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NATURAL SYSTEMS Beyond the Boundries

Saeid Sheygani

Beyond the boundries First Experiments

Moving Stripes This exercise has done due to learning random function,mouse rollover and the capability of changes that is possible on the basis of the mouse location changes.

Moving Lines Learning of application of framerate,working with arrays and variables and conditionals. Thinking about application of random and what effects can randomness have.

Bars and Windows In this project I tried to set several boundaries and then draw some rectangles representing opening and moving them inside of bound ires. Also Bounders are changing with the mouse location and consequently the behavior of rectangles would be changed too.

In this project,loading imge, arrays and random walker has used .Movement of each objects that begin from down side of screen and finish in the upside of screen made this red pattern.

Beyond the boundries Precedents and Project Work

Precedents : Working with Chains and physic libraries specially toiclibs to apply environment forces such as gravity , wind on the objects and also boundry.

Chain Grid In this sketch moving objects with differnt dimensions bouncing in the cells and push the walls and the walls push them back too.This sketch is a attempt for working with toxiclibs and Particle Systems and forces.

Adding Autonomous Agents Flexible Boundaries: In this Sketch several boundaries are made by springs. Therefore, these boundaries are interactive with moving objects that run through them. This interaction gradually change the pattern of boundaries . One of the urban design rules is designing urban elements according to the population of the people that use that space, such as road or bridge or gate. These spaces should have direct interaction with the pedestrian and people pass through these spaces By applying the smart boundaries adjusting of the dimension such as widening of the roads on the basis of time an population is possible.

Beyond the boundries Research

Parametric Urbanism Meteorological Architecture The Instinctive Sense of Boundry Metabolism and Morphology Seasonal Expansions Aggregates


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Seating unit with heating and light sources

Beyond the Boundries This research explains about the features of parametric architecture and urbanism regarding the removing or ignoring physical boundaries. Factors of this evolution and some examples would be mentioned in the following paragraphs. Parametric Urbanism The assumption is that the urban massing describes a swarm formation of many buildings whereby the urban variables of mass, spacing and directionality are choreographed by scripted functions. In addition, the systematic modulation of architectural morphologies produces powerful urban effects and facilitates field orientation. The goal is deep relationality, the total integration of the evolving built environment, from urban distribution to architectural morphology, detailed tectonic articulation and interior organization. Thus parametric urbanism might apply parametric accentuation, parametric figuration and parametric responsiveness as tools to achieve deep relationality.

Frei Otto, Occupation with simultaneous distancing and attracting forces, Institute for Lightweight Structures (ILEK), Stuttgart, Germany, 1992 Analogue models for the material computation of structural building forms (form-finding) are the hallmark of Frei Otto’s research institute. The same methodology has been applied to his urban simulation work. The model shown integrates both distancing and attractive occupations by usingpolystyrene chips that cluster around the floating magnetic needles that maintain distance among themselves.

Zaha Hadid Architects, OneNorth Masterplan, Singapore, 2003 opposite and above: Fabric and network. This masterplan for a newmixed-used urban business district in Singapore was the first of aseries of radical masterplans that led to the concept of parametricurbanism and then to the general concept of parametricism.

A set of moving objects inside of flexible bounry that have interaction with the boundry and with pushing the boundry they can change the shape of boundry.

Frei Otto’s form-finding models bring a large number of components into a simultaneous organising force-field so that any variation of the parametric profile of any of the elements elicits a natural response from all the other elements within the system. Such quantitative adaptations often cross thresholds into emergent qualities. Where such an associative sensitivity holds sway within a system we can talk about ‘relational fields’. Relational fields comprise mutually correlated sublayers, for instance the correlation of patterns of occupation with patterns of connection. The growth process of unplanned settlement patterns does indeed oscillate continuously between moments when points of occupation generate paths and paths in turn attract occupation. The continuous differentiation of the path network – linear stretches, forks, crossing points – correlates with the continuous differentiation of the occupying fabric in terms of its density, programmatic type and morphology. The organizing articulating Capacity of such relational fields is striking, particularly in comparison with the grid of the modern American city, which is undifferentiated and therefore non-adaptive. Its ‘freedom’ is now limiting: it leads to arbitrary juxtapositions that result in visual chaos.1

