Page 1

P I E R 2 9 : C O A S T A L M A N U F A C T U R I N G R E V I VA L

A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Architecture Department in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Fine Arts in Architecture at Savannah College of Art and Design by

SAMUEL TITONE Savannah, GA August 2013


C

O N - 3 - 8

T

E

I M A G E S

N

T

1

C I T E D -

A B ST RACT

-

- 1 2 C H A P T E R - O N E Maritime History Overview Impact of Industrial Revolution Transitions in Maritime Industry Case Study: Baltimore’s Inner Harbor

- 3 2 C H A P T E R - T W O Site Analysis: San Francisco The Embarcadero Pier 29

- 6 6 C H A P T E R - T H R E E Program Analysis Experience Economy Experiential Manufacturing Case Study: BMW Welt Digital Fabrication

- 9 0 C H A P T E R - F O U R Pier 29 Re-Design Schematic Design Design Developement Final Design

- 1 2 7

C O N C L U S I O N

-1 28 W O R K S - 1 3 0 E

N

D

N

-

C I T E D O

T

E

S

-

1


2

3

-

I

M

A

G

E

S

-

20 Sam Titone

1 Sam Titone

21 Bill Powell

2 Sam Titone

22 Sam Titone

3 mapofusa.net

23 Sam Titone

4 Lore of Sailing

24 Sam Titone

5 http://lotusproactive.wordpress.com/2012/05/07/chasing-the-world-car/

25 Sam Titone

6 http://andyblumenthal.wordpress.com/category/enterprise-architecture/

26 Sam Titone

7 Lore of Sailing

27 Sam Titone

8 thenounproject.com

28 Sam Titone

9 http://bellpub.com/ug/covers.htm

29 Sam Titone

10 http://www.healthyharborbaltimore.org/state-of-the-harbor/history-of-the-harbor

30 Sam Titone

11 thenounproject.com

31 https://www.baycitizen.org/news/americas-cup/chris-daly-mayor-newsom-agree-americas/

12 http://www.baltimore.to/baltimore_panorama.html

32 http://zennie62blog.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/pier-from-waterside-536.jpg

13 Above San Francisco

33 http://www.cupinfo.com/images/ac34-sf-pier27-29-render-0001-1.jpg

14 Above San Francisco

34 Sam Titone

15 Sam Titone

35 Sam Titone

16 Above San Francisco

36 Sam Titone

17 Above San Francisco

37 Sam Titone

18 Above San Francisco

38 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/88/Pier_29_San_Fran.JPG

19 Above San Francisco

39 http://cdn.abclocal.go.com/images/kgo/cms_exf_2007/news/local/san_francisco/8709909_600x338.jpg


4

5

40 http://www.socketsite.com/Pier%2029%206-25-12.jpg

60 Sam Titone

41 http://ww4.hdnux.com/photos/13/66/71/3108479/5/628x471.jpg

61 Sam Titone

42 http://ww1.hdnux.com/photos/13/66/71/3108476/5/628x471.jpg

62 Sam Titone

43 Sam Titone

63 Sam Titone

44 Sam Titone

64 Sam Titone

45 http://ww2.hdnux.com/photos/12/33/17/2733025/9/628x471.jpg

65 Sam Titone

46 Sam Titone

66 Sam Titone

47 Sam Titone

67 Sam Titone

48 Sam Titone

68 Sam Titone

49 Edward Burtynsky

69 Sam Titone

50 thenounproject.com

70 Sam Titone

51 http://www.edwardburtynsky.com/

71 Sam Titone

52 thenounproject.com

72 Sam Titone

53 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 22

73 Sam Titone

54 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 189

74 Sam Titone

55 http://www.bmwblog.com/2009/09/04/wallpapers-bmw-welt/

75 Sam Titone

56 http://www.neublack.com/art-design/bmw-welt/

76 Sam Titone

57 Sam Titone

77 Sam Titone

58 Sam Titone

78 Sam Titone

59 Sam Titone

79 Sam Titone


6

7

80 Sam Titone

100 Sam Titone

81 Sam Titone

101 Sam Titone

82 Sam Titone

102 *render assistance by Connor Nicholas

83 Sam Titone

103 *render assistance by Connor Nicholas

84 Sam Titone

104 *render assistance by Connor Nicholas

85 Sam Titone

105 *render assistance by Connor Nicholas

86 Sam Titone

106 *render assistance by Connor Nicholas

87 Bill Powell

107 *render assistance by Connor Nicholas

88 Bill Powell

108 Sam Titone

89 Bill Powell

109 Sam Titone

90 Sam Titone

110 Sam Titone

91 Sam Titone 92 Sam Titone 93 Sam Titone 94 Sam Titone 95 Sam Titone 96 Sam Titone 97 Sam Titone 98 Sam Titone 99 Sam Titone


8

9

A

B

S T

R

A C

T

T

he void created by neglected industrial spaces within a coastal city is an open invitation for cultural revival, and creates an opportunity for

positive change within the area. This thesis will take an underutilized and abandoned area and revitalize it for the purpose of social, economical and environmental growth. Centered around the reworking of the United States manufacturing process, a once thriving industrial space may be revitalized, reused, and converted into a modern, mixed-use complex.

C O A S T A L

M A N U F A C T U R I N G

R E V I VA L

CENTERED AROUND THE REWORKING OF THE UNITED STATES MANUFACTURING PROCESS, A ONCE THRIVING INDUSTRIAL SPACE MAY BE REVITALIZED, REUSED, AND CONVERTED INTO A MODERN, MIXED-USE COMPLEX.


10

11

T

H

E

S I

Thesis Statement

Historically, port cities have been the backbone of the

S

P R O P

O

S

A

L

Significance of Study

Since the advent of the computer, we find ourselves

Method of Inquiry

This thesis will investigate, how coastal industries

Expected Outcome

This thesis will transform an outdated coastal indus-

United States. However, over time, with the constant introduc-

in a new technological revolution that is changing industries

began to develop, their importance to the surrounding area

trial building into a modern feature within a city. With the use

tion of new technology and the changing economy, industrial

and the structures that house them. The neglected and aban-

or city, how these industries begin to change, and finally, how

of digital fabrication techniques, these dated industrial build-

areas around the coastlines have been left with abandon.

doned industrial buildings along America’s coastline are a

digital fabrication techniques can begin to restructure U.S.

ings will be brought back to life in the 21st century.

These once thriving industrial areas once housing manufac-

representation of a once thriving and powerful country fueled

manufacturing to become a more experiential and user inter-

turing facilities have been overlooked with disregard over the

by manufacturing. Once the proud embodiment of a strong,

active process.

years.

industrial nation, these rundown warehouse facilities no lon-

With the exploration and application of Digital

Fabrication, an obsolete space can be converted into a modern fabrication complex that re-engages the city and the everchanging manufacturing industry.

ger stand as a testament to the strength of a nation.


13

A

merican port cities represent economic

lized, or abandoned industrial areas. This leaves great oppor-

achievements and cultural importance to the

tunity to restore these once thriving industrial structures into

United States.

a reincarnated area of economical and cultural importance. These industrial facilities are typically still structurally sound, usually with an open floor plan best suited for reuse. Once of

N e a r l y h a l f o f t h e n a t i o n ’s population lives within fifty miles of a coastline,

great importance, these industrial areas are still considered cultural icons. Maintaining the original structure would be a nostalgic nod to a once thriving industry, and would also have the economic and environmental benefits of cutting demolition and construction costs. These existing structures would,

3

however, need to be updated for the 21st century, creating a way to bridge the past to the present, while providing a new

attributing to the standing vitality and importance of coastal 1 living . Maritime industry was the fuel that jump-started the United States and is still a driving force in today’s port cities. The maritime industry has gone through many transformations since the Industrial Revolution. These transformations in 2

coastal industry have left port cities with outdated, under-uti-

experiential form to guide this new manufacturing process .


14

15 Most settlements chose areas near the water because of their

6 45 foot sailboats by 100BCE . The Vikings constructed 80 by

abundance in natural resources and ease in transportation.

