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GRADUATION PROJECT Sahil Makhani Product Design, UID

2016

Project

Public Spaces - Bus Shelter Sponsor

Foley Designs Pvt. Ltd. 1


Graduation Project, 2016 Unitedworld Institute of Design Student, Product Design (2012 - 2016) Sahil Makhani Sponsored by Foley Designs Pvt. Ltd. Industry Guide Mr. Michael Foley Mr. Manas Barve Mr. Bavith Balakrishnan Institute Guide Prof. Minal Patel

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Preface

As per UID’s (Unitedworld Insitute of Design) curriculum, all the final year students have to undergo a graduation project which is a full scale design project that could either can be a personal intervention or could be done in the industry. This project is expected to be of four to six months. The project is targeted to generate professional design skills and achieve an outcome with application and implementation capabilities. This project acts as a trailer to the professional world of design, intended to put the students in a real life situation of working in the industry. It also makes the students aware of the industry’s constraints and limitations. The student is required to understand the company in all aspects of creating a design, from pitching an idea to a client to finally delivering a tangible outcome. After understanding these, the student is required to generate a design, satisfying the company’s needs and utilizing the company’s strengths and design sensibilities within the boundaries of time and viability. Undergoing the project helps the student to understand the role of a designer in the industry. Not only does it help to understand all the aspects surrounding the design like time management, communication skills, practical constraints, pitching your ideas but also helps discover themselves by knowing their strengths and weaknesses. My graduation project was sponsored by “Foley Designs Pvt. Ltd.” in the city of Bangalore in India. The project extended for a period of 7 months from January to August, 2016 with the company in Bangalore. It took another 2 months of working in Ahmedabad to finish the project.

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Aspiration

Aiming to work on designing experiences, solving problems and studying peoples’ behaviors and challenging them, I decided to work with a multi disciplinary design consultancy where I could learn and observe different processes followed in varied projects and also be exposed to different design disciplines under the same roof. I was fortunate enough to land at Foley Designs for my graduation project. It is one of India’s most multifaceted design consultancies, working on a wide range of design applications with dedicated teams for communication design, product design and development as well as spatial design. The first 10 days was the time when I explored the firm and made the choice of working on a public space design project. As the firm had a very interactive environment, I did not want to miss the opportunity of working on a large system like a “Bus shelter” which would demand a collaboration of different design disciplines, Along with my graduation project, I worked on a couple of small projects for the company where I could use my knowledge on textiles, and leather. I have documented this journey here, and I hope you will find something to take away from it.

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Acknowledgements The project would not be possible without the guidance and support of the team at Foley. They made me feel a part of their family from the very first day ranging from the late night table tennis matches to the overnight work marathons. Special thanks to Manas, Varun, Rohit, Bhavit, Alpa, Aditi, Gaurav, Jesal, Kritika and Vivek for supporting me and asking me to pull myself together whenever required. I also want to thank Manali, Gautam, Sakhi, Tanvi, Amruta, Mr. Ravi Kumar, Nigel and Mohammad SIr for making me feel comfortable on a strange land. I would like to thank Mr. Micheal Foley for giving me an opportunity to work and grow with foley designs. The knowledge, learnings and experiences that I gathered during this project are priceless.

Mrs. Minal Patel for supported me when I needed it the most and making me explore my weaker areas during the project. I would also like to thank her for giving me an opportunity to work with her to test my learnings. Mr. Varshin Vala for helping me detail and prototype my design. Mr. Sada Sivan (H.O.D, product design) for being cool and asking me to learn from my mistakes.

To my friends Devanshi and all the fellow interns at Foley Designs for being available for brainstorms and keeping me motivated and interested. To Ashwin, Arvind, Aditya, Jai and Raj for socially supporting and keeping me inspired and motivated during the coarse of the project. Also, my family for having faith and trust in me.

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Introduction

Overview

10

20

Synopsis

12

Client Brief

22

About Me

14

Approach

24

About UID

16

Timeline

26

About Foley Designs

18

Ideation

Re-Brief

66

84

Chaos to Order

68

Redefine Brief

86

Convenience to Pride

72

Understanding the brief

88

Anxious to Assured

76

Design Principle

90

Restless to Calm

80

Inspiration Board

92

References

94

Detailing

What Now ?

150

176

Assembly

152

Seminar Details

178

Materials and Finishes

156

Existing Scenario

180

Other Details

158

Public Toilets

184

Prototyping

162

Bus Shelters

190

System for Quality

172

Bibliography

192

Reflections

174

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Contents

Discover

Synthesis

30

46

Brainstorm

32

Themes

48

Design Challenge

38

Frameworks

62

Research Plan

40

Conceptualize

Concept

98

138

Initial Explorations

100

Form and Function

144

Form Identity Iterations

104

Information Hierarchy

146

Concept Development

116

Space Organization

148

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INTRODUCTION

10


10 A general introduction of the project and my journey as a student along with giving a general info on the institute and the firm.

Introduction

Synopsis

12

About Me

14

About UID

16

About Foley Designs

18

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Synopsis

The document shows my journey working on public space design focusing on Bus shelters. Throughout the project, I tried carrying out a human centered design process to achieve an outcome benefiting the society. The requirement of a low maintenance, cost effective, durable and per-fabricated bus shelters for Indian Cities was given by the client. The themes of assurance, reliability, safety and mental comfort came out strongly during the research which was exciting and challenging to base the further process upon. The output for the client had to be a bus shelter design satisfying the brief of the client of being able to generate enough revenue to maintain the shelter. Whereas, the company wanted me to do a through research, Exploring and documenting ideas and opportunities even outside the brief which could be a reference and guide to further projects in this domain. On a personal level, I wanted to learn from different design processes followed in the firm. Also, to observe the design and development of different products, surfaces and spaces in all design disciplines to grow as a designer.

Introduction / Synopsis

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About me

As a student, I am interested in a variety of fields ranging from products, textiles, accessories to performing arts and interaction design and have done a variety of projects on the same.. During the course of my design learning, I have made various attempts to know my core which might be designing experiences where I can exploit my learnings from different disciplines. My last Course in UID was on systems design where i worked with one of my batch mates on a construction labor housing project. In this project, I wanted to come up with a cost effective housing solution for laborers, possible to implement immediately. Here, I released my inclination towards studying behaviors and experiences around a space. I started believing in the idea of manipulation of experiences and habits in spaces with the help of various design principles and elements. After the end of the module, I wanted to explore the field further. When I came across working on a space design project, I was scared at first but then decided to go for it. Inorder to learn and explore a new design discipline in these 6 months. Also, the presence of other design disciplines under the same roof would help me get good amount of exposure.

Introduction / About me

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About UID A 34-acres of lush green oasis landscape at S.G Highway provides amiable environment along with creativities and positivity for the students to bring out their best. Unitedworld Institute of Design (UID) is a private educational institute in India established in 2012 under Unitedworld group, which is presently operating in many business verticals, prominent of which are Education, FMCG, Textiles and Hospitality. Education is their major focus area & maximum thrust has been put into this endeavor. Unitedworld Group is committed towards qualitative education & excellence. UID is an institute of national repute that follows the philosophy “Have a passion to create something new & influence change�. The institute prepares students to understand the intrinsic values of design. The Institute of has nationally recognized faculties, teachers and equipment. They undertake to impart education that cultivates artistic capabilities and in-depth design knowledge to foster a creative education. It offers professional bachelor and masters courses in fields of fashion design, product design, lifestyle and accessory design, visual communication and interior design. These programs are designed with strong professional emphasis and in close partnership with the industry. Every course has been structured to deliver insights into the importance of individual and collective creativity, be it theoretical assessment, design practice, curatorial evaluations or artistic considerations. Internal Mentor : Prof. Minal Patel Bachelors of Architecture from IED, V. V nagar, Anand and Masters in Architecture in Urban Design from CEPT in 1998. Practicing since 1993, she had dealt with a number of large housing schemes, Commercial and institutional buildings to preparing town planning schemes and road designs for government. She is actively involved in the field of Urban planning She is also involved in the design and architecture education as a visiting facuity in C.E.P.T (Ahmedabad), S V.I.T(Valsad), IED (V V Nagar) and UID(Gandhinagar)

Introduction / About UID

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About Foley Designs

Working at the intersection of design, culture, and business, Foley Designs glances through a periscope of consumer and market insights, to create viable, design-led solutions for brands. They develop and evolve these solutions into effective and feasible reality that creates meaningful engagement. Founded by Micheal Foley, Foley designs is a multidisciplinary design studio that attempts to bring a holistic perspective to any design challenge. Michael Foley first made his mark with stunning, contemporary design that gave Titan Industries an aesthetic makeover. A design student from the National Institute of Design, Ahmedabad, he joined Titan Industries as a product designer. In less than a decade, he rose to head the Titan Design Studio, and become Chief Creative Advisor to Titan Industries. In the latter half of 2006, Michael felt the need to move his work to a broader, more challenging platform, and the design studio, Foley Designs, was born. The studio specializes in product design, packaging, graphics, environment design, and brand identity, and consists of a team that is hand-picked by Michael, for design prowess, originality, and ability to translate consumer understanding into fresh, inviting design. The studio works very closely with the client and partner teams to align strategic thinking, combining market knowledge with design research to build a comprehensive approach to strategic design intervention. Research tools in the design process are customized to suit product categories. Such processes typically culminate in the form of insight pitches, innovation platforms, simulated solutions and proof-of-concept models, subsequently tested with core consumers. External Mentor : Mr. Manas Barve Masters in Lifestyle Acessory Design from NID and is the Chief Industrial Designer at Foley Designs. Supreme Award winners in the 2010 WOW Awards. He has worked on a variety of projects ranging from trophies to Mixer grinders to Exhibition and lighting design solutions.

Introduction / About Foley Designs

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OVERVIEW

20


20 Details about the project and the approach to go ahead with.

Client Brief

22

Approach

24

Timeline

26

Introduction / Overview

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Client brief

The Client : Lalit Arts is an advertising agency. They are mostly into outdoor advertisements having banners and hoardings around the city. Companies and other brands pay them for putting up their advertisements on these depending on the sight and the area of hoarding. Lalit arts is responsible for the proper making of the light boxes, Printing of advertisement, maintaining it and fixing the advertisement at the decided sight taking care of its visibility around.

Brief : Lalit arts wants to propose a new design for the bus shelters in Bangalore to the government where Lalir arts would be responsible for the construction and maintenance of the Shelter. Also, Lalit arts can generate revenue to maintain these shelters by putting the advertisement banners on rent. The following are the major points given to Foley designs by the client : • To have provision for rain harvesting. • To be a 4+4 seating. Chair/ benches to be unique in each design. Not very comfortable, basic seating- no arm rest and no back rest. • To have provision for dustbins. • Should integrate-city information-maps and bus routes. • Once 4G is in place, should have provision for GPRS, CCTV etc. • Maintenance is a big concern. Should be maintenance friendly. • To have provision for lighting. • To explore angular panel advertising. • To be per-fabricated. Execution on site in 24hrs. • Size: 6ft in depth • European design language.

This is a hypothetical client brief for practical constraints and targets the stakeholders for a pitch project. Its a design pitch for the private sector investors who wish to build public utilities such as bus shelters in India.

Overview / Client brief

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The solutions that emerge at the end of the HumanCentered Design should hit the overlap of these three lenses.

Will diverge and converge a few times, and with each new cycle coming closer and closer to a marketready solution. Discover

Design

Deliver

These were my reference material for figuring the approach for the current design challenge

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Approach

My approach is to learn what users need in order to use the bus system and then to work out how to ensure that a bus stop can be designed to play its part in reducing barriers to travel.

Human Centered Design (HCD) approach is a generative and iterative process through which we gain deep empathy for people, question assumptions and explore directions in order to identify new opportunities.

Overview / Approach

I made an attempt to use a Human Centered Design (HCD), to examine the habits, motivations and aspirations of Bus commuters in Bangalore. Although I focused on Bangalore Bus-stops, many of the insights and opportunities are relevant across India. HCD means placing the users’ needs at the forefront of the design process. Too often, current design processes satisfy the engineering and commercial requirements and the users are only considered afterwards. Accessibility requires that we work the other way round : the engineering and commercial decisions should really be about how to meet the users’ needs.

By going really big and broad during the Ideation phase, we dream up all kinds of possible solutions. But because the goal is to have a big impact in the world, we have to then identify what, among that constellation of ideas, has the best shot at really working. To evolve a design challenge out of the brief, It was very important to do a broad enough research around the subject moving away from the brief. I learned that the client always has some per-consumed notions of a product or a service which leads to his/her version of the brief. A broad research is important to come up with unexpected outcomes for me as well as the client. It is my duty as a designer to make something that solves people’s problems, makes their lives easier as well as understand the constraints of the client and keep him/her satisfied. In the current scenario it was important to understand different social behaviors, current systems of formation and maintenance and take different analogous inspirations to understand the problems in a better, more connected way. Being a student, the firm also wanted me to explore crazy and out of the box ideas to widen up my thinking process and also take advantage of the fresh and new perspective.

