An Adventure through the Digestive, Circulatory, Urinary and Respiratory Systems
HEY KIDS, want to know how I, Neil Patrick, better known as Scooter McDoogal, got the coolest, most amazing, super, mega-morphing scooter ever?
Zeus always gave his grandson "Bratticus" whatever he wanted, and Bratticus wanted a scooter.
Well, high up in the penthouse of the Olympus Arms there lived a mighty ruler named Zeus.
So Zeus had a rocket-powered, talking scooter built that contained the Wisdom of the Ages.
Then Bratticus had a titanic temper tantrum and the scooter was given to me, the luckiest kid in the world!!
... will stop at nothing to get the scooter, called Wisdom 1, back.
Now, Bratticus, with the help of his Auntie Sphinx and a team of monsters...
But as long as I keep learning on my adventures,Wisdom 1, or W1 for short, can never be taken away from me.
Come on, Scooter, let's go get some Cool Brain Fuel!
An Adventure Through the Digestive, Circulatory, Urinary and Respiratory Systems
Produced and Created by: Diane Russomanno, Tracy Buck, Linda Modaff
Development: Diane Russomanno, Christine Gillespie, Manny Rocha Pencil, Ink, Layout: Tracy Buck, Scott Shaw Production Assistants: Mannie Rodriguez, Randy Beecher
To Nicholas, Ryan and Kids Everywhere Dream big, believe always, study and work hard and the moon will reach for you! ISBN 0-9720112-0-X
On one typical earth afternoon at the home of our hero, Neil “Scooter” McDoogal . . .
I need you to mind your father, Neil.
Your sister is not feeling well, so we are going to see the doctor.
You‛re probably going to get a shot!
Did you hear what I said?
A shot with a really, really big needle!
More than likely, Dr. Foxman‛s examination will reveal I am suffering from a mild ear infection…
…and then he‛ll prescribe an antibiotic.
But thanks for your concern, brother!
It‛s not nice to tease your sister Neil, especially when she isn‛t feeling well.
Yeah, well … uh … sure.
At that same moment, in a land on the other side of dreams, high up in the penthouse of the Olympus Arms.... WHAT did you say Gramps?
It‛s time for your annual check up, Bratticus. Let‛s not keep the doctor waiting.
And how has the future ruler of Olympus been since our last visit?
Nice to see you, Dr. Asclepius Hello, Mr. Z.
That‛s because you‛ve been keeping up with all your vaccinations, Bratticus. I‛ve never felt better, Doc.
And now it‛s time for your . . .
I‛ll try my best to bring him back, but it won‛t be easy! I‛m out of here!
He really needs this vaccination, Mr. Z.
Back at the McDoogal house . . .
We're home. The doctor said it's just a mild ear infection . . . . . . and he prescribed an antibiotic.
She was such a brave little patient.
How does Paige know so much about so many things, Einstein?
Iâ€˜d sure like to know as much.
What, no shot?
. . . that can be easily remedied.
Well, Scooter . . .
“Got Guts” for a little adventure in human anatomy?
Hey, that tickles!
Sure do, W1, but, what‛s happening? That‛s because I just activated my mega microfying glass! . . . going . . . . . .gone!
Meanwhile in the kitchen . . .
Let‛s get going...
Time to take your medicine, Paige.
This will help you feel better.
Now drink it all up.
Hang on crew, and prepare for submersion!
At that same time in Sphinx‛s Lair…
Auntie Sphinx, Auntie Sphinx!! Quick, you‛ve got to hide me!
Don‛t let them give me that shot.
You‛re safe in my lair, bratty nephew. . .
Now let's see, who is available in my Directory of Doom!
... and just in time to snag that scooter.
Oh yes, here‛s a monster‛s monster, the mighty, the magnificent...
Excuse me, Auntie...
... while I borrow your bag of SHRINK-O SPRINKLES!
Now listen to me, Horn Head.
... and get my SCOOTER BAACKK!
You are to follow them...