17 foot sailboats for colonizing, trading, and war from 1000-

And as a settlement or civilization grew, it often expanded us-

7 1200 . Once Christopher Columbus sailed his last conquest

ing the waterways on which it built its existence. Dating back

in America, the sailing world seemed to have its eyes set on

to 4000BCE, the Phoenicians and Egyptians used cloth sails

advancements in production and performance. The early 19th

2 and a single carved out tree to sail short distances . It wasn’t

century was a time for experimentation with iron ships and

until around 2000BCE that extensive sailing trading networks

by 1850, England had several shipyards that solely serviced

were established in the Mediterranean and by iceboats in

8 iron vessels . Much of the change had to do with the introduc-

3 Scandinavia .

tion of the steam engine. The Europeans took their cue from

early port development: “By the early-eighteenth century, if

China proves to be a standing archetype for early

4 deve opments in port towns . The harsh terrain found in the

not earlier, Western Europe can be regarded as an effectively

interior of China made making use of the waterways an easy

integrated area, with port-cities functioning as key connecting

5 solution for transportation and commerce . Also, “in the

links in terms both of national and international trade and of

imperial era – and even after some rail services were intro-

capital and labour mobility” (Lawton 2002, 213).

duced – only those coastal cities located at the terminus of a waterway network could sustain strong and continuous commercial links with market towns in their hinterlands and in adjacent market systems,” further proving the significance of the coastal community (Yusuf, Wu 20). China played a distinct role in the history and development of port cities.

The Roman Empire could ship cargo on large, 180 by

Early civilizations show the vast and unparalleled importance of coastal townships. 4


17

T

he Industrial Revolution brought us into the modern age and reshaped the world we live in today. It reshaped our cities and connected them

to cities around the world. It also gave us an opportunity to make larger, longer lasting, open structures to house these industries that fueled society’s growth. The Industrial Revolution was driven by economical motives and a desire for capi9 tal . It was about making products as efficiently as possible and getting the greatest amount of goods to as many people 10

as possible

5

. As industrialization took off, many aspects of so-

14 roof from start to finish .

Ford innovated the moving assembly line and instead of bringing the man to the materials, he brought the materials to the man 15. Ford increased its efficiency in just about all aspects of the manufacturing process and because of this, the price of the

ciety increased along with it. From commercial banks, to stock

Model T was less than half of what it was almost 20 years

exchanges, to public transportation, water distribution, waste

prior

11 collection, etc . The standard of living began to rise for all

about everyone in society. Sales went from $39,640 in 1911 to

12 classes . The Ford Motor Company, founded in 1903 by Henry

17 $15 million in 1927 . The emergence of the assembly line in-

Ford, revolutionized not only automobile production but

troduced an entirely new manufacturing process. After Henry

13 manufacturing capabilities around the world . Henry Ford

Ford’s assembly line, mass production began to transform

set the industry apart from the rest in 1910 when he decided

industrial architecture.

to only produce the Model T and house the process under one

16

. This brought the automobile within reach for just


18

19 Detroit emerged as a leader in this development with the first concrete skeleton frame structure developed by architect 18 . European industrial plants, like Fiat Lingotto

Albert Kahn

car factory, Bally shoe factory, Van-nelle factory, and Fagus Works began to adopt these principles of mass production and large open floor plan manufacturing facilities

19

. Countless

manufacturers would follow in the wake of Henry Ford’s mass production model.

6


21

T

economy

. Because of these new factors, the scale of the

European exploration and colonization of the

industry increased in just about every aspect. There became

20 western hemisphere . With the American Revo-

giant liners, giant bulk carriers, and giant corporate structures

lution came a new role for American trade, shipbuilding, and

for shipbuilding in the second half of the 20th century

21 mercantile activities . Port cities became established and

saw dramatic expansions between the War of 1812 and the

becomes affected by a wide range of factors.

22

Civil War

. This was considered the golden age of American

23 merchant marine and American maritime industries . The great American clipper ship emerged in this time period and 24 began a new mercantile class in the process . This was a period in which the United States got put on the map within the global trade market and great international business partners

7

27

he American maritime industry begins with

28

.

The American maritime industry is unique in that it

It had to compete with other methods of transportation within the United States along with the global shipbuilding market and crew wages29.

25 were established . Much was accredited to the slave trade,

For a greater part of the past two centuries, the United States

and once the Civil War came along, the American maritime

has had higher shipbuilding costs and higher wages for mari-

26 industry saw its first decline . By the 20th century, American

30 time employees . Because of this, even American companies

maritime industries were faced with a multitude of develop-

31 would look to other countries for flagship . Railroads became

ments ranging from new technologies, new business struc-

a large competitor to maritime industry in the beginning of

tures, world wars, and a new “non-Euro-American� global

the 19th century

32

.


22

23 Eventually, railroads began surpassing the industry and purchasing coastal shipping lines

33

. By the Great Depression in

the 1930’s, both industries were on the verge of extinction

34

.

With the addition of the federal interstate highways in the

41 identity . Ships and shipping were global industries long before a global economy and globalization, and the maritime industry has shown its ability to adapt throughout history and 42 will continue to do so .

1950’s, the trucking industry brought about a new layer in the transportation competition

. In the late 1950’s a new com-

petitor emerged in the form of a jet airplane and the maritime industry has struggled to keep up ever since

The American maritime industry is unique in that it

Changes in maritime industry can leave many port cities in a state of neglect.

35

36

.

becomes affected by a wide range of factors.

Steamships were powered by coal in the 19th century

and moved to petroleum by the 20th century

37

. Because of

Industries are created in strategic areas within a

the drastic surge in petroleum prices in the late 20th century

port city and they begin to provide economical and cultural

and early 21st century, along with extremely high maintenance

importance for that area. Once that industry changes or

costs for large ships of today, it is becoming increasingly dif-

becomes outdated these port cities are left with a void where

ficult to keep ships moving in today’s market

38

. This, along

there was once great value in the area. This leaves a great op-

with many other factors, forced United States shipyards to

portunity for the city to revitalize that area and bring econom-

undergo vast restructuring, including closings and mergers in

ical and cultural importance back to these areas of neglect or

the later part of the 20th century

39

. By the first decade of the

21st century, 45 percent of all US shipbuilding industry came from eight of the largest US shipyards

40

. American maritime

8

abandon. There are many examples of port cities revitalizing neglected industrial areas in the time since the Industrial Revolution. A good case study to investigate within the United

industry is still a central part of American national security,

States is Baltimore’s Inner Harbor urban waterfront develop-

economic life, and thus plays a major role in America’s self-

ment.

Largely impacted by

R a i l w a y, H i g h w a y, a n d A i r t r a v e l .


24

25

/ 1 3 / NEW

SAN

YORK

FRANCISCO/ 1 4 / LOS ANGELES

/05/

G L O B A L S E A P O R T RA N K I N G : C O N TA I N E R C A PA C I T Y ( m a r a d . g o v )

/ 2 4 / HOUSTON


27

A

ccording to the American Institute of Architects

46 declining trend . The original plan was to take on a 300 acre

(AIA), Baltimore’s Inner Harbor is

central business district for revitalization but was diluted to 47 a starting point of 22 acres within the downtown area . The

“one of the supreme achievements of large-scale urban design and development in US history” (Global Harbors Documentary).

first phase was the Charles Center project, located downtown, included a design competition in 1959, won by Mies van der 48

Rohe

. There were many successful metropolitan projects in

the four years after the competition, and the Charles Center 49 . Because of this quick

project had proved to be successful

success, the project set its sights on the redevelopment of the downtown waterfront, an area eight times larger than that of

In the 1950’s and 1960’s, Baltimore was the eighth

50

.

largest city in the Unites States but seemed to be the least

43 known . Maritime industries declined in the 1950’s because

51 a result been abandoned in Baltimore’s Inner Harbor . The

of other transportation competition, new technologies, and

surrounding businesses suffered because of this and soon

44 changing businesses . This, in addition to urban dwellers mi-

became obsolete

grating to surrounding suburbs, prompted a ten-year decline 45 in downtown property values . The planning council of the 9

the Charles Center project

greater Baltimore committee was established to reverse this

The shipping industry had become outdated and as

52 .


