Page 1

R An ’Other’ Archive

(Chronicler’s)

C

(Repository)

Compiled by Sabine Waskow

Perpetual Monuments

October 2017

focal point

A fascination & curiosity with language and architecture.



“Where shall I begin, please your Majesty?” he asked. “Begin at the beginning,” the King said gravely, “and go on till you come to the end: then stop.” - Lewis Carroll Through the Looking-Glass


Acknowledgements: O

" ne of the deep secrets of life is that all that is really worth the doing is what we do for others. - Lewis Carroll I would like to express my appreciation to everyone who supported me throughout my architectural masters course. I am thankful for their zealous encouragement, guidance, constructive criticism and advice. Without it, I would not have reached my goals and pushed my boundaries. To my family, for your unconditional support, guidance and love which helped me through this rabbit-hole adventure. To my sister, Bianca, for continually reminding me why I set out on this journey. To Dirk Gibson, my right hand man, thank you for coming on this adventure with me and always helping me without question. I could not have completed this journey without you as my cheerleader. To my mentors, Sumayya Vally & Stephen Hobbs, thank you for your inspiration, support and for always believing in me. I could not have asked for better supervisors to guide me - with your seemingly random anecdotes that switched on light bulbs. To Eric Wright & Claudia Morgado, thank you for providing me with a solid launchpad. To Stephen Steyn, thank you for cultivating a rapture with writing.



semi-transparent

Preface: A Guide

I

“ have no way of knowing whether the events that I am about to narrate are effects or causes.� - Jorge Luis Borges Collected Fictions My two year journey started with an exploration into my own spatial memory - how painful experiences tainted specific locations. This sparked a deeper interest with the intersection of memory and identity, how specific locations dredged up painful memories as a nation. It has taken on different forms over the two years - but has always come back to this notion. In the first year I dealt with the language of archetypal personalities in space. In the second year I dealt with how spatial language constructs a narrative. Spatial and textual languages have been used as political tools to alter perceptions. This technique is utilized in the structure of this portfolio which is constructed as an archive with a filing tab organisation system. Each segment is preceded by a quote on the opening tab, designed to alter your perspective and to guide your entry into each segment.


semi-transparent

This portfolio is constructed of four chapters: The Prologue contains the foundation of an ‘other’ archive in language, syntax manipulation and propaganda. The lexicon contains a comprehensive disassembly of spatial language. It begins with the deconstruction of three apartheid sites. And ends with the reconstruction of spatial hierarchies and definitions. The lexicon informs the reason behind every act performed in the chapter Event Syntax. Event syntax contains An ‘Other’ Archive. It is the manipulation of spatial syntax to alter script, function, definition and event. The parade is resolved and unfolds as a demolition sequence. This constitutes the technical lense of the MDP (Major Design Project) - for that reason the DRP (Design Realisation Portfolio) component of this project is contained in this chapter and will be specified. The appendix contains the year one MDP, theoretical writing and professional practice.

Paper has been a critical materiality in my explorations. This document will be constructed of three types of paper with different levels of opacity. I have attempted to recreate the real experience of this portfolio by indicating the materiality and layers of opacity. PAPER TYPES: transparent semi-transparent opaque When the “Press Play” symbol is encountered, please refer to the media files and play the relevant clip. NOTE: A construction booklet accompanies this portfolio as a supplement to the chapter EVENT SYNTAX as well as the DRP component..:


semi-transparent

PERPETUAL MONUMENTS: An ‘Other’ Archive

archive

ar·chive | \ ˈär-ˌkīv \ |

noun 1. A collection of historical documents or records providing information about a place, institution, or group of people. verb 1. Place or store (something) in an archive.

parade

pa·rade | \ pə-ˈrād \ |

noun 1. A public procession, especially one celebrating a special day or event. 2. A series of people or things appearing or being displayed one after the other. 3. A public square or promenade. verb 1. Display (something) in order to impress or attract attention. 2. Appear falsely as; masquerade as.