I always thought my sister had a big mouth but this is ridiculous.
As Paige began to drink her medicine . . .
Now I know this may seem like some water park ride ...
Awk! Down the Hatch!!!
I think weâ€›re going to need another mode of transportation!
but weâ€›re actually past the throat and heading down the esophagus! This should protect you!
Protect us from W H H H A A A A T T ?
The allconsuming Digestive System!!
You see Scooter, in order for the antibiotic to work, Paige‛s body has to process it like food. The medicine can‛t go directly from Paige‛s mouth into her bloodstream where it needs to be in order for her ear infection to get better.
Esophagus What‛s going on down here?
Gall Bladder The antibiotic has to be processed by the digestive system before it can enter the bloodstream.
Large Intestine Rectum
Digestion begins in the mouth where the food you chew is made wet by your saliva. Saliva is a clear liquid that helps break down the food you chew into soft, mushy round balls called bolus. When you swallow, the tongue moves each bolus into the back of the throat and into the esophagus. The esophagus is a long tube that runs from the throat to the stomach. Muscles in the esophagus squeeze the bolus down in a wave-like motion. This wave of muscle action is called peristalsis.
Esophagus Peristalsis Stomach
Once the bolus is squeezed down, the stomach acts as a large tub where the bolus is splished and splashed around with fluid called gastric juice that breaks down the bolus.
So, thatâ€›s what happened to last nightâ€›s meatloaf.
When the bolus is broken down in the stomach, it becomes a liquid called chyme.
After a few hours of splishing and splashing, the watery chyme passes from the stomach into the small intestine where it mixes up with bile and enzymes.
Enzymes and bile turn slushy chyme into very small pieces called molecules. These molecules contain nutrients and are tiny enough to enter the bloodstream so that your body can get the energy it needs to live. Small Intestine
Chyme molecules containing nutrients enter the blood stream from the small intestine.
After nutrients have been absorbed by the body from the small intestine, the remaining part of the watery chyme gets pushed into the large intestine, which is also called the colon. The job of the large intestine is to process this remaining part of watery chyme.
The remaining chyme travels upward in the colon, across the stomach and back down the other side of the body into the lower part of the large intestine.
In the lower part of the large intestine, the leftover watery chyme is dried and hardened, and turned into feces.
Feces is made up of water, bacteria and undigested food and stays in the lower part of the intestine, called the rectum, until you release the waste matter.
Before we leave the digestive system, Scooter, . . .
... let me show you some other important organs in the body that help in the digestion process.
Gall Bladder Pancreas
The liver is like an engine in your body because it makes sure everything runs smoothly. The liver plays an important role in the digestive system because it produces bile, a chemical that helps the body break down fat, digest food and absorb nutrients. The liver also helps clean the blood.
The gall bladder is a small sac underneath the liver that acts as a storage unit for bile.
The pancreas plays an important role in the digestive system because it produces juices called enzymes that help break down carbohydrates and proteins. DIGESTIVE
Now letâ€›s follow the molecules into . . .
Back to submarine mode!
. . . the Circulatory System. This system is made up of your heart, blood and blood vessels.
What‛s that sound?
That‛s Paige‛s heart working!
The heart is a hollow muscle about the size of your fist and is located slightly to the left of the center of the chest. The heart sends blood to all parts of the body, providing cells with the oxygen- and nutrient-rich blood they need.
The heart is actually two pumps in one. The left side of the heart pumps oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through the arteries to all parts of the body.
The right side of the heart carries carbon dioxide and waste-filled blood from the body‛s veins to the lungs.
The heart is made up of four chambers. The top two chambers are called the right and left atria (plural for atrium). The bottom two chambers are called the right and left ventricles. The atria are often referred to as receiving chambers, while the ventricles are called pumping chambers. Blood can flow from the atria down into the ventricles because openings called valves, let the blood pass through.
Running down the middle of the heart is a solid wall of muscle called the septum.