28

29 By 1963, Baltimore’s mayor, Theodore McKeldin, was ready to take advantage of this opportunity for waterfront redevel-

Benefits the surrounding area,

53

opment

. There were three main aspects of the proposal:

waterfront office buildings, multi-family housing on the east and west sides of the harbor, and a public playground in the 54

center

11

.

The Inner Harbor master plan of 1964 was not only

Socially - Economically - Environmentally

completed within the projected 30 years, but it did so in 20 years with three times the development as was originally conceived

10

55

. Sixty new projects were either built or recycled

by year 2000 and the revitalized inner harbor has begun to put Baltimore back on the map as one of America’s prominent 56

cities

. The Inner Harbor has brought tens of thousands of

new jobs to the area, 6.5 million tourists each year, and $550 million in new offices, hotels, residences, and entertainment 57

venues

.

This urban scale redevelopment project, despite

having little focus on maritime industry itself, still shows the potential success a revitalization project can have on neglected coastal industrial areas. 12


30

31 There is room for restructuring and rejuvenation along today’s

the plan’s lack of attention to revitalize the area’s history in

coastlines. As evidenced by Baltimore’s Inner Harbor, and the

marime manufacturing and shipping.

tremendous influence it has had on cities around the world (i.e. Sydney, Australia; Rotterdam, the Netherlands; Long Beach, California; Norfolk, Virginia; etc.), coastal revitalization projects can bring a great deal of growth and prosperity to rundown waterfronts

58

. The remains of unattended industrial

buildings, historically home to large-scale manufacturing and shipping holdings, are left empty at present. But in the emptiness is an opportunity for the resurgence of culture. A new age of experiential manufacturing can revitalize this once thriving industrial area into mix-use complex that will provide a new social layer to the location. A structure that was once a significant player in the game of shipping and commerce may now breathe new life into an experiential form to showcase a new manufacturing process. A process that will not just house the manufacturing, but involve the user from design all the way to final presentation of product.

This waterfront redevelopement model was suc-

cessful in the imediate, however, time has taken a toll on Baltimore’s Inner Harbor. I believe this has much to do with


32

33

C H A P T E R S A N

13

T W O

F R A N C I S C O

14


34

35

Rich history in ferry transportation that decreased dramatically with the addition of major roadways and the Golden Gate and Oakland bridges. 15


36

37

16

18

17

19


39

T

G O L D E N G AT E B R I D G E

H

38

E E M B A R C A D E R

DOWNTOWN

O OA K L A N D B R I D G E

The city has its downtown core to the northeast, but each aspect of the city is influenced by it’s surrounding sectors.

G O L D E N G A T E PA R K

OCEAN BEACH

20


40

41

O

cean Beach offers a slower pace beach community to the west while the financial district provides 24 hour activity to the northeast. This

activity begins to feed onto the waterfront and a major goal of this project is to begin to introduce more green spaces and beach community influences, found in other parts of the city,

21

22 to the waterfront tourist areas.


42

43

D I S T R I C T

8

D I S T R I C T N O R T H E A S T F I N A N C I A L N O B

D O W N T O W N D I S T R I C T

H I L L

N O R T H

W A T E R F R O N T

R U S S I A N

H I L L

T E R E G R A P H

D

8

H I L L

T E N D E R L O I N

istrict 8 contains many of San Francisco’s

Market Street feeds directly into the financial district from

premier and historic neighborhoods within the

Twin Peaks park and has easy access to Golden Gate park.

city. These include the northeast downtown,

District 8 is in need of some similar green space outlets and

financial district, Nob Hill, North Waterfront, Russian Hill,

this project will be pulling influences from parks on the west

Reregraph Hill, Tenderloin, and Van Ness/Civic Center.

side of the city.

V A N

N E S S /

C I V I C

24

C E N T E R

24


44

45

T H E

E M B A R C A D E R O

P O R T O F S A N F R A N C I S C O

25


46

47

T H E

E M B A R C A D E R O

W

aterfront faced with many transitions because of bridges, highways, and earthquakes. Because of this, the Embarcadero

presents a beautiful redevelopement project for downtown San Francisco. 26

27


48

49

T

he Embarcadero now acts as one of the most pe-

There are more and more restaurants, bars, shopping, and

destrian friendly areas in the city and has become

scenic views to take in along the Embarcadero day and night.

one of the tourist hotspots in San Francisco. There

are ferry tours that depart from piers along the Embarcadero that tour the bay and surrounding islands like Alcatraz.

28

29


50

51

After the 1989 earthquake damage, the highway was removed from the Embarcadero and led to a boom in waterfront redevelopement projects.

30


52

53

A M E R I C A’ S P I E R

31

C U P

R E D E V E L O P E M E N T

32

The America’s Cup is giving the city of San Francisco $55 million for pier repairs and long term developement. The America’s Cup is one of the premier Sailboat races of

The race began with schooner’s and led to major yacht de-

the year. It is held at different locations around the world,

velopements as years past. The America’s cup represents the

and showcases the worlds fastest sailboats of the time. The

worlds fastest superyachts and developements in the most

America’s Cup began in 1851 between the Isle of Wight and the

current fabrication methods and materials.

south coast of England.

33


54

55

P I E R

34

2 9


56

57

P

ier 29 was constructed in 1900 and was origionally

Each pier along the Embarcadero is heavy timber clad with

used for ferry cargo storage and shipping. Durring

stucco. They feature a parapet at the head of each pier and are

WWII the pier was used for military purposes

two stories in height with an open floor plan. The piers are

and has been abandoned ever since. The pier itself is about

classically detailed to the street with a large arch topped by a

125,642 square feet with 150,000 square feet of adjacent lot.

keystone framing the entry.

35


58

59

The pier consists of 12 storage bays along the east side (land)

There are two windows in between each bay along the east and

and 13 along the west side (water). There is water access for

west side’s of the pier as well as seven skylights for increased

ferries and medium side shipping boats to the west side of the

natural light throughout the space.

pier and vihicular access through the center core of the pier and along the east side of the pier. 36

37


60

61

39

42

40

Pier 29 sustained fire damage in October 2012, but imedietly began re-construction to be brought back to origional structure. This project was funded by the City and The America’s Cup sailboat race in order to use the pier for event space. 38

41

43


62

63

44

45


64

65

47

P

I

E

R

S H A R E S W I T H

2 T H E P I E R

Pier 27 is currently in the final stage of construc-

7

tion and the new cruise ship terminal will open in Summer 2013 in time for the America’s Cup

L O T 2 9 46

48


C H A P T E R P R O G R A M

49

T H R E E A N A L Y S I S


68

69

M

D I S C O N N E C T

50

DESIGN

MANUFACTURE

SELL

anufacturing was once the pride of the

turing standards put little thought towards the assembly and

United States’ economy and was the fuel

production of a consumer good. A concept or design is sent to

that propelled it into becoming a world

a manufacturer in order for a design to become a physical ob-

power. With advances in technology, along with the outsourc-

ject, but that is not its final stop. It is common for the product

ing of production for cheaper labor and materials, the United

to be sent to a third and fourth party before eventually getting

States manufacturing industry is not what it used to be. In

into the hands of the consumer. This process is long, drawn

its simplest terms, the goal of today’s manufacturing is to

out, and requires the use of several different resources along

increase the quantity and rate of production. In doing so, the

the way. This thesis explores a new mode of manufacturing

scale of facilities is growing at an alarming rate. This trend is

in which all steps - from design to purchase - are kept under

not proving to be beneficial to humanity as a whole.

the same roof. In doing so, the consumer is not only buying

Larger facilities begin to dominate landscapes and cultures while they eat away at more and more natural resources. Humanity must look toward the application of manufacturing on a small scale in order to eliminate outsourcing and keeping the whole process in one location. Current manufac-

a product, but an experience as well. This manufacturing enhancement provides social, economical and environmental benefits. 14


70

71 The Maritime industry found itself in a state of decline based

industrial zones into mix-use, and providing a user experience

on previously stated variables in Chapter 1(Competition with

from the pedestrian to the employee, experiential manufactur-

other modes of transportation, material costs, labor costs,

ing can begin engage with its context.

production costs, etc.), as well as a great disconnect from the

surrounding area. It was once founded on its key location

of economic offerings: commodities, goods, services, and

for raw materials and ease in transportation. Once industrial

1 experiences . Experiences are the result of the transition from

areas were zoned specifically for manufacturing and materi-

commodities to goods, then services. Experiences are the most

als were being shipped in to these locations, the area became

recent economical offering and are vastly distinct from the

disconnected from the place and therefore not specific to the

2 rest . Experiences are usually overlooked in the economy but

larger context. This had a hand in the

are important because they encompass the most potential for

Outsourcing of U. S. manufacturing

Inside the world of business, there are four areas

Inside the world of business, there are four areas of economic offerings: commodities, goods, services, and experiences .

growth.