Frei Otto, Apparatus for computing minimal path systems, Institute for Lightweight Structures (ILEK), Stuttgart, 1988 The analogue model finds the minimal path system, that is, the system connects a distributed set of given points, thus the overall length of the path system is minimised. Each point is reached but there is a considerable imposition of detours between some pairs of points. Thesystem is a tree (branching system) without any redundant connections.

Patrick Schumacher, Parametricism:A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design,Architectural Design magazine (vol79,No 4) July?August 2009

Marek Kolodziejczyk, Wool-thread model to compute optimised detour path networks, Institute for Lightweight Structures (ILEK), Stut gart, 1991 Depending on the adjustable parameter of the thread’s sur-length, the apparatus – through the fusion of threads – computes a solution that significantly reduces the overall length of the path system while maintaining a low average detour factor.

If we consider cities as a set of functions that happen insides of city boundaries.,Then we can think about designing city on the basis of these functions. Consequently due to instability and changes of functions cities during the time city boundaries also can change with by changing the functions inside of boundaries . So city boundaries can be flexible and adoptable with the function. In the above variable was considered function ,in some other case this variable can be something else such as pathways ,roads or climate changes .generally according to this idea there is no rule for fixed and constant city boundaries and they can change by changing nature changes of human changes.

Simple spring , Showing 5 objects connected to each other and movement of each one has effect on others.

DRL Flotsam team (Tutor: Yusuke Obuchi; Students: Öznur Erboga, Lillie Liu, Theodora Ntatsopoulou and Victor Orive), Parametric Urbanism 1, DRL v.9 2005–2007 below: Series of scripted attractor diagrams in Maya, and theirassociated abstract, prototypical spaces, which served as thegenerative basis of the later design development of the proposal.opposite: View of the pedestrian approach to the InternationalBroadcasting Centre/Media Press Centre building, from Stratford station, indicating the integration of circulation, facade panellisation and building structure.

Meteorological Architecture Architecture should no longer build spaces, but rather create temperatures and atmospheres. The Digestible Gulf Stream is the prototype for architecture that works between the neurologic and the atmospheric, developing like a landscape that is simultaneously gastronomic and thermal. In this case the architecture is literally structured on a current of air, opening up a fluid, airy, atmospheric space. This architecture is based on the construction of meteorology.

The inhabitant can move around in this invisible landscape at temperatures between 12째C and 28째C, the two extremities of the concept of comfort, and freely choose a climate according to his or her activity, clothing, dietary, sporting or social wishes. For example, when we feel too hot, we have five ways of cooling down, which act on different scales: 1) reducing the air temperature in the room, for example via air conditioning (atmospheric solution); 2) drinking (physiological solution); 3) taking off clothes (social solution); 4) resting (physical solution); 5) stimulating a sense of coolness with the mind (neurological solution). Each of these solutions is architecture. Architecture is a thermodynamic mediation between the macroscopic and the microscopic, between the body and space, between the visible and the invisible, between meteorological and physiological functions.1 Philippe Rahm architectes,Digestible Gulf Stream,Venice Biennale, 2008

The inhabitant can move around in this invisible landscape at temperatures between 12째C and 28째C, the two extremities of the concept of comfort, and freely choose a climate according to his or her activity, clothing, dietary, sporting or social wishes. For example, when we feel too hot, we have five ways of cooling down, which act on different scales: 1) reducing the air temperature in the room, for example via air conditioning (atmospheric solution); 2) drinking (physiological solution); 3) taking off clothes (social solution); 4) resting (physical solution); 5) stimulating a sense of coolness with the mind (neurological solution). Each of these solutions is architecture. Architecture is a thermodynamic mediation between the macroscopic and the microscopic, between the body and space, between the visible and the invisible, between meteorological and physiological functions.1

