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JOB ROLES in the

television and film industries


RUNNER What the job involves P

roduction Runners assist wherever they are needed on productions and their duties vary depending on where they are assigned. They may be involved in anything from office administration or crowd control to public relations and cleaning up locations. Runners are usually employed on a freelance basis, are not very well paid, and their hours are long and irregular. In a production office

the Runner’s duties may include: assisting with answering telephones, filing paperwork and data entry, arranging lunches, dinners, and transport, and general office administration. On-set duties may include: acting as a courier, helping to keep the set clean and tidy and distributing call sheets, health and safety notices and other paperwork. On location shoots production Runners may also be required to help to coordinate the extras, and to assist with

crowd control duties. In addition to theses tasks in the post production process the Runner may be involved in digitizing materials prior to editing. They may also carry out fault finding, and basic repair on office furniture and equipment. Runners must be able to cope under extreme pressure from clients and colleagues, responding quickly and appropriately to requests, using their own initiative and be prepared to ask for help and advice when necessary.

How much does a runner earn?

It depends on the hours and what they do, but usually they earn £0 to £150 per day

What qualifications?

Don’t really need any qualifications aside from the standard GCSE and experience in the media to give you the edge.

How do you get into it?

Many Runners find their first ‘real’ running position as a direct result of a successful work experience placement. http://www.creativeskillset.org/careers/start_up/article_6186_1.asp


RESEARCHER What the job involves

s a media researcher, you might be responsible for anything from researching factual information for documentaries, to finding studio audiences and guests for entertainment shows. In some jobs you might also develop and research ideas for new programmes.

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Your tasks would vary depending on the type of programme you were working on,

but might include:

discussing programme ideas and research needs with producers finding and checking information, using sources such as the internet, libraries and museums searching media libraries and archives for music, photographs and film footage writing briefs for presenters, or briefing scriptwriters checking copyright and arranging permission to use

archive material finding studio audiences and programme contributors scouting for locations keeping detailed records researching and writing content for websites linked to TV programmes and films. In some cases (mainly if working on a small team for a factual programme), you may also operate digital video (DV) cameras or editing equipment.

How much does a researcher earn?

Freelance researchers are usually paid a fee for each contract, and there may be gaps between contracts.

What qualitifications?

student film or TV productions work experience on local newspapers or student publications hospital or community radio unpaid work placements on TV or radio productions work in film archives or picture libraries. https://nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk/advice/ planning/jobprofiles/Pages/mediaresearcher.aspx


EDITOR How much does an editor earn? Editors can earn between ÂŁ30,000 and ÂŁ80,000 a year Experienced editors working for a national newspaper can earn over ÂŁ80,000 a year.

What qualifications?

There are no standard entry requirements, although most newspaper editors have wide experience in journalism.

Hours?

You can expect to work irregular hours, including evenings and weekends.

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s an editor you will:

commission articles decide which articles will be included in the publication decide how they will be laid out for publishing consider submissions for inclusion from freelance journalists, photographers and illustrators. On a local newspaper you may help to write and sub-edit the publication, while on larger titles your role may be purely editorial. You could have responsibility for other matters such as budgetary control, hiring staff and working with advertising and production departments.

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kills and knowledge

To be a newspaper or magazine editor you should have: a good command of English with strong writing and IT skills planning, organisational and staff management skills creativity and good visual sense financial skills and commercial flair some legal knowledge regarding the content of publications an eye for detail an understanding of target audiences negotiating and decision-making skills.

https://nationalcareersservice.direct.gov.uk/advice/planning/jobprofiles/Pages/ newspaperormagazineeditor.aspx


DIRECTOR How much does a director earn?

The average director makes about 200,000 salary and then take a percentage of the box office and dvd sales

What qualifications? The role can only really be mastered through in-depth practical experience.

How do you get into it?

Build relationships with Cinematographers, Producers, Production Managers and Production Designers. Without them you are nothing. Be very visual with your directing and spend as much time as needed on your short films, and only when you are truly ready, try to make your film fulllength. Enter film festivals and network when you can.