51

COMMODITIES

GOODS

SERVICES

because the location no longer had relevance to the product. There becomes no other purpose for these industrial zones, and therefore no reason for the public to be in these areas. In fact, other than workers, pedestrians usually aren’t allowed in these industrial zones. This did not lend itself to a good worker or user experience, and once the industry left there was nothing for these industrial zones to fall back on. By rezoning these

Experience Economy

EXPERIENCES


72

73 When one buys an experience, they pay to spend time enjoy-

ral world” (Pine 1999, 7). Agricultural commodities shaped

ing a series of memorable events that they keep for a lifetime

the framework of the agrarian economy that, during the 18th

3

.

century, supplied more than 80 percent of the United States’

When an experience is accompanied with a product, it not only enhances the product but also gives more value to the person.

52

6 workforce . With the introduction of the Industrial Revolution, this 80 percent of the US workforce soon dropped to less 7 than three percent of today’s population working on farms . By the 1850’s, the United States factory systems developed their own production innovations and became known as the

This experience economy gives a new layer to a business and

8 American System of Manufacturing .

the potentials seem limitless. Manufacturing has gone through

many transitions since the Industrial Revolution, and the ad-

9 panies can then create goods to sell in a variety of ways . Man-

dition of experience gives a new potential to revitalize in the

ufacturing processes are utilized in transforming these com-

21st century.

10 modities into a multitude of goods . By the 1880’s, the United

States had become the world’s leader in manufacturing and a

This experience economy is building on the flow from

By using these commodities as raw materials, com-

commodities to goods to services, and ends with experiences.

11 majority of the U.S. workforce was within the factory system .

Commodities are raw materials extracted from the earth

This boom in manufacturing, along with Henry Ford’s advent

that are either raised on the ground, grown in the ground, or

of the assembly line, became a major factor in the United

4 mined under the ground . They include the slaughtering of

States positioning itself as the number one economic power in

livestock, the mining of raw materials, and the harvesting of

the 20th century. Manufacturing workers began to decline as

5 crops . According to Joseph Pine’s The Experience Economy,

innovations in machines progressed and the number of goods

commodities are “fungible materials extracted from the natu-

12 produced increased at an exponential rate .


74

75 13 This soon led to the rise of the service economy in the 1950’s .

rience to change an individual’s prior state of mind or being

Services, according to Pine, are “intangible activities cus-

into one that is beneficial for a product or business.

tomized to the individual request of known clients. Service providers use goods to perform operations on a particular client or on his property or possessions” (Pine 1999, 8). Services have become a large part of today’s economy and have been the leader in job opportunities in today’s market. Just

The opportunity for a consumer experience is usually overlooked, but encompasses the most potential for growth.

as commodities and goods dominated the market at certain points in the US economy, times change and markets shift.

There are many examples of businesses and companies utiliz-

The service economy is currently peaking, much to do with the

ing experiences to enhance their product, some for marketing

Internet age and the capability for a friction-free, instant price

purposes and others to set their product apart from the rest.

14 comparison market . But much like previous shifts in the

Joseph Pine stresses the importance of a user experience in

past, goods and services are no longer enough for a modern

manufacturing in his book Experience Economy, “Manufac-

business.

tures must experientialize their goods” (Pine 1999, 16).

Experience economy offers a new layer that engages

individuals in a personal way. Pine describes, “ While commodities are fungible, goods tangible, and services intangible, experiences are memorable” (Pine 1999, 11-12). Experiences occur when an individual is engaged in an emotional, physical, intellectual, or spiritual level, and no two people have the 15 same experience . This is a profound idea that uses an expe-

53


76

77

E

xperiences have been proven to be useful in Man-

The interior is made up of a circular ramping system that cre-

ufacturing. These user experiences range from

ates a processional experience, much like a newlywed couple

plant tours to creating a ride like experience to

walks down the aisle.

teach about the product all the way to the extremes of creating a theme park, like Hershey Park. These examples add a new layer to their manufacturing business, but rarely do they have the architecture of the facility provide the experience. A good example of architecture being used to create and enhance the user experience is BMW ’s BMW World at their headquarters in Munich, Germany. BMW World is not just an exhibition space and dealership but it is also an

54

experience for the BMW customer to drive away from the factory with their dream car. One enters a complex that portrays the company’s sleek and bold style and drive away with the same exhilarating feeling.

55


78

79

T

his experience economy proves to be an additional

capabilities have been utilized in engineering, industrial

facet in the manufacturing market. Manufactur-

design, manufacturing industries, and, most recently, archi-

ing has gone through many transitions since the

18 tectural applications . Major industries that are innovative

Industrial Revolution and the addition of experience has the

in these processes, for a greater part of the past half-century,

potential to revitalize the American manufacturing industry.

19 include automotive, aerospace, and maritime industries .

Much of today’s manufacturing has become a digital process.

This digital fabrication process provides a streamlined order

modeling software, and then data is transferred to computer-

of operations that result in a more customizable product.

controlled machines. Scaled models are typically created

Digital fabrication offers an opportunity for experiential manufacturing because of its ability for irregular forms and its potential for customization.

Parts are designed and built using 3-D computer

with rapid-prototyping machines, and then full-scale models 20 and molds are created for mass production . This is a very streamlined process that eliminates many intermediate steps that are typically involved in a non-computerized manufacturing process. There becomes a seamless relationship between prototype and final design. There is a wide range of automated

56

Digital fabrication is a way of using digital data to

processes involved with digital fabrication including; punch-

16 inform a fabrication process . It relies on computer driven

ing, laser-cutting, water-jet cutting, computer numerically

17 machines in order to cut or sculpt a material . Computer-aid-

21 controlled (CNC) routing, die cutting, and 3D printing .

ed design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)


80

81

D

DESIGN

I

G

I

CAD

T

A

L

W

CAM

O

R

K

F

L

O

W

CONTROL

D

I

G

I

T

A

L

L

Y

D

R

I

V

E

N

M

A

C

H

I

N

E

S

M AC H I N E 57

CUTTERS

CNC MACHINES

3D PRINTERS

2 Axis

3-6 Axis

3 Axis

ROBOT ARMS 4 Axis and above


82

83 Digital Fabrication gives greater customization capabili-

with them, there are digital fabrication production processes

ties without the extra costs. A key aspect of computer-aided

that have become industry standards for creating virtually any

manufacturing is the ability to make a series of unique pieces

form.

with the same effort and similar cost to those that are mass-

produced

23

. This has great potentials in the world of user-

Sectioning is commonly used with standard building

materials because it is a fabrication technique that uses two-

specific and user-customizable manufacturing, and lends

dimensional building blocks in order to create a three-dimen-

itself to an experiential manufacturing process.

28 sional form . Sectional ribbing, parallel stacking, and waffle

grid construction are not specific to digital fabrication, but

There are a variety of digital fabrication methods

S E C T I O N I N G :

in which to produce a digital three-dimensional form. These

with the use of 3D modeling these processes become a simple

methods are utilized in many industries and have the ability to

solution in creating complex forms in full scaled models

produce any three-dimensional form. These digital fabrication

Computer controlled two-and-a-half and three axis machines

methods include sectioning, tessellation, folding, contour-

such as laser cutters, CNC routers, water-jet and plasma cut-

ing, and forming. Complex or large-scale objects are usually

ters, are used to cut these two-dimensional building materials

produced by a combination of the listed processes and for the

30 in order to create a final three-dimensional form .