A

“ text is not a text unless it hides from the first corner, from the first glance, the law of its composition and the rules of its game. A text remains, moreover, forever imperceptible. Its laws and rules are not, however, harbored in the inaccessibility of a secret . . .” – Jacques Derrida History takes precedence over myth; fact trumps fiction. But history is closer to fiction, containing varying levels of subjectivity and slanted ‘truths.’ Derrida’s deconstruction theory suggests that acts of exclusion are present in every construction that catalogues our experiences (Derrida, 1981: vii). During the apartheid era in South Africa, propaganda techniques were employed by the ruling party to manipulate local and international perceptions of the country. Through censoring and editing information, altering sentence structures to modify meaning and inserting exaggerated misinformation, the Nationalist Party silenced protest, leading ultimately to its own overthrow.


semi-transparent

My interests this year have been grounded in language, syntax, propaganda, and, hierarchy and how this relates to the psychology of the built environment. Buildings, cities, landscapes and spaces are physical and tangible manifestations of political, cultural or economical initiatives - and as such can be read like a word, a sentence or even a paragraph of a story. The ‘Other’ Archive has taken the form of an orchestrated parade that deconstructs hierarchal forms and political hegemony created through apartheid propaganda. By treating architecture as text, using syntax manipulation strategies coupled with the hierarchies and definitions of spatial vocabulary, existing apartheid architecture

is recomposed. By subverting and recomposing the current spatial vocabulary; new forms, combinations and programmatic juxtaposition constructs new function, meanings and outcomes. The Nationalist Party utilised performance in architecture - through design or construction - to convince the world of their hegemony. The parade unfolds as a demolition sequence, allowing the site to be in a perpetual state of in-completion and recomposition. It utilises the performance of the design and construction in order to overthrow the dominance of one narrative. By being re-scripted, the architecture no longer communicates in the same order and allows for more than one narrative to co-exist.


semi-transparent

CONTENTS


semi-transparent

The prologue 13

Iconoclast The Self

19

Elixir Little Monuments

25

Artifact + Anti-fact Re-order + Delete

39

Exquisite Corpse Insert

59

Terra Die Vaderland

The lexicon 77 79 86 95 105 108 114

Categories Progressive Landscape: Standard Bank Monumental Landscape: Voortrekker Monument Political Landscape: Church Square A Glossary Principles Lexicon

Event syntax 155 162

Event Syntax Demolition Sequence

The appendix 255

Masters Year One Urban Mutations: Redefining Edge Conditions

281 284 290 296

Appendix A Masterclass A City Inherited Apeiron

303

Appendix B Professional Practice


semi-transparent


opaque

Iconoclast

“I knew who I was this morning, but I’ve changed a few times since then.” Lewis Caroll Through the Looking-Glass


opaque

The self Masters Year One - Frontier 001 Iconoclast

"

Where am I now?�

The first exploration of this two year course began with an investigation into my own spatial memory through paper. This sparked an interest into the relationship between memory, language, identity and architecture. As well as a fascination with paper as materiality.


opaque

Fig. 1 ‘Stuck in a moment’


16

Iconoclast

Fig. 2 ‘Each memory fading into the next’

opaque


opaque

The Self

17


opaque


opaque

Elixir

“The things we do outlast our mortality.” Racquel Jaramilo Palacio Wonder


opaque

Elixir Little Monuments

Ritual: Packing + Unpacking Drawing from the appropriated printer’s tray utilised in Afrikaans homes to hold kitsch items of memorabilia. This project exposes the hidden meaning behind this act – placing memories as monuments within the recesses. A year is the reset time frame for the piece – this is governed by the cycle of packing and unpacking. The objects shift and move in the recesses over this time frame, holding only a degree of permanence until the time frame resets.

play 001_elixir


opaque

Little Monuments

21


22

Elixir

‘Fig. 3’

