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 ^ĂůůLJ:ĂŶĞƐ  WƌŽŐƌĂŵŵĞ>ĞĂĚĞƌ^K> Ɛ͘ũĂŶĞƐΛǁĞƐƚͲ  ĐŚĞƐŚŝƌĞ͘ĂĐ͘ƵŬ

 ZŽŐĞƌ,LJĚĞ ^K>ƚĞĂĐŚĞƌ ƌ͘ŚLJĚĞΛǁĞƐƚͲ ĐŚĞƐŚŝƌĞ͘ĂĐ͘ƵŬ

 :ĞŶŶŝĞEĞŵĞƚŚ ^K>ƚĞĂĐŚĞƌ ũ͘ŶĞŵĞƚŚΛǁĞƐƚͲ ĐŚĞƐŚŝƌĞ͘ĂĐ͘ƵŬ



/ĨLJŽƵĐĂŶ͛ƚĐŽŵĞƚŽĐůĂƐƐ WůĞĂƐĞĐŽŵĞƚŽĞǀĞƌLJĐůĂƐƐ͘/ĨLJŽƵĐĂŶ͛ƚĐŽŵĞƚŽĐůĂƐƐ͕ƉůĞĂƐĞĞŵĂŝůLJŽƵƌƚƵƚŽƌŽƌƚĞdžƚƚŚĞ^K>ŵŽďŝůĞ ŶƵŵďĞƌ͘/ĨLJŽƵĚŽŶ͛ƚĂƚƚĞŶĚĨŽƌƚǁŽǁĞĞŬƐĂŶĚLJŽƵĚŽŶ͛ƚƚĞůůƵƐ͕LJŽƵŵĂLJůŽƐĞLJŽƵƌƉůĂĐĞŝŶƚŚĞĐůĂƐƐ͘

ŝƚŝnjĞŶƐŚŝƉ tĞĐĂŶŶŽƚŐƵĂƌĂŶƚĞĞĐĞƌƚŝĨŝĐĂƚĞƐĨŽƌĂŶLJƉƵƌƉŽƐĞ͘WůĞĂƐĞŶŽƚĞƚŚĂƚƚŚĞƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚƐƐĞƚďLJƚŚĞŽƌĚĞƌ ŐĞŶĐLJĂƌĞĐŚĂŶŐŝŶŐŝŶKĐƚŽďĞƌϮϬϭϯ͘/ĨLJŽƵŚĂǀĞĂŶLJƋƵĞƐƚŝŽŶƐĂďŽƵƚŝƚŝnjĞŶƐŚŝƉŽƌƚŚĞ>ŝĨĞŝŶƚŚĞh<ƚĞƐƚ͕ ƉůĞĂƐĞĐŽŶƚĂĐƚ>ƵĐŝĞtŚŝƚĞ;ů͘ǁŚŝƚĞΛǁĞƐƚͲĐŚĞƐŚŝƌĞ͘ĂĐ͘ƵŬͿĂƐƐŽŽŶĂƐƉŽƐƐŝďůĞ͘

džĂŵƐĂŶĚĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚƐ zŽƵƌƚĞĂĐŚĞƌǁŝůůƚĂůŬƚŽLJŽƵƚŽĚĞĐŝĚĞǁŚŝĐŚĞdžĂŵƐͬĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚ;ƐͿLJŽƵĂƌĞƌĞĂĚLJƚŽƚĂŬĞ͘>ĞǀĞůϭΘϮĂƌĞ ƵƐƵĂůůLJƚǁŽͲLJĞĂƌĐŽƵƌƐĞƐĂŶĚŽƚŚĞƌůĞǀĞůƐĐĂŶƐŽŵĞƚŝŵĞƐƚĂŬĞƚǁŽLJĞĂƌƐƚŽĂĐŚŝĞǀĞ͘

tŚĂƚƐŚŽƵůĚ/ďƌŝŶŐƚŽŵLJĐůĂƐƐ͍ zŽƵƐŚŽƵůĚďƌŝŶŐĂƉĞŶĂŶĚƐŽŵĞϰůŝŶĞĚƉĂƉĞƌ͘zŽƵŵƵƐƚǁĞĂƌLJŽƵƌƐƚƵĚĞŶƚ/ďĂĚŐĞĂƚĂůůƚŝŵĞƐĂƚ ĐŽůůĞŐĞ͘/ĨLJŽƵǁĂŶƚƚŽ͕LJŽƵĐĂŶďƌŝŶŐĂĚŝĐƚŝŽŶĂƌLJ͕ĂŵŽďŝůĞƉŚŽŶĞŽƌƚĂďůĞƚͬůĂƉƚŽƉƚŽĐůĂƐƐ͘EĞƚǁŽƌŬ ^ĞƌǀŝĐĞƐĐĂŶƐĞƚƵƉLJŽƵƌĚĞǀŝĐĞƚŽƵƐĞƚŚĞĐŽůůĞŐĞtŝ&ŝ͘

 

 






/ŵƉŽƌƚĂŶƚĚĂƚĞƐϮϬϭϯͲϮϬϭϰ /ĨLJŽƵĂƌĞƉůĂŶŶŝŶŐĂŚŽůŝĚĂLJĂƚĞdžĂŵƐƚŝŵĞ͕ƉůĞĂƐĞƚĞůůLJŽƵƌƚĞĂĐŚĞƌ͘ ŽƵƌƐĞ ǁĞĞŬ ϭ Ϯ ϯ ϰ ϱ  ϲ ϳ ϴ ϵ ϭϬ ϭϭ ϭϮ ϭϯ   ϭϰ ϭϱ ϭϲ ϭϳ ϭϴ ϭϵ  

tĞĞŬƐ D d ϭϲͲ ϭϳͲ ^ĞƉ ^ĞƉ ϮϯͲ ϮϰͲ ^ĞƉ ^ĞƉ ϯϬͲ ϬϭͲ ^ĞƉ KĐƚ ϬϳͲ ϬϴͲ KĐƚ KĐƚ ϭϰͲ ϭϱͲ KĐƚ KĐƚ ϮϭͲ ϮϮͲ KĐƚ KĐƚ ϮϴͲ ϮϵͲ KĐƚ KĐƚ ϬϰͲ ϬϱͲ EŽǀ EŽǀ ϭϭͲ ϭϮͲ EŽǀ EŽǀ

t ϭϴͲ ^ĞƉ ϮϱͲ ^ĞƉ ϬϮͲ KĐƚ ϬϵͲ KĐƚ ϭϲͲ KĐƚ ϮϯͲ KĐƚ ϯϬͲ KĐƚ ϬϲͲ EŽǀ ϭϯͲ EŽǀ

dŚ ϭϵͲ ^ĞƉ ϮϲͲ ^ĞƉ ϬϯͲ KĐƚ ϭϬͲ KĐƚ ϭϳͲ KĐƚ ϮϰͲ KĐƚ ϯϭͲ KĐƚ ϬϳͲ EŽǀ ϭϰͲ EŽǀ

ĐƚŝǀŝƚLJ

& ϮϬͲ ^ĞƉ ϮϳͲ ^ĞƉ ϬϰͲ DŽĚƵůĞϭ KĐƚ  ϭϭͲ KĐƚ ϭϴͲ KĐƚ ϮϱͲ EŽĐůĂƐƐĞƐ KĐƚ ϬϭͲ EŽǀ ϬϴͲ EŽǀ DŽĚƵůĞϮ ϭϱͲ  EŽǀ

ϭϴͲ ϭϵͲ ϮϬͲ ϮϭͲ ϮϮͲ EŽǀ EŽǀ EŽǀ EŽǀ EŽǀ ϮϱͲ EŽǀ ϬϮͲ ĞĐ ϬϵͲ ĞĐ ϭϲͲ ĞĐ ϮϯͲ ĞĐ ϯϬͲ ĞĐ ϬϲͲ :ĂŶ ϭϯͲ :ĂŶ ϮϬͲ :ĂŶ ϮϳͲ :ĂŶ ϬϯͲ &Ğď ϭϬͲ &Ğď ϭϳͲ &Ğď

ϮϲͲ EŽǀ ϬϯͲ ĞĐ ϭϬͲ ĞĐ ϭϳͲ ĞĐ ϮϰͲ ĞĐ ϯϭͲ ĞĐ ϬϳͲ :ĂŶ ϭϰͲ :ĂŶ ϮϭͲ :ĂŶ ϮϴͲ :ĂŶ ϬϰͲ &Ğď ϭϭͲ &Ğď ϭϴͲ &Ğď

