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Bahan Kuliah By DR A. Riza Wahono


Structure of Design Process Inti dari desain adalah penalaran dari fungsi menuju bentuk Function ===> Form Seringkali penalaran logika tidak benar, dan tidak konklusif

Metodologi : Task untuk mendapat reliable, effektif dan efisien desain Jenis model dalam proses desain: 1. problem solving model 2. proses model (level abstraksi) 3. phase model of product development proses

Terminologi: penyamaan ttg arti dalam penggunaan kata

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Structure of design Process 1. PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL Desain dilakukan dalam bentuk spesifik problem solving dimana steps atau tahapan tahapannya dapat dengan jelas dibedakan satu sama lain, dan membentukdaur yang berperan dalam dalam setiap fase dari produk desain dan proses pengembangan produk Daur empiris adalah model dasar untuk problem solving Dengan menyesuaikan daur empiris pada proses pemecahan masalah desain akan menhasilkan sebuah ‘basic desain cycle’ (daur desain dasar) Basic design cycle merupakan sebuah model fundamental dari proses desain

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Structure of design Process 1. PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL Siklus Empiris observasi => supposisi => Ekspektasi =>testing=> Evaluasi karakteristik a. trying, problem solving, thus designing (trial & error) b. trying dalam bentuk imaginasi tidak dalam realitas c. pengembangan mengikuti pola spiral (melalui siklus yang sama beberapa kali) Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Structure of Design Process 1. PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL Siklus Empiris penggunaan aktual dari siklus tidak harus sama untuk keilmuan yang berbeda misalnya saja untuk sains empiris observasi=> induksi => deduksi => testing => evaluasi observasi : pengumpulan dan pengelompokkan bahan empiris serta pembentukan hypothesis induksi : formulasi dari hypothesis deduksi : konsekwensi spesial yang didapat dengan hasil prediksi yang eksplisit & akurat melaui testing evaluasi : interpretasi dari hasil test Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Structure of Design Process 1. PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL Siklus Empiris : preskriptif model untuk pemecahan problem praktis ( Hall) a. Pendefinisian Problem (study ttg kebutuhan & lingkungan) b. Nilai dari desain sistim (penetapan objectif dan kriteria) c. Sintesa sistim ( pengembangan alternatif solusi) d. Analisa sistim (deduksi konsekwensi dari setiap alternatif) e. seleksi yang terbaik (perbandingan konsekwensi dgn kriteria) f. Perencanaan untuk tindakan (implementasi ) Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Basic Design Process

Industri & Bisnis

Elektrik & Elektronik Aplikasi Komputer

Nilai dan Peradaban

Presentasi Evaluasi

Analisis & Optimisasi Sintesis Pendefinisian problem Kebutuhan

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Structure of Design Process 1. PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL Siklus Dasar (Basic cycle) Function, Analysis, criteria, synthesis, provisional design, simulation, expected properties, Evaluation, value of design, decision, approved design Considered as Fundamental model of designing

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Structure of Design Process 1. PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL • Fungsi

Siklus Dasar Analisa Sinthesa

• Desain Awal

Simulasi

• Karakteristik

Evaluasi Keputusan Dr A. Riza Wahono :

• Kriteria

Product Development

yang diharapkan

• Penilaian sebuah desain • Bentuk Desain disetujui “ Struktur Proses Desain ” Modul 9

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Structure of Design Process 1. PROBLEM SOLVING MODEL Siklus Dasar Spec 1 Design 1

Design 2 Design 3

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Spec 2 Properties

Perbandingan Perbandingan

Spec 3 Properties

Perbandingan

Properties Proses iterative dalam desain

Product Development

Final Desain

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Structure of Design Process 2. MODEL PRODUCT DESIGN Pada model ini, proses desain dikerjakan dalam beberapa tingkatan dari proses abstraksi. Tingkatan ini didasarkan pada representasi pembuatan desain seperti, Struktur fungsi, solusi prinsipal, dan preliminari desain 1. Struktur dari fungsi : representasi dari fungsi yang diinginkan pada produk dan elemen elemennya 2. Pemecahan solusi secara prinsip: melalui pendefinisian prinsip kerja, model tindakan, 3. ‘pengejawantahan’ (embodiment) desain : sebuah penggambaran (gambar teknik) dari geometri dan physicochemical Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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Structure of Design Process TAHAPAN PROSES DESAIN PRODUK F 1. Struktur dari fungsi : ϕ