29

. 58

most part one process could be replaced with another. This is where the need for the designer comes into experiential manufacturing. A user could have input, even to the point of customizing every aspect of a project, but the designer makes the idea a reality and understands the most effective process to do so. Although there is a variety of digitally controlled machines that have specific uses and processes associated

Digital fabrication methods include sectioning, tessellation, folding, contouring, and forming.

59


84

85 F O L D I N G :

T E S S E L L A T I N G :

Folding is a simple method that transforms a flat

machines, laser-cutters have the capability of engraving and

can easily cut different line types, such as dashed, dotted, and

Digital Fabrications, as “A collection of pieces that fit together

ing. NURBS and mesh modeling are currently the two primary

Folding has deep roots in craft-based practices and product

41 scored . Since laser-cutters have the capabilities of scor-

without gaps to form a plane or surface� (Iwamoto 2009,

ways to digitally 3D model and both are typically utilized in

design and with the addition of digital tools has even found its

ing at different depths in the material, and not just cutting

36). Tessellations date back to ancient times and there are

33 producing a tessellated surface . NURBS (Non-Uniform Ra-

place in larger architectural contexts. Folding a flat material by

straight through, they can make seams in a material without

examples from ancient Rome, the Byzantine Empire, Gothic

tional B -Spline) modeling uses smooth curves and surfaces to

adding a crease adds structural stiffness that was previously

sacrificing the integrity of the material. Typically, only pliable

cathedrals, and Islamic architecture, among many others.

generate a curved or non-uniform form. Meshes use polygons

materials are incorporated in this fabrication process so the

They include mosaics, screen walls, stained glass, and surface

34 and subdivisions to break up and approximate a surface .

42 material has the ability of bending without breaking .

patterns that were hand crafted and involved a very labor

These subdivisions are flat surfaces that are typically used to

intensive process of assembling many small pieces to make

make up a curved surface. NURBS models can easily be made

structural quality along with the wide range of forms that are

31 up a larger final design . Brick walls, stained glass windows,

into meshes then broken down into a vector-line file in order

capable with the process of folding shows the great poten-

and panelized facades can all be considered tessellated, but

35 to move into fabrication .

tial of variety that is endowed with this fabrication process.

in terms of digital design, tessellation is more concerned with

Folding includes creased surfaces, folded plates, and wrapped

approximating singly or doubly curved surfaces with polygo-

two-dimensional surface into a three-dimensional one

not associated with the material

36

.

37

. Not only does the material

gain stiffness and rigidity but it also gives the opportunity for the material to span distances and be self-supporting

39

volumes

38

. The

Lisa Iwamoto describes tessellating in her book,

32 nal meshes .

.

Digital 3D modeling programs have embedded com-

Digital technologies have brought a new layer to

mands that create a seamless workflow with folded forms

patterning and tessellation with the ease and ability to go

to fabrication. One command in particular unrolls three-

from design to production. A digital 3D model can easily be

dimensional forms into two-dimensional building pieces

40 .

transferred into a vector-line file that can be sent into a manu-

Laser-cutters are the most common digitally driven machine

facturing method. This digital workflow allows for a more fluid

used to create a folded form because unlike other three-axis

fabrication process and, in doing so, significantly cuts down

the labor previously associated with patterning and tessellat-


86

87 F O R M I N G :

C O N T O U R I N G : 55 with male molds . The process of stamping uses the combi-

Mass-produced objects and even the packages that most

nation of male and female molds to form a material into the

three-dimensional relief by systematically removing layers

router and this means the router head can move simultane-

things are sold in are created from a formwork, typically

desired shape.

43 of a material . There is a long history associated with the

ously in three different directions: forward and backward, side

referred to as “molds” or “forms.” Although the forming

wood and stone carving craft, but digital fabrication offers

to side, and up and down (the Cartesian coordinate system,

process itself is not a digital process, the formwork is most

a potential in digital craft. The process of contouring, more

49 ‘x,’ ‘y,’ and ‘z’ directions) . The CNC router head has rotation

51 commonly created using digital fabrication processes . Molds

so than other digital fabrication processes, involves a more

capabilities and have up to six axes of rotation total for creat-

can be created from just about any object, but can easily be

in-depth process in which the digital model is translated into

ing undercuts and milling an object in the round

defined using a digital 3D model and produced with a CNC

a language a computer-controlled router can understand

router. Digital fabrication processes create new possibilities

Variable’s need to first be defined, such as size and type of

for conceiving and designing cost-effective non-standardized

router bit, material being cut, and the path of tool to travel

Formed objects are a large aspect of modern life.

52

molds

. Prototypes are commonly generated with the use of

48 and rotating . Most commonly used is a three axis CNC

Contouring is a subtractive process that creates a

44

.

45 .

Once variables are defined, a separate software must generate

a rapid-prototyping machine such as 3-dimensional print-

tool-path data using a programming language specific to CNC

ers that use an additive process to build a form with layering

machines, called the G-code

53

system

. This gives a wider range of form possibilities and a

46 . It is called this because it lists

multiple operations for a specific job, such as spindle position,

mold is then created from the prototype.

47 speed, and depth . These operations have a list of commands

associated with them and each command starts with the letter

Forming processes involve the use of a negative

(female) mold, positive (male) mold, or the combination of 54

both

. Casting, vacuum and thermo forming, and injection

G.

CNC routers are the only digitally controlled ma-

and rotor molding involve the use of a negative (female) mold,

chines used in a contouring process, but there are a variety of

while vacuum and thermo forming are also commonly used

types based on how many axes the router is capable of moving

50

.


88

89

E

X

P

E

R

I

E

N

T

I

A

L

M

A

N

U

F

A

C

T

U

R

I

N

G

A D D I T I O N

While all these digital fabrication techniques are

heavily used in today’s manufacturing industries, they are be-

\ 4 6 K

S F \

\ 5 5 K

\ S T U D I O L O F T S \ \ WA T E R F R O N T V I E W I N G \ \ \ B A R \ R E S T A U R A N T \ C A F E

S F \

coming increasingly more applicable and affordable to smaller industries. This digital workflow allows for non-standard forms that can be easily modified and replicated. This lends

E X I S T I N G S T R U C T U R E

itself towards a more customizable product that can begin to incorporate the user at an extremely early design stage that could never previously be considered. With the relationship

\ 4 2 K

between design and machine being so closely tied in this

\ 3 8 K

digital workflow, the digitally controlled machines become

\ S H O P \ \ P U B L I C E D U C A T I O N \ \ \ D I G I T A L F A B R I C A T I O N

S F \

S F \

increasingly more important and there becomes a need for

P U B L I C P A R K

every step to be in-house and on the site. This would significantly reduce the United States’ dependency on outsourcing

60

of manufacturing and would begin to rebuild our economy

\ P U B L I C G A T H E R I N G \ \ E V E N T S P A C E \ \ \ V I E W I N G A R E A S

around U.S. manufacturing once again.

\ 1 5 3 K

S F \ 61


90

91

C H A P T E R P I E R

62

2 9

F O U R

R E - D E S I G N


92

93

MARINE ACCESS

SURROUNDING G R E E N S PA C E 63

SURROUNDING PIERS

VEHICULAR ACCESS

SITE ACCESS PAT H S 64


94

95 65.

65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79.

