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London  City  Hall     Case  Study   San1ago  Torres  

Dr  Shaun  Murray        

Structure  Of  Workbook     0.0  Introduc1on:     01.  Air   •  02.  Light     •  03.  Ground     •  04.  Water   •  05.  Energy   •  06.  Recycle   •  07.  Synthesis   •  08.  Conclusion     •  09.  Bibliography  


Introduc1on   London  City  Hall  is  a  building  in   central  London,  developed  by  the   emblema1c  Bri1sh  Architectural   firm  Fosters  +  Partners.  The  client   of  the  project  was  the  London   Project  Development.  Ltd  and  the   purpose  of  the  building  is  to  house   the  chamber  of  the  London   assembly  and  the  offices  of  the   mayor  staff  of  the  greater  London   authority  (mayor  of  London).  The   project  is  part  of  the  More  London   development,  an  ini1a1ve  that   pretends  to  give  a  new  face  to  the   area  between  London  Bridge  and   Tower  Bridge  

01.  Introduc1on   •  • 


ARCHITECT   London  City  Hall  was  developed  by  the  London   based  Architect  Norman  Foster.  Foster  was  born  in   Manchester  in  1935  and  graduated  from   Manchester  University  school  of  architecture   in  ]1961.  Later  on  he  won  a  scholarship  to  the   University  of  Yale  in    which  he  did  a  masters  in   architecture.  In  1999  he  won  the  21st  Pritzker   award  for  architectural  innova1on  and  excellence.      Fosters+Partners  is  a  firm  founded  by  Norman   foster  in  1967  and  has  pioneered  projects  into   being  focused  on  sustainability  and  modernism   through  innova1ve  ways  of  making  green   architecture.  The  firm  works  on  a  wide  range  of   fields  like,  Urban  master  plans,  airports,  public   infrastructures,  civic  and  cultural  buildings,  private   and  public  buildings.  The  company  is  based  in   London,  has  offices  worldwide  and  has  developed   projects  all  around  the  world.  The  firm  won  the   compe11on  held  to  determine  who  would  build   the  London  city  Hall,  sponsored  by  the  Greater   London  Authority.    

01  Introduc1on   •  Shape:   •  The  Building  has  the  shape  of  a  bulbous  distorted  sphere  and  it’s   considered  a  helical  walkway,  and  the  purpose  of  this  form  is  to  avoid   direct  collision  of  the  sun  with  the  facades,  so  it  allows  the  surface  to   absorb.  Another  reason  for  this  shape  is  to  minimize  ground  area,  thus   saving  energy  in  resources,  energy  and  space  occupa1on.    


Ven1la1on    The  condi1oned  system  of  the  building  is  very   ecological  and  differs  from  the  tradi1onal   systems.  The  offices  for  example  are  all  natural   ven1lated  through  the  air  filter  that  exists   through  the  windows.  Although  the  facades  are   made  of  glass,  the  inner  wall  contains   significantly  less  glazing  area,  thus  making  the   spaces  well  naturally  ven1lated.  The  building  as   such  uses  natural  ven1la1on  and  a  geothermal   system  rather  than  air  condi1oning  to  both   save  energy  and  make  it  more  comfortable.   The  building’s  cooling  system  u1lizes  ground   water  pumped  up  via  boreholes.  It  works   through  a  recycling  process  that  ini1ates  by   having  photovoltaic  panels  in  the  ceiling  that   captures  the  suns  heat,  which  is  redirected  to   the  lower  level  of  the  building  through  the   borehole  pumps  and  takes  it  to  the  ground   water  generator,  which  cools  the  air  and   introduces  it  back  to  the  building  

02.  Light   London  city  hall  as  a  building  gives  great  amount   of  importance  to  the  natural  lightning.  The   whole  idea  of  the  glassing  façade  is  to  develop  a   system  in  which  the  light  from  the  sun  can  be   easily  refracted  from  anywhere  in  the  building.   Although  ar1ficial  light  creates  a  key  component   to  the  developing  of  a  self  sustainable  building.    

02.  Light   •  • 

Natural  Light:   The  building  is  slightly   1lted  to  provide  a  self   shading  and  receives     direct  sunlight  from  the   south,  while  ligle  to  no   direct  light  from  the   north.  The  shape  and   inclina1on  are  made   specifically  to  follow  the   points  of  highest  direct   sun  to  the  structure   because  its  meant  to   receive  as  much  natural   lightning  as  possible,  and   also  recycle  the  sun   energy  through  sun   panels  installed  in  the   roof.    