ϮϳͲ EŽǀ ϬϰͲ ĞĐ ϭϭͲ ĞĐ ϭϴͲ ĞĐ ϮϱͲ ĞĐ ϬϭͲ :ĂŶ ϬϴͲ :ĂŶ ϭϱͲ :ĂŶ ϮϮͲ :ĂŶ ϮϵͲ :ĂŶ ϬϱͲ &Ğď ϭϮͲ &Ğď ϭϵͲ &Ğď

ϮϴͲ EŽǀ ϬϱͲ ĞĐ ϭϮͲ ĞĐ ϭϵͲ ĞĐ ϮϲͲ ĞĐ ϬϮͲ :ĂŶ ϬϵͲ :ĂŶ ϭϲͲ :ĂŶ ϮϯͲ :ĂŶ ϯϬͲ :ĂŶ ϬϲͲ &Ğď ϭϯͲ &Ğď ϮϬͲ &Ğď 

ϮϵͲ EŽǀ ϬϲͲ ĞĐ DŽĚƵůĞϯ ϭϯͲ ĞĐ ϮϬͲ ĞĐ ϮϳͲ ŽůůĞŐĞĐůŽƐĞĚ ĞĐ ϬϯͲ ŽůůĞŐĞĐůŽƐĞĚ :ĂŶ ϭϬͲ :ĂŶ ϭϳͲ :ĂŶ DŽĚƵůĞϰ ϮϰͲ :ĂŶ ϯϭͲ :ĂŶ ϬϳͲ &Ğď DŽĚƵůĞϱ ϭϰͲ &Ğď ϮϭͲ EŽĐůĂƐƐĞƐ &Ğď

ƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚƐΘ ĂƐƐĞƐƐŵĞŶƚƐ

,ŽůŝĚĂLJƐ

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ƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚϱ





EŽĚĂLJƚŝŵĞĐůĂƐƐĞƐʹ tĞĚŶĞƐĚĂLJ ϮϬͬϭϭͬϭϯ

ƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚϲ







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  ,ĂůĨdĞƌŵŚŽůŝĚĂLJ


ϮϬ Ϯϭ ϮϮ Ϯϯ Ϯϰ Ϯϱ   Ϯϲ Ϯϳ Ϯϴ Ϯϵ ϯϬ  ϯϭ ϯϮ ϯϯ

ϮϰͲ &Ğď ϬϯͲ DĂƌ ϭϬͲ DĂƌ ϭϳͲ DĂƌ ϮϰͲ DĂƌ ϯϭͲ DĂƌ ϬϳͲ Ɖƌ ϭϰͲ Ɖƌ ϮϭͲ Ɖƌ ϮϴͲ Ɖƌ ϬϱͲ DĂLJ ϭϮͲ DĂLJ ϭϵͲ DĂLJ ϮϲͲ DĂLJ

ϮϱͲ &Ğď ϬϰͲ DĂƌ ϭϭͲ DĂƌ ϭϴͲ DĂƌ ϮϱͲ DĂƌ ϬϭͲ Ɖƌ ϬϴͲ Ɖƌ ϭϱͲ Ɖƌ ϮϮͲ Ɖƌ ϮϵͲ Ɖƌ ϬϲͲ DĂLJ ϭϯͲ DĂLJ ϮϬͲ DĂLJ ϮϳͲ DĂLJ

ϮϲͲ &Ğď ϬϱͲ DĂƌ ϭϮͲ DĂƌ ϭϵͲ DĂƌ ϮϲͲ DĂƌ ϬϮͲ Ɖƌ ϬϵͲ Ɖƌ ϭϲͲ Ɖƌ ϮϯͲ Ɖƌ ϯϬͲ Ɖƌ ϬϳͲ DĂLJ ϭϰͲ DĂLJ ϮϭͲ DĂLJ ϮϴͲ DĂLJ

ϮϳͲ &Ğď ϬϲͲ DĂƌ ϭϯͲ DĂƌ ϮϬͲ DĂƌ ϮϳͲ DĂƌ ϬϯͲ Ɖƌ ϭϬͲ Ɖƌ ϭϳͲ Ɖƌ ϮϰͲ Ɖƌ ϬϭͲ DĂLJ ϬϴͲ DĂLJ ϭϱͲ DĂLJ ϮϮͲ DĂLJ ϮϵͲ DĂLJ

ϮϴͲ &Ğď DŽĚƵůĞϱ ϬϳͲ DĂƌ ϭϰͲ DĂƌ ϮϭͲ DĂƌ DŽĚƵůĞϲ ϮϴͲ DĂƌ ϬϰͲ Ɖƌ ϭϭͲ Ɖƌ ĂƐƚĞƌƌĞĂŬ ϭϴͲ Ɖƌ ϮϱͲ Ɖƌ ϬϮͲ DĂLJ ϬϵͲ DŽĚƵůĞϳ DĂLJ ϭϲͲ DĂLJ ϮϯͲ DĂLJ ϯϬͲ ,ĂůĨdĞƌŵŚŽůŝĚĂLJ DĂLJ

ϬϮͲ :ƵŶ

ϬϯͲ :ƵŶ

ϬϰͲ :ƵŶ

ϬϱͲ :ƵŶ

ϬϲͲ :ƵŶ

ϬϵͲ :ƵŶ ϭϲͲ :ƵŶ

ϭϬͲ :ƵŶ ϭϳͲ :ƵŶ

ϭϭͲ :ƵŶ ϭϴͲ :ƵŶ

ϭϮͲ :ƵŶ ϭϵͲ :ƵŶ

ϭϯͲ :ƵŶ ϮϬͲ :ƵŶ



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DĂLJĂLJ

ƐƐŝŐŶŵĞŶƚϭϰ

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/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV  Ȃƒ•‹‰Ȁ“—‡•–‹‘‹‰Ȁƒ•™‡”‹‰  ͳ•‹‰ˆ‘”‹ˆ‘”ƒ–‹‘   

ǯ†Ž‹‡–‘‘™ǤǤǤ   ‘—Ž†›‘—–‡ŽŽ‡ǤǤǤǫ ‘›‘—ȋŠƒ’’‡–‘Ȍ‘™ǤǤǤǫ ‘—Ž†›‘—ˆ‹†‘—–ǤǤǤǫ ‘—Ž† ƒ•ǤǤǤǫ 

ʹ•‹‰’‘Ž‹–‡Ž› 

™ƒ•™‘†‡”‹‰‹ˆ›‘—…‘—Ž†–‡ŽŽ‡ǤǤǤ

™‘†‡”‹ˆ›‘—…‘—Ž†Š‡Ž’‡ǤǤǤ 

͵–Š‡’Š‘‡ 

ǯ…ƒŽŽ‹‰–‘ˆ‹†‘—–ǤǤǤ

ǯ…ƒŽŽ‹‰ƒ„‘—–ǤǤǤ

ǯ†Ž‹‡–‘–ƒŽ–‘•‘‡„‘†›ƒ„‘—–ǤǤǤ 

Ͷ•™‡”‹‰ †‘ǯ–‘™ 

ǯƒˆ”ƒ‹† †‘ǯ–‘™Ǥ

Šƒ˜‡ǯ–‰‘–ƒ…Ž—‡Ǥ

…‘—Ž†ǯ––‡ŽŽ›‘—Ǥ

ǯ‘–•—”‡Ǥ Šǡ –ǯ••Ž‹’’‡†›‹†Ǥ 

ͷ•‹‰ˆ‘””‡’‡–‹–‹‘ȋͳȌ  ƒ”†‘ǫ ‘””›ǫ ‘—Ž†›‘—”‡’‡ƒ––Šƒ–ǡ’Ž‡ƒ•‡ǫ Šƒ–†‹†›‘—•ƒ›ǡ•‘””›ǫ Šƒ–™ƒ•–Šƒ–ǫ

͸•‹‰ˆ‘””‡’‡–‹–‹‘ȋʹȌ  ‘””›ǡ †‹†ǯ–…ƒ–…Š–Šƒ–Žƒ•–’ƒ”–Ǥ ‘””›ǡ›‘—ǯ˜‡Ž‘•–‡Ǥ ‘””›ǡ †‘ǯ–ˆ‘ŽŽ‘™›‘—Ǥ ‘—Ž†›‘—‹†”‡’‡ƒ–‹‰–Šƒ–ǡ’Ž‡ƒ•‡ǫ 

