country. In Europe and the United States during the period from earliest years until the 1970’s many psychology graduate programs did not admit women, or limited their acceptance. Today, virtually all graduate programs in psychology have a majority of females. In the 1920’s four young female, Russian students (Bluma Zeigarnik, Maria Rickers-Ovsiankina, Tamara Dembo, and Gita Birenbaum) unable to find graduate level training in their areas of interest sought training in Germany. Though of initial varied interests and backgrounds all eventually chose to work with Lewin at the Psychological Institute at the University of Berlin. Two migrated to United States and had successful careers. Rickers-Ovsiankina (b.1898 d.1993) became noted for her work in projective techniques, while Dembo (b.92 d.1993) published research on social behaviors, particularly research related to aggression, frustration, and anger. Birenbaum died mid-career (b.03 d.52) and less is known of her successes. Zeigarnik (b.’01 d.1988) returned to Russia, became a psychiatrist and focused on neurology working with major Russian figures in this area: Vygotski, Luria, and others. Because she was forbidden to travel, her work was not known in this country. She remains known today by her earliest research on remembering completed and uncompleted tasks. These women represent only a few of the many women who were mentored by Lewin both in Europe and in the USA. They and others were able to overcome prejudices against Jews, women, social roles, and access to academic positions by their efforts and with the help of those who fought prejudice and remove injustice.
CONGRATULATIONS A Note of Congratulation and Recognition for Dr. Bob Heckel Dr. Robert Heckel received a letter of congratulation from APA’s Norman Anderson PhD, Chief Executive Officer, for being one of 365 psychologists who have been members of APA for 60 or more years. SCPA is so proud to call Dr. Heckel one of its OWN. We sincerely congratulate and thank Dr. Heckel for his dedication and support of our profession.
GRADUATE STUDENT REPRESENTATIVE ARTICLE
“School’s Out Forever!” - The Implications of Dropping Out of High School Written by: Kip Thompson, M.A., & Melita Stancil, M.A. SCPA Graduate Student Representatives Starting in pre-Kindergarten and leading up through high school, most young people in American society matriculate through adolescence without much upheaval (Rutter, Graham, Chadwick, & Yule, 1976). Each spring term that ends with moderate academic achievement carries with it the implicit agreement that children will return for the fall term. Kaufman and colleagues estimated that around 5% of all high school students drop out of school annually (Kaufman, Kwon, Klein, & Chapman, 1999). If there is one high school dropout this year, the number is one too many because all dropouts are vulnerable to a set of risk factors that only education can protect against. The purpose of this article is to discuss the phenomenon of dropping out of school, the possible antecedents to this social problem, and the likely consequences for those teenagers who choose to leave school prematurely. All adolescents regardless of socioeconomic status need lots of “help, instruction, discipline, support, and caring” as they transition from childhood to adulthood (Eccles & Gootman, 2002). The high school graduation symbolizes the crystallization of these resources as the young person embraces their emerging independence. Thus, the implied arrangement elicits interdependence between the teacher and the parent to help them reach this milestone. Sometimes one or more parties cannot meet the demands of the agreement, or both demonstrate adherence and the young adult still chooses to terminate their education without a high school diploma. WHY THEY DROP OUT The components of the relationship between dropping out of high school and educational attainment include gender, race, ethnicity, immigration status, language background, low academic and occupational aspirations, and adolescent parenthood (Fernandez, Paulsen, & Hirano-Nakanishi, 1989; Pirog & Magee, 1997). However, there is no particular profile status for a high school dropout candidate. Personal risks associated with dropping out of school include a history of academic failures, school misconduct,
decreased school motivation, persistent emotional distress (Eccles & Roeser, 2005; Evans, 2004). More indirect risk factors include increased availability of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs, being surrounded by a society that uses violence as a means of entertainment, and gang proliferation which leads to higher gun exposure for adolescents (National Institute of Drug Abuse, 1996; Howell & Lynch, 2000). Findings from the 1988 National Education Longitudinal Study point to a lack of good fit between the student and their academic environment, which has been previously suggested as a major barrier to positive youth development in a number of contexts (Eccles, Midgley, Wigfield, Buchanan, Reuman, Flanagan, et al, 1993). Specific reasons for dropping out of high school include (a) not liking school, (b) failing school, (c) not being able to get along with their teachers, or (d) obtaining employment (Berktold, Geis, & Kaufman, 1998). These results are corroborated by other research that suggests students who feel marginalized by their schools and/or teachers have an increased high school dropout rate (Fine, 1991). Finally, some diagnostic literature indicate that potential high school dropouts often score lower on self-esteem measures than do those who graduate (Steinberg, Blinde, & Chan, 1984). It would seem that there is a link between social-emotional learning and the motivation needed to finish a high school education. CONSEQUENCES FOR DROPPING OUT For many young people who lack such self-motivation related to academic achievement, the future becomes a matter of surviving rather than flourishing. Personal costs associated with dropping out of school include limited economic and employment prospects, marginalization from society and its institutions, and the significant diminishment of personal finances throughout life (Belfield & Levin, 2007). The population of U.S. adults without high school diplomas has heavier representation in the adult penal system, the welfare system, and in unemployed populations than that of high school graduates (Rumberger, 1995). Leading high school dropout researcher Russell W. Rumberger believes that the trajectory of a high continued on page 9