Human Box Tanah Ground Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Batang pengungkit

Batu Product Development

• Elemen • Batasan sistim • Hubungan

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Structure of Design Process TAHAPAN PROSES DESAIN PRODUK 1. Struktur dari fungsi : F F1

F

Batang Pengungkit + batu

F1

Batu

F2

F2

F2 F2’ F2’ F2 Dr A. Riza Wahono :

FUNGSI SUBSYTEM

Product Development

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Structure of Design Process TAHAPAN PROSES DESAIN PRODUK 1. Struktur dari fungsi :

S

Instrument F

Pengungkit

F2

ϕ

Box

F2’ Batu

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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F2

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Structure of Design Process TAHAPAN PROSES DESAIN PRODUK 2. Pemecahan secara prinsip: Pemecahan secara prinsip adalah sebuah skema ideal yang merepresentasikan struktur dari sebuah sistim/subsistim, dimana karakteristik dari tiap elemen dan hubungan antara elemen yang berperan dalam mendapatkan fungsi/kegunaan dapat diukur secara kualitatif

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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Structure of Design Process TAHAPAN PROSES DESAIN PRODUK 2. Pemecahan secara prinsip: Effek fisik

Sub Fungsi

tak terpengaruh oleh solusi

T1

Transfer Torque

T1

F1

Amplify Force

F2

J υ

Close contact

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Pecahan secara prinsip efek fisik dan membentuk fitur desain

T1

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Structure of Design Process TAHAPAN PROSES DESAIN PRODUK 3. Embodiment desain: pengembangan dari sebuah solusi pronsipal menuju desain detil merupakn proses mel;etakkan standar akurasi yang lebih tinggi, dan lebih banyak karatketristik dari produk baru. Desain properties (karakteristik pada desain detil) struktur dari keseluruhan produk (arrangement dari setiap elemen) dan juga masing masing elemennya bentuk, dimensi, material, kualitas permukaan, toleransi, metoda manufaktur

biasanya proses dari solusi prinsip menuju desain definitif cukup komplex maka diberikan tahapan desain konsep dan desain prelimenary (desain sketch) Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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Structure of Design Process TAHAPAN PROSES DESAIN PRODUK 3. Embodiment desain: Properties of Technical Systems Codes of Practise EXTERNAL Standards PROPERTIES Regulations Law Laws Conformances Properties INTERNAL Quality Operational Cost Price

PROPERTIES DESIGN PROPERTIES

Manuftrng Properties

Delivery Planning Properties

Transportability Packing Storage Space

Distribution Properties

Appearances Strength

Structure Aesthetic Corrosion Tolerance Properties Form Resistance Surface Dimension Manufacturing Method Durability Materials Ergonomic Properties Liquidation Manufacturing Properties Properties

Economic Properties

Wastes Re-Cycling

Function Function

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Delivery deadline

Reliabilit y

Functionally Determined Properties

Product Development

Operational Properties

Colour Surface Quality Operation

Maintenance Weight/Mass

Space requirement

Durability Life

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Basic Design Process OUTPUT

ACTION TASK Task Clarification Specification Conceptual Design Concept Embodiment Design

Definitive design/ Layout Detail Design PRODUCT DESIGN Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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TASK FASE I

1

Klarifikasi &definisi Task

2

Penetapan Fungsi & struktur

3

Pencarian solusi prinsip serta kombinasi

4

Pembagian pada modul yang dapat dikerjakan

5

Pengembangan Layout dari modul kunci

6

Layout keseluruhan

7

Persiapan produksi dan prosedur operasi

Specification

Struktur Fungsi FASE II Solusi secara prinsip

Struktur Modul FASE III Desain Preliminer

Desain definitif FASE IV

dokumentasi Produk

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TASKS Selected Task

Overall Function Sub Functions Solutions principles Selected Solutions principles Selected combination Solution Concept

Combination of principles Concept Variant Dimensioned layout

Improved layout

Selected assemblies

Form design variant of assemblies Optimum assembly

Final Layout Detail Design of Components

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TASK FORMULATION Market

Company

External Information

Internal Information

Market Situation

Company Objectives

Company Potential

Economic Policy

SEARCH FIELD ‘IDEA FINDING’