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irectors may write the film’s script or commission it to be written; or they may be hired after an early draft of the script is complete. Directors must then develop a vision for the finished film, and define a practical route for achieving it. During pre-production, Directors make crucial decisions, such as selecting the right cast, crew and locations for the film. They then direct rehearsals, and the performances of the actors once the film is in production. Directors also manage the technical aspects of filming, including the camera, sound, lighting, design and special effects departments. Hours?

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capacity for long hours of intensive work, attention to detail, and the ability to remain calm and think clearly under great pressure, are key skills for this role. Directors also need great self-belief and the determination to succeed.


FLOOR MANAGER What the job involves?

Television floor managers ensure that sets, props and technical equipment are safe, ready to use and in the right position prior to filming. They have a liaising and coordinating role, acting as the link between the director and the many people involved in a production. It is the floor manager’s responsibility to pass on cues to presenters and guests

to ensure timings are met and the broadcast goes smoothly. The floor manager ensures that events go according to a set plan and that people taking part know their particular roles and how it fits in with whatever else is happening. The work is mainly studio-based, but may also include outside broadcasts, depending on the production.

How much does a floor manager earn? Rates vary widely and it depends on the type of production you’re working on

What qualifications?

Normal qualifications are required.

How do you get into it?

Networking and the knowledge in the indsutry, becoming a runner is usually the best way

checking that equipment, e.g. microphones and earpieces, are working before the show; seating the audience (if in attendance); referring to floor plans; assisting guests on the show; relaying instructions from the control room to the studio floor using a talkback system; keeping the director and producer informed of action off-camera;


LOCTION MANAGER How much does a location manager earn?

Rates of pay vary widely, depending on experience, your reputation within the industry and the type of production.

What qualifications?

No formal qualifications are required to become a Location Manager. Industry experience is key

How do you get into it?

Networking and in depth knowledge of the media industry

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What does it involve?

n pre-production, Location Managers must work closely with the Director to understand his or her creative vision for the film.

Location Managers’ primary role is to identify and find ideal locations for a film shoot, reporting to the Producer, Director and Production Designer. The role also involves negotiating with each location’s owners about a number of issues, such as the

cost and terms of the hire, crew and vehicle access, parking, noise reduction, and what official permissions may be required. On larger productions, Location Managers may supervise Assistant Location Managers and/or Location Scouts, each of whom support and assist the Location Manager in finding the ideal location, and in all matters relating to its use for filming.

http://www.creativeskillset.org/film/jobs/locations/article_3882_1.asp


DoP (Director of Photography)

What does the job involve? D oPs must discover the photographic heart of a screenplay, using a variety of source material including stills photography, painting, other films, etc. They realise the desired look using lighting, framing, camera movement, etc. DoPs collaborate closely with the camera crew (Camera Operator, 1st

and 2nd Assistant Camera, Camera Trainee and Grips). During filming, DoPs also work closely with the Gaffer (whose lighting team are key to helping create the required look of the film), the Production Designer, Costume Designer, and the Hair and Make Up Department.

How much does a DoP earn? Depends on the job

What qualifications?

Stills photography provides a good all round understanding of composition and light. They may have previously studied Drama, Stills Photography, or Art, or taken a Film/Media Studies degree, where useful research skills are also developed.

How do you get into it?

The majority of DoPs study film and/or photography to degree level or higher, subsequently working in a junior capacity, e.g., as 2nd Assistant Camera on short films or promos, and progressing through the camera roles.


CAMERA OPERATOR How much does a camera operator earn?

camera operators working a ten-hour day on TV factual/documentary programmes is £285; for commercials £411; and for TV news £227.

What qualifications?