͹Š‡…‹‰  •‘ˆƒ”ǫ ‘›‘——†‡”•–ƒ†‡ǫ

•–Šƒ–…Ž‡ƒ”ǫ ”‡›‘—ȋ•–‹ŽŽȌ™‹–Š‡ǫ ƒ˜‡›‘—‰‘–‹–ǫ

ͺ‡Ž‡’Š‘‡’”‘„Ž‡•  ‘””›ǡ™Šƒ–†‹†›‘—•ƒ›ǫ

†‹†ǯ–‰‡––Š‡„‹–ƒ„‘—–ǤǤǤ

ǯ•‘””› …ƒǯ–Š‡ƒ”›‘—˜‡”›™‡ŽŽǤ ‘—Ž†›‘—•’‡ŽŽ‹–ǡ’Ž‡ƒ•‡ǫ ‘—Ž†›‘—”‡’‡ƒ––Šƒ–ǡ’Ž‡ƒ•‡ǫ 

ͻ‡ƒ†‹‰ƒ‡š’Žƒƒ–‹‘  ƒ›‘—‡š’Žƒ‹™Š›ǤǤǤ ‘›‘—‡ƒ–‘•ƒ›ǤǤǤ

†‘ǯ–—†‡”•–ƒ†™Š›ǤǤǤ Š›‹•‹––Šƒ–ǤǤǤ ‘™…‘‡ǤǤǤ ‘‡•–Š‹•‡ƒǤǤǤ


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV 

  อณยšย’ยŽยƒย‹ยย‹ยย‰ศ€ยยƒยย‹ยย‰ย‡ยšย…ย—ย•ย‡ย•  ย‹ย”ย•ย–ย‘ยˆยƒยŽยŽวควควค ยŠย‡ยยƒย‹ยย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ยย‹ย•วควควค ยย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ยย‹ย•วควควค ย‡ย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย•ย–ยŠยƒย–วก ยย†ย‘ยย–ย‘ย’ย‘ยˆย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค

ศ‚ย‡ยšย’ยŽยƒยยƒย–ย‹ย‘ย   อด ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย–ย’ย‘ย‹ยย–ย•  ย‹ย”ย•ย–ย‘ยˆยƒยŽยŽวก ยŠย‡ยยƒย‹ยย–ยŠย‹ยย‰ย‹ย•วควควค ยŠย‡ยย‘ย•ย–ย‹ยย’ย‘ย”ย–ยƒยย–ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰ย‹ย•วควควค

อตยƒยย‹ยย‰ยƒย’ยŽยƒย  ย‘ย™ยƒย„ย‘ย—ย–วควควค ย‘วกย™ย‡วฏย”ย‡ย–ยŠย‹ยยย‹ยย‰ย‘ยˆวควควค

วฏยŽยŽย–ย‡ยŽยŽย›ย‘ย—ย™ยŠยƒย–ย™ย‡วฏยŽยŽย†ย‘วค ยŠยƒย–ยƒย„ย‘ย—ย–ย–ยŠย‹ย•ยˆย‘ย”ยƒยย‹ย†ย‡ยƒวควควค

อถย”ย‡ย•ย‡ยย–ย‹ยย‰ยƒย’ยŽยƒย  ย—ย”ย’ยŽยƒยย‹ย•ย–ย‘วควควค ยŠยƒย–ย™ย‡ย’ยŽยƒยย–ย‘ย†ย‘ย‹ย•วควค ยŠยƒย–ย™ย‡ยŠยƒย˜ย‡ย‹ยยย‹ยย†ย‹ย•วควควค 

อท ยย–ยŠย‹ย•ย•ย‹ย–ย—ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ย 

ยยƒย…ยƒย•ย‡ยŽย‹ยย‡ย–ยŠย‹ย•วก

ยยƒย•ย‹ย–ย—ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยยŽย‹ยย‡ย–ยŠย‹ย•วก

ยย–ยŠย‹ย•ย•ย‘ย”ย–ย‘ยˆย•ย‹ย–ย—ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยวก 

อธย‘ย”ย”ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ยย‰ย›ย‘ย—ย”ย•ย‡ยŽยˆศ‹อณศŒ  ย‘ย”ย”ย›วก ย†ย‹ย†ยวฏย–ยย‡ยƒยย–ยŠยƒย–วค ยŠยƒย– ยย‡ยƒยย‹ย•วควควค ยŠยƒย– วฏยย•ยƒย›ย‹ยย‰ย‹ย•วควควค ยŠยƒย– ยย‡ยƒยย–ย™ยƒย•วควควค

อนย‘ย”ย”ย‡ย…ย–ย‹ยย‰ย›ย‘ย—ย”ย•ย‡ยŽยˆศ‹อดศŒ  ย‡ย–ยย‡ย’ย—ย–ย‹ย–ยƒยย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ย™ยƒย›วค ยŠยƒย– วฏยย–ย”ย›ย‹ยย‰ย–ย‘ย•ยƒย›ย‹ย•วควควค ย‘ยวฏย–ยย‹ย•ย—ยย†ย‡ย”ย•ย–ยƒยย†ยย‡วก

ยˆ ย•ยƒย‹ย†ย–ยŠยƒย–วก ย†ย‹ย†ยวฏย–ยย‡ยƒยย–ย‘วควควค ย‡ย–ยย‡ย”ย‡ย’ยŠย”ยƒย•ย‡ย™ยŠยƒย– ยŒย—ย•ย–ย•ยƒย‹ย†วค 

อบย‡ยƒยŽย…ย‘ยยˆย—ย•ย‹ย‘ย  ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ยย‘ย–ย™ยŠยƒย– ย•ยƒย‹ย†ยƒย–ยƒยŽยŽวค

วฏย˜ย‡ยย‘ย‹ย†ย‡ยƒย™ยŠย‘ย–ย‘ยŽย†ย›ย‘ย—ย–ยŠยƒย–วค ยŠย‡ย”ย‡ย†ย‹ย†ย›ย‘ย—ย‰ย‡ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–ย‹ย†ย‡ยƒยˆย”ย‘ยวซ

วฏยยƒยˆย”ยƒย‹ย†ย–ยŠยƒย–ยŒย—ย•ย–ย‹ย•ยวฏย–ย–ย”ย—ย‡วค ย‘ย‘ยวกยŽย‡ย–วฏย•ย‰ย‡ย–ย–ยŠย‹ย•ย•ย–ย”ยƒย‹ย‰ยŠย–วควควค


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV 

ͳ  ƒ‡•—”‡›‘—ǤǤǤ ‡…ƒ”‡ˆ—Ž‘––‘ǤǤǤ ‡‡„‡”–‘ǤǤǤ ‘ǯ–ˆ‘”‰‡––‘ǤǤǤ

͵†˜‹…‡ȋʹȌ  ‘—…‘—Ž†ƒŽ™ƒ›•ǤǤǤ ‡™ƒ›™‘—Ž†„‡–‘ǤǤǤ

ˆ ™‡”‡›‘—ǡ ǯ†ǤǤǤ Šƒ–ƒ„‘—–ǤǤǤǦ‹‰ ƒ˜‡›‘—–Š‘—‰Š–ƒ„‘—–ǤǤǤ 

Ȃ‰‹˜‹‰‹•–”—…–‹‘•Ȁƒ†˜‹…‡   

ʹ†˜‹…‡ȋͳȌ 

Šƒ˜‡ƒ‹†‡ƒ Š›‘–ǤǤǤ Š›†‘ǯ–›‘—ǤǤǤ ‡”Šƒ’•›‘—…‘—Ž†ǤǤǤ ”›ǤǤǤǦ‹‰ ƒ˜‡›‘—–”‹‡†ǥǤ ‰ǫ 


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV  

ศ‚ย†ย‹ย•ย…ย—ย•ย•ย‹ย‘ยศ‹ย‹ย†ย‡ยƒย•ย…ย‘ยยย‡ย…ย–ย‡ย†ย™ย‹ย–ยŠย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย•ศ€ยˆยƒย…ย–ย•ศŒ 

อณย‹ย•ย…ย—ย•ย•ย‹ย‘ยศ‚ย–ย—ย”ยย–ยƒยย‹ยย‰   ยƒย ยƒย†ย†ยŠย‡ย”ย‡ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค

วฏย†ยŽย‹ยย‡ย–ย‘ย…ย‘ยยย‡ยย–ย‘ยย–ยŠยƒย–วค ยƒย ยƒย†ย†ย•ย‘ยย‡ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰วซ ยƒย ย•ยƒย›ย•ย‘ยย‡ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰ยŠย‡ย”ย‡วซ