Philippe Rahm architectes,Digestible Gulf Stream,Venice Biennale, 2008

The thermodynamic phenomenon of the Gulf Stream is one of the most fascinating models for thinking about architecture today in that it gives a route to escape from the normalization and the homogenization of the modern space. Modernity led to uniform, consistent spaces in which the temperature is regulated around 21째C (69.8째F). The aim of the Interior Gulf Stream project is to restore diversity to the relationship that the body maintains with space, with its temperature, to allow seasonal movement within the house, migrations from downstairs to upstairs, from cold to warm, winter and summer, dressed and undressed. For people to feel comfortable in a heated room there must be equilibrium in the exchange of heat occurring via convection between their bodies and the surrounding air. This equilibrium is of course relative to clothing, from nudity in the bathroom, to the thermal protection of blankets, to light clothing worn in the living room. Today, confronted with the need to preserve our energy resources, it is necessary to set each building, and even each room within buildings to a precisely calculated thermal capacity.

In much the same way that the existing thermal pools on the site mix ocean water with recycled heated water from geothermal resources to create a unique condition for swimming all year round, the project looks to use these same thermal resources to affect the local climatic conditions on land, including air temperature and soil temperature for vegetative growth. Each of the programmed landforms proposed around the site is tied to the others by a climatic ‘wash’ that extends the seasonal activities, controls winds and permits an extended period of usable time outdoors during the course of the year. The wash permeates the public parks yet extends beyond to surround and engage the new building masses so as to produce artificial microclimates, and also acts as a connecting tissue from the north to the south of the site, a connection more substantive than simply providing a spine or corridor.

The Instinctive Sense of Boundry In architecture, the boundary is represented by the facade, the entrance, the wall, the window, the door, the threshold, the perimeter of a site or area, a building’s footprint or volume. In city planning it takes the form of roads, canals, hedges, gates, walls, signs or built structures, or simply a dividing line of water and land, prairie and forest, plain and mountain. Until recently. Inside Outside have worked within the framework of visible, tangible architectural conditions that have then been adapted by adding or deducting layers in order to organize direction, division, light, sound, heat and cold, at the same time addressing the senses, triggering memory and reacting to time in two directions. This is usually achieved with interventions made of flexible, pleated, stretched or folded soft materials (such as textiles) of various degrees of absorbance or reflectivity; or with plantings and different finishing materials. In short, with ‘design’. Yet despite all our efforts as designers, our work is, in the end, fundamentally dependent on phenomena beyond our control and influenced by natural conditions such as draught,wind, light, temperature, humidity levels and seasonal change, and the requirements of the users. The designer’s influence, therefore, is minimal and only spans the short interval in which the designs are drawn up and handed over.1

Petra Blaisse,The Instinctive Sense of Space and Boundry,Architectural Design(Vol 79 No3) May/June 2009.

Inside Outside, Acoustic wall treatment for Mercedes Benz Museum, Stuttgart, Germany, 2006 (Architect: UN Studio) Detail of brush panel for the acoustic treatment of a curved wall in the coffeeshop. The long, thin hairs are inserted within wooden panels clad with reflective metal, creating the effect of continuous (borderless) space.

Metabolism and Morphology Architecture is on the cusp of systemic change, driven by the dynamics of climate and economy, of new technologies and new means of production. There is a growing interest in the dynamics of fluidity, in networks and in the new topologies of surfaces and soft boundaries. This is part of a general cultural response to the contemporary reconfiguration of the concept of ‘nature’ within the discourse of architecture; a change from metaphor to model, from ‘nature’ as a source of formal inspiration to ‘nature’ as a mine of interrelated dynamic processes that are available for analysis and digital simulation. Michael Weinstock presents an account of the dynamics of natural metabolisms, and suggests an agenda for the development of metabolic morphologies of buildings and cities.