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Planned Time ( X Axis ) :

Discover

1 unit = 3 days 1st feb 2016 - 7th Aug

Past experiences / System thinking Instant ideas, opportunities / problems, Approx. timeline

Steps ( Y Axis ) :

Initial Research System overview

Major Landmarks

Environment study - geography, demography, psychology

Sub processes

Market research Secondary research ( Internet ) User research

Synthesis, Ideation and Redefining brief Data categorization - inferences, problems, opportunities Scenario building Problem statement, target audience, design criteria, Scope, Redefine TImeline

Extensive Research Studying sub systems User Research

Steps (Design Process)

Extensive market research

Form Identity Iteratio

Brainstorming, Generating m

sketching and low fidelity mo Shortlisting ideas Defining design direction

Time (in days)

1/02 15/02

22/02

Overview / Timeline

7/03

14/03

28/03

25/04

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gust 2016

Timeline Graduation Project Title : Public spaces Project : Bus Shelter System

Mind mapping, Gantt chart

Sahil MakhanI Product Design, Sem 8 Unitedworld Institute of Design.

Observations, Interviews, Questionnaires, Discussions, Internet

Secondary research - anthropometric data

Observations, Interviews, Questionnaires, Discussions, Internet Sketching, Rendering, 3D modeling, Paper / foam mock ups

on

mood / inspiration board

odeling / Rapid prototyping

Sketching, Rendering, 3D modeling, Proper material protos

Conceptualization Shortlisting Concepts Concept detailing , high fidelity modeling Feedback / reviews, Improvisation

Prototyping New system - infographics Testing of Ideas

Observation. interviews, discussion, modeling

Model Making

Documentation Documentation Formalities

23/05

10/07

7/08

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Achieved Discover

Initial Research

Synthesis, Ideation and Redefining brief

Extensive Research

Past experiences / System thinking

System overview

Data categorization - inferences, problems, opportunities

Studying sub systems

Brainstorming, Ge mood / inspiration

User Research

Scenario building

Extensive market research

Sketching and low fidelity modeling / prototyping

Instant ideas, opportunities / problems, Approx. timeline

Other short projects

February

Environment study geography, demography, psychology

Market research Secondary research ( Internet ) User research

March

Problem statement, target audience, design criteria, Scope, Redefine TImeline

Form Identity Ite

Shortlisting ideas

Defining design di

June

May

April

Brief Discription of Methodology Planning the research, brainstorming on the scope and the dept of the research. Also, recording past experiences on the subjects in the brief.

Overview / Timeline

Based on the scope, projecting the functioning of the system and carrying out relevant field research, secondary research and recording interviews of the commuters

Organizing the data into themes and separating major insights from observations and picking out opportunity statements for ideation. Based on these redefining the client brief

After brief generation, revisiting the prime sites to verify themes and insights while keeping myself open for more information.

Taking references fro secondary research a experiences for explo new forms and ideas visual identity with th of skectching and low modeling.

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eration

Conceptualization

Prototyping

Documentation

enerating n board

Shortlisting Concepts

New system info-graphics

Way forward

w / Rapid

Concept detailing , high fidelity modeling

Testing of Ideas

Formalities

Feedback / reviews, Improvisation

Model Making

irection

e

July

om and past oring for he help w fidelity

August

Selecting the ideas and forms showing potential by taking feedbacks. After that, developing concepts by combining and iterating on different ideas. The next part was figuring out the details for the selected concepts.

September

October

Finalizing the details for the selected concept by prototyping and testing of ideas and also after talking to a number of experts from relevant fields. Making a scaled model of the final design for a proper communication of the concept.

November

Working on the conference for “Gender inclusive empowerment” Developing concepts for Ahmedabad and documenting the entire work.

These were the major steps which delayed the process. the form iterations took a lot more time then imagined due to the mental block I developed during my research. As far as concept detailing was concerned, I wasn’t satisfied with the level of my work in firm and hence, decided to give it one more shot after coming to Ahmedabad taking to a few more experts. After that , testing ideas in full scale and finalizing measurements took some time followed by a 1 : 15 scale model, made out of PVC sheets for the final design. Working on the Conference for “ women safe women smart cities” with MInal ma’am consumed 15 days of november. 29


DISCOVER

30


30 Discussing the existing knowledge on the subject and a brief field work for planning the research.

Brainstorm

32

Design challenge

38

Research Plan

40

Introduction / Overview / Discover

31


Limitation of dimensions and renting the space

Identity Limitation of dimensions and renting the space

Advertisements

Kinds of Materials Recycled and Eco friendly Materials

Prefabrication

Criticality of issues

BUS

Maintenance

User Profiles

European Style Design Standards

Construction method of light boxes

Weather and climat changes Sustainability

Keeping two Bus-stops next to one another

How much time do you spend on the bus-stop ?

Discover / Brainstorm

32


Brainstorm

Solutions for problems addressed in abroad bus-stops

Smart features which can be implemented

Swatchchh Bharat Mission Users

Features and Innovations

Crowd Sensitivity

te

Universal Design Features

Measures taken by the government to maintain the shelter

System

SHELTER

Structure Journey Tracking

Rain Harvesting

Number of people targeted for a shelter Planning

Guide lines Lay-outing

Essential Information

Safety Future plans for bus-stops Safety associated with traffic, animals on the street, pick pocketing, theft ,etc 33


Shelter

Landmark

Milestones

Marked space on the road

Organizing space

Bus stop

Waiting space

Boon at Night

Entering a system

Shade on the road Boundary

Reference point

Exchange point

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What is a Bus stop ?

A bus stop should necessarily

According to Wikipedia, “A bus stop is a designated place where buses stop for passengers to board or alight from a bus. These are normally positioned on the highway and are distinct from offhighway facilities such as bus stations. The construction of bus stops tends to reflect the level of usage.�

Protect : consideration needs to be given to the prevailing wind, rain, sunlight and heat.

A bus stop is a place at which a pedestrian changes into a passenger and vice versa. These changes take time. The whole bus stop area is a place where many different people undertake many different actions. People need to negotiate the gaps, they have to rearrange their bags and cases in order to board the bus, to look for information, and to find their money or ticket to pay or show the driver on entry. A similar process occurs when a passenger leaves the bus : they have to change from being a passenger to being a pedestrian . People, after alighting from a bus, commonly take one or two steps and then stop to rearrange their bags, etc, before proceeding along the foot-way as a pedestrian. This can cause delay in the other alighting (and sometimes boarding ) passengers. One purpose of infrastructure such as a bus stop is to organize time for these processes by providing them with convenient space.

Provide comfort : all bus stops should have appropriate seats. Space for shopping and luggage bags can also be included.

Inform : the shelter is also the location for information about the bus services and the local area . It is the point where people have continuous access to information to proceed to their journey, where they are waiting for a bus or have just left one.

A bus stop is not just a place where people wait to catch a bus- we also have to design the physical space to facilitate heir arrival at, and departure from, the bus stop as pedestrians. It is therefore important to include this space in the overall dimensions of a bus stop in such a way that it does not interfere with the continuing activities along the foot-way.

Promote safety : shelters must enable people to feel secure and safe while they wait for a bus

Discover / Brainstorm

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What should a bus-stop be like ?

Users : • Where they can wait comfortably and safely for a bus service to which they will have easy access, that will arrive within a time that is reasonable enough to wait and that is going to take them where they want to go. • which they can identify easily • Where they can find out about the bus service (arrival and departure times, destinations and other information ) • Where they can find out about the area around the bus stop so that, on alighting from a bus, they can find their way from the bus stop to their destination.

Traffic Planners : • That is safe for buses to stop with a minimum disturbance to traffic • That is cheap to install and maintain • That will incur minimal opposition from users, nearby residents and businesses and bus operators.

People Living Near to bus stops : • That is not too far from their home • That is not outside their home • That is not unsightly

Bus Operators : • Where the bus can stop without problems • Where the bus can re-enter the traffic stream as easily as possible • Which imposes the least possible delay on buses

Car Drivers : • That does not interfere with the traffic system in any way.. • That does not eliminate or reduce parking.

Discover / Brainstorm

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Bus Drivers : • • • • • • • •

That is easy to identify in the street space That is easy to stop at That is devoid of parking and delivery-vehicle problems Where passengers can board and alight as quickly as possible That has no obstacles that can be struck by the bus on arriving or leaving the stop. That is consistent in its design. That is easy to leave and re-enter the traffic stream. Where it is easy to see passengers boarding and alighting from the bus

Traders Based Near the bus stops : • That is close to their business (if they believe that bus users are core customers ) • That is far away from their business ( if they believe that bus users are not core customers ) • That does not obstruct views of their premises. • That does not obstruct access for delivery vehicles and customers

Bus stop owner : • That has proper space to flaunt advertisements from which he can collect revenue. • Strong visual identity for people to recognize easily. • That is low cost and easy to maintain. • That he can take complete responsibility of .

Pedestrians : • That does not obstruct their use of the footpath. • That does not make them feel insecure.

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How can we create low cost and low maintenance bus stops around the city ?

How can we create bus stops that empower people to explore the city ?

How can we create a safe and informative shelter for bus commuters ?

How can we make the journey of a bus commuter smoother ?

How can we create a reliable bus transportation system?

How can we ease the journey of a bus commuter ?

How can we empower people to commute around a city via bus transport ?

Create unique bus stops all around the city.

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Design challenge How can we ease the journey of a bus commuter ?

The foundation of HCD is a concise Design Challenge. This challenge will guide the questions asked in the field research and the opportunities and solutions that develop later in the process. A Design Challenge is phrased in a human- centered way with a sense of possibility.

A good Design Challenge should be: • Framed in human terms • Broad enough to allow you to discover the areas of unexpected value • Narrow enough to make the topic manageable

How can we create organized, easy to maintain and safe shelters for bus commuters ?

Questions which lead to a good design challenge : What is the problem you are trying to solve ?

Create Better Bus stops 1. Take a stab at framing it as a design question.

How can we create a hygienic, smooth functioning Bus-stop ? 2. Now,state the ultimate impact you’re trying to have.

We want a systematic flow of people at the busstop 3. What are some possible solutions to your problem ?

How can we make the experience of commuting in a city via buses carefree ? Discover / Design Challenge

Increasing the size of the footpath, change in road at the bus-stop, separate space for standing, cleaning done every morning. 4. Finally, write down some of the context and constraints that you’re facing.

Changes in the road and the footpath are outside our scope. We want a solution addressing the crowd hence using all the social behaviors to our advantage is important. 5. Does your original question need at weak ? Try it again. Create organised, easy to maintain and safe shelters for bus commuters. 39


Qualitative research Qualitative research was done to understand people’s social, economic, and cultural backgrounds and to gain a deeper understanding of the problem and people’s behavior and reasons behind them. In later phases of the design process, quantitative research becomes a good complement to understand, for example, the potential adoption of a new solution or to understand how the effect of solutions will vary from region to region.

Research Methods : Learning From People • Individual Interview Conducted with different kinds of commuters to get a better understanding of behaviors, reasonings and problems. Some of my major conversations were with a school teaches (53 years), a food service guy (44 years), a school students (16 years), a young couple (27 years ), a guy from London (24 years), a working visually impaired women (40 years)

• Field Research / In-context immersion Visiting different Bus shelters and speaking to the commuters as well as the pedestrians and observing their behavior helped take insights from their actions and revealed unexpected opportunities

• Online User survey To reach out to more and different people. Through the form, I aimed at gaining insights from people living in different cities as well as countries which would help me understand different mindsets, assumptions and desires.

• Expert Interviews Talking to an expert from CISTUP (Urban Planning) for macro level insights about how decisions at government level affect the availability and maintenance of these facilities. Meeting with Mr. Muthu Raj from Enable India to understand the plight of the differently able when it comes to bus transportation. Opinions and feedback from a prototyping expert, Mr. Varshin Vala who was a part of the current design for the current bus-stops in Ahmedabad, on how good aesthetics can be made more feasible and viable.. Opinions and feedback from an established designer, Mr. Snehal Patel on how spaces and aesthetics affect people’s perceptions.

Discover / Research Plan

40


Research Plan

Secondary Research

Analogous Inspirations

Studying existing literature and other Internet sources. “Accessibility and the bus system: from concepts to practice” by Martha Caiafa , Nick Tyler , and Ian Brown especially has been a very helpful source to verify certain insights gained from primary research as well as for certain guidelines regarding users’ behavior and provision of facilities. Along with this, a couple of other reports like “Bus stop and Bus bays in Bangalore : A status report 2012 by Suresh B, Puneeth HC, Dileep K, Jay K, Deepak B and Gururaja KV under the organisation called CISTUP was also of great help.