วฏย†ยŽย‹ยย‡ย–ย‘ย•ยƒย›ย•ย‘ยย‡ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰วกย‹ยˆ ยยƒย›วค 

อดย‹ย•ย…ย—ย•ย•ย‹ย‘ยศ‚ย“ย—ย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย‘ยย•  ยƒย ยƒย•ยยƒย“ย—ย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย‘ยวซ ยƒย› ยƒย•ยย•ย‘ยย‡ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰วซ  

อตยŠย‡ยยƒย‹ยย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ย  ยŠย‡ย–ย”ย‘ย—ย„ยŽย‡ย‹ย•วควควค ยŠย‡ศ‹ย”ย‡ยƒยŽศŒย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‹ย•วควควค ยŠย‡ย’ย‘ย‹ยย–ย‹ย•วควควค ยŠย‡ยƒย™ยˆย—ยŽย–ยŠย‹ยย‰ย‹ย•วควควค ย‘ยวฏย–ยˆย‘ย”ย‰ย‡ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค

อถ ย‡ยย‡ย”ยƒยŽย‹ย•ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยย• 

ย‡ยย‡ย”ยƒยŽยŽย› ย›ยƒยย†ยŽยƒย”ย‰ย‡ ย•ยƒย”ย—ยŽย‡ ย‘ย”ยยƒยŽยŽย› ย•ย—ยƒยŽยŽย› ยย–ยŠย‡ย™ยŠย‘ยŽย‡

อทยย’ยŠยƒย•ย‹ย•ย‹ยย‰ยƒย’ย‘ย‹ยย–  ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ยŒย—ย•ย–ย–ยŠย‡ย’ย‘ย‹ยย– ย—ย–ย–ยŠย‡ศ‹ย”ย‡ยƒยŽศŒย“ย—ย‡ย•ย–ย‹ย‘ยย‹ย•วควควค ย—ย–ย…ยƒยวฏย–ย›ย‘ย—ย•ย‡ย‡วควควค ยŠย‹ย•ย”ยƒย‹ย•ย‡ย•ย–ยŠย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยย‘ยˆวควควค ยŠย‹ย•ย”ยƒย‹ย•ย‡ย•ย–ยŠย‡ย‹ย•ย•ย—ย‡ย‘ยˆวควควค ยŠย‡ยˆยƒย…ย–ย‘ยˆย–ยŠย‡ยยƒย–ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย•วควควค 

อธย†ย†ย‹ยย‰ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰ย•  ย‘ย•ย–ยƒย”ย–ย™ย‹ย–ยŠวก ยย†ยƒยย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰วก ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ยย‘ย”ย‡วก ย—ย•ย–ยƒย•ยยƒยŽยŽย’ย‘ย‹ยย–วก ย‡ย”ยŠยƒย’ย• ย•ยŠย‘ย—ยŽย†ยย‡ยย–ย‹ย‘ยวควควค 

อน ย‹ย˜ย‡ยƒย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ย  วควควคย„ย‡ย…ยƒย—ย•ย‡วควควควค วควควคย•ย‘วควควค  ยŠย‹ย•ย‹ย•ย„ย‡ย…ยƒย—ย•ย‡วควควค ยŠย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ยยˆย‘ย”ย–ยŠย‹ย•ย‹ย•วควควค 

อบ ย‹ย˜ย‡ยย‘ย”ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ยย•ศ‹อดศŒ  ยย†ย„ย‡ย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย•วก

ยยƒย†ย†ย‹ย–ย‹ย‘ยวก ย‘ย–ย–ย‘ยย‡ยย–ย‹ย‘ยย–ยŠย‡ยˆยƒย…ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค ยŽย—ย•ย–ยŠย‡ยˆยƒย…ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค ย‘ย–ย‘ยยŽย›ย–ยŠยƒย–วกย„ย—ย–วควควควค 

อป ย‹ย˜ย‡ยย‘ย”ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ยย•ศ‹อณศŒ  ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ยย‘ย”ย‡ ยŽย•ย‘วก ย•ย™ย‡ยŽยŽยƒย•ย–ยŠยƒย–วก ยย†ยƒยย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰วก  

อณอฒย‹ยยย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ยย•  ย‡ย…ยƒย—ย•ย‡ย‘ยˆย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ย™ยŠย›วควควค ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ย–ยŠย‡ย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ยย™ยŠย›วควควค ย‘ย”ย–ยŠย‹ย•ย”ย‡ยƒย•ย‘ยวควควค 


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV ͳͳš…‡’–‹‘•   Š‡”‡ƒ”‡‡š…‡’–‹‘•ǡ‘ˆ…‘—”•‡Ǥ ‡‡š…‡’–‹‘‹•ǤǤǤ  —–™Šƒ–ƒ„‘—–ǤǤǤ —–†‘ǯ–ˆ‘”‰‡–ǤǤǤ ‡–ǯ•‘–ˆ‘”‰‡–ǤǤǤ 



ͳʹ‰”‡‡‹‰†—”‹‰•’‡‡…Š  ‘—ǯ”‡ƒ„•‘Ž—–‡Ž›”‹‰Š–Ǥ

ƒ‰”‡‡Ǥ ‘†‘ ǨȀ‡‹–Š‡”…ƒ Ǩ ‘—•ƒ‹†‹–Ǥ „•‘Ž—–‡Ž›Ǥ 

ͳ͵‹•ƒ‰”‡‡‹‰†—”‹‰•’‡‡…Š  Šƒ–ǯ•Œ—•–‘––”—‡Ǥ ‘™ƒ›Ǥ Šǡ…‘‡‘Ǩ —„„‹•ŠǨ ‘ǯ–‰‹˜‡‡–Šƒ–Ǩ 

ͳͶ‰”‡‡‹‰‹…‘˜‡”•ƒ–‹‘  Šƒ–ǯ•˜‡”›–”—‡Ǥ

ƒ‰”‡‡™‹–Š›‘—–Š‡”‡Ǥ ‘—ǯ˜‡‰‘–ƒ’‘‹–Ǥ Šƒ–ǯ•ƒ‰‘‘†’‘‹–Ǥ ‡•ǡ ‘™‡šƒ…–Ž›™Šƒ–›‘—‡ƒǤ 

ͳͷ‹•ƒ‰”‡‡‹‰‹…‘˜‡”•ƒ–‹‘  ‡•ǡ„—–†‘ǯ–›‘—–Š‹ǤǤǤ

ƒ‰”‡‡™‹–Š›‘—ǡ„—–ǤǤǤ ‡•ǡ„—–‘–Š‡‘–Š‡”Šƒ†ǤǤǤ

†‘ǯ–•‡‡‹–“—‹–‡Ž‹‡–Šƒ–Ǥ 

ͳ͸ ‡‡”ƒŽŽ›•’‡ƒ‹‰ 

‰‡‡”ƒŽǡ

‡‡”ƒŽŽ›•’‡ƒ‹‰ǡ ›ƒ†Žƒ”‰‡ǡ

‘•–…ƒ•‡•ǡ

›‡š’‡”‹‡…‡ǡ 


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV  Ȃ’‘Ž‹–‡‡•• ͳ –‡””—’–‹‰  š…—•‡‡ ‘””› š…—•‡‡ˆ‘”‹–‡””—’–‹‰ǡ„—–ǤǤǤǤ ƒ› ‹–‡””—’–›‘—ˆ‘”ƒ‘‡–ǫ  

