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PARTNERSHIP GOVERNANCE INDEX www.kemitraan.or.id/govindex

www.kemitraan.or.id


PARTNERSHIP GOVERNANCE INDEX An Overview

www.kemitraan.or.id/govindex

Presented at the World Bank Jakarta, 15 February 2010

www.kemitraan.or.id


A Brief Background: Why Partnership Governance Index? 

Governance quality is important for poverty reduction and other MDGs

Nation wide reform initiative

Regional autonomy led to a varying quality of governance

Indonesia needs objective assessment of governance


The Goals To Provide a comprehensive and methodologically robust assessment of governance performance in all provinces. Specifically, it will provide:

1. Profile of each province’s governance performance 2. Overall ranking of all provinces 3. Ranking of provinces based on arenas of governance 4. A wealth of data on specific indicators of governance


Uniqueness and strength of PGI     

Assessment of all provinces Allow comparison between provinces on equal terms Robust methodology Consist of many actionable indicators Covers all arenas of governance


Developing the index 

Mapping existing studies, evaluations, assessments on governance in Indonesia and abroad

Extensive consultation with “experts,” stakeholders, and beneficieries on substantive and methodological issues

Long deliberation by team (scholars and experts)


The Conceptual Framework (1) Governance  process of policy making  policy implementation through interaction between state, civil society, and economy  based on certain principles


The Conceptual Framework (2) ď Ż Arena of Governance Government (Political Office), Bureaucracy, Civil Society, and Economic Society

ď Ż Principles of Governance Participation, Transparency, Fairness, Accountability, Efficiency, and Effectiveness


The Conceptual Framework (3) Good Governance Matrix Participa tion Government Bureaucracy Civil Society Economic Society

Transparen Fairness cy

Accountability

Efficiency

Effectiveness


Selecting themes/functions and Indicators to be measured “not all important things can be measured and not all that can be measured are important” -- Einstein Themes and indicators are carefully selected, based on:     

Significance Relevance Discriminating power Availability of data Commonality across provinces


Governance Themes and Number of Indicators Arena Government

Themes/Function

Number of Indicators

Regulatory Framework

9

Budget Allocation

14

Coordination of Development

10

Revenue Collection

6

Public Services

8

Regulating Economy

6

Economic Society

Tender dan Implementation of Government Projects

9

Civil Society

Advocacy

13

Bureaucracy

Total number of indicators

75


PGI Structure Indeks Good Governance Angka Indeks Goverment

Angka Indeks Birokrasi

Angka Indeks Civil society

Angka Indeks Economic society

Participation

Participation

Participation

Participation

Fairness

Fairness

Fairness

Fairness

Accountability

Accountability

Accountability

Accountability

Transparency

Transparency

Transparency

Efficiency

Efficiency

Efficiency

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Effectiveness

Effectiveness

Effectiveness

Transparency


Weighting arenas, principles, indicators  Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) to determine weight of arena, principle, and indicator  pair-ways comparison between indicators, principles, arenas  The resulting weight of arenas:  Government (34.4%)

 Bureaucracy (27.4%)  Civil Society (24.9%)  Economic Society (14.2%)


Weight of arenas


Weight of principles 0.143 0.124 EFFECTIVENESS EFFICIENCY TRANSPARANCY ACCOUNTABILITY FAIRNESS PARTICIPATION

0.242

0.165 0.156

0.132 0.113 0.199

0.220 0.198

0.229

0.228

0.143 0.157 0.191

0.212

0.150 0.167 0.096 GOVERNMENT (.344)

0.141 0.090

0.197 0.208

BUREAUCRACY CIVIL SOCIETY (.274) (.249)

0.100 ECONOMIC SOCIETY (.142)


METHOD (1) Data Type  Objective Data: Statistics and records of activities  Data gathered through structured interviews with “well informed persons”  persons with expertise in one or more arena of governance; they are selected purposively


METHOD (2) Source of Objective Data • Most recent revenue and expenditure budget and related documents (RPJMD, RKPD, Prolegda, KUA, Nota Keuangan, PPAS, LKPJ) • Records of coordination meeting • Records of visits by Parliamentary commissions to districts/cities • Financial Audit (BPK Audit) • HDI • Tax and retribution potentials and realization • Provincial statistics (population, number of poor people, unemployment rate/number, PDRB, gini ratio, purchasing parity index, health statistics, educational statistics, and others).


Location of data No. 1.