Preliminar y Site Model Study Model Study Model Study Model Site Diagram Site Diagram Study Model Study Model Study Model Site Diagram Site Diagram Site Diagram Site Diagram Site Diagram Site Diagram

T

he preliminary design process started with Pier

(blue representing water interactive zones, green representing

29’s relationship to its adjacent piers and sur-

public park areas, grey representing workshop zones, and red

rounding streets. Figure 65 shows a culmination of

representing a manufacturing zone) and Figure 70 (showing

this process in that the four main downtown streets (Chestnut St. and Lambard St. from the west, and Battery St. and Sansome St. from the south) feed into the site and how Battery St. begins to influence a designed incision of the existing Pier 29. This incision would peel off the surface and expose the existing structure in order to subdivide the pier and to add an open, inviting, public corridor through the center of a long structure. Different study model variations of this “peeling away” from the existing structure are shown in figures 66,67, 68, 71, 72, and 73.

66.

67.

68.

69.

There is a central corridor that runs the length of Pier

29 that has a street front vehicular entrance along the Embarcadero where Chestnut St. and Sansome St. intersect. This central corridor became a strong datum line in the initial design and space layout. Major spaces were broken up into water

70.

71.

72.

73.

viewing areas, green park areas, and industrial manufacturing areas within the existing pier. This can be seen in Figure 69

retail and experiential public paths throughout the site).


96

97

Datum lines were created on the master plan based

down to the water. The final blue zone on the right is the main

on extensions of major roads leading into the site, setbacks

waterfront viewing area that looks out at the end of the pier

from the adjacent Pier 27, and existing waterfront setbacks

and provides a good waiting and viewing area as the cruise

and layout of Pier 29. These datum lines were then used for

ships dock at Pier 27.

space layout, site access points, and public paths on site. Fig-

ures 74-76 show the datum line creation process and ending

space layout scheme with the same color-coding as figure 77.

with subdivided spaces on the site for different purposes and

Figure 79 is also showing one of many path layout schemes

functions.

through the preliminary design phase. The red paths are

Figure 77 begins to explain the preliminary zoning

geared toward the fabrication experience. One that is a walk-

within the subdivided spaces on site. The blue public expe-

through of the fabrication space itself and the other is a retail

riential path creates the separate zones on the site with two

path for the products to be sold. The brown path is the tourist

retail oriented paths in red. These retail paths are designated

path through the sculpture garden. All the paths end at the

for products that are manufactured on site to be sold in these

end of the pier with the best view on the site.

Figure 78 is showing one of many iterations of this

74.

75.

76.

77.

78.

79.

areas on site. The two gray zones are the main use of the existing building and they house the workshop spaces. The red zone is designated for high-tech digital fabrication. The green zones show the public park and sculpture garden areas. The blue zone on the left represents a water use area in which boats can interact with the structure. Just above this is the waterfront interaction area in which the public will be able to go


98

99

80

Stu dy Mo d el Vi g ne tte

81

Stu dy Mo d el Vi g ne tte


100

101

P H A S E S P H A S E

O F

O N E :

P H A S E

P R O J E C T P H A S E

F A B W O O D

&

M E T A L

S H O P

T W O :

L A B

R E T A I L / J E W E L D I S P L A Y S

M E M B E R S H I P

T H I N K

F I V E :

P U B L I C

B O X

S C U L P T U R E

T A N K

82

R O O F

S K A T E

83

P A R K P A R K

P A R K

A M P H E T H E A T R E

P H A S E

P H A S E

T H R E E :

F O U R : 86

A R T I S T

L I V E / W O R K

R E S I D E N T I A L F A B L A B

B R E W E R Y

L O F T S

U N I T S U S E R S

F O R

R O O F G A R D E N / V I E W I N G A R E A

84

85

The Project can be broken down into five phases of develop-

ing in the elevated studio lofts (proposed in Phase 3) would

ment, all loosely based on funding as the project matures.

have direct access to the digital fabrication lab in Phase 2. The

The first phase is the Woodshop and Metalshop membership,

‘FabLab’ would also accommodate the artists in preparing and

open to the public. This would involve minimal renovation

selling their work with pop out retail units that open out into

cost. Phase 2 and 3 would be closely related, while artists liv-

the public park space.


S K A T E

87

88

WA V E

89

I N S P I R E D

I N F L U E N C E D A R O U N D

T H E

B Y

P A R K : A N D S K A T E P A R K S

W O R L D

S N A K E R U N B O W L F U L L T U B E

Phase 4 begins to deal with public interaction on

in the lot between Piers 29 and 27. These additions will bring

as an adjacent brewery. This will bring pedestrians through

a majority of public interaction to the site. The skate park

the site and allow for a scenic meal while tourists wait at the

was heavily influenced by the Ocean Beach neighborhood’s

cruise terminal at Pier 27. The roof of this area will be an ex-

laidback ownership of surfing lifestyle and culture (87-90). It

tension of the park laid out in Phase 5 and will be utilized for

could be characterized as a ‘flow’ park or a ‘surfer skate park’

its public views and public garden areas.

because of its long snake run and large bowl with a full pipe. It

also has influences from parks around the world (92-94).

Other aspects of Phase 5 will include park areas for

T U N N E L S 91

A M P E T H E A T R E

the retail pop-outs, an amphitheater, and a public skate park

the site. The end of the pier will have a bar/restaurant, as well

P I P E

90

92

93

94


104

105

CENTERED AROUND THE REWORKING OF THE UNITED STATES MANUFACTURING PROCESS, A ONCE THRIVING INDUSTRIAL SPACE MAY BE REVITALIZED, REUSED, AND CONVERTED INTO A MODERN, MIXED-USE COMPLEX.

CENTERED AROUND THE REWORKING OF THE UNITED STATES MANUFACTURING PROCESS, A ONCE THRIVING INDUSTRIAL SPACE MAY BE REVITALIZED, REUSED, AND CONVERTED INTO A MODERN, MIXED-USE COMPLEX.


106

107

T

he final master plan shows the scale and intricacy

front, park, the skate park and public events in the amphithe-

of the project. The existing Pier 29 is divided into

ater. It also offers a glimpse into the manufacturing process on

two sections, one having minimal renovations, and

the site. The path that runs along the right side of Pier 29 and

the other being converted into a state of the art digital fabrica-

the adjacent park areas are laid out for pop-out retail booths

tion space ready for manufacturing. The space also includes a

in which retailers can sell goods being produced inside Pier

green roof featuring a bar lounge. The parallelogram addition

29’s shop spaces and fabrication lab. This creates a proffer for

at the end of Pier 29 relates to the modern renovation on the

the public in how small scale manufacturing can be integrated

interior of the fabrication space. It is three stories and holds a

into public spaces while also giving artists using Pier 29 the

large entrance lobby on the ground floor, exhibition and group

ability to manufacture and sell on site.

workspace on the second floor, and live/work artist lofts on the

third floor.

The rest of the project is dedicated to public interac-

tion. At the end of the pier there is a bar/restaurant and brewery with public park space on the green roof. Three sloped hills lead up to the park area, two of which direct visitors into public interactive tide pools. In the middle of the lot there is

M A S T E R

P L A N

a public skate park and amphitheater that are surrounded by smaller, triangular park areas. There is a public path that 94

ambles through the site and lends to great views of the water-


108

1 - BAR RESTAURANT 2 - BREWERY 3 - TIDE POOL 4 - RAMP TO WATER 5 - OPEN LOBBY 6 - RESTROOMS 7 - OFFICES/LOADING AREA 8 - SHIPPING BOAT LOADING 9 - DISPLAY/POP OUT BOOTHS 10- FABRICATION/MACHINE ASSEMBLY 11- POP OUT BOOTH PREP AREA 12- OPEN AIR BREEZEWAY 13- WOODSHOP 14- METAL SHOP 15- SKATEPARK 16- AMPHITHEATRE

3 1

The ground level is where the heart of the project

4

national shipping (8). The metal shop (14) and wood shop (15)

lives, and where the balance between public and private

are related to the fab lab. Fab lab users will have access to the

spaces manifests itself. The bulk of the small-scale manufac-

metal and wood shops, but public memberships will only be

turing happens in the digital fabrication area (7,10, and 11).

available for the metal and wood shop. The fab lab is designat-

This area includes 3D printers for rapid prototyping, three axis

ed specifically for the artists inhabiting the live/work studios

CNC machines with replaceable heads for milling and plasma

and companies that rent the space.

cutting, laser cutters and a large five axis CNC machine.