‘Shifting Memories’

opaque


opaque

Little Monuments

23

‘The Printer’s Tray’


opaque


opaque

“ ‘When I use a word,’ Humpty Dumpty said in rather a scornful tone, ‘it means just what I choose it to mean - neither more, nor less.’ ” Lewis Carroll Through the Looking Glass

Artefact + Anti-fact


opaque

ARTEFACT + ANTI-FACT Re-order + Delete

The

myth mapping of Santarama Mini-land considered the site as a form of political expression during the apartheid regime. The subtext of its contents had been edited and restructured to exhibit only what the creators wanted seen - edited to such an extent that it is a piece of fiction. Tactics to expose the language of power were Chomsky’s adapted rules of syntactic manipulation, namely reorder, delete and insert to alter the deeper meaning. These rules combined with Derrida’s deconstruction theory are pivotal tools in the major design project. This project relates architecture to text and therefore uses deconstruction and syntax manipulation to alter narrative and script.

play 002_artifact+anti-fact


opaque

Re-order + Delete

27

‘Santarama Mini-land Site Visit’


28

Artefact + Anti-fact

The origins of the word text have been traditionally

understood as the wording of anything written. But the etymology of text has been extracted from the Latin word textus, meaning a tissue, which was further extracted from texere, which means to weave. The writing or composition of a text should be viewed as Walter Benjamin describes, as “the dialectic of raveling and unraveling�.

opaque


opaque

Re-order + Delete

29

‘Experimentation in Document Tampering Process Series’


30

Artefact + Anti-fact

opaque

Deep structure = underlying meaning of the sentence Surface structure = the actual spoken sentence

AIM: Contortion of the surface structure to deform the deep structure

translator = author (O)bject

(Re)order (A)ctions

(V)erb

(I)nsert (D)elete

(S) ubject (Ad)jective / verb

(C) omponents

text in the language of translation

reader ‘Chomsky’s theory of syntax manipulation’

[set cultural context]

translator = author

linguistic decoding of the original text

DE-WORDING: "deconstruction" of the original wording = recreation of meaning 1

RE-WORDING = recreation of meaning 2

text in the language of translation

reader

‘Derrida’s theory of deconstruction’


Re-order + Delete

transparent

31

Original Text: The Freedom Charter, 1955 ‐ volunteers were sent into the townships and countryside to collect the 'freedom demands' of all South Africans in an effort to give all South Africans equal rights. During a congress at Kliptown, the charter was signed by the ANC. The congress was denounced as treason and led to 156 activists being arrested, including Nelson Mandela.

insert

verb

reorder

noun delete

verb

insert

verb

reorder

noun delete

verb

delete

noun subject location

reorder

noun

delete

noun verb subject Manipulated Text: The Freedom Charter, 1955

'freedom demands' of all South Africans in an effort to congress the charter was signed The congress was including Nelson Mandela

restraint the equal rights. During a



opaque

Re-order + Delete

33

‘Santarama Miniland Chronicle - Single Entry Deformation’


34

Artefact + Anti-fact

opaque


opaque

Re-order + Delete

35

‘Experimentation in Document Tampering Sheet no. 1 & 2’


36

Artefact + Anti-fact

opaque


opaque

Re-order + Delete

37

‘The Palimpsest Manuscript’


opaque


opaque

“But, said Alice, if the world has absolutely no sense, who’s stopping us from inventing one?” Lewis Carroll Alice In Wonderland

Exquisite Corpse


opaque

Exquisite Corpse Insert

By occupying an existing narrative or territory,

the occupant will have the desire to emulate their narrative. A device was made to allow the alteration of the story after a new occupant / character was inserted into the narrative. The syntactic manipulation rules (reorder + delete + insert) remained as the interaction tools. The device’s rules were set up on the notion of projecting but not pre-dictating the rules of its occupation. The verbs, subjects and events were interchangeable as the reorder function. The surplus body of the text comprised the delete function. Through each interplay with the narrative, information is altered, lost or added. In the second interplay, you can witness the erasure of information, suggestive of the propaganda of the apartheid era.