ʹƒ›‹‰Ǯ‘ǯȋ–‘ƒ‹˜‹–ƒ–‹‘‡–…ǤȌ 

ǯ‘–‡‡‘ǤǤǤ

†‘ǯ–’ƒ”–‹…—Žƒ”Ž›Ž‹‡ǤǤǤ

–ǯ•‘–›‹†‡ƒ‘ˆǤǤǤ

ǯ†”‡ƒŽŽ›”ƒ–Š‡”‘–ǤǤǤ  

͵ƒ›‹‰Ǯ‘ǯǦ’”‡ˆ‡”‡…‡ 

ǯ†’”‡ˆ‡”ǤǤǤ

ǯ†”‡ƒŽŽ›ȋ—…ŠȌ”ƒ–Š‡”ǤǤǤ

ǯ†”ƒ–Š‡”ǤǤǤ   

Ͷ›’ƒ–Š›ǦŽ‡•••‡”‹‘—•‡™•  Š‘Ǩ Šƒ–ƒ’‹–›Ǥ Šƒ–ƒ•Šƒ‡Ǥ Šƒ–ƒ—‹•ƒ…‡Ǥ ‘‘”›‘—Ǥ 

ͷ›’ƒ–Š›Ǧ˜‡”›•ƒ†‡™•  ‘™ƒ™ˆ—ŽǨ ‘™–‡””‹„Ž‡Ǩ

ǯ”‡ƒŽŽ›•‘””›–‘Š‡ƒ”–Šƒ–Ǥ Šƒ–—•–Šƒ˜‡„‡‡ƒ™ˆ—ŽǤ  

͸•›’ƒ–Š‡–‹…ȋ‹’‘Ž‹–‡Ȍ  ‡”˜‡•›‘—”‹‰Š–Ǥ

–ǯ•›‘—”‘™ˆƒ—Ž–Ǥ Šƒ–†‹†›‘—‡š’‡…–ǫ ‡”Šƒ’•–Šƒ–ǯŽŽ–‡ƒ…Š›‘—Ǥ  

͹‡•’‘†‹‰–‘ƒ…‘’Ž‹‡–  Šǡ–Šƒ›‘—˜‡”›—…ŠǤ ‘›‘—”‡ƒŽŽ›–Š‹•‘ǫ Šƒ–ǯ•˜‡”›‹†‘ˆ›‘—Ǥ 




/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV  ศ‚ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย‡ยˆย•ยƒยย†ย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย•  อณย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย•ย™ย‹ย–ยŠย…ย‘ยย–ย”ยƒย•ย–    ย…ย–ย—ยƒยŽยŽย›วก ยŠย‡ย‘ยยŽย›ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰ย‹ย•วควควค ย‘ย–ย‡ยŽยŽย›ย‘ย—ย–ยŠย‡ย–ย”ย—ย–ยŠวก ย‘ย„ย‡ยŠย‘ยย‡ย•ย–วก ย”ยƒยยยŽย›วก

อด ย‹ย†ย†ย‡ยย–ย”ย—ย–ยŠ 

ย†ย‘ย—ย„ย–ย‹ยˆวควควค ย‡ย–วฏย•ยˆยƒย…ย‡ย‹ย–วก ยŠย‡ย…ยƒย–ย…ยŠย‹ย•วควควค ยŠย‡ย–ย”ย—ย–ยŠย‘ยˆย–ยŠย‡ยยƒย–ย–ย‡ย”ย‹ย•วควควค ย‘ยย‡ย‘ยยย‘ย™วจ ย‡ย–วฏย•ย„ย‡ย”ย‡ยƒยŽย‹ย•ย–ย‹ย…วค

อตย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย•ศ‹อณศŒ 

ย–ยŠย‹ยยวควควค

ยยย›ย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยวก

ย–วฏย•ยย›ย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค 

อถย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย•ศ‹อดศŒ 

ย•ย—ย’ย’ย‘ย•ย‡วควควค

ย•ย—ย•ย’ย‡ย…ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค

วฏยย’ย”ย‡ย–ย–ย›ย•ย—ย”ย‡ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควควค

วฏยยˆยƒย‹ย”ยŽย›ย…ย‡ย”ย–ยƒย‹ยย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค

วฏยย…ย‘ยย˜ย‹ยย…ย‡ย†ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค

ย™ย‘ยย†ย‡ย”ย‹ยˆวควควค 

อท ย—ย‡ย•ย•ย‹ยย‰ 

วฏย†ย•ยƒย›วควควค ย‘ย—ยŽย†ย‹ย–ย„ย‡วควควควซ ย‡ย”ยŠยƒย’ย•ย‹ย–วฏย•วควควค

ย–ยŽย‘ย‘ยย•ยŽย‹ยย‡วควควค

ย–วฏย•ย†ย‹ยˆยˆย‹ย…ย—ยŽย–ย–ย‘ย•ยƒย›วกย„ย—ย– วฏย†ย‰ย—ย‡ย•ย•วควควค

ย–ยŠย‹ยยย‹ย–วฏย•วควควค

อธย–ย”ย‘ยย‰ย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย• 

ยŠย‘ยย‡ย•ย–ยŽย›ยˆย‡ย‡ยŽย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค

ย•ย–ย”ย‘ยย‰ยŽย›ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย‡ย˜ย‡ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค ย‹ย–ยŠย‘ย—ย–ยƒย†ย‘ย—ย„ย–วก

วฏยย’ย‘ย•ย‹ย–ย‹ย˜ย‡วควควควค

วฏยยƒย„ย•ย‘ยŽย—ย–ย‡ยŽย›ย…ย‡ย”ย–ยƒย‹ยย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค 

อนย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŽย‘ย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย• 

ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŽยŽย›ย„ย‡ยŽย‹ย‡ย˜ย‡วควควค

ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŽยŽย›ย–ยŠย‹ยยวควควควค

ย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŽยŽย›ยˆย‡ย‡ยŽวควควค ย‘ย–ย‡ย˜ย‡ย”ย›ย‘ยย‡ย™ย‹ยŽยŽยƒย‰ย”ย‡ย‡ย™ย‹ย–ยŠยย‡วกย„ย—ย–วควควค ย‘ยย›ยย‹ยย†วควควควค 

อบย’ย‹ยย‹ย‘ยย•วฃย›ย‘ย—ย”ย•ย‹ย–ย—ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ย   ย”ย‘ยยย›ย’ย‘ย‹ยย–ย‘ยˆย˜ย‹ย‡ย™วก ย‡ยŽยŽวกย’ย‡ย”ย•ย‘ยยƒยŽยŽย›วก

ยˆ ยŠยƒย†ยย›ย™ยƒย›วก ยŠยƒย– วฏยยย‘ย”ย‡ย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย”ยย‡ย†ย™ย‹ย–ยŠย‹ย•วควควค

ยยย›ย…ยƒย•ย‡วควควค 

อปย‘ย—ย„ย–ย•ฦฌย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย”ยย•ศ‹อณศŒ  ย‡ย•วกย„ย—ย–วควควค ย‘ย•ย•ย‹ย„ยŽย›วกย„ย—ย–วควควค ย‡ย•วกย„ย—ย–ย–ยŠย‡ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยŽย‡ยศ‹ย”ย‡ยƒยŽยŽย›ศŒย‹ย•วควควค

ย†ย‘ยวฏย–ย•ย‡ย‡ยŠย‘ย™วควควค

วฏยยƒยˆย”ยƒย‹ย†วควควค 

อณอฒย‘ย—ย„ย–ย•ฦฌย…ย‘ยย…ย‡ย”ยย•ศ‹อดศŒ 

วฏยยƒยˆย”ยƒย‹ย†วควควค

ย†ย‘ย—ย„ย–วควควค ยŠยƒย– วฏยย™ย‘ย”ย”ย‹ย‡ย†ยƒย„ย‘ย—ย–ย‹ย•วควควค ยŠยƒย–ย„ย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ย•ยย‡ย‹ย•วควควค  


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV  Ȃ•’‡ƒ–‘…‘—‹…ƒ–‡ȋˆƒ…–•‡–…ǤȌ   ͳ—”’”‹•‹‰ˆƒ…–•  ‘›‘—”‡ƒŽ‹•‡–Šƒ–ǤǤǤ   ‡Ž‹‡˜‡‹–‘”‘–ǡ ‘—ƒ›‘–„‡Ž‹‡˜‡‹–ǡ„—–ǤǤǤ Š‡•—”’”‹•‹‰–Š‹‰‹•–Šƒ–ǤǤǤ —”’”‹•‹‰Ž›ǡǤǤǤǤ††Ž›Ȁˆ—‹Ž›‡‘—‰ŠǤǤǤǤ

ʹ—”’”‹•‹‰‡™• 

—‡••™Šƒ–Ǩ

ǯ˜‡‰‘–‡™•ˆ‘”›‘—Ǩ ‘›‘—‘™™Šƒ–Ǩ ‘—ǯ†„‡––‡”•‹–†‘™Ǩ ‘—™‘ǯ–„‡Ž‹‡˜‡–Š‹•ǡ„—–ǤǤǤ

͵ ”‡“—‡…›ȋͳȌ   ƒŽ™ƒ›• —•—ƒŽŽ› ‘ˆ–‡ •‘‡–‹‡• Šƒ”†Ž›‡˜‡” ‡˜‡” 