New Technologies

Discovery of Product Ideas

Other Information

Laws, Regulation

Selection of Product Ideas New Product Idea Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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TASK

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TASKS Dalam mendapatkan kesuksesan dalam proyek desain ada dua hal yang harus dengan tepat diciptakan semenjak awal proyek 1. Statemen yang jelas tentang permasalahan yang akan dipecahkan, (TASK) 2. Sekumpulan kebutuhan dan limitasi dimana solusi desain akan dievaluasi (SPECIFICATIONS) Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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TASK CLARIFICATION • Tendensi alami untuk menerima problem sebagaimana yang diberikan, dan lalu mulai berfikir solusi. Hal ini perlu dihindari agar tidak terjadi salah presepsi dalam menghadapi problema yang ada • waktu yang cukup harus dikerahkan untuk membuat klarifikasi task. Menuliskan permasalahan merupakan sebuah praktek yang baik sebagi langkah awal. (seringkali problem desain tidak seperti yang dibayangkan pertama kali, dia berubah bersamaan dengan waktu dan akumulasi informasi) Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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TASK CLARIFICATION • Cobalah memformulasikan problem pada tingkatan yang abstraksi yang lebih tinggi , Pahl and Beitz melakukan sbb : . . . . . .

Apa yang sesungguhnya terkandung dalam task tsb ? Apa keinginan implisit dan ekspektasi lain yang terlibat ? Apakah kontrains yang diperkirakan benar benar ada ? Kemana langkah pengembangan yang masih terbuka ? Karakteristik apa yang harus dimiliki oleh solusi ? Karakteristik apa yang harus tidak dimiliki oleh solusi ?

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DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Spesifikasi desain adalah bentuk dokumen kerja formal yang didapat dari kompilasi daftar Demand dan Wishes atau didapat dari proses QFD

• • • •

Merupakan jalur kehidupan yang tak mungkin dilewati atau dihindari, oleh karenanya perlu mendapat perhatian serius. Comprehensive design specification Divide the document into sections Itemised each contribution and identify as Demand or Wish Tabel aspek Quantitave and qualitative (Requirement should if possible be quantified and defined in clearest possible terms)

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DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS DEMAND : Requirements that must be met under all circumtances, in other words, requirements without whose fulfilment the solutions is not acceptable For example a qualitative demand such as “suitable for tropical condition”, “Splash proof” Minimum demands must be fomulated as such ( for example P>20KW, L>400mm Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS WISHES : Requirements that should be taken into consideration whenever possible, perhaps with the stipulation that they only warrant limited increases in cost It is adviseable to classify wishes as being of major, medium or minor importance The distinction between Demand and Wishes is important in evaluation, since selection depends on the fulfilment of demands while evaluation bears only such variants as already meet the demand Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS QUANTITY : All data involving numbers and magnitude, such as number of items required, maximum weight, power output, throughput, volume flow rate etc QUALITY : All data involving permissible variation or special requirements such as waterproof, corrosion proof shock proof etc Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Requirement

Contributing Factors

Points To Consider

Overall Geometry Motion of Parts Forces Involved Energy Needed Materials To be Used Control System Information Flow

Size, Height, Width, Length, Diameter, Space, Number, Arrangement Type, direction of motion, velocities, acceleration, kinematics Load direction, magnitude, weight, load, impact, stiffness, inertia Heating, cooling, conversion, efficiency, pressure, temperature, storage Flow, transport, properties, implications, regulation, life-cycle Electrical, electronic, hydraulic, pneumatic, mechanical Inputs, outputs, form, display, computer

Safety

Operational Human Environmental

Direct, indirect, hazards elimination, safeguarding Warning, training, instruction, personal protection Land, sea, air, noise, radiation, reaction, transport emergencies

Quality

Quality Assurance Quality Control Reliability

Regulations, Standards, code, accreditation Inspection, Testing, measuring tolerances, labeling Design life, failures, statistic

Functional

Production of component Manufacturing Purchase of components Assembly Transport Design Schedule Timing Development Schedule Production Schedule Elivery Schedule Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Factory limitation, maximum dimension, means of production, waste Supplier quality and reliability, inspection Special regulations, installation, sitting, foundation, bolting, welding Material handling, clearance, packaging Project planning, project control Design detailing, in-house tests, compliance tests Manufacture, assembly, quality assurance, packing, transport Delivery date, distribution network