Aortic valve Left Atrium
Mitral valve Red blood cells
Tricuspid valve Valves are like trapdoors. They let blood into the ventricles; then they close, so the blood can‛t flow backwards into the atria.
Left Ventricle Right Ventricle
The septum is so strong that blood can‛t flow back and forth between the left and right halves of the heart.
Hey, let me back in! The sound of the heart beating is the result of the valves in the heart closing as they push blood through the heart‛s chambers.
Blood vessels are hollow tubes called arteries, veins and capillaries. The pumping of the heart forces blood through the vessels in a circular direction around the body. This movement is called circulation. Without blood circulation, the body‛s cells and tissues would die.
When blood leaves the heart, it gets carried away through arteries. Arteries are strong, stretchy tubes with thick walls that carry bright red blood containing oxygen to all parts of the body.
On the trip back to the heart, the veins get bigger and bigger, and because the blood is now carrying carbon dioxide and waste instead of oxygen, its color changes to a deep purple.
As arteries get further and further away from the heart, they get smaller and smaller until they turn into capillaries.
Capillaries are very tiny blood vessels that connect arteries to veins. Capillaries bring oxygen and food nutrients from the blood into the body‛s cells, and then remove carbon dioxide and waste from the body‛s cells to the blood.
The blood is made up of red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets and a liquid called plasma.
White blood cells
Red blood cells
Thatâ€›s a white blood cell. It helps fight infections and protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses. When white blood cells find a germ, they race toward it, attack it and then devour the germ.
Red blood cells contain hemoglobin, an iron-rich protein, and are the most plentiful cells in the blood. Red blood cells are like box cars on train tracks. They carry fresh oxygen from the lungs to the body‛s tissues and organs, then take the carbon dioxide from those same tissues and organs, back to the lungs. In the process, red blood cells turn from deep red to deep purple in color.
Platelets are colorless blood cells that help the body stop bleeding. They do this by going to the injured blood vessel and plugging it up.
Plasma is a yellowish liquid that carries proteins called “clotting factors” and helps to stop the blood at the site of the injury.
Itâ€›s the Minotaur! Bratticus must be after me again.
Stay clear of those monster mitts!
Boy he sure is quick for a big guy, W1!
Yes he is, and I canâ€›t seem to shake him!
Just then . . . Incoming!
. . . that's a white blood cell.
We're in luck . . .
Remember, they help the body fight all foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses . . .
. . . or mean, misplaced monsters!
Guess we wonâ€›t be seeing you anytime soon!
While weâ€›re in submersible mode, itâ€›s as good a time as any to talk about the Urinary System!
The Urinary System is made up of two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder and the urethra. Kid
The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs each about the size of a fist. They are located just below the rib cage. The ureters are muscular tubes that bring urine from the kidneys to the bladder.
The bladder is a muscular bag that stores urine. Bladder Urethra
The urethra is a narrow tube through which urine leaves the bladder when you urinate.
Did you know that about 60 percent of the body is made up of water?
The kidneys manage and balance all the water in the body. Water brings the cells in the body all the nourishing materials they need.
This water contains salt, so too much or too little salt can cause problems. The kidneys also help build bones. They help by regulating the levels of calcium and phosphate in your body.
Your body needs just the right amounts of calcium and phosphate in order for your bones to form and grow.
One of the main jobs of the kidneys is to filter waste from the blood and return the cleaned blood back to the body. The wastes from the blood come from the food you eat. The body uses food for energy and after the body takes what it needs from the food, waste is sent to the blood.
Nephrons I feel so clean!
The filtering of wastes from the blood takes place in tiny units inside the kidneys called nephrons. The kidneys contain millions of nephrons. If the kidneys do not filter these wastes, the body could be damaged.
Urine comes from the kidneys, then flows down long muscular tubes called ureters. The ureters push urine from each kidney into the bladder.