SCPA SPRING CONFERENCE SHOWCASES DIVERSITY Written by: Jonathan F. Bassett and Christiana DeGregorie The 2011 SCPA Spring Conference was held at the Sheraton Convention Center in Myrtle Beach on April 1-2. There were 101 total attendees across the two days of programming. The theme of, “Psychology in a World of Diversity” was evidenced in multiple ways. Much of the programming focused on how factors such as ethnicity, gender, and age are associated with variability in the human experience and on the need for mental health providers to be sensitive to this variability. However, the theme of diversity was also present in the wide variety of presentations spanning the full spectrum of topics within the discipline of psychology. The conference included presentations on basic research, applied research, methodological and statistical advances, and the scholarship of teaching and learning. The programming was divided into concurrent clinical and academic tracks. The clinical track provided clinicians with a variety of opportunities to expand their diversity knowledge. SCPA members and invited speakers came together to share their professional expertise to assist in the development of more culturally competent psychologists. On Friday, Drs. Roitzsch, Smith, Madgid, Bacon, and Ms. Martinez of MUSC’s Institute of Psychiatry provided an overview of the most current evidencebased treatment options for substance abuse. They addressed the unique treatment needs of adults and adolescents, including college students. Their review of the literature not only focused on the
current trends in research, but also on the direction of future research, including the personal and societal consequences of substance use. Dr. Wendy James of Life Consultants in Dallas, TX, discussed executive women who have pursued marriage and children while simultaneously climbing the career ladder. She talked about empowering women to make good informed choices about how to balance their personal and professional goals. Saturday began with a presentation by Dr. Marie Nix and Dr. Combs about the racial identity development of Black women in a White world. In particular, their research focused on the assumptions and life experiences that shape the identity development of Black women. Dr. Nix’s presentation was followed by a panel discussion on the multidisciplinary treatment of older adults by Drs. Gravely, Memon, Gainey, DeGregorie, and Ms. Allison of Regional Psychiatry at Spartanburg Regional Healthcare System. The team addressed the most common problems present in the geriatric population, the treatment options available, and benefits of a multidisciplinary team in providing quality, comprehensive care to this important population. The panel presentation was followed by a presentation on the diversity of South Carolina. Dr. Mark Coe, SCPA diversity delegate, who spearheaded SCPA’s diversity needs assessment, provided an overview of the data obtained through the diversity survey. This survey obtained diversity information about psychologists in South Carolina and the populations they serve. As a result, Dr. Coe suggested several initiatives to assist
psychologists in better serving the evolving population of South Carolina. The clinical track presentations were concluded with a presentation by Dr. Jennifer Stepelman. Dr. Stepelman discussed the increased risk for mental illness in minority and marginalized groups. She talked about how to work with the unique disadvantages and risk factors of these groups and how to increase resiliency and help them access mental health services. The academic track consisted of three presentations by SCPA members and two invited speakers. The member presentations focused on how to teach research methods, statistics and writing across the major, as well as the effectiveness of different classroom teaching styles, and strategies for teaching online classes. Tom Pusateri, the associate director of the Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning at Kennesaw State University, gave an invited address on “The Ethics of Effective Teaching.” Dr. Pusateri argued that there is an ethical mandate for assessing student outcomes not only within individual classes but also across the entire major. He presented several interesting intersections between the Ethical Principles and Standards for Psychologists, the APA Guidelines for the Undergraduate Major in Psychology, the National Research Council’s benchmarks for effective teaching, and Bloom’s taxonomy that could guide departments in their efforts to assess learning outcomes across a coherent curriculum. Lee Van Horn, who is an associate professor of quantitative psychology at the University of South Carolina, gave an invited address on “Methodology for Assessing Differential continued on page 7
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Effects.â€? Dr. Van Horn argued that there are typically individual differences in reactions to any independent variable. These moderating effects are important to basic researchers trying to understand how the generalizability of a phenomenon might be limited and to applied researchers trying to tailor an intervention to the unique needs of an individual client. Dr. Van Horn pointed out that large sample sizes are needed to detect interaction effects under optimal circumstances, and that the problem is exacerbated when effects sizes are small and designs are unbalanced. Consequently, the discussion focused on how researchers can design their studies with sufficient power to detect the moderating impact of the individual different
variables that they intuitively and theoretically expect to find. All the presentations were interesting and informative. There was active participation, lively discussion, and a stimulating exchange of ideas during the sessions. We would like to thank all the presenters and attendees who made this yearâ€™s conference such a success. For those of you who were not able to attend the conference you missed a great professional and social opportunity to interact with your peers and colleagues across the state. We hope to see everyone next year, so look for more information coming soon about the 2012 SCPA Spring Conference.