No specific qualifications are required to work in this role, although film schools and training courses offer a good basic grounding in the skills and knowledge required and in practice many Camera Operators have studied for higher level qualifications

What does the job involve? I n a studio, where the camera operator usually follows a camera script, which gives the order of shots. This is practised at rehearsal and is cued by the director during recording. The skill lies in interpreting what the director wants and acting quickly and effectively to achieve it;

outside broadcasts, working as part of a team of camera operators filming live events, such as sporting and ceremonial occasions and music performances; on location, where there is likely to be more opportunity for creativity through suggesting shots to the

director.

A camera operator usually works under the direction of a director and/or director of photography and may be supported by a camera assistant. The role involves a mix of technical and creative skills.


SOUND DESIGNER What does the job involve?

Sound Designers usually start work at the same time as the other Sound Editors; on a big effects film requiring a strong sound concept, this may be before shooting begins; on a modest budget production, it could be when picture lock is achieved (the Director and/or Executive Producer have

given final approval of the picture edit). Their first task is to identify the three main kinds of sound effects required: spot effects (gunshots, clocks, doors closing, dog barking, etc.), atmosphere effects, (rain, wind, traffic, birdsong, etc.),

How much does a sound designer earn? £23,399 - £37,360

What qualifications?

Individual course accreditation in certain subject areas is currently being piloted. As part of Creative Skillset’s and the UK Film Council’s Film Skills Strategy, A Bigger Future, a network of Screen Academies and a Film Business Academy have been approved as centres of excellence in education and training for film. For more information, please log onto the Creative Skillset website.

How do you get into it?

All Sound Designers start out as sound enthusiasts and have usually spent years recording and experimenting with everyday sounds before entering the industry.


SOUND EDITOR

How much does a sound editor earn? £75 an hour

What qualifications?

Individual course accreditation in certain subject areas is currently being piloted. As part of Creative Skillset’s and the UK Film Council’s Film.

How do you get into it?

All Sound Designers start out as sound enthusiasts and have usually spent years recording and experimenting with everyday sounds before entering the industry.

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What does it involve?

n pre-production, Location Managers must work closely with the Director to understand his or her creative vision for the film.

Location Managers’ primary role is to identify and find ideal locations for a film shoot, reporting to the Producer, Director and Production Designer. The role also involves negotiating with each location’s owners about a number of issues, such as the

cost and terms of the hire, crew and vehicle access, parking, noise reduction, and what official permissions may be required. On larger productions, Location Managers may supervise Assistant Location Managers and/or Location Scouts, each of whom support and assist the Location Manager in finding the ideal location, and in all matters relating to its use for filming.

http://www.creativeskillset.org/film/jobs/locations/article_3882_1.asp


SOUND MIXER What the job involves T

ypical career routes: The majority of Production Sound Mixers train in sound recording but start working in the industry at junior levels as sound trainees. This period of on the job training lasts approximately two years before sound trainees are ready to become sound assistants. Working with equipment manufacturers or hire companies can also provide the opportunity to learn about sound equipment and to make useful industry contacts.

Experience may also be gained by working on commercials, short films and television productions. Once individuals progress to becoming boom operators, they usually work with the same Production Sound Mixers over a number of years, gaining extensive experience, before they in turn are offered the opportunity to head up the sound department as Production Sound Mixers.

difficult job of ensuring that dialogue recorded during filming is suitably clear. Although much of the storytelling and the emotional impact of a script are conveyed through dialogue, most film sets are challenging environments for Mixers because there are often unwanted noises to deal with, or the required camera shots hamper the placing of microphones.

Production Sound Mixers are responsible for the

How much does a sound mixer earn?

Depends on the experience but usually ÂŁ25,000 - ÂŁ40,000 per year

What qualifications?

Normal qualifications and some experience the media industry, you get into it by networking getting to know the industry better


SOUND RECORDIST What does the job involve? Sound technician roles can be split into two categories: production - the recording of all sound on set or on location; post-production - the balancing, mixing, editing and enhancing of

pre-recorded audio. Post-production activities include: integrating (synchronisation) of pre-recorded audio (dialogue, sound effects and music) with visual content;

How much does a sound recordist earn? £36k - £37k per year plus bonus’s

What qualifications?