02.  Light   •  Ar1ficial  Light:   Ar1ficial  light  is  used  on  daylight  only  in  the  ground  floor  and  offices   near  the  core,  where  the  natural  sunlight  is  not  direct.  Because  the   building  is  so  open  and  receives  a  vast  amount  of  sunlight,  the   ar1ficial  light  and  energy  consump1on  of  the  same,  is  more  than   halve  what  would  have  been  expected  from  a  building  of  this   category.    The  light  bulbs  are  surrounded  well  around  the  open  and   closed  spaces,  making  it  well  enlightened  at  night,  but  in  the  day  they   don’t  need  to  be  turned  on.  

02.  Light   •  • 

Self  shading  and  shadow:     The    sloping  ‘helmet’  shape  of  the   building,    was  created  by  each   individual  floor  on  the  south  side   designed  to  rise  over  the  floors  below   them  crea1ng  a  natural  shading  effect   and  protec1ng  the  levels  from  direct   solar  glade.  The  facades  are  made  of   double  and  triple  glazing.  

03.  Ground   •  Materials:   The  main  materials  of  the  London  City  hall  are:  reinforced  steel   (1950  tonnes),  structural  steel  (2100  tonnes)  ,concrete  (13,100   M3)  and  glass  (3844  unique  panels).  The  core  of  the  building  is   made  of  concrete,  the  structural  work  is  made  out  of  steel  and   the  glazing  of  the  “facades  "are  made  out  of  glass.  

03.  Ground   City  hall  focusses  its  agen1on  on  recycling  and   making  the  building  itself  as  eco  friendly  as   possible,  but  also  the  building  presents   innova1ve  proposals  in  the  field  of  construc1on   techniques  through  the  diagrids  system,  and   how  these  way  of  construc1on  can  be  made  very   efficient  with  the  right  amount  of  rather  simple   construc1on  materials.    

03.  Materials   Steel:     The  whole  structural  design  and  system  was  made  out  of  Structural  steel,  which   was  used  to  support  the  buildings  structure  through  a  special  sydtem  called/   diagrids,  (system  that  consists  of  steel  weight  loading  triangles).     The  reinforced  steel  is  used  as  bars  in    the  concrete  core  to  make  it  more   resistant  and  pre  tensioned,  also  it  is  used  on  the  weight  columns  on  the  glazing   and  first  floor.      

03.  Materials   •  Concrete   The  building  has  a  reinforced  concrete  core,  which  support  the  plaque   levels  and  allows  the  structure  to  rise.  The  core  has  reinforced  dips1cks  in   it  to  make  it  more  resistant.    

03  Materials   •  Glass:   the  building  uses  four  different   types  of  glass.   On  the  first  floor,  triple  glazed   ven1la1ng  panel  glasses,  with  a   cladding  and  ven1lated  system   with  solar  blades.   From  fl  1-­‐7,  minimal  framing  and   insula1ng  panels  are  used  to   create  maximum  transparency.    The  rest  of  the  building  consists  of   laminated  glass  and  solar  panels.    

03  Construc1on  system       • 


The  building  uses  a  diagrid  systems  to  support  the   loads.  A  diagrid  system  consist  of  ver1cal  can1lever   beams  which  are  subdivided  longitudinally  into   modules  according  to  the  repe11ve  diagram   pagern.  The  modules  are  triangular  and  are   tessella1ons  subdivided  into  the  space  of  the   building.  This  system  allows  the  loads  to  be   transported  uniformly  to  the  ground.     This  diagrids  are  made  of  reinforced  steel,  a   material  rigid  enough  to  widthstand  the  amount  of   weight  of  the  structure  and  not  bend,  compress,   flex  or  other.    

04  Water   • 

The  ven1la1on  of  city  hall  is  used  through  the  use  of  water  collected  from  the  river   Thames  through  boreholes,  which  are  buried  130  m  into  the  ground  un1l  it  reaches   the  water  from  the  Thames,  which  then  pumps  it  into  the  building.  Aoer  the  water   is  used  for  ven1la1on,  it  comes  to  the  bathrooms  to  be  used  for  the  toilets  and  as   irriga1on  savings(watering  the  plants  and  trees)  on  mains  water.  Meaning  that   about  85%  of  the  water  is  reused  and  recycled  within  the  building.  

04  Water   •  Grey  water   The  water  from  the  rain  is  collected  at  the  top  of  the  building  through   plumbing  pipes,  hidden  in  the  structure,  and  are  then  taken  to  the   toilets  and  other  non  potable  water  sources,  which  are  later  redirected     to  the  sep1c  tank,  that  leads  the  water  to  the  sewerages.    