2011 WINNERS 2011 WINNERS
2011 Outstanding Lifetime Contribution to Psychology Dr. John Ellsworth Past President, 1985-1986 Lexington, SC
2011 Outstanding Teacher of Psychology Dr. Jonathan Bassett Professor, Lander University SCPA Secretary, 2010-2011 SCPA President - Elect, 2011-2012
2011 Student Poster Competition 1st Place Winner Kimberly LaPiene Student, Coastal University Poster Title: Using Interface Consistency to Moderate the Detrimental Effects of Dual-Task Performance
2011 Student Poster Competition 2nd Place Winner Bailey Tackett Student, USC Columbia Poster Title: The Relationship between Physiological Arousal during Social Stress and Anxiety in Males with and without Fragile X Syndrome
2011 Student Poster Competition 3rd Place Winner Alexandra Ingram Student, USC Columbia Poster Title: Evaluation of Transitional Mentoring Program Effects On Middle School Students
BOOK REVIEW RECENT EXPERIMENTS IN PSYCHOLOGY Crafts, L. W.; Schnerla, T.C. ; Robinson, E.E. & Gilbert, R.W. New York McGraw-Hill 1950 (Second Edition) Written by: By Robert Heckel. Ph.D., ABPP Have you ever wondered what the important research topics in psychology were in 1950 when this book was published? Examining general psychology texts of that period offer a hint, but offer only a superficial view. This work provides both depth and a surprisingly wide range of areas of psychological research. It also served another purpose, the updating of the field, especially useful for psychologists recently returned from WWII and Korea, many after serving as long as 4 years. They, as well as a younger generation, found this work invaluable. Crafts, et al did a marvelous job of assembling and summarizing the major research areas. Many chapters include whole journal articles, affording the reader a solid base for their training and stimulation. For those of us who were undergrads when this work was produced were privy to the incredible upsurge of thought and effort that led to a swelling of the ranks of psychologists from some 3600 at the end of the two wars to the point that E.G. Boring commented that if the growth rate of memberships continues, everyone eventually will be a psychologist. Especially important was that the authors applied a broad definition of the areas of concern for psychology. The 26 chapters cover topics ranging from Mysticism to the hard science topics such as Electrophysiology of the Nervous System, Brain Function, Animal and Human Learning, Implicit Muscular Activities During Thinking, Opinion Polling, and Psychological Evaluation, and Testing. Many other topics were addressed with appropriate citations and appraisal of the contribution to understanding of human and animal behavior. The names of the psychologists cited represent a “who’s who” of psychology of that period. Some are still mentioned, although most literature searches today tend to view anything five years old as irrelevant, while researches and investigations over ten years old are ancient history and totally ignored. So what is the purpose of my rant? Perhaps it is the observed decline in interest in, and awareness of the history of our field and its richness and significance. Or, maybe it is what old psychologists do when they retire.