Source Bureaucracy

Location

Objective

BPS

Dinas kesehatan

Dinas pendidikan

Dinas sosial

Dinas PU

Dispenda

Disnaker

Kesbanglinmas

2.

Parliament

WIP

Bappeda

BKPMD

Sekretariat Provinsi

BPK

BPKP

Kantor Pajak

Sekretariat DPRD

Komisi-komisi

3

Civil society

Pengurus atau pelaksana CSO

4.

Economic society

Kadinda

Gepensi

HIPMI

5.

Academe +

Dosen, peneliti

6.

Media

Wartawan


Data to index


Reading the Index

1. Index ranges from 1 to 10 2. 1 is the lowest and 10 the highest


Democratic Governance Profile: Some Examples Sumatra Barat Province

Overall Governance Index: 6.0

Indeks Arena

Participation

Fairness

Accountability

Tranparency

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Government

5.4

6.3

1.8

8.3

3.6

5.5

7.0

Bureaucracy

5.9

2.4

7.9

6.7

4.9

4.5

7.3

Civil Society

6.6

5.2

5.9

7.8

10.0

4.1

4.8

Economic Society

6.6

8.3

7.0

7.4

10.0

1.0

5.5

Gorontalo Province

Overall Governance Index: 5.5 Indeks Arena

Participation

Fairness

Accountability

Tranparency

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Government

6.0

5.5

1.6

8.9

5.8

7.5

6.1

Bureaucracy

7.0

7.5

5.6

10.0

4.7

7.0

7.0

Civil Society

3.9

4.0

7.0

5.3

1.0

1.0

4.9

Economic Society

4.3

5.5

4.0

5.5

1.0

5.5

5.5

Papua Barat: 4.4

Overall Governance Index: Index Arena

Participation

Fairness

Accountability

Tranparency

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Government

3.9

5.5

2.6

5.4

2.8

3.3

4.4

Bureaucracy

4.0

5.3

5.3

1.0

2.5

5.7

6.8

Civil Society

5.4

4.0

7.0

7.0

3.9

5.8

4.9

Economic Society

4.5

5.5

4.0

5.5

5.5

1.0

5.5


Democratic Governance Profile: Sumatra Barat Province Sumatra Barat Province

Â

Overall Governance Index: 6.0

Indeks Arena

Participation

Fairness

Accountability

Tranparency

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Government

5.4

6.3

1.8

8.3

3.6

5.5

7.0

Bureaucracy

5.9

2.4

7.9

6.7

4.9

4.5

7.3

Civil Society

6.6

5.2

5.9

7.8

10.0

4.1

4.8

Economic Society

6.6

8.3

7.0

7.4

10.0

1.0

5.5


Democratic Governance Profile: Gorontalo Province Gorontalo Province

Â

Overall Governance Index: 5.5

Indeks Arena

Participation

Fairness

Accountability

Tranparency

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Government

6.0

5.5

1.6

8.9

5.8

7.5

6.1

Bureaucracy

7.0

7.5

5.6

10.0

4.7

7.0

7.0

Civil Society

3.9

4.0

7.0

5.3

1.0

1.0

4.9

Economic Society

4.3

5.5

4.0

5.5

1.0

5.5

5.5


Democratic Governance Profile: West Papua Province Papua Barat:

Â

Overall Governance Index: 4.4

Index Arena

Participation

Fairness

Accountability

Tranparency

Efficiency

Effectiveness

Government

3.9

5.5

2.6

5.4

2.8

3.3

4.4

Bureaucracy

4.0

5.3

5.3

1.0

2.5

5.7

6.8

Civil Society

5.4

4.0

7.0

7.0

3.9

5.8

4.9

Economic Society

4.5

5.5

4.0

5.5

5.5

1.0

5.5


Government Fairness Index: Sumbar, Gorontalo, and West Papua  FAIRNESS

Anggaran AP8D utk kesehatan (non belanja pegawai perkapita dibagi indeks kemahalan