Ͷ ”‡“—‡…›ȋͳȌ   ‘•–‘ˆ–Š‡–‹‡ ‰ƒ‹ƒ†ƒ‰ƒ‹ ‹‡ƒ†ƒ‰ƒ‹ ˜‡”›•‘‘ˆ–‡ ”‘–‹‡–‘–‹‡ ˜‡”›‘™ƒ†–Š‡ 

ͷ‹‰Š–  Šƒ–ǯ•”‹‰Š–Ǥ ‹‰Š–Ǥ Ǥ ‡•Ǥ šƒ…–Ž›Ǩ

͸”‘‰  ‘–‡šƒ…–Ž›Ǥ ‘–“—‹–‡Ǥ ‘ǡ ǯƒˆ”ƒ‹†‘–Ǥ ‘—ǯ”‡…Ž‘•‡Ǥ

͹‘ǯ–‘™ 

†‘ǯ–‘™Ǥ

ǯ‘–•—”‡Ǥ ‡–‡‰‡–„ƒ…–‘›‘—‘–Šƒ–Ǥ 

ͺŠƒ”‹‰ƒ…‘ˆ‹†‡…‡  ƒ˜‡›‘—Š‡ƒ”†ǤǤǤǤ Š‡›•ƒ›ǤǤǤ —•–„‡–™‡‡›‘—ƒ†‡ǡ

Š‡ƒ”†‘–Š‡‰”ƒ’‡˜‹‡ǤǤǤ Š‹••Š‘—Ž†ǯ–„‡’ƒ••‡†ƒ”‘—†ǡ„—–ǤǤǤ 


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV  Ȃ†‹•…‘—”•‡•–”—…–—”‡Ȁ‘”‰ƒ‹•ƒ–‹‘Ȁ•‡“—‡…‹‰‘ˆ‹†‡ƒ•     ͳ‡–—”–‘–‘’‹…   ʹ ‘”†‡”Ȃ”‡‰—Žƒ”•‡“—‡…‡   ›™ƒ›ǤǤǤ ‹”•–‘ˆƒŽŽǡ

ƒ›…ƒ•‡ǡǤǤǤǤ Š‡ǡ ‘‰‡–„ƒ…–‘™Šƒ– ™ƒ••ƒ›‹‰ǤǤǤ ‡š–ǡ Š‡”‡™ƒ• ǫŠ›‡•ǡǤǤǤǤǤ ˆ–‡”–Šƒ–ǡ  ‹ƒŽŽ›  

͵ ‘”†‡”Ȃ–‡ŽŽ‹‰ƒ•–‘”›  ‘„‡‰‹™‹–Šǡ ‘ ‘–Š‡ ––Š‡‡† 

ͶŠƒ‰‹‰–Š‡•—„Œ‡…–  ƒŽ‹‰‘ˆǤǤǤ Šƒ–”‡‹†•‡ǤǤǤ ›–Š‡™ƒ›ǡ Šǡ„‡ˆ‘”‡ ˆ‘”‰‡–

ͷ‘†‹–‹‘• 

ˆȋ ‡˜‡”ȌǤǤǤ Š‡ǤǤǤ Š‡‡˜‡”ǤǤǤ ••‘‘ƒ•ǤǤǤ ›–Š‡–‹‡ǤǤǤ Ž‡••ǤǤǤ

͸‘’—Žƒ”‹•…‘…‡’–‹‘•ȋͳȌ  ƒ›’‡‘’Ž‡–Š‹ǤǤǤ ‘‡’‡‘’Ž‡•ƒ›ǤǤǤ ‘—ǯ˜‡’”‘„ƒ„Ž›Š‡ƒ”†–Šƒ–ǤǤǤ

–ƒ›•‡‡ǤǤǤ

–•‡‡•ƒ•‹ˆǤǤǤ 

͹‘’—Žƒ”‹•…‘…‡’–‹‘•ȋʹȌ —–‹ˆƒ…–ǡ —–ƒ…–—ƒŽŽ›ǡ —–”‡ƒŽŽ›ǡ Š‡–”—–Š‹•ǤǤǤ Š‡–”—–Š‘ˆ–Š‡ƒ––‡”‹•ǤǤǤ

”‡ƒŽ‹–›ǡ 

ͺ‘•‹†‡”ƒ–‹‘•  ‡ƒ”‹‰‹‹†ǤǤǤ ‘•‹†‡”‹‰ǤǤǤ

ˆ›‘—”‡‡„‡”ǤǤǤ ŽŽ‘™‹‰ˆ‘”–Š‡ˆƒ…––Šƒ–ǤǤǤ Š‡›‘—…‘•‹†‡”–Šƒ–ǤǤǤ


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV อปย”ย‰ย—ยย‡ยย–ย•วฆย”ย‡ย•ย‡ย”ย˜ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ย   วฏยยย‘ย–ศ‹ย•ย‘ศŒย•ย—ย”ย‡ยƒย„ย‘ย—ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–วค  วฏยยย‘ย–ย…ย‘ยย˜ย‹ยย…ย‡ย†วค  ย‡ย•วกย„ย—ย–ศ‹ย†ย‘ยวฏย–ยˆย‘ย”ย‰ย‡ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–ศŒวควควค ยŠยƒย–ย™ย‘ย—ยŽย†ย„ย‡ย‰ย”ย‡ยƒย–วกย‡ยšย…ย‡ย’ย–วควควค ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ยƒย‰ย‘ย‘ย†ย‹ย†ย‡ยƒวกย„ย—ย–วควควค

อณอฒย‘ย—ยย–ย‡ย”วฆยƒย”ย‰ย—ยย‡ยย–ย•  ย˜ย‡ยย•ย‘วก ย˜ย‡ยย‹ยˆย–ยŠยƒย–ย‹ย•ย•ย‘วก ยŠยƒย–ยยƒย›ย„ย‡ย•ย‘วกย„ย—ย–วควควค ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ย’ย”ย‘ย„ยƒย„ยŽย›ย–ย”ย—ย‡วกย„ย—ย–วควควค ย‘ย•ย•ย‹ย„ยŽย›วกย„ย—ย–วควควค

อณอณยย–ยŠย‡ย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ยŠยƒยย†ศ‹อณศŒ  ยย–ยŠย‡ย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ยŠยƒยย†วก ย—ย–ย–ยŠย‡ยยƒย‰ยƒย‹ยวก ย‡ย”ย›ย–ย”ย—ย‡วกย„ย—ย–วควควค ยย›ย™ยƒย›วก  

อณอดยย–ยŠย‡ย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ยŠยƒยย†ศ‹อดศŒ  ยย–ยŠย‡ยˆยŽย‹ย’ย•ย‹ย†ย‡วก ย‘ยยƒยย‡ย—ย’ยˆย‘ย”ย‹ย–วกวควควค ยŠย‡ย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ย•ย‹ย†ย‡ย–ย‘ย–ยŠย‡ยƒย”ย‰ย—ยย‡ยย–ย‹ย•ย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค ย‘ย‘ยยƒย–ย‹ย–ย–ยŠย‹ย•ย™ยƒย›วก ย—ย–ย‹ยย–ยŠย‡ยŽย‘ยย‰ย”ย—ยวกวควควค 

อณอต ย‹ย˜ย‹ยย‰ย‡ยšยƒยย’ยŽย‡ย•ศ‹อณศŒ  ย‘ย”ย‡ยšยƒยย’ยŽย‡วก ย‡ย–ยย‡ย‰ย‹ย˜ย‡ย›ย‘ย—ยƒยย‡ยšยƒยย’ยŽย‡วค ย‘ย”ย‹ยย•ย–ยƒยย…ย‡วก ย‘ย‰ย‹ย˜ย‡ย›ย‘ย—ยƒยย‹ย†ย‡ยƒวควควค ยƒยย‡ยˆย‘ย”ย‡ยšยƒยย’ยŽย‡ 

อณอถ ย‹ย˜ย‹ยย‰ย‡ยšยƒยย’ยŽย‡ย•ศ‹อดศŒ  ยƒยย‡ย–ยŠย‡ย™ยƒย›วควควค ย‘ย”ย‘ยย‡ย–ยŠย‹ยย‰วควควค ย‘ย‘ยยƒย–ย–ยŠย‡ย™ยƒย›วควควค ย›ย™ยƒย›ย‘ยˆย‹ยŽยŽย—ย•ย–ย”ยƒย–ย‹ย‘ยวควควค ย‘ย‹ยŽยŽย—ย•ย–ย”ยƒย–ย‡ยย›ย’ย‘ย‹ยย–วควควค 