Form has been a central focus in the theories and practice of architecture throughout history, and over time has been aligned with many different ideologies and methods of generating the shape of buildings. The design of surfaces that capture or modify light, the design of heat-generation and transportation systems, and of systems for the movement of air are applied to forms that have been designed according to other criteria. In built architecture, morphology is prior to and separate from metabolism. In city morphologies, the designation of parks and other spaces as the ‘lungs’ of cities is an inexact metaphor and a metaphor chosen from the wrong metabolism. In the natural world, form and metabolism have a very different relationship. There is an intricate choreography of energy and material that determines the morphology of living forms, their relations to each other, and which drives the self-organization of populations and ecological systems. All living forms must acquire energy and materials from their environment, and transform this matter and energy within their bodies to construct their tissues, to grow, to reproduce and to survive. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson argued in On Growth and Form that the morphology of living forms has a ‘dynamical aspect, under which we deal with the interpretation, in terms of force, of the operations of Energy. Living forms are able to construct and dynamically maintain themselves by the exchange of energy and material through their surfaces, and in doing so excrete changed materials and energy back into the environment. Morphology and metabolism are intricately linked through the processing of energy and materials. Metabolism is the fire of life and occurs at all levels from the molecular to the intricate dynamics of ecological systems. There are common metabolic characteristics for whole forms, in the relations between the geometry and overall size of the body plan, the internal operating temperature and the mode of existence in the environment.

Theoretical optimal ratios of branch lengths produce the most equitable distribution of leaf clusters in computed branch systems, and are similar to the observed ratios in real trees.

A script to generate a branching pattern was developed (in Max ing Language) for a simple tree-like branching structure, using the retical model combined with the phylotactical pattern of a Turing. The base of the script is a Fibonaccisequence that h a divergence angle of 137.51°. A radius differentiation of 1/4 branching hierarchies.Finally three additional parameters were total height, the amount of medium-scale branches, and the qu ings.

xscript 3DStudio Scriptthe West Brown Enquist a pine tree, as defined by has a random factor and 4r was introduced to the e defined: to control the uantity of small branch-

Performance has been a central concern of discourses on contemporary architecture, and it is clear that architects today are increasingly becoming engaged with the natural world. There is a new sensitivity to the ‘life’ of buildings, and an understanding that performance and behavior can be inputs to the process of design rather than functions applied later to a form. The study of natural metabolisms is a significant resource for design as it reveals that shape or morphology is deeply integrated within the means of capturing and transmitting energy. The organization and morphology of energy systems of the natural world provide a set of models for what will become the new ‘metabolic morphologies’ of future buildings, and ultimately of cities. Metabolism determines the relations of individuals and populations of natural forms with their local environment. Higher levels of biological organization emerge from metabolic processes, in the relations between species, and in the density and patterns of distribution of species across the surface of the earth. All metabolic processes stem from the sunlight that falls on the surface of the earth.

Branching network: insect respiration. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a spiracle of a garden tiger moth caterpillar (Arctia caja). Air diffuses into the spiracle and is carried around the body by a network of tubes called tracheae. Oxygen diffuses from the tracheae directly into the tissues, and carbon dioxide exits the tissues by the same system. Spiracles are found in pairs on either side of most body segments. Magnification: x 1130 when printed at 10 centimetres (3.9 inches) wide.