05  Energy   • 


The  building  is  very  energy  efficient  as  the  water  and  ven1la1on  are  cons1tuted  out  of  recycle  processes.  Natural  light   is  abundant,  it  has  a  self  shading  system  thus  reducing  the  electric  consump1on  during  the  day  and  the  carbon   emission  foot  print.  Also  light  sensors  have  been  put  in  all  the  floors,  to  reduce  the  amount  of  electricity  used  and  the   heat  waves  produced  from  the  computer  is  energy  recycled  by  reapplying  at  the  heat  ven1la1on  system  of  the   building.  This  structure  not  only  saves  energy  in  the  ven1la1on  system  through  the  natural  water  collec1on  through   the  boreholes  and  electricity  through  the  solar  panels  on  the  roof  but  also  saves  energy  by  receiving  more  direct  light   and  reducing  area  space.      

05  Energy   •  On  the  roof  and   par1al  sides  of  the   GLA  there  are  solar   panels,  which  provide   around  70  kilo  wags   of  renewal  energy   and  3  million  kilo   wags  in  the  life1me   of  the  building.   Voltage  op1misa1on   technology  is   installed,  and  boiler   plant  lagging  is  being   used  to  help  minimise   heat  loss.  

06.  Recycle   • 

GLA  hired  i-­‐clean,  a  company  that  specializes  on  consul1ng  buildings  and  create  new  forms  in  which   can  make  the  building  greener  through  recycling  methods.  Through  studies  of  the  city  hall,  it  was   decided  that  the  disposals    rubbish  in  the  buildings  should  be  divided  into  3  categories:  Non  recyclable   rubbish,  other  recycling  and  glass  recycling.  The  three  bin  bags  are  placed  around  the  building,  thus   making  it  efficient  in  recycling  magers.    The  bags  are  then  collected  in  the  three  different  categories   and  be  respec1vely  distributed.  As  for  the  recycling  of  materials  in  construc1on,  the  floor  1les  in  the   inside  are  made  out  of  recycled  granite  and  leoover  granite  was  used  to  put  into  the  aggregate.    

07.  Synthesis   • 

As  a  synthesis,  the  London  city  hall  is  a  structure  developed  as  a  part  of  a  bigger  project,  whose   main  purpose  is  to  make  of  the  Bri1sh  capitals  buildings    more  modern,  innova1ve,  ecological,  green   and  recycling  ins1tu1ons.  Including  the  fact  and  responsibility  that  the  City  hall  is  a  building  to  be   admired  for  its  improvement  in  the  development  of  sustainability  and  energy  saving.  The  main  idea   behind  these  intrepid  building  is  to  show  that  the  future    developments  like  these    are  capable  to   embrace  the  environment  and  develop  mechanisms  in  which  natural  resources  are  not  being   savagely  consumed  but  safely  re  used  and  conserved.  Thus  giving  a  very  clear  example  of  a  very   promising  future  in  the  architecture  evolu1on.    

08.  Conclusion     In  conclusion,  crea1ng  and  developing  systems  that   help  the  environment  by  saving  energy  and    natural   resources,  is  one  of  the  key  ideas  that  sir  Norman   Foster  wanted  to  explain  while  construc1ng  the  city   hall.  Helps  also  as  a  reflec1on,  showing  that  this  kind   of  projects  are  possible  and  are  a  clear  obligatory   transi1on  of  how  sustainable  buildings  should  be  in   the  future.  Personally  I  am  impressed  in  the   complexity  of  the  systems  that  where  developed  for   this  and  how  well  where  they  covered  in  the   structure.  Every  object  in  the  construc1on  is  there   for  a  specific  reason  and  some1mes  has  mul1ple   uses,    making  of  it    a  remarkable  result  given  of  all   the  complicated  systems  that  where  developed   inside  this  self  developing  landmark.  Even  though  I   am  not  a  big  fan  of  the  volumetric  shape,  everything   else  is  admirable  to  me,  because  its  innova1on  and   progress,  specially  in  the  sustainable  part,  gives  us  a   perfect  example  that  beger  buildings  can  be   developed  for  the  preserve  of  our  natural  resources   and  our  future.       If  I  could  change  something,  it  would  probably  be  the   shape.  Even  though  is  built  with  specific  parameters  I   s1ll  believe  it  is  a  very  rigid  volume  and  has  no  real   elements  coming  in  and  out,  making  it  very  flat  and   doll  on  the  surface.  If  the  elements  would  go  back   and  forth  and  could  be  allowed  to  be  played  more  in   the  facades,  it  could  help  improve  in  the  self  shading,   natural  ven1la1on    and  the  dynamism  of  the   structure.  

09.  Bibliography   •  Web   •  hgp://­‐hall/   •  hgps://­‐hall/the-­‐building/key-­‐facts-­‐about-­‐ city-­‐hall   •  hgp://   •  hgps:// frxoldddcx6g52ce9svl   •  Books     •  Norman  Foster,  A  global  Architecture  (Mar1n  Pawley,  1999)   •  Self  Sustainability  in  construc1on,  II  Edi1on,  Mar1n  Doys,  2003  

London city hall