Studying similar behavior / activities in different contexts like Metro stations, elevators, Queues, etc to come up with new ideas.

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Prime sight Research Clarence school bus-stop One of the newly made bus-stops in the city, crowded during the peak hours, wide roads, paved footpaths, in Frazer town (part of the old Bangalore), residential area

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Field Research My field research was carried into in three stages. This helped me to re-observe the previously pulled out insights.. 1. Initial Research : In this stage I went around the city observing Bus-stops as well as bus-stands dividing them according to the area, kind of crowd and size of the shelter. This helped me get an over view of the entire scenario. 2. Extensive Research ; This stage involves going to two or three major sights after you have analyzed the data from the first stage to ensure that the insights did come out of a pattern. Also, you tend to interact more with commuters in this stage. 3. Prime sight Research : Out of the sites you observed till now, which becomes your prime site of observation and reference. For, a bigger project like this, choosing a prime sight keeps you focused and gives you a strong reference point for the design process ahead.

Extensive Research Hudson Circle

AC bus-stop, not in use, moderate traffic, wide roads and proper paved footpath, non residential area.

Cubbon park

Low traffic, less crowded through out the day, major student crowd, next to Cubbon park, comparatively wide roads, proper paved footpaths

Discover / Research Plan / Field Research

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Initial Research

Hosur Road

Very crowded during peak hours, major crowd of working professionals, Non- residential area,

Majestic Bus-stand

Crowded throughout the day, next to KSRTC (inter city transport ) stand, wide variety of commuters

Rao Road Bus-stand

Moderately crowded during the day, Near to “Chikpet� (city market ) , wide variety of commuters, proper Bus entry from the road to the stand

Discover / Research Plan / Field Research

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Off M.G road

Comparatively less crowded, low traffic area, Non residential area

C.M.H road

Crowded during peak hours, residential area, metro flyover above, high traffic during peak hours,

Chinnaswamy Stadium

Non residential area, Comparatively wider roads, Moderate traffic during peak hours, Well paved footpaths.

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Uncovering Insights is about bringing visibility and clarity to previously hidden meaning. What is an Insight? • Insights are revelations – the unexpected things that make you sit up and pay attention. • Insights extrapolate individual stories into overarching truths. • Insights allow us to see our design challenge in a new light. What are Themes? Finding Themes is about exploring the commonalities, differences, and relationships between the information.

SYNTHESIS Frameworks allow you to begin putting the specific information from stories into a larger system context What is a framework? A framework is a visual representation of a system. It shows the different elements or actors at play and highlights the relationships between them.

The process of translating insights into Opportunities is about moving from the current state to envisioning future possibilities. Opportunities are the springboard for ideas and solutions. What is an Opportunity Area? • An opportunity area is a stepping stone to idea generation. • An opportunity is a re-articulation of problems or needs in a generative, future facing way. • An opportunity area is not a solution. Rather, it suggests more than one solution. It allows the team to create many solutions.

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46 Analyzing the research, to pinpoint insights and come up with many opportunity statements.

Insights, Themes, Opportunities

48

Accessibility Information Communication Safety Social Behavior Mental Comfort Maintenance Alternate Uses Frameworks

Introduction / Overview / Discover / Synthesis

62

47


“ The bus is too crowded. Hence, I will wait for another bus as I have to travel a long distance and I can’t stand for so long due to my leg problems”. School Teacher 54 years (female)

“ My husband drops me a little ahead of the busstop due to people and the traffic.. He keeps as eye on me from his bike till I settle in the Busstop and then leaves “ Visually impaired lady 40 years

Insights Pedestrians prefer to stay on the footpath even if there’s a bus-stop on the way. There are places in the city (ex.market) around which commuters usually carry luggage. Differently abled, specially blind depend on the help of others to know the exact location of the shelter or the seating.  Women in sarees carrying luggage, senior citizens and people with leg problems go though a lot of hassle to easily catch the bus. One of them being standing on the road. There was a smooth flow of people in getting in and out of the bus and the busstop in the absence of railing.

Synthesis / Accessibility

48


Accessibility How do you think the railings on the current bus stops help?

What kind of differently abled people have you observed at a bus stop?

Directions How might we have a smoother flow of commuters on and off the bus ? How might we design visually impaired friendly bus shelters ? How might we design bus shelters for smoother flow of commuters as well as pedestrians ?

Suggestions from user survey Organized behavior to get in and off the bus Provision to enter the bus for the differently able people Change in the environment, to induce people to move in a queue to board a bus

49


“ The schedule here hasn’t changed since three years and hence, we don’t rely on it “

School children 16 years

“ I can only depend on the conductor’s information and hence, I ask him while getting in and outside the bus. Conductor gets angry and shouts sometimes” Visually impaired lady 40 years

Insights People don’t relay on the printed information as they don’t know when the information was last updated.  To gain information regarding a route, people relay on talking to a fellow commuter or the conduction.  Trees around the shelter many times make the information non-readable from certain angles. Bus stop name and sign should be clearly visible to the drivers.

Synthesis / Information Communication

50


Information Communication Do use the information regarding Bus numbers and route maps given on the bus stop?

Do you remember a bus stop by the advertisement on it?

How do you get to know which bus to board?

Directions

Suggestions from user survey

How might we design a reliable bus shelter ?

Bigger text

How might we empower tourists to explore the city via bus?

Cleaner maps Digital display screen which gives proper guidance of the bus and its routes Advertisements that give you an idea about the go to places in the vicinity

51


“ One night (around 8pm) some drunk guys came really close to my face to check if I am blind and made fun of me and I got really scared“

Visually impaired lady 40 years

“ I won’t stand inside as its dark and the conductor won’t be able to see me and hence won’t stop the bus “ Working men 29 years

Insights

People associate light with safety during night. Well lite bus-stops ensures the commuters of being visible around and hence feel secure. A lot of traffic issues arise due to people standing on the road and waiting for the bus. Presence of CCTV, specially during night can help increase the use of buses during these hours.

Synthesis / Safety

52


Safety

Generally, at what time do you commute via a bus?

Have you seen or experienced any of these activities at a bus stop?

Directions

Suggestions from user survey

How might we design a women safe bus shelter?

Presence of a CCTV A policeman near every bus-stop

How might we design a well connected and safe bus shelter? How might we design a shelter only for women and differently ables ?

53


“ We don’t have any place else to go after school so, we hang around on the bus stop eating and chit-chatting “ School Children 16 years

Insights

Unknown male and female avoid sitting next to one another. People lean on railings to talk to their seated companions. No queue is followed while getting on and off the bus shelter.

Synthesis / Social behaviour

54


Social Behavior

When do you travel by bus?

How do you think the railing on current bus stop is useful?

Directions

Suggestions from user survey

How might we increase the social interaction at a busshelter?

Two seating sections for males and females

How might we create bus shelters empowering youth of the city?

More spacious seating with a sense of privacy and safety

How might we organize a bus shelter?

55


“ The bus was suppose to arrive a half an hour ago and it still hasn’t and there’s no place where I can go and inquire. I can’t even take another mode of transport as the distance is long and a rickshaw or a cab is gonna cost a lot “ working professional (male) 29 years

“ This is a stop with less frequency of buses because of which there are less commuters. Hence, I can’t ask anyone about the bus and the waiting time in uncertain “ Food service guy 40 years

Insights

Daily commuters are more at rest while using the seating. Presence of a railing, makes people lean on it, obstructing the view of the ones seated. Lack of authentic information is the biggest distress to the people. A real time display of the approaching buses will keep the commuters informed and confident. Clear approaching side is very important for ease of commuters.

Synthesis / Mental comfort

56


Mental Comfort

For how long do you generally have to wait at a bus stop?

In what situations are you compelled to stand (and not sit) at a bus stop?

Directions

Suggestions from user survey

How might we create an engaging bus shelters for the commuters?

Organized behavior to get in and off the bus

How might we make the experience of waiting enjoyable?

Know what bus is coming while seating

Gives information about the approaching bus

How might we generate a sense of assurance in the commuters’ mind? 57


“ Nobody sits near the dustbin as it stinks due to overflowing “ Businessman 40 years

Insights Lack of accountability of the concerned authority leads to poor maintenance of these shelters. Intervention in light boxes can bring ease of maintenance. For proper maintenance, co-ordination between different government bodies for tasks like cleaning, emptying of dustbins, structure repair works, replacement of lights,etc is critical.

Synthesis / Maintenance

58


Maintenance

What are the problems with the dustbins on a bus stop?

Have you ever used a dustbin on a bus stop?

Where is the dustbin located on a bus stop?

Directions

Suggestions from user survey

How might we create an easy to maintain, low cost and anti-vandal bus shelter?

They should be cleaned very properly

How might we create a sustainable system for cleanliness and maintenance of the shelter?

Strict rules should be made for people damaging bus stop properties

How might we create light-boxes with better life, easy assembly and less maintenance ? 59


“ When there is a sudden change in weather conditions,, it’s very hard to ask about routes to anyone as they all are in a rush.” Visually impaired lady 40 years

“ When ever someone gives a reference of a bus stop for an address I have ask around a lot as many of them don’t have names written on them.”

Traveller from london 24 years

Insights Seatings at bus-stops often becomes a platform for the homeless to sleep at night. Bus-stop’s name and sign should be clearly visible for it’s use as a landmark for navigation. Bus-shelters are flooded during rains by non-commuters.   The look of a bus-stop becomes an identity of the city for tourists. Tea and pan stalls around a Bus-stop tend to get good business from the commuters. 

Synthesis / Alternate uses

60


Alternate Uses

For what purposes do you use a bus stop?

Is the bus stop name clearly visible?

Directions

Suggestions from user survey

How might we create shelters which adjust according to the weather?

Endorse brands / joints that are renowned in the vicinity. For example, a famous food joint.

How might we use Bus shelters to generate a sense of pride by promoting the city’s culture?

some identity of the area it is located in so that the user can identify the bus stops of a particular area easily

How might we create a system for a thoughtful and sustainable organization of stalls around the city?

Charging points and interactive maps interactive enough to pass the waiting time 61


Inconvenient and unorganized system Unhygienic space

Differently able

Bad Image

Have leg problems

No trust

Bus-Stop far away

Economic Walk

Experience How How How How

Dropped on a vehicle

How long will the walk tak What will I need to bring w Will I need a jacket ?

long will it take ? much will it cost ? convenient is it ? close is it ?

Going to the Bus-Stop Commuter Work

Notions

Shopping

Meeting

School / College

Fear of loosing the bus Does not want to get late Bus stop is a crowded space Have to remain cautious of theft The driver does not care about them The information is not reliable

Motivations

There are many creeps on the stop Stop is dangerous after dark

Advantage of having a government job Appreciation from seniors Fulfilling family needs even with lack of education

It’s a pain to take the bus but economic

One of the major issue is the large difference between the commuter crowd and the capacity of a bus and number of buses because of which the crowd becomes unmanagable

Feeling the

Arguments due to lack of reliability on the system People try to avoid buying a ticket No organization Change problems

Is it going to be easy to get off the bus ? Is it the correct stop ?

Bus-Stop

Issues

Buying a ticket

Bus Conductor

Issues Traffic close to the bus exit Crowded bus stop and footpath People rushing to get in the bus

Tasks Selling tickets Instructions to the driver Information to the people Managing the crowd Announcing the stop name

Ideation / Framework

Notions Thankless job

People don’t understand ea Not appreciated

62


Reliability

Framework

Accessibility Infrastructure

ke ? with me ?

How long will the bus take ? Do I know anyone here ? Have I got the current form of payment ? Will there be a seat for me ? Will it be crowded ?

Issues

Waiting

Bus-Stop

Get on the Bus Notions

No reference of how much time the bus is gonna take neither of how crowded the bus is. Also, how much time is the second one gonna take if u missed one.

Tasks

Come out and stand to indicate the driver Driver does not care Getting inside the bus is the most important thing in the world

Notions

People don’t understand Not appreciated of being caught between e government and people Thankless job

asily

Waiting without proper information frustrates people. This also sometimes results in damage to the infrastructure and unsocial behavior by people on the stop.

Pressures Workload affects social life, Reflects on attitude and also causes physical problems Have to keep the superiors happy Work conditions have hygiene and comfort issues Struggle to meet social standards due to inadequate salary

Keep the change/pass ready Adjust your belongings and clothes to climb Be cautions of theft Climbing the steps

Background Lack of adequate training Usually from a lower income family Has enough driving experience

Bus Driver

How long will it take to reach the destination ? Do I know anyone here ? Is there a seat or do I have to stand ?