These can also be used for part assembly in order to create

by public interactive areas beneficial to public waterfront

other job-specific machines. The concept is that any person

activity at the Embarcadero. The amphitheater (16) will be

or company with access to the fab lab will not only be able to

a great opportunity for public concerts, gatherings, fashion

manufacture their goods, but will also be able to construct

shows, and, most recently, an ideal location for the sailing

their own specific machinery in order to keep their production

competition America’s Cup award ceremony. The skate park

going wherever they decide to move their operation.

(15) will provide a constant flow of energy onto the site and

give another viewing opportunity for pedestrians on the site.

2

6 7 8

9

This small-scale manufacturing pier is surrounded

10

The goods being produced in the fab lab have the op-

5

109

portunity to be prepped and sold in the pop-out retail booths

The brewery (2) and bar/restaurant (1) will provide a scenic

on the right side of the pier (11 and 9). There is vehicular

lunch and dinner spot while also maintaining the concept of

access through the center corridor of the pier while marine

on-site production and sales. There is also a water interactive

loading along the left side aids in the delivery of larger items

area at the end of the pier with ramps leading down to the

and large quantities of goods to be sent to Oakland for inter-

water (4) and tide pools (3) that fill in with the tide.

11 15

12

13

14

G R O U N D

16

L E V E L 95


110

111 1 2

3 5

1 - GREEN ROOF RAMP 2 - PARK AREA 3 - GARDEN AREA 4 - OPEN ARTIST WORK SPACE/ FLEX SPACE 5 - RESTROOMS 6 - GREEN ROOF RAMP

6

4

The second level is where the public park area begins

The enclosed second floor is an open floor plan, flex-

to interact with the extension of Pier 29. The park slopes up

ible to the needs of groups in need of workspace, or the artists

to a second level above the brewery and bar/restaurant at the

living in the live/work lofts. It can also be utilized as gallery

end of the pier (1) and just to the north of Pier 27 (6). There is

and event space when needed. The space is enclosed with

a main grass area for picnicking and viewing (2) and public

curtain walls and provides great views of the all the park areas

gardening areas (3) for the artists living in the live/work lofts

as well as views out to the bay.

S E C O N D

L E V E L

and the community. There is then an entrance into the second 96 floor of the Pier 29 extension.


112

113 1 - OPEN ARTIST WORK SPACE/ FLEX SPACE 2 - RESTROOMS 3 - ARTIST LOFTS 4 - VIEWING BALCONY/LOUNGE

2

1

3

4

The third level holds all the live/work studio lofts

The roof of the fab lab is modified to have flat walk-

(3) to the north and a rooftop bar and lounge (4) to the south.

ways and lounge areas with lookouts over the park area and

The live/work lofts are all standard, 1,000 square foot single

the bay. The two skylights in the part of the roof were convert-

apartments with loft space. These are meant for creatives to

ed into open-air cabana bars. These are great social circum-

rent while working on a body of work or while prototyping a

stances for the artists living in the units, tourists getting an

concept or product. The rent would include access to the fab

idea of area, and people viewing the park areas.

T H I R D

L E V E L

lab and workshop spaces. There is also a group workspace at 97 the end of the hall (1).


E L I VAT E D E X T E N S I O N H E AV Y T I M B E R F R A M I N G

W E S T

E L E VA T I O N STEEL FRAMING

98

MAIN EGRESS CORE ARTIST RESIDENCE C OM M U NA L F LO OR / SHOW ROOM LOBBY

E A S T

FA B L A B

E L E VA T I O N

M E TA L S H O P

99

S E C T I O N

C U T

D I A G R A M

S E C T I O N 101 100


116

117

S O U T H

102

P E R S P E C T I V E

This perspective shows the intricacy and interactive qualities

activity at the skate park. They can then see interactive roof

of all the spaces of this project and how they play off of each

activities that will take them to other scenic areas of the site.

other. When the pop-out retail booths are out in the park area,

The project has many “secret little gems� that keep you explor-

the main pedestrian path along Pier 29 is interrupted and

ing on the site and leave you wanting to come back to see what

pedestrians move along a secondary path to shop and view the

else it has to offer.

103


118

119

S K A T E P A R K

104

N O R T H

P E R S P E C T I V E

105

This perspective shows the interaction between the public

cuts through the existing pier 29 and breaks up the metal and

The north perspective shows the majority of the addition to

This park area provides the best views on the site. The park

skatepark and the park space designated for the retail pop-

wood shop from the fab-lab to the right.

pier 29. The elivated parallelogram mass houses the artist live/

also sloped down to a scenic waterfront path as well as inter-

out booths. The foreground shows the flowing snakerun that

work lofts on the upper floor, while the middle floor is a group

active tide pools and ramps down to the water. The live/work

follows the perimeter of the skatepark with the main bowl in

work space as well as an exhibition floor that opens up to the

lofts also extend over the water to cover a docking area for a

the center. To the left, you can see the public breezeway that

elivated park that is on the roof of the brewery bar/restaurant.

medium sized shipping boat for goods and services.


120

121

G R E E N

R O O F

V I E W

1

106 (Vi e w toward t i d e p o ol and l ive / work lof ts)

G R E E N

R O O F

V I E W

2

107 (Vie w toward p op-out ret ai l b o ot hs and skatep ark)


122

123

M A R I N E

A C C E S S

P E D E S T R I A N

P A T H S

S E R V I C E

A C C E S S 109

The site has two main marine access routes, one for

The pedestrian paths cover a majority of the site; this is very

the cruise ship terminal at Pier 27 to the east, and the other

important for the public and private interaction. This will

for the medium size shipping boat for Pier 29 to the west.

prove mutually beneficial to the public visitors and the facility

The cruise ship line is more active and the scale of the ship

operators in Pier 29 by providing insight on how small-scale

is larger. Both marine lines have service access points for the

manufacturing can work within a community successfully and

restaurant, brewery, machinery, and goods transportation. The

begin to bring goods to the public from the same neighbor-

main vehicular access on the site is through the central cor-

hood.

108

P O P - O U T

P R E P.

ridor of Pier 29.


N O R T H

P E R S P E C T I V E

G R E E N

R O O F

P E R S P E C T I V E

W I T H T H E E X P L O R AT I O N A N D A P P L I C AT I O N O F D I G I TA L FA B R I C ATION, AN OBSOLETED PIER CAN BE CONVERTED INTO A MODERN FA B R I C AT I O N C O M P L E X T H AT R E I N G A G E S T H E C I T Y A N D T H E E V E RC H A N G I N G M A N U F A C T U R I N G I N D U S T R Y.

E L I VAT E D E X T E N S I O N H E AV Y T I M B E R F R A M I N G STEEL FRAMING MAIN EGRESS CORE

S E C T I O N

ARTIST RESIDENCE C OM M U NA L F LO OR / SHOW ROOM LOBBY FA B L A B M E TA L S H O P

E A S T

E L E VA T I O N

W E S T

3 D

E L E VA T I O N

1 - BAR RESTAURANT 2 - BREWERY 3 - TIDE POOL 4 - RAMP TO WATER 5 - OPEN LOBBY 6 - RESTROOMS 7 - OFFICES/LOADING AREA 8 - SHIPPING BOAT LOADING 9 - DISPLAY/POP OUT BOOTHS 10- FABRICATION/MACHINE ASSEMBLY 11- POP OUT BOOTH PREP AREA 12- OPEN AIR BREEZEWAY 13- WOODSHOP 14- METAL SHOP 15- SKATEPARK 16- AMPHITHEATRE

3 1 4 2

6

T H E

5

7

MARINE ACCESS

8

9

E M B A R C A D E R O 10

S E C T I O N

C U T

S K A T E P A R K

1 2

3 5

A N D

P O P

O U T

R E T A I L

P O P

1 - GREEN ROOF RAMP 2 - PARK AREA 3 - GARDEN AREA 4 - OPEN ARTIST WORK SPACE/ FLEX SPACE 5 - RESTROOMS 6 - GREEN ROOF RAMP