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DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Requirement Economic

Ergonomic

Ecological Aesthetic

Life Cycle

Contributing Factors

Points To Consider

Marketing analysis Design Costs Development Costs Manufacturing Costs Distribution Costs

Size of market, strength of market, distribution, servicing Design team, computing, information retrieval, reproduction Design detailing, supplier costs, testing costs Tooling Labour, overhead, assembly, inspection, cost to customer Packing, transport, service centres, spareparts, warranty

User needs Ergonomic Design Cybernetic Design Material Selection Working Fluid selection

Type of operations, instructions, warning Human interface ralationships, operation, height, layout, comfort Controls, Layout, Clarity, Interaction

Customer Appeal Fashion Future expectation

Shape, colour, texture, form, feel, smell Culture, hsitory, trends Rate of change, trend

Distribution Operation Maintenance Disposal

Means of transport, nature & condition of dispatch, rules & regulation Quietness, wear, special uses, working environment, foreseeable misuse Servicing intervals, inspection, exchange, and repair, painting, cleaning Recycle, scrap

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Solids, liquid, gas, stability, protection, toxicity, safety Liquid, gas, flammability, toxicity

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DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS Page

ISSUE DATE :

NAME OF PROJECT :

of

REQUIREMENTS : Functional

Manufacturing

Ergonomic

Safety

Timing

Ecological

Quality

Economic

Life-Cycle

Other

DEMAND/WISH

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

ITEMISED LIST :

Product Development

Aesthetic

NAME OF CONTRIBUTOR:

DATE OF CHANGE

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DESIGN SPECIFICATIONS TIPS TO MANAGEMENT : • Define the task in word or symbol • Use questioning checklist or QFD to itemise demand and wishes or equivalent • ensure that a realistic project plan is prepared acceptable to all parties • Compile a detailed design specifications with input from all people involved • Label all design specification item with the name of contributor • Circulate design specification to all those involved for comment and approval • Lists all changes and additions with dates and name of contributor • Obtain formal approval for document in writing Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Conceptual design adalah bagian dari proses desain dimaan identifikasi problem yang esential melalui abstraksi, dengan pembuatan struktur fungsi, serta pencaharian solusi prinsip yang sesuai beserta kombinasi. Solusi dasar didapatkan melalui elaborasi dari konsep solusi Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Design Specification Abstract to Identify the Essential Problem Establish Function Structures Overall Function - Sub-functions Search for Solution Principles To Fulfill Sub-functions Combine Solution Principles To Fulfill Overall Functions Select Suitable Combinations Firm up Into Concept Variant Evaluate Concept Variant Against Technical and Economic Criteria Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Requirement

Contributing Factors

Points To Consider

Overall Geometry Motion of Parts Forces Involved Energy Needed Materials To be Used Control System Information Flow

Spatial constraints, access for assembly/operation/maintenance Practically, accuracy, backlash, wind-up, lead and lag, smoothness Strength, Stiffness, leverage, deflection, buckling, dynamics Efficiency, power sources alternatives New materials, treatment, material design, compatibility, life recycling Start-up, operation, shut-down, maintenance Input, output, storage, display

Safety

Operational Human Environmental

Design safety, safety standards, weak spots in design Use, misuse, outside intervention, protection, built-in safety Storage, transport, contamination, disposal

Quality

Quality Assurance Quality Control Reliability

Quality criteria, quality management, quality improvement techniques Quality measurements, quality vs cost Specified life, cost constraints, weak spot

Functional

Production of component Manufacturing Purchase of components Assembly Transport Design Schedule Timing Development Schedule Production Schedule Delivery Schedule Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Ease of manufacture, near net shape, finish costs Meeting specification, transport, delivery, inspection, costs Ease of assembly, number of parts, sequencing of operation Internal transport/transfer, external transport modes, packaging Realistic time frame, long lead items, delay consequences Testing new technology, technological risks Tooling, long lead items Realistic time frame, Field testing, commissioning

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Requirement Economic

Ergonomic

Ecological Aesthetic

Life Cycle

Contributing Factors

Points To Consider

Marketing analysis Design Costs Development Costs Manufacturing Costs Distribution Costs

Adequacy of analysis, user expectation, customer expectations Historical data, design effort, team availability Test equipment, test plan, modeling, prototyping Process involved, equipment needed, tooling Storing, packaging, transport and selling