Insert

transparent

The Objective: INSERT yourself into the story

REORDER the words & portions of text

DELETE portions of text

41



opaque

Insert

43

Rules of Interaction: INSERT Choose the Title of the narrative – this will influence the way that the narrative is read. Action: Rotate the first barrel Choose the character that you want to play – choose from The Ruler, The Orphan, The Creator and The Outlaw. You have the option to change your character through the narrative. Action: Rotate the character barrels REORDER The verbs, objects, subjects, nouns and events in the sentences are interchangeable WITHIN A PARAGRAPH. Note: these words cannot be deleted. Action: Rotate the barrels The portions of text are removable and able to insert in any other position available in the grid. Action: Remove and insert the segments DELETE The portions of text are removable. Remove them from the grid and hang them on the side of the frame. Action: Remove the segments


44

Exquisite Corpse

opaque

Original Text

Character: The Archivist

A ruler discovered the chimerical wishing well from the folklore that he had once read about as a child.

They all embodied his vision of the country that he had a hand in carving. Buildings such as the Union Buildings,

It was set amongst a picturesque open field, sloping down towards a large body of water.

Holy Trinity Church,

It was his true belief that his rule had ameliorated the savage land that had been discovered.

the Hillbrow Tower,


opaque

Insert

45

and King Kong guarding the entrance.

the Standard Bank Centre,

A singer whose poetic lyrics had always sat ill with him, appeared larger than life with his back turned to the shrine

Something he did not anticipate was the veneer of absurdity to his monument, Dumbo overlooking his miniature monument

A comical miniature train started puffing its way through his city.

Fig. 4

Gold Reef City,


46

Exquisite Corpse

opaque

Text Interplay 001

Character: The Fabricator shift<subject>

shift<subject> A Rebel read about the chimerical open field from the folklore that he had once discovered as a child.

It was his true savage land ameliorated savage land built Hillbrow Tower.

insert<new subject>

shift<subject>

Fig. 5

It was set amongst a picturesque wishing well.

his wish was to populate as a witness of their Nelson Mandela,

insert<new subject>

shift<subject> Sharpeville Massacre,

Fig. 6

The ruler, savage land sloping down towards a large influence and reign which he built on this piece of land.

by the in the


opaque

Insert

47

shift<subject>

insert<new subject>

The Creator did not anticipate was the overlooking to his King Kong

Gold Reef City,

to appear Dumbo overlooking his miniature monument and monument guarding the entrance.

shift<verb>

Steve Biko

shift<verb>

insert<new subject> Fig. 7

Black Labor Union Strike, started to pop up like a miniature labyrinthine his vision that his people had made to contribution become occupied.

A comical miniature train started guarding it was through his city.


48

Exquisite Corpse

opaque

Text Interplay 002

Character: The Obscurer alt+delete<context>

alt+delete<subject> A Rebel the chimerical read about__________ from the folklore that he had once as a child.

_________the Hillbrow Tower.

alt+delete<new subject>

shift<verb> It was discovered, read about a picturesque wishing well.

________________________________

alt+delete<new subject>

shift<verb> It was his true spirit of the country field by the governed savage land,

________________________________


opaque

Insert

shift<verb>

alt+delete<new subject> ________________________________

The Orphan did not anticipate overlooking to his King Kong to appear.

shift<subjects> alt+delete<verb> shift<adjective>

alt+delete<subject> ________________________________

A singer overlooking his miniature monument and train overlooking Dumbo, ________the entrance.

alt+delete<new subject> ________________________________

49

A comical miniature train veneer absurdity its way through his city.

of


50

Exquisite Corpse

‘Re-order Module’

opaque


opaque

Insert

51

‘Alterations Schematic Plan - Reorder Permutations’