Do I have enough money ? Will he have change ? Is he charging me fare ?

Get a place in the bus

Eager to get a place Cautious of theft or abuse Physical task frustration Crowd suffocation Constant eye on the road to be aware of the destination stop

Issues

Don’t get a place in the bus Lack of emergency support for crimes like theft, groping or eve teasing.

63


Meeting with Mr. Muthu Raj from Enable India to understand the plight of the differently able when it comes to bus transportation really helped me a lot. The best part about the meeting was that I got a chance to interact with his wife who is visually impaired and uses the bus transport system daily to commute to her work place. Here, I have tried to pinpoint her difficulties and important insights when travelling by a bus. Dependent on her husband to drop her at the stop or to a rickshaw stand

Going to the Bus-Stop

She gets dropped a few meters after the end of the shelter to avoid the traffic and rush and has to then walk to the shelter

Geeta

Bus-Stop

She has to keep asking around if she has reached the stop as there is no noticeable/uniform tactile indication. Also, for her safety, her husband has to wait till she reaches the shelter.

Waiting Bus Driver As any other information is not perfect, she depends only on the word of the driver and conductor and hence, confirms the destination with them before getting in.; Some times she has become the target of the frustration of the driver and conductor who get angry or annoyed by her repeated confirmations

Get a place in the bus

Constantly in fear of theft Does not prefer to travel on new or strange routes by bus. During extreme weather conditions, things become very hard as nobody stops to help or bothers to reply to her question in the rush. Ideation / Framework

Dependent on others for information regarding the arrival of her bus Many times, as the shelter does not have reliable information, she was mis-leaded by information given by other commuters .

Bus Conductor

Avoids traveling by bus after 7 owing to an incident where she was harassed a little by a group of drunk men

Buying a ticket

Dependent on the conductors call for her on the arrival of her stop.

Bus-Stop 64


Senior Citizens Notions

Experience

Can’t catch the bus during peak hours

Inconvenient and unorganized system

Bus transport not reliable

Not safe to travel during rush hours

Have to remain cautious of theft Keeping bus transport as the last resort

There are reserved seats on the bus Avoid carrying luggage

Issues Pressure on knee when climbing the bus and the footpath Scared of people pushing Language and sight issues worsen the experience Have to rely on the information given by others commuters

Visually Impaired Notions

Experience

Issues

Better to have a friend along

Inconvenient and unorganized system

Flooring not leveled properly

Bus transport not reliable

Not safe to travel during rush hours

Have to remain cautious of theft Dangerous after dark re-confirmation of information regarding destination Confirm information regarding the route with the conductor

Peoples’ half knowledge mis leads

Dependency on others regarding information and arrival of the bus

Avoid carrying luggage Be careful of the flooring

Victims of conductors’ and commuters’ frustration Constant fear of theft and abuse

Tourist / first time Users Notions Bus transport is economic No Idea about the routes Conductor is the only one to trust when on the stop Do not travel during rush hours Be careful of theft and exploitation by the locals Prior information regarding the route and the system form Internet

Experience Reference from other bus transport system Always confirm the information by the conductor Local peoples’ half knowledge mis leads Avoid carrying valuables

Issues Hard to get proper information from fellow commuters during rush hours Dependency on others regarding information and arrival of the bus Reliability issues when it comes to fares Constant fear of missing the destination stop being unaware of the routes

65


IDEATION

66


66 Exploring Innovative and out of the box ideas for the exploring new ways to look around a problem. Projecting or visualizing shifts is one of the ways of coming up with creative ideas circling around a common context

Shift : Chaos

Order

68

Shift : Convenience

City Pride

72

Shift : Anxiousness

Assurance

76

Shift : Restless

Calm

80

Introduction / Overview / Discover / Synthesis / Ideation

67


Shift Chaos

Order

Current shift addresses the organization and flow of the commuters and pedestrians on and off the stop. It also refers to an individual commuter trying to organize oneself on the stop

Ideation / Shift from chaos to order

68


How might we have a smoother flow of commuters on and off the bus? The BRTS bus stops in the city of Ahmedabad entire system has been made for a having a smoother flow of commuters on and off the bus stop as well as the bus. Here, the height of the bus has been kept in such a way that it is only approachable from the designated stop. Also, it has defined entry and exit gates for maintaining the crowd.

How might we organize a bus shelter ? Space organization at the stop can be targeted on the amount of time a commuter has to wait. Dividing the area this way, will raise the opportunity to create something very interactive and engaging in the area where commuters who have to wait the maximum sit. Also, will also ask to create a barrier free clean space for the ones who are going to wait the least.

Display surfaces used to divide spaces attracting commuters Division in bus stop gates to enter and a digital journey planner screen on the extreme right for longer waiting commuters 69


How might we design bus shelters for smoother flow of commuters as well as pedestrians ? For a balance between the pedestrian and commuter flow, one can leave space for pedestrians to walk from behind the stop. Thus, the pedestrians do not get on the road hindering the traffic. Also, dividing the stop into sitting and standing space can increase the capacity and organize the flow of commuters.

The bus stops in London located near the edge of the footpath leaving enough space behind the stop for pedestrians to pass.

London bus shelters with the entrance facing the pedestrians, ensures the safety of the waiting commuter from the traffic.. Presence of a real time display makes the design protective and decreases the number of commuters waiting on the road rather then the shelter.

Ideation / Shift from chaos to order / Ideas

70


How might we create provisions for commuters with luggages ? People carry luggage while returning from a market and going to work. In such situations, the seating in can have an extra space smartly given for keeping this luggage. In this way, people won’t keep the luggage next to them blocking a seat neither will they put it on the ground hindering the pedestrians.

This kind of seating can have a huge impact, specially for airport bus services like “Vayu Vajra in Bangalore�.

How might we bring the authorities closer to the reality of problems faced by the commuters ? For achieving a solution, its very important to understand the problem throughly first which can be brought about by a rating system. The government already has the data of the drivers and the buses which can be made accessible to the people to complaint and rate which can later be used for pinpointing the problem when there is a need for intervention. Thus, There can be a system where the commuters can report their problems directly to the higher authority for taking an action.

71


Shift Convenience

City Pride

This shift gives ideas on how to make a bus stop more then just a waiting area. Doing so, there can be developed an emotional connect between the bus stop and the commuters which can generate a sense of belongingness in the them, making them responsible towards the structure and the system.

Ideation / Shift from convenience to city pride

72


How might we use Bus shelters to generate a sense of pride by promoting the city’s Heritage and culture? Keeping in mind the importance uniformity in the design language of the shelter, there can be an area or a wall in the shelter strictly dedicated to highlight the tourist destination near the shelter BRTS stand in Ahmedabad around the famous “sidi saiyad mosque” has the main grill in the mosque used on the stop to promote tourism.

ROK (Rippmann Oesterle Knauss) developed a series of new bus stops for the village Meilen close to Zurich, Switzerland. The design incorporates sitespecific information, based on the rich cultural and historic background of Meilen through perforated panels. the perforation pattern for each bus stop shows an abstract locationspecific image to emphasize the distinguishing characteristic of the shelter in its historic context. For example, the stop “Grueb” shows a stylized image of vineyards referring to the long history of the local wine-growing culture.

73


How might we empower tourists to explore the city via bus? Special Bus services for tourists will help assure the tourists of not being exploited. Also, this will generate an opportunity to promote the city’s culture in a tourist centric way, making their experience smooth and carefree.

“HOHO bus service in Delhi is a Hop on-Hop off tourism oriented bus service covering 29 tourist destinations in the city.

For tourists and first time users there can be an orientation call service giving them basic information about the system, major routes and fare structure. This would reduce the fear of exploitation.

The call service can answer questions about any social norms to be careful about or can also be used to warn about any critical situations.

Ideation / Shift from convenience to city pride / Ideas

74


How might we create a system for a thoughtful and sustainable organization of stalls around the city ? For proper maintenance of a shelter, its very important to plan a good enough resource flow between different agencies involved. The government gives the land to an advertising agency

The advertising agency builds the shelter It rents out the advertisement spaces to brands to recover cost

The agency also rents out the stalls in return asking them to clean and maintain the shelter By following the above plan, we form a sustainable system for maintenance, increase employment, organize the unorganized sector of “Laris� and a smoother journey for the commuters.

Bus stops in Chennai with a plan of having a vending machine and a real time display along with all time watchmen around. Using the idea of abroad bus stops have vending machines for quick snacks, We can promote a healthy life style by providing healthy snacks at the stops.

75


Shift Anxiousness

Assurance

This shift helps generate ideas to reduce the anxiety commuters have on the bus stop due to the situations like delaying of a bus, unclear approaching side, visually impaired being dependent on others for information, Unreliable printed information,etc.

Ideation / Shift from anxiousness to assurance

76


How might we make the experience of bus transport personalized ? Taking inspiration from how the banking system has evolved to becoming a much personalized system as to approaching people individually and providing all the necessary services in a more convenient way, There is a scope of personalization or privatization in the bus transport system.

One of the ways could be when people can ask for a bus no. at a particular time and place and thats how the timing and route of a bus is fixed and manipulated. In such a system there is no fear of loosing ones bus, the system becomes trustworthy and reliable.

How might we make the bus transport safe for senior citizens ? Buses specially assigned only for differently able and senior citizens in order to save them from the rush on the stop as well as on the bus. The timetables of these buses can be shared with the commuters via different channels of communication like radio and television. In the same direction, Late Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Jayalalita announced free bus travel for senior citizens in Chennai metropolitan area. Under the plan, elderly people over the age of 60 may travel in all the MTC buses barring air-conditioned buses. But only making the travel free of cost is not enough, various accessibility issues should also be addressed. 77


How might we design visually impaired friendly bus shelters ? For the clear identification of the bus stop, there can be an audio play back device on the shelter which can announce the bus stop name and the arriving bus no. in certain time intervals helping the visually impaired and the ones with literacy and language issues at the same time.

Tech-savvy Chennai plans to deploy an electronic alert system to ensure that visually-impaired residents board the correct buses. Blind riders would be outfitted with special devices that beep when their buses arrive. The gadgets would sound again when they reach their stops The project includes a low energy Blue-tooth transmitter and a receiving device similar to a cell phone. The transmitter gives out signals drawn from the back end system to the receiver. The receiver reads the signal and voices out the message to its user.

A new wristband device, which can help visually and hearing impaired people navigate the UK bus network, has undergone trials in Nottingham.

Ideation / Shift from anxiousness to assurance / ideas

78


Onyx Beacon has developed and already implemented at large scale an integrated iBeacon-based solution for Smart Public Transport services, which includes all three fundamental components: iBeacons as hardware, a dedicated mobile application free for all users available for iOS and Android and a cloud platform which controls the entire interaction and communication process and gathers an accurate and solid set of analytics about users behavior and needs.

First use case: routing and guidance for visually impaired Dynamic and customized pricing Metered and time-based pricing Individual route calculation Passenger route optimization Emergency re-routing Real-time data about fleet loading Fleet and comfort optimization Group management: Kids safety Individual monitoring and trip reporting Accessibility for passengers with special needs Up-selling, cross-selling, new revenue generation City sightseeing – SPT for tourists Proximity marketing and profilebased advertising Community development and social interaction

79


Shift Restless

Calm

This shift helps generate ideas on reducing one’s frustration while waiting at the shelter. Also, we can address the mental discomfort caused during harsh weather conditions.

Ideation / Shift from restless to calm

80


How might we create weather friendly shelters for different climate conditions ? India is a country with very diverse climates. Hence, there can be shelters which have a roof which is adjustable according to the weather..

In the case of more people using the shelter during rains, there can be a roof which can be extended during to accommodate these people wanting to save themselves from the rain. For regions with extreme heat, low cost sprinkler systems like the ones in outdoor restaurants in Istanbul can be installed.

Lake Flato designed and built a kinetic bus shelter prototype. The light-weight shade canopy was built with fishing line and fabric, and designed with parallel sheets woven between the lines that allow more sunlight during winter months, and less during summer months.

A bus station in Aarau, Switzerland with a free form steel frame holds up the cloud from within, while a network of steel cables across the outer surface gives it structure. Ventilation to the bus station is achieved by adjusting the air pressure in the inflated roof to suit the changing weather conditions.

81


How might we increase the social interaction at a bus-shelter ? Seating acts as a major element for social interaction which is reflected in various restaurants and cafe interiors. The seating on the shelter can be arranged in such a way where you have easy eye contact with strangers to begin a conversation or which gives a sense of a casual space promoting conversations.

The bespoke cast aluminium benches finished with iroko slats provide a series of attractive, durable seating zones which encourage social interaction between residents and visitors in Elephant and Castle district.