Anggaran di APBD untuk penanganan kemiskinan perkapita terhadap indeks kemahalan

Sumbar

Gorontalo

1.8

Papbar

1.6

2.6

1.2 2.4

4.2 1.2

1.5

1.4 1.8

Anggaran APBD bidang pendidikan perkapita terhadap indeks kemahalan

1.2

2.7 10.0

Tingkat dskriminasi koordinasi gubernur terhadap kab/kota

10

7


Government Accountability Index: Sumbar, Gorontalo, and West Papua Â

Sumbar

Gorontalo

Papbar

ACCOUNTABILITY

8.3

6.9

5.4

Kesesuaian Prioritas Pemb di APBD thd RPJMD

10

10.0

7

Realisasi Pengesahan Perda dibandingkan Jml Program Legislasi Daerah

7.2

Rasio APBD Perubahan thd APBD tanpa Adanya Perubahan Asumsi Dasar, dll

8.1

Ketepatan Waktu Pengesahan Perda APBD

10

10.0

1

4

7.0

4

Laporan hasil kunjungan kerja gubernur

10

10.0

5.5

Laporan hasil kunjungan kerja anggota DPRD

10

7.8

5.5

Tingkat penggunakan fungsi-fungsi kontrol DPRD terhadap Gubernur

10.0 7.1

2.4 9


Government Transparency Index: Sumbar, Gorontalo, and West Papua Â

Sumbar

Gorontalo

TRANSPARENCY

3.6

Ada lidaknya publikasi PERDA dan PerGub yang bisa diakses secara lengkap melalui web

5.5

Papbar

5.8 5.5

2.8

5.5

Publikasi KUA (Kebijakan Umum anggaran Nota Keuangan, dan PPAS (Prioritas dan Plafon Anggaran Sementara) Web

1

Publikasi APBD provinsi di web

1

5.5

1

Publikasi Pergub APBD provinsi d web

1

5.5

1

Publikasi pertanggungjawaban APBD di website

1

5.5

1

Akses publik terhadap informasi hasil-hasil rapat koordinasi antara gubernur dg Kab/Kota

1

Akses publik terhadap informasi hasil-hasil rapat koordinasi antara Gubernur dan DPRD

10

7.0

5.5

5.5

1

5.5

5.5


New Province vs. “Original” Province


Performance Comparison: Government and Bureaucracy


Index By Arena


Gender Balance Index 9.16

Sulaw e s i utara 8.31

Gor ontalo Sum ate ra Bar at

8.31

Sum ate r a Se latan

7.75

Nus a Te nggar a Tim ur

7.56

Kalim antan Te ngah

7.28

Maluk u

7.28

Sulaw e s i Se latan

7.28

Be ngkulu

7.00 6.63

Lam pung

6.63

Sulaw e s i Te ngah Jam bi

6.53

Ke pulauan Riau

6.34

Sulaw e s i Barat

6.16 5.59

m aluk u Utara

5.41

Papua Nanggro Ace h D

5.31

DI Yogyak ar ta

5.13

Jaw a Barat

4.75 4.75

Jaw a Te ngah 4.28

Jaw a Tim ur DKI Jak arta

4.19

Kalim antan Tim ur

4.19

Kalim antan Se latan

4.00 3.91

Papua Barat Sulaw e s i Utara

3.91

Sum ate ra utar a

3.81

bangk a Be litung

3.63 3.53

Riau

3.44

Kalim antan Barat Bante n

2.88

Nus a Te nggara Barat Bali

2.59 1.94


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of PGI and HDI 10.00 9.00 8.00 7.00

PGI

6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = 0.31*

1.00 60

62

64

66

68

HD I

70

72

74

76

78


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of PGI - Government Index and Human Development Index 10.00 9.00 8.00

G ovt Index

7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = 0.21*

1.00 60

62

64

66

68

H DI

70

72

74

76

78


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of PGI – Bureaucracy Index and Human Development Index 10.00 9.00

B ureau Index

8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = 0.35**

1.00 60

65

70

HDI

75

80


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of PGI – Bureaucracy and Poverty 10.00 9.00 8.00

B ureau Index

7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = - 0.38**

1.00 5

10

15

20

25

P ov erty

30

35

40

45


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of Government – Accountability and Human Development Index 10.00 9.00

A c c ountability

8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = 0.03

1.00 60

62

64

66

68

HDI

70

72

74

76

78


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of Government - Accountability and Poverty 10.00 9.00

A c c ountability

8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = - 0.12

1.00 5

10

15

20

25

P ov erty

30

35

40

45


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of Government - Transparency and Poverty 10.00 9.00

T rans parenc y

8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = 0.39**

1.00 60

62

64

66

68

HDI

70

72

74

76

78


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of Government – Transparency and APM 10.00 9.00

T rans parenc y

8.00 7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = 0.45***

1.00 50

55

60

65

AP M

70

75

80


PGI and Other Measures Correlation of PGI – Government Fairness and HDI 10.00 9.00 8.00

F airnes s

7.00 6.00 5.00 4.00 3.00 2.00

r = 0.52***

1.00 60

62

64

66

68

HDI

70

72

74

76

78

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