2

SURROUNDING PIERS

VEHICULAR ACCESS

SITE ACCESS PAT H S

11 4

12

13

M A S T E R

O N - S I T E

M A R I N E

A C C E S S

O N - S I T E

P E D E S T R I A N

P A T H S

S E R V I C E

1

3

15

SURROUNDING G R E E N S PA C E

P R E P E R A T I O N

1 - OPEN ARTIST WORK SPACE/ FLEX SPACE 2 - RESTROOMS 3 - ARTIST LOFTS 4 - VIEWING BALCONY/LOUNGE

6

4

O U T

A C C E S S

P L A N

14

G R O U N D

16

L E V E L

S E C O N D

L E V E L

T H I R D

110

L E V E L

G R E E N

R O O F

P E R S P E C T I V E

S A M U E L T I T O N E S P R I N G 2 0 1 3 G R A D U A T E T H E S I S


126

127

C

O N C L U

S I O N

T

hrough the research of U.S. port cities, transitions

Digital fabrication technology is allowing for a

in maritime industry, and coastal industrial areas

smoother transition from design to manufacture and is thus

within these port cities, there is a strong case

creating greater opportunities for these digital fabrication ma-

showing the profound disconnect between industrial areas,

chines to create a multitude of products. This gives small scale

the public, and the cities themselves. Industrial areas take up

manufacturing facilities a chance to produce goods closer to

an incredible share of precious downtown real estate. Shifts

the clientele and would allow them to be more involved in the

in industries or a move overseas, however, means that these

process.

areas are often left with abandon. This has proven a somewhat

frequent problem in this nation’s history. What remains can

scale manufacturing, paired with engaging public spaces, in

drain a city of resources in revitalization costs.

order to ensure an active waterfront area in the event of any

future transitions the city or waterfront area may face. This

A resolve may be close at hand, though, as we con-

This thesis’s goal was to convey a concept of small-

sider that manufacturing facilities have been growing at a rate

thesis’s research showed that these industrial areas left with

that the U.S. has not been able to keep up with. This thesis

abandon were a noticeable problem in nearly all U.S. port

proposed small scale manufacturing to be embedded within

cities. The concept fit quite seamlessly into San Francisco’s

public spaces to allow for flexibility in changing industries and

waterfront, but could be readily applied to many similar wa-

to keep a scenic sector of the city an active and engaging area

terscapes in America today.

for the public.


128

129

W O R K S

C I T E D

Blume, Kenneth J. Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 2012. Print.

Pine, B. Joseph., and James H. Gilmore. The Experience Economy: Work Is Theatre & Every Business a Stage. Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999. Print.

This source describes an economic theory based around experiences. I am using this theory as an aspect of the thesis and part of this new proposed manufac

“Global Harbors Documentary - About Us.” Global Harbors Documentary - About Us. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http://www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.

turing process.

html>.

“Sailboat History Timeline 1.” Sailboat History Timeline 1. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://www.timeline-help.com/sailboat-history-timeline.html>.

This source offered historical facts about the Maritime industry and was very useful in dealing with timeframes and locations for changes in the industry.

This source explained the revitalization project of the Inner Harbor in Baltimore Maryland. It was beneficial in seeing a successful revitalization project of an

This source was useful in dealing with the sailboat history and comparing it to locations around the world. It was also useful in understanding the development

abandoned industrial waterfront area.

of the maritime industry.

Iwamoto, Lisa. Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material Techniques. New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009. Print.

Yusuf, Shahid, and Weiping Wu. The Dynamics of Urban Growth in Three Chinese Cities. New York: Oxford UP, 1997. Print.

This source describes the digital fabrication process and it’s applications in Architecture. I used it mainly to describe the process itself and how it lends itself to

an experience.

McDonough, William, and Michael Braungart. Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things. New York: North Point, 2002. Print.

This source provided theories and factual information about the Industrial Revolution and its effects on the United States.

“Over Half of the American Population Lives within 50 Miles of the Coast.” What Percentage of the American Population Lives near the Coast? United States Government, n.d. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/population.html>.

This source was just useful for showing the percent of the US population that lives along a coastline.

Pfammatter, Ulrich. Building the Future: Building Technology and Cultural History from the Industrial Revolution until Today. Munich: Prestel, 2008. Print.

This source provided information about post Industrial Revolution architecture and the applications it had on factory and manufacturing facilities.

This source provided historical information on the growth of early Chinese cities and the importance maritime industry.


130

131

E N D N O T E S

-

C

H

A

P

T

E

R

O

N

E

-

19 Ulrich Pfammatter, Building the Future: Building Technology and Cultural History from the Industrial Revolution until Today,(Munich: Prestel, 2008), 115

1 “Over Half of the American Population Lives within 50 Miles of the Coast,” United States Government, www. oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/population.html, (October 15,

20 Ulrich Pfammatter, Building the Future: Building Technology and Cultural History from the Industrial Revolution until Today,(Munich: Prestel, 2008), 216

2012)

21 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 6.

2 “Sailboat History Timeline 1,” www.timeline-help.com/sailboat-history-timeline.html, (October 15, 2012)

22 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 6.

3 “Sailboat History Timeline 1,” www.timeline-help.com/sailboat-history-timeline.html, (October 15, 2012)

23 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 7.

4 Shahid Yusuf, Weiping Wu, The Dynamics of Urban Growth in Three Chinese Cities, (New York: Oxford UP, 1997), 1.

24 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 7.

5 Shahid Yusuf, Weiping Wu, The Dynamics of Urban Growth in Three Chinese Cities, (New York: Oxford UP, 1997), 20.

25 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 7.

6 “Sailboat History Timeline 1,” www.timeline-help.com/sailboat-history-timeline.html, (October 15, 2012)

26 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 7.

7 “Sailboat History Timeline 1,” www.timeline-help.com/sailboat-history-timeline.html, (October 15, 2012)

27 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 7.

8 “Sailboat History Timeline 1,” www.timeline-help.com/sailboat-history-timeline.html, (October 15, 2012)

28 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 8.

9 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 6.

29 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 8.

10 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 6.

30 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 10.

11 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 21.

31 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 10.

13 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 21.

32 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 10.

14 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 22.

33 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 11.

15 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 22.

34 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 11.

16 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 23.

35 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 11.

17 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 23.

36 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 11.

18 William McDonough, Michael Braungart, Cradle to Cradle, (New York: North Point, 2002), 23.

37 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 11.


38 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 11.

57 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012)

39 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 11.

58 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012)

40 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 13.

59 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012)

41 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 13. 42 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 13. 43 Kenneth Blume, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Maritime Industry, (Lanham: Scarecrow, 2012), 14. 44 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 45 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 46 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 47 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 48 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 49 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 50 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 51 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 52 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 53 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 54 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 55 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012) 56 “Global Harbor Documentary-About us,” www.globalharbors.org/inner_harbor_story.html, (October 14, 2012)


134

135

-

C

H

A

P

T

E

R

T

H

R

E

E

-

1 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 2

20 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 5

2 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 2

21 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 7

3 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 2

22 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 6

4 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 6

23 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 6

5 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 6

24 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 10

6 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 7

25 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 10

7 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 7

26 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 10

8 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 7

27 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 10

9 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 7

28 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 12

10 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 7

29 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 12

11 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 8

30 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 13

12 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 8

31 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 36

13 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 8

32 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 36

14 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 11

33 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 36

15 James Gilmore, Joseph Pine, The Experience Economy, (Boston: Harvard Business School, 1999), 12

34 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 36

16 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 5

35 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 36

17 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 5

36 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 62

18 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 5

37 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 62

19 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 5

38 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 62


136

39 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 63 40 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 63 41 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 64 42 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 64 43 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 90 44 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 90 45 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 90 46 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 90 47 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 90 48 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 90 49 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 90 50 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 90 51 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 108 52 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 108 53 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 110 54 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 110 55 Lisa Iwamoto, Digital Fabrications, (New York City: Princeton Architectural Press, 2009), 110

Final thesis book  

Samuel Titone - 2013 SCAD M.Arch Graduate Thesis

Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you