52

Exquisite Corpse

Fig. 8-9 ‘Device Interaction’

opaque


‘Character: The Archivist’

transparent

Insert 53


45

esproC etisiuqxE

tnerapsnart


‘Character: The Fabricator’

transparent

Insert 55



‘Character: The Obscurer’

transparent

Insert 57



opaque

Terra

“By the skilful and sustained use of propaganda, one can make a people see even heaven as hell or an extremely wretched life as paradise.� Adolf Hitler


opaque

Terra Die Vaderland Newspaper

Between 1933 and 1988, ‘Die Vaderland’ newspaper,

with its headquarters (now demolished) located at 3 Plein Street in Newtown, Johannesburg, was a manufacturer of the Afrikaner narrative, validating the gross logics and mechanisms of Nationalist governance. The newspaper employed propaganda techniques to manipulate local and international perceptions of the country. I draw from Thomas Rice who wrote that “text is a landscape, a readable space”. ‘Die Vaderland’ created landscapes through different propaganda composition methods, such as focal point, balance, rhythm and axis, designed to captivate readers. These landscapes are a product of an analysis into the propaganda composition techniques of the page in combination with the vocabulary used. They utilised mainly monumental, progressive and political vocabulary filters to manipulate perception. I argue that these create landscapes that focus on the Afrikaner narrative and suppress alternative ones. Chosen satellite sites within these landscapes become the sites for An ‘Other’ Archive.


opaque

Die Vaderland

61

Fig. 10 ‘Die Vaderland’ Building - circa 1932’

Fig. 11 ‘Broken typewriter post raid - 1941’

Fig. 12 ‘Die Vaderland’ Building erased- 2017’


62

Terra

‘‘Die Vaderland’ Newspaper Artifact’

opaque


opaque

Die Vaderland

63


Terra

64

opaque

Progressive Landscape

Progress” propaganda vocabulary from

Die Vaderland:

NYWERHEIDS | ONTWIKKELING | GRENS | LOSE | MOONTLIKEHEDE | OPKOMS |

industry /evolution development boundary less possibilities rise

GROEI |

growth

NUWE |

new

BAAN | BREKERS |

ground breakers

VOORUITGANG | VORDERING |

progress

SUKSES | VERHAAL |

success story


opaque

Die Vaderland

standard bank

65


Terra

66

opaque

Monumental Landscape

Monument” propaganda vocabulary from

Die Vaderland: EER |

AANDENKING |

honour memorial

NAGEDAGTENIS |

memory

ERFENIS |

heritage

HERDENKING | HULDE | HULDIG | HISTORIESE | BEWAARHEID | EEU | FEES | PRESTASIE |

commemoration homage historical preservation century festival achievement


opaque

Die Vaderland

67


68

Terra

opaque

Political Landscape

Political” propaganda vocabulary from

Die Vaderland: VOOR | TREKKER |

front puller

PIONEER |

pioneer

UNIE | AFRIKANERS | TRADISIE | STAATS | HULP |

union Afrikaners tradition government help

“ONS VIR JOU” |

us for you

HERDERS |

shepherds

“GETROUE DIENS | AAN SUID-AFRIKA | “DIENS VAN DIE MENIGTE” |

faithful service to South Africa service of the crowd


Die Vaderland

opaque

69

uare ch sq chur


70

Terra

‘Propaganda Mechanisms Analysis’

opaque


opaque

Die Vaderland

71

‘Cumulative Landscape’


72

Terra

opaque

This

instrument is based upon the letterpress printing machines used during the era of ‘Die Vaderland’. The site, 3 Plein Street, takes the form of this device to subvert the systems of propaganda by exposing acts of erasure through mark making.


opaque

Die Vaderland

73

‘The Subversive Printing Press’