User needs Ergonomic Design Cybernetic Design Material Selection Working Fluid selection

Specification requirements, types of user, different user Condition of use, misuse, dificulties, instructions, clarity of use Control of product in operation, runaway problem, shutdown modes

Customer Appeal Fashion Future expectation

Field testing, surveys, national cultures, cultural differences Presentation, trade shows, timing, competition Trend, age group, new technology

Distribution Operation Maintenance Disposal

Method of distribution, advertising, promoting, national/international Life expectancies, instructions, manuals, training, safety Frequency, simplicity, instruction, repair, spare parts Regulation, compatible materials, recycling, rebuilding

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Recycling, disposal material, interactions, operational life Harmful effect, regulation, recycling, disposal

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

Requirement

Contributing Factors

Current Status

Required Action

( Good, Marginal , Poor)

(Proceed, Revise, No Action)

Overall Geometry Functional Motion of Parts Forces Involved Energy Needed Materials To be Used Control System Information Flow Operational Safety Human Environmental Quality Assurance Quality Quality Control Reliability Production of component Manufacturing Purchase of components Assembly Transport Design Schedule Timing Development Schedule Production Schedule Delivery Schedule Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN Requirement

Economic

Ergonomic

Ecological Aesthetic

Life Cycle

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Contributing Factors

Current Status

Required Action

( Good, Marginal , Poor)

(Proceed, Revise, No Action)

Marketing analysis Design Costs Development Costs Manufacturing Costs Distribution Costs User needs Ergonomic Design Cybernetic Design Material Selection Working Fluid selection Customer Appeal Fashion Future expectation Distribution Operation Maintenance Disposal

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CONCEPTUAL DESIGN TIPS TO MANAGEMENT : • • • • • • • • • •

Understand divergent and convergent thinking Abstract the problem to get to the real issue Make sure many different ideas are generated, never just one or two Use available methods and techniques for systematic selection and evaluation Make sure that the right concept is chosen Search for the weak spot in the final concept and understand the implications Produce and itemised budget cost estimate, reflecting the current degree of confidence Present the finally chosen concept in a formal and professional manner Consider patenting novel concept Use check list and work sheet to review the design prior to approval

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN Embodiment design is that part of the design process in which starting from the concept of a technical product, the design is developed in accordance with technical and economic criteria and in the light of further information, to the point where subsequent detail design can lead to production Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN CONCEPT Identify embodiment determining requirement Produce scale drawing of spatial constraint identify embodiment determining main function carrier Develop preliminary layout and forms design Select suitable preliminary lay-out Develop preliminary lay-out and forms design for remaining main function carrier Evaluate against technical and economics Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN BASIC RULES IN EMBODIMENT CLARITY, SIMPLICITY AND SAFETY : Function Working Principle Layout and form design Safety Ergonomic Production and Quality Controls Assembly and transport Operation and maintenance

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN BASIC RULES IN EMBODIMENT SIMPLICITY not complex, easily understood and easily done - Function - Working Principle - Layout and form designs - Ergonomic

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN Requirement Functional

Safety

Quality

Contributing Factors

Points To Consider

Overall Geometry Motion of Parts Forces Involved Energy Needed Materials To be Used Control System Information Flow

Fit of parts, assembly of parts Will it work, other functions needed, working principles Strength, stability, stiffness, fatigue life, side effects Supply, storage, efficiency Degradation, wear, corrosions, expansion and contration Reliability, assembly, testing, trouble shooting Necessary, sufficient

Operational Human Environmental Quality Assurance Quality Control Reliability

Safety hierarchy Regulations, standards, codes, history Harmful effects

Production of component Manufacturing Purchase of components Assembly Transport Design Schedule Timing Development Schedule Production Schedule Delivery Schedule Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Over all system, life-cycle Manufacturing quality, measurement, monitoring Operation, maintenance , user environment Can parts be made, layout and drawing adequate Reliable sources, timing, quality assurance Simple assembly, clear sequence Safe internal transport, safe external transport Current status, planning problems Test equipment, test plan, documents, certification Timing, material supply On time or not, ways of improving

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN Requirement Economic

Ergonomic

Ecological Aesthetic

Life Cycle

Contributing Factors

Points To Consider

Marketing analysis Design Costs Development Costs Manufacturing Costs Distribution Costs