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school dropout may include higher criminality, higher dependence on public welfare, and a higher probability of health problems than the life course of a typical high school graduate (Rumberger, 1987). In addition, Rumberger has proposed that society at large pays a dropout toll in higher expenditures related to high-cost special programs that employ or train the high school dropouts and other forms of public assistance. The overwhelming financial and occupational strain premature grade school termination places on the individual is matched only by the macro-economic strain such a choice places on the shoulders of all Americans. CONCLUSIONS The good news is that many young people who are not enthusiastic about finishing high school still find a way to graduate. The bad news is there are others who run out of motivation or experience challenges which can seem insurmountable. Tutoring is available at all schools and at many community centers. Youth development organizations and others who advocate for youth can help with more complex situations. As a student in psychology, one can make a difference in someone’s life. References Belfield, C.R., & Levin, H.M. (2007). The education attainment gap: Who’s affected, how much, and why it matters. In C.R. Belfield & H.M. Levin (Eds.), The price we pay: Economic and social consequences of inadequate education (pp. 1-20). Harrisonburg, VA: Donnelley. Berktold, J., Geis, S., & Kaufman, P. (1998). Subsequent Educational Attainment of High School Dropouts. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Eccles, J.S., Midgley, C., Wigfield, A., Buchanan, C.M., Reuman, D., Flanagan, C., & Mac Iver, D. (1993). Development during adolescence: The impact of stageenvironment fit on young adolescents’ experiences in schools and in families. American Psychologist, 48(2),90-101. Eccles, J.S., & Roeser, R.W. (2005). School and community influences on human development. In M.H. Boorstein & M.E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental psychology: An advanced textbook. (3rd ed., pp. 503-554). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Evans, G.W. (2004). The environment of childhood poverty. American Psychologist, 59, 77-92. Fine, M. (1991). Framing dropouts: Notes on the politics of an urban high school. Albany, NY:State University of New York Press. Howell, J.C., & Lynch, J.P. (2000). Youth gangs in schools. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Kaufman, P., Kwon, J.Y., Klein, S., & Chapman, C.D. (1999). Dropout rates in the United States: 1998. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. National Institute of Drug Abuse. (1996). National survey results on drug use from TheMonitoring the Future Study, 1975-1998: Volume 1: Secondary school students. Rockville, MD: NIDA. National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. (2004). Community Programs to Promote Youth Development. Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. Jacquelynne Eccles and Jennifer A. Gootman, eds. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Pirog, M.A., & Magee, C. (1997). High school completion: The influence of schools, families, and adolescent parenting. Social Science Quarterly, 78, 710724. Rumberger, R.W. (1987). High school dropouts: A review of issues and evidence. Review of Educational Research, 57, 101-121. Rumberger, R.W. (1995). Dropping out of high school: A multilevel analysis of students and schools. American Educational Research Journal, 20, 199-220. Rutter, M., Graham, P., Chadwick, F., & Yule, W. (1976). Adolescent turmoil: Fact or fiction? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 17, 35-56. Steinberg, L., Blinde, P.L., & Chan, K.S. (1984). Dropping out among language minority youth. Review of Educational Research, 54, 113-132.
Bullying Symposium FRIDAY, SEPTEMBER 16 Columbia Convention Center Columbia, SC traditional bullying â€˘ cyber bullying dr. Robin kowalski â€˘ dr. sue limber
6 CEU for Licensed Psychologists, Social Workers, Licensed Professional Counselors. Certificates can be provided for any other areas of profession that attend this workshop.
Bullying Symposium 8 am - 5 pm
Cyber bullying refers to bullying that occurs through e-mail, instant messaging, in a chat room, on a website, or through digital images or messages sent to a cellular phone. The most common venues by which cyber bullying occur reflect the most frequently used methods of technology. Currently that method is instant messaging. Among the many forms that cyber bullying can take are impersonation, outing and trickery, and exclusion. Not surprisingly, the consequences of cyber bullying are serious. Children who are cyber bullied experience anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, physical health consequences, and poor academic performance. As several media accounts have detailed, some children and adolescents who are cyber bullied commit suicide.
Dr. Susan Limber will address traditional bullying.
Dr. Robin Kowalski will address cyber bullying and prevention and intervention strategies.
Before working at Clemson University (where she currently resides), she held positions as Director of school-based services and assistant director of the Institute of Families in Society at the University of South Carolina.
Dr. Kowalski is currently a professor at Clemson University. Her research interests focus primarily on aversive interpersonal behaviors, most notably complaining, teasing and bullying, with a particular focus on cyber bullying.
Dr. Limber’s research has focused on youth violence, child protection, and children’s rights. Her work on prevention of bullying has been recognized as exemplary by three federal agencies, and it has served as the basis for the federally funded design of a national public information campaign. In further recognition of this work, Dr. Limber received the APA’s Award for Distinguished Contributions to Psyschology in the Public Interest. Her consultation on the media campaign also was recognized with a National Telly Award and an Award of Excellence from the National Association of Government Communicators. She is a past chair of the APA Committee on Children.
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A DAY AT THE CAPITOL FOR SCPA As part of our on going efforts to increase visibility and to work more closely with legislators, SCPA members hosted a luncheon for the House Democratic Caucus. The luncheon was held on April 26th. During the event SCPA members were able to visit with members of the South Carolina House. SCPA president Michele Burnette provided a 15-minute program on the association, the work and services our members perform and how psychologists can assist in providing solutions in the public policy arena. The luncheon was a hit! We received positive feedback post event, and many of our members made new and valuable contacts. Some of our members renewed old friendships with legislators and discussed future legislative endeavors. Thank you to our members who attended. This is an excellent step towards advancing our public policy goals. We hope to continue events like this in the future. Our goal is to broaden the scope of these activities to include other House caucuses and the Senate as well.