74

Terra

‘3 Plein Street - The Shallow Grave’

opaque


opaque

Die Vaderland

75

‘| insert vs. delete | delete vs. insert | exaggerate vs. puncture|’


opaque


opaque

Catalogues

“The catalogue of forms is endless: until every shape has found its city, new cities will continue to be born. When the forms exhaust their variety and come apart, the end of cities begins.� Italo Calvino


opaque

Catalogue The Catalogue disassembles the spatial language

used in three selected sites from the landscapes found within Die Vaderland Newspaper. The construction of spatial narrative is understood through six categories: - Structure - Circulation - Ornamentation - Services - Surroundings - Procession


transparent

Progressive Landscape: Standard Bank

79

Fig. 13 ‘Die Vaderland Extract - Standard Bank’



opaque

Progressive Landscape: Standard Bank

81

Language: structure


82

Catalogue One

Language: circulation

opaque


opaque

Progressive Landscape: Standard Bank

83

Language: services


84

Catalogue One

Language: procession

opaque


opaque

Standard Bank (built between 1966 and 1970) was a spectacle of performance in Johannesburg. Displaying architectural and engineering ingenuity - it was used as a testament to the ‘avant-garde’ Afrikaner nation.

Fig. 14 ‘Language: performance’

Progressive Landscape: Standard Bank

85


86

Catalogue Two

Voortrekker Monument (the cornerstone was laid on 16 December 1938) was constructed as a monument to Die Groot Trek undertaken by the Afrikaners.

Fig . 15-16 ‘Language: performance’

opaque

On 16 December annually it becomes a performance space where the sun shines through the oculus onto the cenotaph in the basement - symbolising the connection between the ‘volk’ and God.


transparent

Monumental Landscape: Voortrekker Monument

87

Fig . 17 ‘Die Vaderland ExtractLanguage: - Voortrekker Ornamentation Monument’



opaque

Monumental Landscape: Voortrekker Monument

89

Language: ornamentation Language: Ornamentation


90

Catalogue Two

Language: External structure

opaque


opaque

Monumental Landscape: Voortrekker Monument

91

Language: Internal structure


92

Catalogue Two

Language: Circulation

opaque


opaque

Monumental Landscape: Voortrekker Monument

93

Language: Procession


94

Catalogue Three

opaque


transparent

Political Landscape: Church Square

95

Fig . 18 ‘Die Vaderland Extract - Church Square’



opaque

Political Landscape: Church Square

97

Church Square (circa 1856) was designed as the heart of Pretoria at the origin of the x and y-axes. The church had been built at the origin point of the square as the church was the centre of an Afrikaans community. It was designed as the primary gathering and processional space. It has witnessed various political marches, processions, parades and daily rituals. In 1956, the statue of Paul Kruger was erected in the center of the square. He was one of the most dominant political and military figures in South Africa during the 19th century and is known as the father of ‘Afrikanerdom’.

Fig . 19-22 ‘Church Square Historical Parades’

Due to the performance nature of all three sites (Standard Bank, Voortrekker Monument and Church Square) - An ‘Other’ Archive takes on the form of a parade and unfolds in the heart of Pretoria Nationalism - Church Square.


98

Catalogue Three

Language: Surroundings

opaque


opaque

Political Landscape: Church Square

99


100

Catalogue Three

Language: Circulation

Language: Structure

opaque


opaque

Political Landscape: Church Square

101


102

Catalogue Three

Language: Ornamentation

Language: Services

opaque


opaque

Political Landscape: Church Square

103


opaque


opaque

“Words - so innocent and powerless as they are, as standing in a dictionary, how potent for good and evil they become in the hands of one who knows how to combine them.� Nathaniel Hawthorne

A Glossary


opaque

A glossary The

Glossary is a compendium of the spatial vocabulary found in the Catalogue. It has two components: Principles + Lexicon. Principles defines the compositional techniques used to create sites of propaganda. Lexicon defines hierarchy, function and effect of the spatial vocabulary. Illustration and definition are designed to be read in conjunction. The composition of each definition superimposes aspects or elements from each site (Standard Bank, Voortrekker Monument + Church Square). Each definition and principle is understood and defined through investigating multiple sites. ‘A Glossary’ becomes the rules by which the parade will subvert the political hegemony. Each act will subvert the principles of composition, definition, function and / or hierarchy.