Making the shelter playful is another way to increase social interaction. Technology can be used to engage people together like a wall which is full of capacitive sensors which lets you paint by your hand. A wall which you can punch and squeeze, or can play a game on can also engage people while they wait.

Use of colors and light to induce playfulness Vancouver bus shelter turned message board Wall installations for interaction between commuters while waiting.

Ideation / Shift from restless to calm / ideas

82


How might we make the experience of waiting enjoyable ? When people have to wait for a longer time and their mind idle, they tend to get frustrated. Hence, if the bus-stop has features which entertain or engage the mind of the commuters some how, the experience of waiting can be transformed.

Most of the commuters are off to work. Hence, its very important for them to look presentable. Utilizing this insight, the shelters can be equipped with mirrors which can keep the commuters engaged . It is very important here that the mirrors are situated in a location where it does not hinder the drivers vision on the road.

A story telling bus shelter which can have mythological stories or stories about a city and its culture educating the commuters as well as promote the tourism

Stories based on mythology on a wall of the shelter can be engaging.

Stories talking about the culture or lifestyle of a city or town can be very interesting to tourists.

83


RE-BRIEF

84


84 Redefining the client brief after understanding the problems of the commuters and the requirements of the client. Along with setting up design principles for validating future concepts.

Redefine Brief

86

Understanding the Brief

88

Design Principle

90

Inspiration Board

92

References

94

Introduction / Overview / Discover / Synthesis / Ideation / Re-Brief

85


Focus On : How can we make the experience of commuting in a city via buses carefree ?

How can we ease the journey of a bus commuter ?

How might we generate a sense of assurance in the commuters’ mind ?

How might we use Bus shelters to generate a sense of pride by promoting the city’s culture ?

How might we organize a bus shelter ? How might we create an easy to maintain, low cost and anti-vandal bus shelter ?

How might we design bus shelters for smoother flow of commuters as well as pedestrians ?

I have adopted the “ways to grow framework” from IDEO, to place my solution and offering to the client. A more incremental innovation is easier to implement and may actually offer the biggest impact to the community. Our solution lies in the incremental quadrant, but is close to inviting new users as it intends to transform the quality of service and hence peoples’ behaviors. The offerings remain the same while introducing changes in the system to benefit both the providers and users.

Solution

86


Redefine Brief Problem Statement To create a Safe, Reliable and Easy to Maintain shelter for bus commuters.

Target Audience Primary

Secondary

Stake holders

• Daily commuters : School / College students, Working professionals, Senior Citizens, House wifes.

• Pedestrians • Bus drivers and conductors • Maintenance people (eg. garbage pickup )

• Client • Municipal Corporation • Advertised Brands • Transport Corporation

Criteria • Installation in 24 hours • Prefabricated • Anti-vandal and low maintenance • 5 years life • Seating : minimum 8 and maximum 16 • Modular • Provision for Dustbins • Integrate city information, maps and bus routes. • Once 4G in place, provision for CCTV and GPRS • 6ft in depth • Seating unique in Design, not very comfortable, should not allow sleeping. • European design language • Strong Visual Identity • Provision for advertisements atleast one horizontal and one vertical with one advertisement visible to the commuters in the shelter • Privately owned and maintained.

Re-brief / Redefine Brief

87


Steps for implementation of the design from paper to reality.

To keep in mind the viability, feasibility and innovation in the structure.

Important things to abide by for easy transition between steps. It also justifies the criterias of the design challenge

2. Filling the tender

1. Design The design firm submits the design to the client After the client’s satisfaction of the design.

The client fills the tender to the government for the permission to make the shelters. The tender should also have the information like the cost per shelter, other manufacturing agencies involved (if any ), Installation time oer shelter, revenue collection plan,etc.

Design 7. Revenue collection The client uses this money to make up for the cost of manufacturing and for maintaining the shelter in future

Durability, Antivandalism, Easy to clean and non dust collecting surfaces. Easy to empty and smartly positioned dustbins. Low maintenance light boxes and concealed wiring. Re-brief / Understanding the brief

88


Understanding the brief The structure should be cost effective, low maintenance and value for money The structure should be easy to assemble and prefabricated for quick installation 3. Tender approval The government authority passes the tender (If ours is the best design at the best cost). It also mentions the laws of renting out the advertisements, maintenance and surveillance of the shelter.

Implementation 6. Renting of advertisements After the formation of the shelter, the brands rent the advertisement spaces by paying to the client and the commuters start using the shelter

4. Planning The client and government authorities then work together and prepare the time line for execution

5. Formation The client then starts building these shelters at different spots in the city as planned. Meanwhile, he also starts pitching the advertisements to different brands.

The space for advertisement should stand out compared to other advertisement spaces like shops and hoardings. To achieve this the shelter should have a very strong visual identity to stand out of the other street entities which will make the brands rent out the space easily for more money helping the client generate more revenue.

Materials and joineries used should be locally available, cost effective and easy to maneuver by common laborers.

89


Design Principles are the guardrails of the solution. They are quick, memorable recipes that will help keep further iterations consistent. These principles describe the most important elements of the solution and give integrity and form to the designs.

Mental Comfort

Element of nature / warmth

Balanced

soft / smooth

Engaging / Inviting

Glow/Bold/Easy to spot

Re-brief / Design Principles

Interactive / Landmark

Culture

90


Design principle

Intuitive

Hierarchy

Indication of direction

Easy Movement

Secure

Well-lit

Transparency

Sturdy

91


This Inspiration Board helped in iterating forms to come up with a strong visual identity as well as in deciding materials and colors of the elements. Assigning attributes in the same helped for analogous inspirations during the design process.

Balanced

Contemporary

Subtle

Colour pallet

Re-brief / Inspiration Board

92


Inspiration board

Combination of materials

Clean Edges

Visually light

93


Well lite shelter easy to maintain and cost efficient

concealed wiring

Lighting and electrical

easy to access meter yet anti-vandal

Protected for rains

Promote innovation anti-vandal and easy to assemble and maintain light-boxes

Advertisement can easily generate revenue

Information

change able according to regions

not cluttered, easy to understand

emergency and complaint registration numbers

Real time display for approaching buses

weather protection

good visibility from the road, footpath and inside the bus stop

Well connected system of information between stops and the source

anti-vandal and easy to assemble and maintain lightboxes Proper hierarchy

Scope for revolving and digital ads

Anti-vandal

Roof

solar panels installed block harsh sunlight

rain water harvesting

Re-brief / References

94


References

95


durable and strong

avoiding dust collection

weather resilient

Flooring

easy to clean organization of crowd

safety for traffic Guiders for blind

Not hindering accessibility Analyzing its purpose and use

important or not strong, anti vandal and non obstructing

Railing safety for traffic

standing furniture for space utilization

Surface avoiding dust collection

Seating low cost , strong, antivandal and anti-homeless

dividers addressing social behaviors

easy to empty easy for commuters to approach non- spit-able

Re-brief / References

Dustbin

non-dingy location Strong Anti-vandal

96


97


CONCEPTUALIZE

98


98 Evolving concepts by clubbing different ideas satisfying the client brief. taking the guidelines from the secondary research into account.

Initial Explorations

100

Form Identity Iteration

104

Concept Development

116

Standing Furniture Seating Layout Dustbin and Railing Information Surfaces Material Research Prefabrication

Introduction / Overview / Discover / Synthesis / Ideation / Re-Brief / Conceptualize

99


Conceptualize / Initial Exploration

100


Initial sketches

101


Conceptualize / Initial Exploration

102


103


Conceptualize / Form Identity Iterations

104


Form Identity Iterations Height A concept where I tried to integrate the main advertisement and the shelter by manipulating the roof with the help of an accent.

Creating a barrier in front for people to associate between entering and leaving the stop. Also acting as a gate for pedestrians differentiating the stop from the rest of the footpath. Using similar and symmetric entities both in the front as well as the back for cost cutting, ease of assembly and manufacturing and also helping in building a strong visual identity.

The advertisement is enclosed between the roof and the accent making it a part of the structure visually. 105


Conceptualize / Form Identity Iterations

106


Curve A concept where a single curve connects the two main elements on the shelter that id the advertisement and the seating. It also involves a play of light to change the mood while waiting.

The curve can be made out of FRP with an extension for a leaning surface attracting the standing crowd. Also, the curve helps break the existing box like visualization of a bus shelter,. The viability and feasibility of this curve would be the biggest concern for the client as well as the firm.

In all the activities from entering and leaving the shelter to waiting inside it, there is a major change in the sunlight experienced by the commuter. We can use this insight and use colored polycarbonate sheet as the roof to play with the mental state of the commuter. We can thus achive a calm or even a playful feel at the shelter.

107


Conceptualize / Form Identity Iterations

108


Wave A concept where I tried to explore the organization of crowd on a bus stop in a new way.

A curved seating and standing surfaces gives more surface area then a straight one. Thus, enhancing the capacity of the shelter. Also a new kind of advertisement surface would attract more people faster.

A concept highlighting the seating and the curved standing furniture along with a play of blue light at the back.

Using the side brown accent to visually connect the advertisement to the structure, the blue polycarbonate for the feel and the curved resting area as an interest generating element in the shelter.

109


Conceptualize / Form Identity Iterations

110


Modular A concept promoting modularity and minimalism to form a shelter with all the required entities with the help of one or two repeating parts.

With a module “x” for roof giving the liberty to extend it and two “L” shaped extrusion making it possible to vary shelters if required, a certain amount of modularity can be achieved in the structure.

A concept where an inverted “U” contains all the necessary elements of the shelter except for the roof which is formed by its extension.

Seating connected with the roof for bringing continuity in the structure.

Visually connecting the vertican advertisement/ information with the main advertisement using a front partition. Here, the front partition gives us an extra surface at the back to give information to the commuters inside the shelter.

111


Conceptualize / Form Identity Iterations

112


Prism A concept highlighting the simple yet elegant and strong joinery between two prisms forming the shelter.

Using the advantage of the stability and strength of a prism along with the advantage to two surfaces in smaller area, at low cost. Using one edge of the prism as a light sourse for lighting up the structure at night. Keeping the advertisemnt a little higher then the roof, giving a floating feel actually works for enhancing the advertisement on top and also highlighting the prism koinery without any clutter. 113


Conceptualize / Form Identity Iterations

114


Extrude A concept where a shelter is formed by different interactions of a single extruded element..

Using an extruded surface to form the seating area in a way that creates a negative space for the standing furniture to be fixed in. Also, experimenting the kind of totem which can go with the structure as there can be a fixed requirement of a totem at a fixed distance for the stop. The extruded surface can also be used as an advertisement or information suraces

115


Conceptualize / concept development

116


Concept development Curve

Roof has a blue colored polycarbonate sheet with grills acting an structural supports bringing in a play of light and shadow

Back of the shelter can be made of a hollow concrete board which is pre-engineered to support all the elements in the shelter like roof, seating, dustbin and standing space on its own.

Curve going on top of the advertisement can have solar cells installed on it as it is not blocked by any part of the shelter.

117


Conceptualize / concept development

118


Prism

Prism as a form has very good stability and strength due to its geometry, when used as a roof or as the main support.

Triangular surface gives the opportunity to put up more information in lesser area as well as bringing down the overall costing

Form achieved by this kind of interaction is elegant as well as strong and stable. Along with these, it makes concealing the wires and joineries, to make it anti-vandal, easy and cost efficient 119


Trial with 630 mm

595 mm height and 5.4 ft girl

630 mm height with 5 ft girl

595 mm height and 5 ft girl

595 mm height with different supports

567 mm height and 5.8 ft girl

Conceptualize / concept development / Standing furniture

Final height 567 mm

120


Standing Furniture

After discovering about the “ Sciatica / Arthritis chair “, I thought the concept of a lean on chair can be used for increasing the capacity of passengers at a bus shelter. Implementing this required some trial and error, due to lack of information Online. “The difficulty with people suffering from arthritis or sciatica is that it is painful to stand anytime and it is very painful to get up from a seat. A novel approach to this has been adopted in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Their “Sciatica seat” allows a person to lean against the structure rather than sit on it. “

Accessibility and Bus System

202 mm

810 mm

810

630 mm 567 mm

101 mm

101 mm Final Measurement

With just one rod, their was a certain amount of discomfort in the back. Hence, putting two rods increases the interaction area making it more like a surface. Also, the height here is 567 mm which is achieved through trial and error.

121


Conceptualize / concept development / Seating

122


Seating

Bench style seating works best for the current scenario as it allows people to squeeze during more crowd hence increasing the capacity of the shelter and also its cheaper to manufacture. On the other hand it is also an invitation for the homeless to sleep on them. The challenge here was to design a bench style seating which does not let the homeless sleep on it and at the same time retain the advantages of a bench style seating . Seating had to be strong, anti-vandal, easy to maintain and manufacture and an appropriate comfort level.