The bladder is a sack of stretchable tissue that acts as a storage tank for urine. When the bladder is full, it passes the urine through the urethra, a long narrow tube through which urine leaves the body when you go to the bathroom. About one and a half quarts of urine are eliminated from the body each day.
find image You know what, Scooter, I think itâ€›s time we dry off and take a breather! Everyone needs oxygen to stay alive! Without it you could not live very long. Oxygen is an invisible gas that is in the air you breathe. The job of the respiratory system is to bring oxygen to the blood so that the blood can bring oxygen to all parts of the body.
The respiratory system works through breathing. When you inhale, you breathe in air that contains oxygen. Your body needs oxygen for survival. When you exhale, you breathe out carbon dioxide, a waste your body does not need for survival.
And what better place to do it than in the Respiratory System!
The Respiratory System consists of the mouth, nose, trachea, lungs and diaphragm. When you inhale, oxygen passes through the mouth and nose and enters the trachea, or windpipe, located in the front of the throat.
Lungs Diaphragm Behind the trachea is the esophagus. When you inhale, air flows down the trachea. When you eat, food goes down the esophagus. Epiglottis Trachea
Esophagus The direction air or food takes is controlled by the epiglottis, a flap that prevents food from entering the trachea when you eat.
The trachea divides into a right and left breathing tube called bronchi. These breathing tubes lead into the right and left lungs where they continue to divide into smaller tubes called bronchioles. At the end of the bronchioles are tiny, tiny air sacs called alveoli that are covered with tiny capillaries and look like grapes on a vine. Trachea (windpipe) Left bronchi
Right bronchi Alveoli
There are over 300 million alveoli in the lungs. They extract oxygen from the air you breathe and bring it to the bloodstream and exchange it for carbon dioxide that the body must get rid of.
O FRE XY S GE H N
CARBON DIOXID E
The lungs are bags of soft, spongy, pinkish-gray tissue. The right lung is divided into three sections called lobes.
Right superior lobe
The left lung is divided into two lobes, and is smaller to make room for the heart.
Left superior lobe
Right middle lobe Right inferior lobe
Left inferior lobe
The diaphragm is a strong muscle under the rib cage that helps the lungs work. When you inhale, the diaphragm contracts and moves down. This causes the ribs to open and the lungs to expand so the lungs can fill up with air.
When you exhale the diaphragm relaxes and moves up so the lungs can return to their original size.
The job of the nose is to warm, moisten and filter the air that you breathe. Inside the nose, is a thin sheet of cartilage and bone called the septum that separates the two sides. On the inside of the nose are curved pieces of bone called turbinates that help warm and moisten the air that flows through the nose.
On the outside of the nose are two openings called nostrils through which air that you breathe enters the body. Itâ€›s time..
Ok you big, green galoot. ... to double my fun!
This calls for a five iron.
I‛m in my sister‛s nose?
I mean YIKES, not another one!
Made you blink!
This crackerjack is nothing but a big goose egg.
Strike three! Youâ€›re out!
Now, as for you...
Go back in there ... ... weâ€›re not going to let some white blood cells beat us, are we?
... and get my scooter!
The monsters are multiplying!
There‛s no strike four in baseball!
Don‛t worry, there‛s an exit straight ahead, Scooter!
Hurry, W1, hurry!
Oh no, the Minotaur has nicked us off track...
... and blocked our exit.
I never thought it would end like this, kid!
That makes two... Awk... ...I mean three of us!
Looks like our scooternauts are in real trouble this time.
And speaking of trouble...
I can‛t believe that scooter is finally going to be mine.
Auntie, they‛re coming through the portal!
One second, Bratticus!
In anticipation of this momentous occasion, I‛ve whipped up a sure-fire quiz.
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That earth boy will never make it out of this trap!
The scooter is mine, mine, mine!!!
Will Scooter escape the clutches of the Minotaur and Cyclops? Is Bratticus finally going to get his scooter back?
Check out the next chapter in this exciting Scooter McDoogal trilogy!
This bull-faced monster lived in a maze called the labyrinth. If you got lost in the maze, this was one monster you surely would not want to meet.