Review and update Percent completion, phase diagram, cost overruns Phase diagram, supplier estimates, item by item estimates Tooling cost update, materials additional cost How to be shipped, distribution network

User needs Ergonomic Design Cybernetic Design Material Selection Working Fluid selection

Reliable and easy to use User friendly, good physical layout Good controls

Customer Appeal Fashion Future expectation

Survey, comments Competition Reliability of predictions

Distribution Operation Maintenance Disposal

Quietness, vibration, handling Simple inspection Simple maintenance, user safety, who does it Recycle, scrap

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Source, supply, disposal, mixture, safety Safety , toxicity, replenishment

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN

Requirement

Contributing Factors

Current Status

Required Action

( Good, Marginal , Poor)

(Proceed, Revise, No Action)

Overall Geometry Functional Motion of Parts Forces Involved Energy Needed Materials To be Used Control System Information Flow Operational Safety Human Environmental Quality Assurance Quality Quality Control Reliability Production of component Manufacturing Purchase of components Assembly Transport Design Schedule Timing Development Schedule Production Schedule Delivery Schedule Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN Requirement

Economic

Ergonomic

Ecological Aesthetic

Life Cycle

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Contributing Factors

Current Status

Required Action

( Good, Marginal , Poor)

(Proceed, Revise, No Action)

Marketing analysis Design Costs Development Costs Manufacturing Costs Distribution Costs User needs Ergonomic Design Cybernetic Design Material Selection Working Fluid selection Customer Appeal Fashion Future expectation Distribution Operation Maintenance Disposal

Product Development

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN TIPS TO MANAGEMENT : OVERALL PRODUCT • Test for functional performance - the product must meet or exceed the customer expectation • check for economic feasibility - the cost must be acceptable to the customer • Check the safety performance - the product must meet applicable safety standards • test for ergonomic performance - the expectation of the user must be satisfied Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN TIPS TO MANAGEMENT : OVERALL DESIGN • Insist on clarity, simplicity and safety in design • ensure that force transmission path will be satisfactory • Ensure that allocation of functional tasks to component is satisfactory • ensure that self-help has been appropriately incorporated • Ensure that self-damaging effects have been investigated • Ensure that the design will perform in a stable manner • If planned instability is used, ensure that required effect will be achieved

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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EMBODIMENT DESIGN TIPS TO MANAGEMENT : GENERAL • Ensure that sufficient calculations have been done and recorded in a professional manner • ensure that most appropriate material have been selected • ensure that design standards and codes are satisfied • ensure that te purchase components have been incorporated effectively • Ensure that models, layout, printout and drawing have been used to the best advantages Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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DETAIL DESIGN Detail design is that part of the design process in which starting from the concept of a technical product, the design is developed in accordance with technical and economic criteria and in the light of further information, to the point where subsequent detail design can lead to production Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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DETAIL DESIGN PRELIMINARY LAYOUT Search for solution to auxiliary functions Develop detailed layout and forms design for the main function and compatibility with auxiliary function carriers Develop detailed layout and form design for the auxiliary function carrier and complete overall layout Check and refine the overall layout

Evaluate against technical and economic criteria Dr A. Riza Wahono :

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DETAIL DESIGN Requirement

Contributing Factors

Functional

Overall Geometry Motion of Parts Forces Involved

Safety

Energy Needed Materials To be Used Control System Information Flow Operational Human Environmental Quality Assurance Quality Control Reliability

Quality

Production of component Manufacturing Purchase of components Assembly Transport Design Schedule Timing Development Schedule Production Schedule Delivery Schedule Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Points To Consider Interference, assembly sequence, tolerances, surface finish Displacement, velocity, acceleration, position, fatigue, stiffness Weight of components, deflection, vibration, resonance, creep, flow, strength, residual stress Torque, speed, horse power, power transmission Hardness, surface finish, friction, lubrication, replacement Button/switch design/layout, emergencies, safety, operation Assembly, operation, maintenance, safety Modes of operation, abusive operation, maintenance Failure modes, effect analysis Specific issues related to design Certification, design and manufacture records Inspection and component testing, production document Simulated test/field tests/statistical analyses Manufactured as designed/revisions Inspection records Stacking, fir of parts, minimising operation, ease of assembly Packaging, protection storage, invertory and control Disruption caused by revisions Problem diagnosis, debugging procedure, testing materials Inventory controls Acceptance criteria, commissioning