306 mm

Seating plan with dividers covering the entie width

144 mm

By leaving the front 162 mm of the seating barrier free, squeezing becomes possible.

The way the dividers are given, the homeless can’t sleep on it but still the people can squeeze given the open front part of the seating. This can be supported by the fact that : whenever one is asked to squeeze, this first reaction is “crossing one’s legs”, Hence, creating extra space in the front part of the seating.

123


Layout

Bus stop name and sign holding significant importance to the driver is given in a position increasing the viewing span of the driver

Bus number , owing to its font size and position are easy to notice and grasp for the pedestrians as well as the ones driving

Dustbins are neither in the corner where it can dirty the surrounding nor is it too much in the middle to hinder the flow. This position will make it noticeable enough to use properly without spoiling the surrounding

Conceptualize / concept development / Layout

Advertisement inside the shelter targeted towards bus commuters .

Main Advertisement parallel to the roof and not angled makes it noticeable by a larger audience then the angled ones.

124


Giving a combination of sitting and leaning spaces, we increase the capacity of the shelter .

Prism contains the real time display and the route map making this spot an information hub . Hence, the approaching side remains clear of the ones seeking information

Guider Tiles for the visually impaired to move in the shelter. Also, the guiders are arranged to let the person get down where the bus door should arrive.

Vertical Advertisement targeted towards pedestrians and traffic on the opposite side

125


Dustbin

Dustbins should be anti-vandal, easy to empty and well positioned so as to not have its surrounding being dirty. Also, a lot of awareness is being generated regarding waste segregation and maintenance which should also be taken into account.

The following research pictures justify the need of a well functioning dustbin on bus stops. Making these dustbins easy to empty helps the authority in maintaining the stop.

Conceptualize / concept development / Dustbin

126


Railing

“Railings can cause limitations to the accessibility of a bus stop(and to its capacity) “. is quoted in Accessibility and the Bus System. During Research, I decided to whey the good versus the bad outcomes achieved by the railing at different shelters around Bangalore. People stand inside the shelter holding the railing obstruct the view and hinder the pedestrians . Pedestrians get on the road to pass the shelter to avoid the congestion under the shelter, caused by the railing. Becomes a sitting place, thus making people avoid sitting inside and also damaging the railing. Groups wanting to stay together, use railing as a resting surface. Thus, obstructing the view and the footpath. The anxiety, physical barrier(railing) and the want to be the first one to board makes people stand on the road

The railing was made to organize the flow at a shelter and to protect the commuters from the flowing traffic but the commuters here do not form a queue and neither are they inside the railing, thus making it a physical barrier and also causing mental discomfort to the commuters. The absence of railing, makes the shelter open and breathable. Also, the assurance that one would be able to approach the bus from any point inside the shelter reduces the anxiety. The shelter becomes visually uncluttered. Even for the pedestrians, the feeling of a congested space is gone. Conceptualize / concept development / Railings

127


Differently Abled Friendly Features

For convenience of senior citizens, pregnant women and differently abled a certain number of seating space should be blocked as priority or courtesy seating.

Flooring with stopper and guider tiles Audio feedback on stops about the arriving bus and the location CCTV surveillance for them to feel safe even if its dark. Special buses either just for differently abled or some which have advanced universal design features Mobile applications and Beacon systems for navigation and support

Considering the scenario in Bangalore and some other cities in India, the Internet research shows that the maximum number of differently abled people are Visually Impaired. Also, the buses themselves are not wheel chair compatible. Hence, a couple of advancements can be undertaken on relevant shelters for making them visually impaired friendly. Conceptualize / concept development / Differently abled friendly features

128


Information Surfaces

Bus-stop name

Route map

Main Bus-stop sign

Taking inspiration from the metro services, all the stops can be divided into color coded routes making it easy for the commuters to understand the route system in less time. All the information regarding routes and transport system must be supported by Mobile applications or website which is updated regularly like in “Mumbai BEST bus service application�.

Bus numbers

Connectivity and surveillance : It is clear from the research that a real time display is very important to reduce the anxiety and make the commuters assured and confident.

For better connectivity between different systems, its crucial to mention emergency numbers specially for crime and traffic related emergencies Along with this, CCTV surveillance is also necessary keeping safety in mind. CCTV can increase the number of commuters using bus services after 8 pm.

Conceptualize / concept development / Information surface

129


130


Material Research

In order to achieve sustainable and practical solutions, all the materials should be very carefully studied keeping in mind its feasibility, maintenance and easy availability.

I decided to first do some secondary research to make a list of materials to study. Along with this, I used the company’s and other colleagues’ knowledge about materials. After making the list, it was time to compare and validate the materials for which, I carried out a market research where I met vendors and dealers of the materials to gather all the necessary information regarding these materials to make a decision. A major part of the entire material research was interaction with the material experts in the firm and knowing about new materials which can be implemented in given scenario.

The firm did not want us to do a narrow material research strictly bound by our constraints rather they wanted us to explore new materials, new production processes, etc. which can also benefit the firm in other projects.

Given is an example of the type o form I filled while meeting the vendors so as to not miss out to ask anything regarding a material

Conceptualize / concept development / Material research

131


Material Matrix

Tabl Resin board (Vibrant Technik)

Aluminium grills (extrusion)

UHPC concrete (architecture concrete) - Nuance studio

Resin board ( Fundermax Drummer high pressure laminate)

ACP (a panels

Applications

Panels, cladding

Louvers, framework

Exterior landscaping, hoarding, facades, combinations with other materials (wood, steel, glass), partitions, furniture

Panels, cladding (interior + exterior)

Signag structu

Sizes

4.5 X 1.8 / 2.5 sq.m. 8 mm thickness

Moulded in any shape and size Max. 4’ X 3’ at 12 mm thickness

2.8 X 1.3 sq.m 4.1 X1.85 / 1.3 sq.m 6-15 mm thickness

8’ X 4’ 5mm a Extrus X 25 X

Life cycle

20years +

40-50 yrs

40 - 50 yrs

10 yrs

Impact / vandal resistance

Scratch resistance to an extent

Easily scratched

Can crack under extreme impact

9500 MPa Impact resistance Flame retardant

Excelle at mini Scratc

Weather resistance (Heat, Rain, calamities, insulation)

Flame retardant UV resistant expansion due to heat

Flame retardant No expansion due to heat

Good for external use

Scratch resistant Exterior panels - UV resistance Interior panels - expansion

Corros Fire re Silicon make i Good q

Transportation (duration / cost)

2-8 weeks from the ordered date

6-8 weeks for manufacturing Light in weight Proper packing required - prone to cracks

Customised - 14-15 weeks if not in stock - 12-13 weeks

Light in

Costing

550 per sq.m (sheet). + 175-200 (Framework) + 50-100 sq.m (labor)

350 per sq.ft.

Min. 1500 per sq.ft. 40K per cubicle - with hardware 1800 - faceted tiles 1200 per sq.ft. for urinal partitions

Cleaning / maintenance / Coatings

Anti - microbial, cleaning only with soap water

Easy to clean Low maintenance (exteriors)

Easy to clean - soap water only (no acid) 7 layers of coating for sinks Cannot be repaired easily once cracked

Anti microbial Cleaning with soap water

PVDP coating dullnes Cleani

Assembling details

18 mm gap between sheet and framework - good insulation MS framework - sandwich walls

Easy to install (already formed and moulded) Cladding with fasteners and rivets (metal frame) Anchored to the ground (if needed) Landscape use - Stand alone

30 sq.m in one day by a team of five. Panels installed on metal frames

Two sh joined are vis Bendin Rivetin Metal f

Other info

Interior - direct cladding Curves possible, pattern cut, customisation, Brackets used for drainage optimisation

Can replicate other materials easily due to small particle size. Lighter compared to normal concrete (being hollow) Maintained in different ways (flexibility)

Perforated panels for ceilings Curve - 3mm radius Customisation possible (branding)

Large Cheap claddin If <10m >10m

Known for Extrusion quality and section detailing No curved sections available

Swatches

Conceptualize / concept development / Material matrix

132


le 1

aluminium composite s) - core made of DPE

Pre cast concrete panels

Newlife Plastic Lumber

ges, facade cladding in huge Wall panels (interior, exterior) ures

replacement for wood, especially for exterior applications :garden bench, outdoor table, chair and waste-bin,

(1.5, 3, 4 mm thickness / and 6 mm on request) sion size (38 X 38 X 3) / (50 X3) mm

Planks : length = 1200 - 3600 mm; Breadth = 40 - 145 mm ;Thickness = 22 - 70 mm Poles and Bollards : 1800*150 mm (max)

with two coats of PVDF

50 / 75 / 100 mm thick

5yrs+

ent mechanical performance imal weight ch resistance upto 4 mm

sion resistant etardant core can be used n sealing between panels to it waterproof quality - for insulation

Water resistant, fire retardant,

n weight - easy transpiration

It is more competitive than premium woods such as teak, mahogany and oak but more expensive than pine, costing is similar to balau. The cost will pay off in two to four years when you factor in maintenance and replacement costs.

coating for durability / SDP g to avoid fading and ss ing - once / twice a yr

heets can be bent and without rivets - but joints sible ng possible in one direction ng frame - cladding

number of finishes possible p material for exterior ng m - 3mm thickness, - 4 mm thickness

It does not rot, crack, warp, splinter or decay. The lumber is non-porous so there is no moisture absorption, which prevents mould, mildrew or moss growth.  A simple washdown with regular household cleaner is all that is required. It is resistant to corrosive substances, oils and fuels, insects, fungi, sea salt spray and other environmental MS framework, cement filling

Normal woodworking tools can be used during fabrication. Plastic lumber can be cut, drilled, nailed and routed in the same way as traditional wood. The planks do not need to be pre-drilled.  Carbide blades are recommended for best results.  Due to polyolefin products having a greater coefficient of thermal expansion, allowance must be made for expansion and contraction over the length and width of the product, especially in the construction of decking. The product is non-porous and will not absorb glue, it can be painted with an enamel paint but this will defeat the object of being a no-maintenance product.When utilising the plastic lumber for decking and flooring, it is advisable to Available colours are dark brown, blue, green and charcoal black.pay .attention to joist spacing.  Supports should be placed 300mm to 350mm apart.  For heavy load bearing applications, additional support may be required.[i]

133


Chosen materials ACP Applications :

Conceptualize / concept development / Chosen Material

134


Aluminum Composite Panel Cost efficient, Easy availability, Available in a variety of options, strong and durable, Easy to clad and low maintenance. Use of tubular aluminum channels of size (38mm * 38mm * 3mm) and (50mm * 25mm* 3mm). In a normal weather condition, on silicon sealant dust sticks due to the oil left after application. However, non bleeding and MS polymer sealant do not crack, and so the structure remain watertight for a longer period of time. Grade AA 3005/ AA3105: is a magnesium and manganese alloy which has a minimum tensile strength of 150 N /mm2 as magnesium decreases the chances of oxidation of aluminum and the tensile strength enables them to handle wind loads of 2.25 KPa easily.

Powder Coated Hollow Mild-steel pipes Using mild steel makes it cost efficient and strong and the powder coating protects it from harsh weather conditions

Plastic Used for Seating and Dustbin These are recycled plastics mainly from bottles and other packaging materials made from HDPE, PP and LL/LDPE plastic types. They are maintenance free, durable and long lasting, stronger and denser and weather friendly than wood and are available in a variety of colors. 135


Pre-Fabrication :

1

Metal hollow pipes

2

Recycled Plastics

3

LED light boxes

4

ACP sheets

5

Lighting

6

Tiling

Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structure in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be located. The theory behind the method is that time and cost is saved if similar construction tasks can be grouped, and assembly line techniques can be employed in prefabrication at a location where skilled labour is available, while congestion at the assembly site, which wastes time, can be reduced. Here, the structure needs to be prefabricated and assembled on site within a day or two.

Conceptualize / Concept development / Prefabrication

136


In the case of the final bus shelter design, there are a couple of scenarios that can be taken into consideration for prefabrication. Any of these scenarios can be implemented depending on the location, budget and other resources.

Scenario 1 : One way to make the structure prefabricated is to form the entire structure on the manufacturing unit along with all the entities and delivered on all the required sites. In this case, the transportation cost and risk would increase but will be assembled very quickly on site.

Scenario 2 : The other way is to prepare the main entities like the vertical prism, horizontal prism, seating, center and top light boxes and the left support at the manufacturing factory leaving space for joineries between these entities which are then welded or joined using appropriate joineries on site. This process would take a little longer to assemble on site but will cut down on transportation cost and risk.