opaque


108

A Glossary

opaque

Principles A

“ text is not a text unless it hides from the first corner, from the first glance, the law of its composition and the rules of its game.�

- Jacques Derrida

The compositional techniques used to create these sites are based upon propaganda poster composition explored and identified in Terra - Die Vaderland. Four techniques were predominant: - Creating a set of axes - Creating focal points of interest - Creating balance through symmetry - Using rhythm + repetition


semi-transparent

Principles

109


110

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun An unbroken journey arranged around a straight line that leads or directs another’s way to produce a desired effect, especially surreptitiously.


Principles

semi-transparent

noun the center of directed attention placing a level of importance on a particular spot in an area using distinguishing detail or force of expression that also serves to conceal.

111


112

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun to maintain the stability by composing an even distribution of weight on each side of an axis giving the strength to stand or endure a state of instability.


Principles

semi-transparent

noun the rhythmic structure of a strong, ordered sequence of events, sounds or objects with an alternation of stressed and unstressed elements in the flow of sound, silence and movement.

113


114

A Glossary

semi-transparent

Lexicon I

“ t’s a beautiful thing, the Destruction of words. Of course the great wastage is in the verbs and adjectives, but there are hundreds of nouns that can be got rid of as well. It isn’t only the synonyms; there are also the antonyms. After all, what justification is there for a word, which is simply the opposite of some other word?” - George Orwell The Lexicon is derived from the language categories where the vocabulary found in circulation, structure, ornamentation and services is defined. Each category begins with a composition of all the elements that it is comprised of - where the elements in relationship to each other create an action on the architecture and is therefore classified as a verb. The design of each definition was informed by a relationship between image and text. They are therefore designed to be read in conjunction.


semi-transparent

Lexicon

115


116

A Glossary

semi-transparent


semi-transparent

language: circulation verb

Lexicon

117


118

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A carefully planned series of moves and steps through a circuit to pass from one level to another; changing the emphasis, direction, or focus through an act or process. capacity = 100kg x (width / 500mm) max 1-10 pax (width / 500mm).


semi-transparent

Lexicon

119


120

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A machine consisting of an endlessly circulating belt, a platform or steps and its hoisting machinery for transporting people or things to different levels through ascending and descending continuously. capacity = 1000kg. max = 10 pax.


semi-transparent

Lexicon

121


122

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun an object, vertical member or obstacle forming a barrier as part of a series supporting a rail or coping preventing or hindering movement or action but having a space or gap that allows passage or access. capacity = 100kg x (width / 500mm) max 1-10 pax (width / 500mm).


semi-transparent

Lexicon

123


124

A Glossary

semi-transparent


semi-transparent

language: structure verb

Lexicon

125


126

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A raised continuous projecting base which forms a base and a point of convergence; on which something stands and becomes an outlet for delivering opinions. 2 max pax = podium m capacity = max pax x 100kg


semi-transparent

Lexicon

127


128

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A single or series of sturdy members serving as the principal horizontal support involving some level of hierarchy; a straight or curved member spanning an opening that holds up and bears all or part of the weight. capacity = (100kg x cross sectional area x # of beams) / span max pax = 1 pax per 500mm span


semi-transparent

Lexicon

129


130

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A vertical pillar, cable or space of great tensile or compressive strength that holds up and bears all or part of the weight and / or gives stability. 2 capacity = 100kg per 0.01m cross sectional area 2 max pax = 1 pax per 0.01m


semi-transparent

Lexicon

131


132

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun An upright side of a building or room that surrounds or closes off on all sides, that constrains movement or access by connecting floor and ceiling or foundation and roof - often used in plural. min distance apart = 1 pax (500mm) height constraint = 100mm - 100m