Seasonal Expansions Activities at the urban scale, including recreational and commercial activities, and circulation, are directly linked to exterior environments; thus climatic factors are a crucial component of any development plan regardless of its geographic locale, and should in return be acknowledged as a viable, albeit untapped, material system. Activities bound by existing climatic variables and constraints such as temperature, humidity, precipitation and seasonal shifts in daylight hours need to be recognized as materials to be acted upon for expanding existing seasons, creating new ones and exploring potential programme overlaps and mutations. Such climatic materialities (artificial or otherwise) prove to be just as important in organisation as the structures built to house specific programmes and activities. An infrastructural system able to manipulate these seasonal attributes would essentially rewrite the climatic lifespan of the activities and create new opportunities for different uses year round.

UP : Microclimates can be implemented in a range of scenarios,from the humid summers of Houston as a means for pulling the humidity from the air to create usable space outside, to colder climates in which the forms can be sealed with heating fi laments that warm the trapped air. Though each element might seem quite minimal in its production of increased temperature, aggregated together the units have the potential to make signifi cant changes to local microclimates. Right : Though not always directlyvisible to the human eye, the physical boundaries associated with many ‘material energies’ are gradients of intensity (in this case, thermal intensities that radiate from the interiors of each of the Wanderings’ nodes).

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O Lighting

f) Ughting nested in

color treated wab!r


Heating.watar vapor,lighting


Seating unit


Seating unit with heating and light sources




This approach to seasonal planning underpins Wanderings, WEATHER’s ‘climatic infrastructure’ that meets the needs of programme and activity required throughout the course of the year, creating opportunities for artificial extensions of these events. Wanderings operates on existing external microclimates, altering and controlling them for the use of programmatic activities. In this case the gradient boundaries of these materials are elastic and variable as the climatic context changes and external forces interplay with the project. The intention is to create multiple zones (microclimates) that pull from the existing climatic context, creating distinct and definable edges, boundaries and transitions of these materials. Operating as discrete nodes that build and aggregate together, Wanderings literally changes the temperature, spectrums of light and humidity levels within its climatic context so as to make external spaces usable for activities that might otherwise be assumed to need four walls and a ‘conditioned’ interior.

Climate control is typically, and often rigidly associated with building interiors. However, freed from spatial and programmatic limitations, these climatic materials could provide all sorts of new and unforeseen opportunities. With all that we are able to do today with environmental control, our definition of what constitutes public infrastructure could well be expanded to include climate and environmental materialities as catalysts for public activity. We need to do more than simply ‘condition’ exterior spaces, and instead seek new territories of design, infrastructure, texture and social interaction – not to simply move activities ‘outside’, but to tease out the spatial and social implications that arise when ‘walls’ and ‘geometry’ are no longer our primary means of spatial organization. Creating Intensive bush by random walker mimiking that can be a kond of aggregates.

Spongy bone tissue Scanning electron micrograph of cancellous (spongy) bone tissue. Bone can be either cortical (compact solid) or cancellous, with cortical usually forming the exterior of the bone and cancellous tissue forming the interior. The Cellular biological materials have intricate interior structures, self-organised in hierarchies to produce modularity, redundancy and differentiation. As Michael Weinstock explains, the foam geometries of cellular materials offer open and ductile structural systems that are strong and permeable, making them an attractive paradigm for developments in material science and for new structural systems in architecture and engineering. cellular structure is highly differentiated, formed by an irregular network of trabeculae, or rod-shaped fibrous tissue. The open spaces within the tissue are filled with bone marrow.

Aggregates The greatest potential of aggregates may lie in not assigning such subordinate role to granular substances can change their degree of stability .thus ,one of the most interesting and distinctive properties of granular materials is their capacity to shift between solid and liquid states :�when submitted to small mean stresses ,the shear strength is also very small and the granular can flow almost like a liquid (Hicher 1998:1)

Different periodic sand textures emerge in response to changes in frequency.

Aggregates have the ability to form a self-supporting structure over a cavity produced by an inflated formwork. This was tested in a series of experiments by pouring designed aggregate elements into a test container filled with a pneu that was subsequently deflated (left). Cavernous spaces emerge as a result of the aggregate’s related self-stabilising process (Below).

Mid-Semester Album