Scenario 3 : The last way is to bring all the pipes already powder coated, finished ACP sheets ready to clad, light boxes prepared, fixtures, Finished plastic planks on site and assemble them. This method takes the maximum amount of assembly time which can be brought down by using very skilled labor. This is the only way where the transportation cost and risk will be the lowest as stacking becomes possible and thus transferring materials for more sites at once becomes possible.

137


CONCEPT

138


138 Concept features and advantages.

Form and Function

144

Information Hierarchy

146

Space Organization

148

Introduction / Overview / Discover / Synthesis / Ideation / Re-Brief / Conceptualize / Final concept

139


Final concept

140


141


Final concept / Liver render

142


143


Final concept / Form and function

144


Form and Function

A prism itself is a very stable form. The roof here is a horizontal prism which makes it very hard to be bent even by an external force like a monkey jumping of a human climbing on it. Hence, it is also capable of supporting the main advertisement. The vertical prism gives an advantage in terms of the space for displaying advertisements or information. It gives us two different surfaces in different directions attracting different crowds. Thus, helping in organization. Also, the vertical prism acts as a support for the roof and other entities like seating, transferring the load of the object to the ground. Due to the closed area the vertical prism gives, installation of any new enhancements becomes easy like Beacon System or CCTV at the same time making it anti-vandal.

The back side of the vertical prism can be locked in such way which can be opened for any repairs or maintenance work but canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t be opened by anyone else. The joinery between the two prisms is clean and strong which satisfies the European design language. The joinery gives a lot of contact points between the vertical and horizontal prism which makes the assembly a lot faster.

Here, the entire structure can be made in entities and assembled on the site directly which makes it modular, giving us the liberty of manipulating the sizes when required

145


1

3

6

1 2

Bus-stop board: Bus stop name, Bus-stop sign, Municipality and owner Main Advertisement

Final concept / Information hierarchy

3

Bus-stop name, Bus numbers

4

Inside advertisement, Real time display, Vertical ad 146


Information Heirarchy

2

4 5

6

5

Route map

6

Dustbin: wet and dry communication, Reserved seating sign

147


People and traffic who just want to know if the bus they want to board comes to the stop or not can stand or quickly pass-by this spot outside the shelter not hindering the view of the people waiting neither blocking any space inside the shelter. This information requires less time to grasp and hence will not gather crowd blocking the footpath neither will create any traffic issues

Final concept / Space organization

Dustbins are neither in the corner where it can dirty the surrounding nor is it too much in the middle to hinder the flow. This position will make it noticeable enough to use properly without spoiling the surrounding

Commuters who know they just have to wait for a little while and donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t wanna sit or the ones suffering for arthritis can use the lean on space rather then standing in and outside the shelter

148


Space Organization

Commuters who have to wait for a longer time can rest in the seating area. Also, differently able, Senior citizens and pregnant women have reserved seats. Also, they have a clear view of the real time display on the side.

New commuters or tourists who want to get information regarding routes and buses do not hinder the view of the other commuters while gathering the information which will take longer time then seeing bus numbers.

Pedestrians, passer-by and traffic on both sides have clear and easy visibility to the vertical add as the commuters as well as he ones who want to gather information all remain inside the shelter and thus keeps this spot clear.

149


DETAILING

150


150 Figuring out Materials and finishes, measurements and joinery details along with prototyping and testing.

Assembly

152

Materials and Finishes

156

Other Details

158

Prototyping

162

System For Quality

172

Reflections

174

Introduction / Overview / Discover / Synthesis / Ideation / Re-Brief / Conceptualize / Final concept / Detailing 151


3

Wall Cladding, Tiling, Wiring and Dustbin

2 1

Frame Structure

The vertical frame structures are then clad with ACP sheets to form the surfaces after fixing the dustbin. Along with this, keeping in mind the visually impaired features, tiling can be done for cleaner ACP and tiling contact points. Also, electrical points should be taken out and an electric meter is to be fixed.

Welding Powder coated Mild steel rods, a complete frame structure is formed in the required shape of the shelter

Foundation After finalizing the site, there has to be dug for foundation work using PCC (plain cement concrete ) and thin metal rods which would support the shelter from the ground.

Detailing / Assembly

152


Assembly

6 5

Lighting and Advertisements :

4

Roof Cladding and Tiling

Finally, fixing the Advertisements and information on the light-boxes. Along with this, the LED lights are also fitted in the space left for alloted.

Light-box Fixing .On the frame supports, light-boxes are fixed for putting the information and advertisements on it. Also, the wirings and electrical connections are checked in this step.

Cladding the walls give us enough references for cladding the roof properly. Also, the roof cladding is done in the end, so as to save it from any damage caused during the formation of the initial structure.

153


Detailing / Assembly

154


155


Cladding Dark Grey, Metal finish, semiMatt, Aluminum composite panels

Support Grey, Powder coated, mild steel hollow Triangular pipes

Cladding Light Grey, concrete finish, Matt, Aluminum composite panels

Dustbin Grey and brown, fibre cast plastics

Cladding Brown, recycled fibre cast plastic

Detailing / Materials and Finishes

156


Materials and Finishes

Advertisement LED light boxes, 40mm in depth

Support Grey, Powder coated, mild steel hollow square pipes

Information LED light boxes, 40mm in depth

Lighting Frosted acrylic or polycarbonate sheet

Support Brown, Powder coated, mild hollow steel pipes

157


Seating detailing

Detailing / Other details / Seating detailing

158


Other Details

Anti-Homeless To avoid the homeless to sleep, there was a need of a barrier hence the seating dividers behave as the obstacles for them and hence keep the seating hygienic for a longer time.

Advantage of a Bench By leaving the 5 inch space barrier free on the seating, we give the commuters an opportunity to squeeze by â&#x20AC;&#x153;crossing their legsâ&#x20AC;?. With squeezing we also make sure to address the social behavior of an unknown make and female sitting next to each other by giving the 7 inch as a barrier space out of the 12 inch dept seating.

Lean on space In normal weather conditions it helps as the leaning posture requires less space and hence accommodate more people in the same area. In harsh weather conditions, it makes this part of the shelter free for more people to take shelter inside. Along with other advantages, this will also reduce the number of people standing on the road waiting for the bus rather then standing inside the shelter which was mainly due to the seating being already occupied leaving no space around for anyone to stand.

159


LED light boxes are better as they have a longer life, are easy to maintain and maneuver, light in weight and have a better display quality..

Advertisement Polarizing film light guide panel

Snap fit for easily changing advertisements

SMD led High transparency acrylic

Aluminum Housing

The roof being in the shape of a prism, the water drops might slip and reach the center of the shelter from the top surface. Hence, there is a 12mm by 12mm depression in the front and back panels of the roof to behave as stopping points for the water called a Dropper.

To not have water splashing at the back during rains, the roof a has a slope with a depression on 50mm by 25mm acting as a channel for collecting rain water called a Water channel. From here, the water travels to the ground through a hollow pipe in the vertical prism structure.

Detailing / Other details / Maintenance

160


Maintenance :

The back side of the prism opens up for maintenance so as to take care of the electrical issues as it houses the electric meter and wires coming from all the light sources. The space also makes it easier to maneuver the light boxes if any issues arise. The prism area also has the pipe connected to the rain water channel.

The space is the main foundation area,It supports the seating area as well as the roof and the top main advertisement. Thus, making it easy to access in case of any issues or installments is an advantage.

This advantage can be used in case of installation of future possibilities like audio playback, beacon systems and CCTV cameras on the shelter which would require space inside the shelter.

161


Prototyping is an effective way to make ideas tangible, to learn through making, and to quickly get key feedback from the people youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re designing for.

Detailing / Prototyping and measurements

162


Prototyping

163


164


45 12

214 864

1829 50

864

730

25330

624

2032 1829

8

4

6 300 46

20 0

1321

915

422

93

864

2440

667

426

376

1393

956

439

439

1

62

3460

3237

2874

4698

6110

9037

8510

5295

1380

7117 3809

38

954

1071

38

933 1829

100

300

966

1405

1822

1457

500

219

2140 2726

1219

1088 2155

100 397 300 1064

864 100 1132 249 172

140

Detailing / Prototyping and measurements

165


166


659

13

117

31

626

237

228

135

472

38 648 191 877 920

779

162

2715

2715

2507

2468

1321

538

475

38 110

54

511

136

269 621

1829

155

5

35

1223

149

250

54

242 135 431

2714

121

450

920 877

389

1456

38

2140

965

500

76

33

453

3 129

100

76

1223

Detailing / Prototyping and measurements

114

401

300

167


168


369

50 200 239

100

97 12

1395

864

12 79

180

6705 6683

3658

6783

6783

3658 37

9

180 334

10 1 12

76 12 64 866

12 97

13 4

100

12 93

97 12

100

665

6022 5981

412

32

4

38

Detailing / Prototyping and measurements

1312

197229 76

26

5

38

45140

920 877 648 197229

307

3809

144 306

96

4

43

2202

305 172

169


170


Detailing / Prototyping and measurements

171


People

Transport Corporation

Municipality / Owner

For better quality bus stops or to improve the standards of bus stops, three essential components have key roles to play by accepting responsibilities. These components are 1. People (commuters/passengers), 2. Transport Corporation and 3. Municipality / Owner Each of them have equal and significant role in better bus stop standards. Engineering, Enforcement and Education are also part of all three components put together.

People Dos • • • • •

Follow ‘Queue system’ Elderly/Disabled given higher priority to board Entry from front door for Ladies/Children and rear door for others Keeping stops clean (Use dust bins provided) Report negligent driving to Transport Corporation.

• Report conditions of stops to Municipality / Owner .

Don’ts • Getting on to carriage way • Flagging/requesting to stop bus in non‐bus stops • Over crowding • Spitting inside the bus stop • People Putting steps on seating facility, damaging seats or any other component in the bus stop

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System for quality Transport Corporation Dos • Priority is for pedestrians, please respect pedestrians and crossing. • Disciplined driving of Transport Corporation drivers. • Drivers/Conductors must be careful while stopping or taking turns and while driving in small roads. • Clean and tidy buses attract more passengers. • Passenger information system in each bus stop. • Service driven initiative than profit driven. • Smart cards for buses – card swiping facility inside the bus to reduce the burden on conductor. • Pollution check to all the vehicles, providing pollution free vehicles to people • Drive and initiatives to use more public transport (Bus Days) and better feeder services

. Don’ts • Rash and speed driving. • Stopping in non bus stops or away from the bus stops. • Not giving priority to people and light motor vehicles.

Municipality / Owner Dos • Proper maintenance of bus stops • Name boards (Local language, Hindi and English) • Realign juxtaposed bus stops, bus stops at circles and junctions. • Design people friendly bus stops with ITS facilities (Eg. Mysore KSRTC) • Flag post for bus stop and other public transport/NMT (Metro, railway station, NMT, auto/ taxi stand etc) • Extend the facilities to all bus stops (dust bin, drinking water) • Road marking of bus stop • Proper lighting facility, security • Generate maintenance money through advertisements • Drive and initiatives to use more public transport

Don’ts • Old design with all sides covered • Non gradient footpath and bus stop

Detailing / System for quality

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Reflections During the project, I faced various ups and downs which made me realize my strong and weak points. The Begin phase was filled with excitement when I worked on a couple of smaller projects before beginning my graduation project when I got to know the firm and the employees better. After the project began, I was assigned to work with the spacial design team who were very thorough with their design process. I did face a little difficulty there due to the size of the entity was much bigger then the ones I worked with in college. During this phase, talking to the mentors really helped to understand the process better. Eventually I caught on fast and completed the research with everybodyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s satisfaction. After the research part, I had developed certain mindsets about the solution which hindered a lot in going ahead and exploring out of the box ideas. This also had my mentor and team doubt my abilities. Manas helped break these mindsets by using a couple of frameworks of sketching and questioning oneself. I then presented all of my concepts to the team selecting the ones which showed potential. Then came detailing which is one of my strong suits as a designer. I was really glad that I got a chance to present my work to Mr. Micheal and Mr. Nigel foley and get their reviews for further improving the design and regarding the projectâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future in the company. In the broader picture, I understood the role and responsibilities of a designer in a design studio. and experienced a very different, chilled out yet passionate work space. During the six months, I also discovered my strength of connecting to people strongly and that I am weak in my representational skills. I wanted to make a bench mark for Foley to miss me and I hope I succeeded Staying in Bangalore made me feel a different side of me, the city showed me the opportunities for the youth in India. From Weekend windows, poetry in the park, Readings at Blossoms, Weekend Getaways Tedx events, Late night dancings to the bike rides to Nandihills, the city never disappointed me. In many aspects it made me Independent and work on myself better then I ever have. As a student, I think every student should experience meeting with students from around the globe which can only happen in Bangalore. The project did not just make my portfolio stronger, but also made me realize my true potential as a designer, It made me realize my selling points and the area which I need to work on. It also showed me many ways of using the knowledge on different disciplines in an effective way. I think I will definitely cherish and capitalize on some of the learnings and will always be open for working on projects with foley in future. Detailing / Reflections

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WHAT NOW? After going through the entire design process of public space design in Bangalore, I could see a lot of opportunities for these interventions in Ahmedabad also. My internal mentor Mrs. Minal Patel also shared this vision. Prof. Minal Patel is a part of the Bharatiya Stri Shakti. Having worked on various large scale Urban space planning projects, she was asked to address the topic of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Women safe women smart citiesâ&#x20AC;? in the conference for Inclusive Gender Empowerment in Delhi. She thought it was a great opportunity to bring about a change in the society and considered students as the force to drive that change. She immediately approached Me and My friend (Devanshi Mehra) who she knew had gained important insights on bus shelters and public toilets, to come up with Ideas for proper location of public toilets, promoting a healthy life style, using the dead space under flyovers and improvement in bus shelter facilities in Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

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176 Self critiquing and trying to implement the learnings of the project in a live scenario.