อณอท ย‡ย•ย‹ย–ยƒย–ย‹ยย‰  ย‡ยŽยŽวกย—ยวควควค ย‡ยŽยŽวกยŽย‡ย–วฏย•ย•ย‡ย‡วควควค ยŠยƒย–วฏย•ย‹ยย–ย‡ย”ย‡ย•ย–ย‹ยย‰วกย›ย‡ย•วค ยยวก วฏยŽยŽยŠยƒย˜ย‡ย–ย‘ย–ยŠย‹ยยยƒย„ย‘ย—ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–วค

วฏย˜ย‡ยย‡ย˜ย‡ย”ย–ยŠย‘ย—ย‰ยŠย–ยƒย„ย‘ย—ย–ย–ยŠยƒย–ย„ย‡ยˆย‘ย”ย‡วค

อณอธย‡วฆย•ย–ยƒย–ย‹ยย‰ฦฌย…ยŠย‡ย…ยย‹ยย‰  ย‘วกย™ยŠยƒย–ย›ย‘ย—วฏย”ย‡ศ‹ย”ย‡ยƒยŽยŽย›ศŒย•ยƒย›ย‹ยย‰ย‹ย•วควควค

ยย‘ย–ยŠย‡ย”ย™ย‘ย”ย†ย•วก

ยˆ ย—ยย†ย‡ย”ย•ย–ยƒยย†ศ‹ย›ย‘ย—ศŒย…ย‘ย”ย”ย‡ย…ย–ยŽย›วก ย‘ย›ย‘ย—ยย‡ยƒยย–ยŠยƒย–วควควค


/ /6SHDNLQJ&DUGV  ͳ͹—›‹‰–‹‡ȋͳȌ I  ‡ŽŽǡŽ‡–‡•‡‡Ǥ ‡ŽŽǡŽ‡–‡–Š‹

ǯŽŽŠƒ˜‡–‘–Š‹ƒ„‘—––Šƒ–Ǥ Šƒ–ǯ•ƒ‰‘‘†“—‡•–‹‘Ǥ Šƒ–ǯ•ƒ†‹ˆˆ‹…—Ž–“—‡•–‹‘Ǥ

ͳͺ—›‹‰–‹‡ȋʹȌ  Šƒ–ǯ•ƒ–”‹…›“—‡•–‹‘Ǥ

Šƒ†ǯ––Š‘—‰Š–ƒ„‘—––Šƒ–Ǥ ‡–ǯ•’—–‹––Š‹•™ƒ›Ǥ Š‡„‡•–ƒ•™‡” …ƒ‰‹˜‡›‘—‹•ǤǤǤ ‘™•ŠƒŽŽ ’—–‹–ǫ 

ͳͻ ‹‹•Š‹‰  ‘ǡ ‘‹–Š‡‡†ǡ ‘ǡ‹•Š‘”–ǡ ŽŽ‹ƒŽŽ  

ʹͲ ‹‹•Š‹‰ǦȋʹȌ  ‘•——’ǡ

•—ƒ”›  ‘…—–ƒŽ‘‰•–‘”›•Š‘”–ǡ

ƒ—–•Š‡ŽŽǡ 

ʹͳŠ‘™‹‰‹–‡”‡•–  ‹‰Š–Ǥ Ǥ ‡•ǫ †ǫ ‡ƒŽŽ›ǫ †–Š‡ǫ 


ĚĂƉƚĞĚĨƌŽŵ͗ŚƚƚƉ͗ͬͬƉƌĂĐƚŝƐĞĞŶŐůŝƐŚ͘ďůŽŐƐƉŽƚ͘ĐŽŵͬϮϬϬϵͬϬϯͬƵƐĞĨƵůͲůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞͲĨŽƌͲĨĐĞĐĂĞĐƉĞͲ ǁƌŝƚŝŶŐ͘Śƚŵů

tƌŝƚŝŶŐͲhƐĞĨƵůůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞ>ϭͬ>Ϯ ϭ͘&KZD>>ddZ^ >ĞƚƚĞƌƐŽďũĞĐƚŝŶŐƚŽƐŽŵĞŽŶĞΖƐƉůĂŶƐ Ğ͘Ő͘tƌŝƚĞĂůĞƚƚĞƌƚŽƚŚĞĐŽƵŶĐŝůŐŝǀŝŶŐLJŽƵƌŽƉŝŶŝŽŶŽŶƉůĂŶƐƚŽďƵŝůĚĂŶĞǁƐƵƉĞƌŵĂƌŬĞƚŶĞdžƚƚŽLJŽƵƌ ŚŽƵƐĞ͘ ^ƚĂƌƚŝŶŐLJŽƵƌůĞƚƚĞƌʹŐŝǀĞLJŽƵƌƌĞĂƐŽŶĨŽƌǁƌŝƚŝŶŐĐůĞĂƌůLJ͗ /ĂŵǁƌŝƚŝŶŐƚŽĞdžƉƌĞƐƐŵLJĐŽŶĐĞƌŶͬĚŝƐĂƉƉŽŝŶƚŵĞŶƚͬĂůĂƌŵĂƚŚĞĂƌŝŶŐ͘͘͘ /ǁĂƐĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJĂůĂƌŵĞĚͬƐŽƌƌLJͬĚŝƐƚƌĞƐƐĞĚƚŽŚĞĂƌĂďŽƵƚLJŽƵƌƉůĂŶƐƚŽ͘͘͘  'ŝǀŝŶŐƚŚĞĨĂĐƚƐ͗ Ɛ/ƚŚŝŶŬLJŽƵŬŶŽǁ͕͙ DĂLJ/ƉŽŝŶƚŽƵƚƚŚĂƚ͙ /ĨĞĞů/ƌĞĂůůLJŵƵƐƚŽďũĞĐƚƚŽ͘͘͘ /ĂŵĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJĐŽŶĐĞƌŶĞĚĂƚƚŚĞƚŚŽƵŐŚƚƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘ /ƚŵƵƐƚďĞǀĞƌLJĐůĞĂƌƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘  ^ĂLJŝŶŐǁŚĂƚǁŝůůͬǁŽƵůĚŚĂƉƉĞŶ͗ /ĨƚŚĞƐĞƉƌŽƉŽƐĂůƐŐŽĂŚĞĂĚ͕͘͘͘ǁŝůůŚĂƉƉĞŶ͘ ŶŽƚŚĞƌƚŚƌĞĂƚƚŽ͕͘͘͘ŝĨƚŚĞƐĞƉƌŽƉŽƐĂůƐŐŽĂŚĞĂĚ͕ǁŽƵůĚĐŽŵĞĨƌŽŵ͘͘͘ /ĚƌĞĂĚƚŽŝŵĂŐŝŶĞǁŚĂƚĚĂŵĂŐĞƚŚŝƐǁŝůůĐĂƵƐĞ͘  ^ĂLJŝŶŐ͚ƉůĞĂƐĞĐŚĂŶŐĞƚŚĞƉůĂŶ͛н͚ͬŚĞƌĞŝƐŵLJŝĚĞĂ͛͗ DĂLJ/ƌĞƐƉĞĐƚĨƵůůLJƐƵŐŐĞƐƚƚŚĂƚLJŽƵͬƚŚĞĐŽƵŶĐŝů͘͘͘ /ǁĂƐǁŽŶĚĞƌŝŶŐŝĨLJŽƵŚĂĚĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌĞĚƚŚŝƐĂůƚĞƌŶĂƚŝǀĞ͍ tŽƵůĚŝƚŶŽƚďĞƉŽƐƐŝďůĞƚŽ͍͘͘͘