Normal qualifications plus experience in the media industry

How do you get into it?

Usually becoming a runner or having work experience in the media industry, networking can help aswell.


PRODUCER How much does a producer earn?

Depends on the production but the average producer earns up to ÂŁ50,000 per year

What qualifications?

There are no set qualifications for the grade of Producer - however, as the head of a team of both accounting and creative personnel, the Producer has to have an extensive understanding of the nature of film production

How do you get into it?

He/she must have experience of working in the film industry, preferably as part of the Production Team.

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roducers have overall control on every aspect of a film’s production, bringing together and approving the selection of the whole production team. Their primary responsibility is to foster an environment in which the creative talents of the cast and crew can flourish - Producers are therefore ultimately accountable for the success of the finished film. The many responsibilities of the Producer span all four phases of production: Key Skills ability to secure finance for the production ability to prepare and control the production budget excellent communication skills ability to work well under pressure and motivate the production team legal responsibility, under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974, to prepare health and safety procedures for the workplace http://www.creativeskillset.org/film/jobs/production/ article_3876_1.asp


EXECUTIVE PRODUCER How much does an excutive producer earn? £25,342 - £98,633 a year

What qualifications?

Executive Producers must be consummate negotiators. They need a keen business sense, and an intimate knowledge of all aspects of film production, financing and distribution. They are usually very well connected both within the industry and with investors and investment groups

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he traditional role of the Executive Producer is to supervise the work of the Producer on behalf of the studio, the financiers or the distributors, and to ensure that the film is completed on time, and within budget, to agreed artistic and technical standards. The term often applies to a producer who has raised a significant proportion of a film’s finance, or who has secured the underlying rights to the project. Typically, Executive Producers are not involved in the technical aspects of the filmmaking process, but have played a crucial financial or creative role in ensuring that the project goes into production. As there may be several Executive Producers on a film, it is difficult to define their exact responsibilities.

http://www.payscale.com/research/UK/Job=Executive_Producer,_Television_ Productions/Salary


LINE PRODUCER

How much does a line producer earn?

Depends on how much experience and the job, but usually ÂŁ30k a year

How to get into it?

Get as much experience as you can working your way up from the bottom. It’s the only way to learn everything you need to know to be an effective line producer. Learn all you can from every department from camera to catering. The more you know the better prepared you will be to handle any scenario that might come up in your career.

What does it involve?

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line producer is the person who is in charge of hiring all of the below-theline production crew such as camera crews, lighting crews and catering staffs. They are in charge of overseeing the production budget and the day-to-day operations. They work closely with the executive producer of a television show or

the director of a film to make sure they are properly executing on the creative vision. Line producers are also in charge of coordinating all postproduction efforts such as editing and special effects. On smaller productions a line producer will sometimes also serve as the unit production manager, or UPM.

http://www.creativeskillset.org/film/jobs/production/article_3870_1.asp


DESIGNER

What does the job involve?

Production Designers are major heads of department on film crews, and are responsible for the entire Art Department. They play a crucial role in helping Directors to achieve the film’s visual requirements, and in providing Producers with carefully calculated schedules which offer

viable ways of making films within agreed budgets and specified periods of time. Production Designers may be asked to look at scripts before a Director is approached, to provide estimates of the projected Art Department spend on films.

How much does a designer earn? ÂŁ25k depends on the job

What qualifications?

Production Designers are usually graduates of Art, Architecture, Theatre, Interior or 3D Design courses. Subsequently they usually complete a specialist course in Film and/or Theatre Design.

How do you get into it?

In depth knowledge of the media industry and had personal experience, networking can also help.


For more information visit: www.facebook.com/jobrolesinme w.facebook.com/jobrolesinmedia

@jobrolesinmedia

www.creativeskillset.org www.prospects.ac.uk

made by savannah houston


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