Seminar Details

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Existing Scenario

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Public Toilets

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Bus Stops

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Bibliography

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National Consultative Seminar Women safe women smart cities Focus on Inclusive Gender Empowerment Proposal for Ahmedabad

Organized by Bharatiya Stree Shakti In association with National Commission for women Institute of Public Administration

General Infrastructure • Safe roads (Footpaths, elevated walkways etc) • Toilets at more intervals and clean toilets with sanitary napkins • Proper bus stops with solar cellphone chargers, emergency numbers, sitting etc • Safe transportation for women

Housing policies • Hostels and housing for single women • Safe and moderate priced short stay hostels for ladies • Women’s joint ownership in properties • Senior citizen stay and care homes

• Drinking water and healthy food stalls at every bus stop • Crèche facilities at work places • Green and clean parks • Safe schools and colleges • Women police patrolling at night

What now? / Seminar details

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Ahmedabad Baroda Surat

Three cities of Gujarat have been selected in the list of Smart cities.

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Existing ahmedabad scenarios Sites Visited

Shivranjini Flyover

Iscon Flyover

S G Highway What now? / Existing Scenario

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During the field research, the different types of sites visited were: 1. Flyovers: They have a lot of dead area under them which could be put to good use. Hence, through the research we were trying to come up with as many different ideas as possible to utilize this space, improving the lives of people. Also making sure that the interventions do not give rise to new problems. The following were the major tasks while observing: Which is the best spot for public toilets ? How can we generate maximum revenue for maintaining these toilets through advertisements and other means? How well can the toilets be connected to different means of transport? What are different activities happening under the flyover ? Signage of these public toilets where it is visible to maximum people. Making the toilets assure the women bus commuters of their sanitation needs. Thus, making them feel independent. Other ideas which can be implemented for promoting a healthier life style. What can be the different revenue systems and layouts for organizing the stalls under the flyovers currently scattered in a haphazard way hindering the traffic and other footpath activities ? Which Technological advancements are viable and can have a bigger impact on the users ? Ways to stop the unsocial activities under the flyovers.

2. Highway Bus stops: Observing these newly made bus stops, trying to think of possibilities that can arise by the availability of technology which would ease the commuters wait. The following were the major tasks while observing : How can we take the advantage of such a waiting space for awareness ? What are the technological enhancements which can make the stop smarter and increase its reliability and assurance ? Ways to promote a healthier life style ? Planning a sustainable revenue system for maintenance.

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Survey preparations and findings An online survey to gain an understanding of peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s perception about Smart Cities and safety, was floated across the city of Ahmedabad. We worked on the proposals for general infrastructure, mostly focusing on the design and planning of public utilities like bus stops and toilets around the city.

Do you always feel safe while traveling around the city?

What now? / Existing Scenario / Survey

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Some questions from the survey

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Public toilets Current scenario A lot of space below flyovers is government owned and remains highly underutilized. They often become spots for casual, unorganized sector of pan walas or barbers. These spaces can be utilized for provision of public toilets, giving a strong, ready infrastructure at frequent intervals around the city to place these facilities.

What now? / Public Toilets / Current scenario

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Proposal: Sceanrio 1 Separate, stand alone toilets for men and women. • Utilizing a dead area • Not obstructing the parking space • Avoiding unorganized use of this space like the homeless using it for sleeping, by roadside barbers and other slum dwellers.

Water tank

Proposal of the Scenario in the conference What now? / Public Toilets / Proposal 1

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Proposal: Scenario 2 Separate, stand alone toilets for men and women. Revenue generation through advertisements for maintaining the facilities.

Features Separate toilets for men, women at busy junction, streets.

Healthy food stalls on lease.

Stands for pink rickshaws and pink cabs.

Defining toilet perimeter for safety and maintenance.

Women toilets to have sanitary pad dispensers, disposal facilities.

Emergency numbers written everywhere.

What now? / Public Toilets / Proposal 2

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Sanitary pad dispensers

Incinerators

Water ATMs

Sanitary pad disposal

Pink transportation

Sanipods

Emergency numbers displayed

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Layout and revenue generation

Stall keepers maintain the toilets in return of the incentives

Healthy food stalls Stalls given out on lease

Revenue generation through adverstisements - a part given as incentives to the stall keepers

Organizing the unorganized sector of roadside stalls

What now? / Public Toilets / Layout and revenue generation

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parking for pink transportation menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s toilet

advertisement womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s toilet

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Bus stops Current scenario These spaces can be utilized for provision of public toilets, giving a strong, ready infrastructure at frequent intervals around the city to place these facilities.

Included with:

Features

Unisex toilet attached with the bu stop.

Real time display

Water ATMs

Healthy food stalls on lease.

Solar powered What now? / Bus stops

Charging ports

Emergency numbers displayed on bus stops. 190


Proposal: Scenario â&#x20AC;˘ Bus stops with clean design language, extended to accommodate healthy food stalls. â&#x20AC;˘ Increase in business in this unorganized sector of roadside stalls â&#x20AC;˘ The stall owners in return would be responsible for maintaining the bus shelters.

The bus shelters would be designed to accommodate the same toilet modules as used under the flyovers for feasibility. 191


Website References Ideaton • ”FAQ’s.” Products from Recycled Plastic. • ”Beacons in Buses: Tailored Public Transportation.” OnyxBeacon IBeacon Hardware for Micro Location and Context. IBeacon CMS for Retailers. • ”19 Most Innovative Bus Stop Concepts.” Walyou. N.p., 07 Jan. 2015. • ”Scottish Government.” Scottish Government, St. Andrew’s House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 Ceu@scotland.gsi.gov.uk. Scottish Government, St. Andrew’s House, Regent Road, Edinburgh EH1 3DG Tel:0131 556 8400 Ceu@ scotland.gsi.gov.uk. • Journal, RFID. “Bluetooth Beacons Delivers Alerts to Bus Riders, Drivers.” Bluetooth Beacons Delivers Alerts to Bus Riders, Drivers - Page 1 - RFID Journal. • Retaildesignblog. “Bus Stops by ROK – Rippmann Oesterle Knauss, Meilen – Switzerland » Retail Design Blog.” Retail Design Blog. • ”Alunos Criam Ponto De ônibus Com Garrafas De Vidro E Energia Solar.” — EcoDesenvolvimento.org: Sustentabilidade, Meio Ambiente, Economia, Sociedade E Mudanças Climáticas. • ”15 Unusual and Creative Bus Stops.” Toxelcom RSS. • ”New Things.” Adam Heisserer. • “City Leaders Celebrate Bus Shelter Renovation, Talk Upcoming Bus App.” The Gazette. • “The Trial Bus Shelters.” Transportblog.co.nz. N.p., 13 July 2014. • ”Live Chennai: Senior Citizens Can Travel in MTC Buses Free during Day-time as Well as in the Night,Senior Citizens,MTC Buses,Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Jayalalithaa.” • ”Lighter Quicker Cheaper - Public Plazas.” Opencity Projects. N.p., 04 June 2013. • ”Traffic Technology Today.” Traffic Technology Today. N.p. • ”Sensors at BRTS Stops fail to detect buses”. Ahmedabad Mirror, April 21, 2010, Times of India. • ”DELHI.” JCDecaux India. • ”BRTS Comes Closer to Lal Darwaja, ST Bus Station, Kalupur Railway Station from Today.” DeshGujarat News from Gujarat. N.p., 02 Apr. 2013. • Srikanth, R. “When Is the next Bus, Ask Commuters.” The Hindu. N.p., 25 Mar. 2012. • ”Towards a More Accessible World for the Blind.” TecHKU. N.p., 24 Mar. 2014. • ”Bus Terminal and Train Station Square by Vehovar & Jauslin.” A As Architecture. N.p., 21 Mar. 2015. • ”Bespoke Public Seating to Encourage Social Interaction.” Marshalls - Street Furniture | ESI External Works. N.p. • ”A Primer on Seating.” Project for Public Spaces. N.p. • ”Works.” Coloribus.com. Csaa Aaa Insurance, n.d. • ”Avery Dennison® Launches New Digital Wall Film Portfolio with Three New Textures.” | Avery Dennison | Graphics. N.p.

Free open source google images taken in the following topics : • • • •

References Design Principles Inspiration Board Material Research

What now? / Bibliography

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Bibliography Conceptualize : • ”50+ Of The Most Creative Benches And Seats Ever.” Architecture Design. N.p. • ”Public Bench / Contemporary / Wooden / Metal CORTEN SEAT STRIP Streetlife.” Streetlife. Archiexpo, n.d • ”Sit-Stand Railing for Busstop.” Behance. N.p. • ”Boston Outdoor Seating Range – Public Benches & Seats.” Furnitubes. N.p. • Article by Kurt, Filed under Furniture & Decor in the Design Category. “Anti-Object: A Public Bench Designed to Be Everything-Proof.” WebUrbanist. N.p • ”Camden Bench.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d • ”Top 10 Anti-Homeless Measures Used in the United States.” TheBlaze. N.p. • ”Dulwich Bus Shelter.” Know Your London. N.p., 25 Mar. 2015. • ”Product Solutions.” Worksettings International. N.p • “Walkwalkwalk: Stories from the Exeter Archive.” April 2008. N.p., 01 Jan. 1970. • ”Geo Handrail & Balustrade by Marshalls.” By Marshalls. N.p.

Books and documents • Guidelines and Space Standards for Barrier free Environment For disabled and Elderly persons • HCD Toolkit, Ideo : 2nd Edition  • The Field Guide to Human-Centered Design By IDEO.org, 1st Edition © 2015 • Accessibility and the bus system: from concepts to practice by Martha Caiafa , Nick Tyler and Ian Brown • Bus stop and Bus bays in Bangalore : A status report 2012 by Suresh B, Puneeth HC, Dileep K, Jay K, Deepak B and Gururaja KV under the organisation called CISTUP. • Passengers’ Waiting Behaviour at Bus Stops by Nobuaki Ohmori, Takayuki Hirano,Noboru Harata and Katsutoshi Ohta. • Accessible bus stop design guidance by Bus Priority Team, Transport for London January 2006. • Guidance and space standarts for barrier free built environment for Disabled and Elderly Persons by Central Public Works Department ministry of Urban Affairs and Employment, India 1998. • Bus-Stops- How people actually use them and the implications for design by Stephen Hall Managing Consultant, Atkins and Jake Desyllas Director, Intelligent Space. • Convivial Urban Spaces by Henry Shaftoe. • Street Design Guidelines by UTTIPEC, Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi. • Project Plus (police and us) by Akshan Ish and Shreya Chakravarty, NID, PGDP, September 2013. • A Design Inquiry into the Internet of Things, Master thesis by Akshan Ish, PGDP, NID, October 2015. • Re-positioning traditional, Graduation Project by Burhan Ud Din, NID, February 2016. • Bachelor Thesis with Chevrolet India Design Studio by Gaurang Nagre, Nid, February 2013. • Neufert - Architects’ Data by Ernst & Peter Neufert. • Indian Anthropometric Dimensions by Deskumar Chakrabarty, NID, 1997. 193


Thank you

Contact 18, Parkland Society, Sarkhej Road, Ahmedabad 380055 Gujarat, India t : 91-9879794433 e : makhanisahil0@gmail.com

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Graduation Project 2016 ( Product Design )  

A document showing the design process and thinking that goes behind research, evaluation and concept development for Bus shelters which was...

Graduation Project 2016 ( Product Design )  

A document showing the design process and thinking that goes behind research, evaluation and concept development for Bus shelters which was...

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