>ĞƚƚĞƌƐŽĨĐŽŵƉůĂŝŶƚ ^ƚĂƌƚLJŽƵƌůĞƚƚĞƌĞdžƉůĂŝŶŝŶŐĐůĞĂƌůLJǁŚLJLJŽƵĂƌĞǁƌŝƚŝŶŐ͗ /ĂŵǁƌŝƚŝŶŐƚŽĐŽŵƉůĂŝŶĂďŽƵƚ͘͘͘ /ĂŵǁƌŝƚŝŶŐƚŽƚĞůůLJŽƵŚŽǁĚŝƐĂƉƉŽŝŶƚĞĚͬĂŶŶŽLJĞĚ/ĨĞĞůĂďŽƵƚ͘͘͘  'ŝǀĞŵŽƌĞŝŶĨŽƌŵĂƚŝŽŶͬƐĂLJŝŶŐǁŚLJLJŽƵĂƌĞĐŽŵƉůĂŝŶŝŶŐ͗ /ǁĂƐĂŵĂnjĞĚͬĚŝƐƚƌĞƐƐĞĚͬŚŽƌƌŝĨŝĞĚƚŽĨŝŶĚƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘ ƐLJŽƵŵƵƐƚƌĞĂůŝƐĞ͕͘͘͘ /ĂŵƐƵƌĞLJŽƵŬŶŽǁƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘ /ĂŵƐƵƌĞLJŽƵĐĂŶŝŵĂŐŝŶĞ͘͘͘ /ĂŵƐƵƌĞLJŽƵǁŝůůĂƉƉƌĞĐŝĂƚĞƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘  džƉůĂŝŶŝŶŐǁŚĂƚLJŽƵǁĂŶƚƚŚĞĐŽŵƉĂŶLJƚŽĚŽ͗ /ƚŐŽĞƐǁŝƚŚŽƵƚƐĂLJŝŶŐƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘ ƚƚŚĞǀĞƌLJůĞĂƐƚ͕/ůŽŽŬĨŽƌǁĂƌĚƚŽƌĞĐĞŝǀŝŶŐ͘͘͘ hŶůĞƐƐLJŽƵ͕͘͘͘/ĂŵĂĨƌĂŝĚƚŚĂƚ/ǁŝůůŚĂǀĞƚŽƚĂŬĞƚŚŝƐŵĂƚƚĞƌĨƵƌƚŚĞƌ͘


>ĞƚƚĞƌƐŽĨƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚĂƚŝŽŶ /ĂŵǁƌŝƚŝŶŐƚŽLJŽƵŽŶďĞŚĂůĨŽĨ͘͘͘ /ŚĂǀĞŬŶŽǁŶyĨŽƌ͘͘͘LJĞĂƌƐ͘ ^ŚĞͬ,ĞŚĂƐƐŚŽǁŶŚĞƌƐĞůĨͬŚŝŵƐĞůĨƚŽďĞĞdžƚƌĞŵĞůLJ͘͘͘ yǁŽƵůĚƐĞĞŵƚŽĨŝƚƚŚĞƌĞƋƵŝƌĞŵĞŶƚƐŽĨƚŚŝƐũŽďƉĞƌĨĞĐƚůLJ͘ /ŚĂǀĞŶŽŚĞƐŝƚĂƚŝŽŶŝŶƌĞĐŽŵŵĞŶĚŝŶŐyĂƐĂ͘͘͘  >ĞƚƚĞƌƐƚŽƚŚĞĞĚŝƚŽƌŽĨĂŶĞǁƐƉĂƉĞƌ /ĂŵǁƌŝƚŝŶŐĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞĂƌƚŝĐůĞŽ��͕͘͘͘ǁŚŝĐŚĂƉƉĞĂƌĞĚ;ŝŶůĂƐƚŶŝŐŚƚΖƐƉĂƉĞƌͿ͘ /ĂŵǁƌŝƚŝŶŐǁŝƚŚƌĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƚŽƚŚĞĂƌƚŝĐůĞLJŽƵƉƵďůŝƐŚĞĚ;ŝŶůĂƐƚŵŽŶƚŚΖƐŝƐƐƵĞͿ͘ /ŚĂǀĞũƵƐƚƌĞĂĚLJŽƵƌĂƌƚŝĐůĞŽŶ͘͘͘ĂŶĚ/ĨĞĞů/ŵƵƐƚ͘͘͘ zŽƵƌĂŝƐĞĚƐŽŵĞŝƐƐƵĞƐǁŚŝĐŚ/ĨĞĞůƐƚƌŽŶŐůLJĂďŽƵƚ͘  >ŝŶŬŝŶŐƚŽƉĂƌƚŽĨƚŚĞŽƌŝŐŝŶĂůƚĞdžƚ͗ ƚƚŚĞƐƚĂƌƚŽĨLJŽƵƌĂƌƚŝĐůĞ͕LJŽƵ;ĂƉƉĞĂƌƚŽͿĐůĂŝŵƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘  WŽůŝƚĞůLJŐŝǀŝŶŐLJŽƵƌŽƉŝŶŝŽŶ͗ /ĂŵĂĨƌĂŝĚ/ƚŽƚĂůůLJĚŝƐĂŐƌĞĞ͘ /ĂŵĐŽŵƉůĞƚĞůLJŝŶĂŐƌĞĞŵĞŶƚ͘ /ĂŵƐƵƌĞƌĞĂĚĞƌƐǁŝůůĂŐƌĞĞǁŝƚŚŵĞǁŚĞŶ/ƐĂLJƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘


Ϯ͘Zd/>^;ĂůƐŽʹ>ddZ^K&KDW>/EdĞƚĐ͘Ϳ ^ĞƋƵĞŶĐŝŶŐͬKƌĚĞƌŝŶŐ ƚĨŝƌƐƚͬdŽƐƚĂƌƚǁŝƚŚͬ/ŶƚŚĞďĞŐŝŶŶŝŶŐ͕͘͘͘ dŚĞŶͬEĞdžƚͬĨƚĞƌƚŚĂƚ͕͘͘͘ dŚĞŶĞdžƚƚŚŝŶŐƚŚĂƚŚĂƉƉĞŶĞĚǁĂƐ͘͘͘ dŚĞŶĞdžƚƚŚŝŶŐ/ŬŶĞǁǁĂƐ͘͘͘ ^ĞĐŽŶĚƐͬDŝŶƵƚĞƐůĂƚĞƌ͕ >ĂƚĞŽŶͬ^ŽŵĞƚŝŵĞůĂƚĞƌ͕ /ƚǁĂƐŶΖƚƵŶƚŝůŵƵĐŚůĂƚĞƌƚŚĂƚ͘͘͘ ĨƚĞƌƐŽŵĞƚŝŵĞͬĨƚĞƌǁŚĂƚƐĞĞŵĞĚůŝŬĞLJĞĂƌƐ͕͘͘͘ &ŝŶĂůůLJͬ/ŶƚŚĞĞŶĚ͕͘͘͘ ƚůĂƐƚ͕͘͘͘ ^ŝŵƵůƚĂŶĞŽƵƐĞǀĞŶƚƐʹŚĂƉƉĞŶŝŶŐĂƚƚŚĞƐĂŵĞƚŝŵĞ DĞĂŶǁŚŝůĞͬ/ŶƚŚĞŵĞĂŶƚŝŵĞ͕ tŚŝůĞĂůůƚŚŝƐǁĂƐŐŽŝŶŐŽŶ͕ /ŶƚŚĞŵŝĚĚůĞŽĨĂůůƚŚŝƐ͕͘͘͘ ƵƌŝŶŐĂůůƚŚŝƐƚŝŵĞ͕͘͘͘ ^ƵĚĚĞŶŽƌƵŶĞdžƉĞĐƚĞĚĞǀĞŶƚƐ ^ƵĚĚĞŶůLJͬůůŽĨĂƐƵĚĚĞŶ͕͘͘͘ ůůĂƚŽŶĐĞ͕͘͘͘ KƵƚŽĨƚŚĞďůƵĞ͕͘͘͘ tŝƚŚŽƵƚĂŶLJǁĂƌŶŝŶŐ͕͘͘͘ :ƵƐƚǁŚĞŶ/ǁĂƐůĞĂƐƚĞdžƉĞĐƚŝŶŐŝƚ͕͘͘͘ dŚĞŶĞdžƚƚŚŝŶŐ/ŬŶĞǁǁĂƐ͘͘͘  


ZĂƉŝĚͬǀĞƌLJĨĂƐƚĞǀĞŶƚƐ ƐƋƵŝĐŬĂƐĂĨůĂƐŚ͕͘͘͘ /ŶƚŚĞǁŝŶŬŽĨĂŶĞLJĞ͕͘͘͘ /ŶĂŵĂƚƚĞƌŽĨƐĞĐŽŶĚƐͬŵŝŶƵƚĞƐ͕͘͘͘ /ŶŶŽƚŝŵĞĂƚĂůů͕͘͘͘ >ŽŽŬŝŶŐďĂĐŬ /ŶƌĞƚƌŽƐƉĞĐƚ͕͘͘͘ tŚĞŶ/ƚŚŝŶŬďĂĐŬƚŽǁŚĂƚŚĂƉƉĞŶĞĚƚŚĞŶ͕͘͘͘


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L1 & L2 learner handbook