Product Development

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DETAIL DESIGN Requirement Economic

Ergonomic

Ecological Aesthetic

Life Cycle

Contributing Factors

Points To Consider

Marketing analysis Design Costs Development Costs Manufacturing Costs Distribution Costs

Customer reaction, user field test, data collection Recording problems and solutions Cost of redesign Record of manufacturing problems/costs Record of packaging/distribution costs

User needs Ergonomic Design Cybernetic Design Material Selection Working Fluid selection

Functional performance, suggested improvement Understanding/use of instruction manual/controls/ease of use Reaction of machine to control, feedback to user

Customer Appeal Fashion Future expectation

Surface finish, overall quality, colours, textures, consistency User reaction/comment/consumer reports Comments from field test/ commissioning

Distribution Operation Maintenance Disposal

Loading/unloading, labeling, transport mode Monitoring, feedback return, recalls Spare parts supply, inventory/tracking, service facilities Rebuild, remanufacture

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Machining, assembly or operational problems found ? Filing, spillage, leakage, maintenance, filtration

Product Development

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Requirement

DETAIL DESIGN

Contributing Factors

Current Status

Required Action

( Good, Marginal , Poor)

(Proceed, Revise, No Action)

Overall Geometry Functional Motion of Parts Forces Involved Energy Needed Materials To be Used Control System Information Flow Operational Safety Human Environmental Quality Assurance Quality Quality Control Reliability Production of component Manufacturing Purchase of components Assembly Transport Design Schedule Timing Development Schedule Production Schedule Delivery Schedule Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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DETAIL DESIGN Requirement

Economic

Ergonomic

Ecological Aesthetic

Life Cycle

Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Contributing Factors

Current Status

Required Action

( Good, Marginal , Poor)

(Proceed, Revise, No Action)

Marketing analysis Design Costs Development Costs Manufacturing Costs Distribution Costs User needs Ergonomic Design Cybernetic Design Material Selection Working Fluid selection Customer Appeal Fashion Future expectation Distribution Operation Maintenance Disposal

Product Development

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DETAIL DESIGN TIPS TO MANAGEMENT : • Detail design is of critical importance to a successful product • Carefully check sufficient details to ensure that design quality is acceptable • pay careful attention to the interaction between shape, material and manufacture • check component for adequate strength and stiffness • check for problem with fatigue, residual stresses, flaws, tolerances and surface finish • Check that most appropriate material selection have been used • check to see that heat treatment and surface treatment have been properly specified Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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DETAIL DESIGN TIPS TO MANAGEMENT : • Consider as many failure modes as possible, by formal analysis if necessary • check standards component have used • check the assembling according to drawing • ensure that adequate etsting and commisioning procedure have been compiled • ensure that all manufacturing and production documents are properly in order Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Flow Diagram of Design Process TASKS Selected Task

Overall Function Sub Functions Solutions principles Selected Solutions principles Selected combination Solution Concept

Combination of principles Concept Variant Dimensioned layout

Improved layout

Selected assemblies

Form design variant of assemblies Optimum assembly

Final Layout Detail Design of Components

Production Document Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Basic Design Process TASK Task Clarification Market Analysis

Problem Analysis

Specification

Conceptual Design Alternative Solution

Concept Testing & development

Embodiment Design Design for Function /safety/Manufacture

Definitive design / Layout Components and Assembly Manufacturing Data Manufacture and assembly Product Testing &delivery Working Product Use of product Discarded Product Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Product Development Process Management ProjectCompany Design

Competition Brief TASK

Task Clarification

Adminsitration Services

Specification Conceptual Design Concept Embodiment Design Layout Manufacturing Data

Funding

Personnel

Services

Marketing

Information

ENGINEERING Process Planning

Supplier

Finance

R&D

Detail Design

RESOURCES

TECHNOLOGY Materials Energy

Purchasing

Prod document

Q A/ Q C

Manufacture/Inspection Components

Accounts

Assembly/Testing

Sales

New Product

Costumer Service

Distribution/Delivery Working Product Worn Product

Operation

Maintenance

Disposal

Discarded Product Dr A. Riza Wahono :

Product Development

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Modul 9 ppproduk