semi-transparent

Lexicon

133


134

A Glossary

semi-transparent


semi-transparent

language: ornamentation verb

Lexicon

135


136

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun Of or arranged like the radii of a circle or as a network of lines that cross each other to form a series of rectangles; diverging in lines from a common centre to enclose on all sides. grid interval = 1 - 10 pax (500mm x pax) radius interval = 1 pax per 10 degrees


semi-transparent

Lexicon

137


138

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A three-dimensional representation of a person, animal or mythical being, especially one that is lifesize or larger made to influence opinion or action. height = 500mm per level of impact (10 levels) directional impact = 1


semi-transparent

Lexicon

139


140

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A surface marked with characters or sculpted decoration as an account of incidents or events to reflect or conform to an overarching set of aims or values. capacity = 1 per 5m OR 1 per 10 degrees directional impact = 1


semi-transparent

Lexicon

141


142

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A protective or ornamental device around or inserted into an opening to provide concealment or divert attention from something. min distance apart = 1 pax (500mm) max opening opacity = 75 percent


semi-transparent

Lexicon

143


144

A Glossary

semi-transparent


semi-transparent

language: services verb

Lexicon

145


146

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun An assemblage of parts creating an active transport mechanism together performing in a predetermined manner designed to modify the application of temptation, force, or motion. max components per active line = 7 min 1 pump per 7 components


semi-transparent

Lexicon

147


148

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A tube or passageway in a building or machine that conveys a substance or provides an area designated for stationary objects in a horizontal orientation. max line length = 10 pax (10 x 500mm) min 1 stationary area per 4 lines


semi-transparent

Lexicon

149


150

A Glossary

semi-transparent

noun A vertical tube, channel or pole that can convey a substance or is an indication of the starting or finishing point; can be used as a source of illumination. min 1 illumination per 10 pax (10 x 500mm) min 1 mark for beginning + end


semi-transparent

Lexicon

151


152

A Glossary

semi-transparent

Glossary index: Each definition found in the glossary is constructed

from multiple definitions to create a new meaning by combining the definitions of two to four words. The new definitions are composed from components, actions and devices. This is a reference guide to locate the origin of these definitions.


Lexicon

semi-transparent

153

architrave..................89, 92, 122, 142

grid............................................89, 136

post................101, 103, 130, 142, 150

axis...................................................110

guide................................................110

pump......................................... 83, 146

ascent......................................118, 120

horizontal...............................128, 148

radial................................ 89, 101, 136

balance............................................112

influence......................................... 138

railing.................................82, 92, 122

baluster...................................101, 122

inscribe............................................140

ramp..........................................82, 118

barrier.....................................122, 102

inscription......................................140

repetition........................................113

beam..................81, 91, 101, 126, 128

instability........................................112

representation...............................138

bench.......................................103, 148

lamp.........................................103, 150

rhythm............................................113

buttress.................................... 90, 130

lure...................................................146

services............................ 83, 103, 144

cable.......................................... 81, 130

machine....................................83, 146

screen....................................... 89, 142

circulation..82, 92, 101, 116, 118, 120

machinery................................ 83, 146

shift..................................................118

column.............................91, 101, 130

manoeuvre......................................118

soapbox...........................................126

compose..........................................111

mask................................................ 111

stabilize...........................................116

core............................................81, 130

measure...........................................113

stage................................................ 126

descent....................................118, 120

opening....................................122, 142

stairway.....................82, 92, 101, 118

direct............................................... 110

orchestrate.....................................110

statue................................89, 103, 138

duct...................................83, 148, 150

ornamentation............... 89, 103, 134

structure.............81, 90, 92, 101, 124

elevator.....................................82, 120

parking...................................103, 148

support...................................128, 130

emphasis.........................................111

pattern............................................ 113

surround................................ 99, 136

enclose.............................................102

plinth.......................89, 101, 103, 126

transfer........................................... 118

escalator................................... 82, 120

podium.............................90, 101, 126

tree..........................................103, 150

focus........................................111, 126

point................................................ 111

vertical............................................150

frieze........................89, 103, 136, 140

position...........................................111

wall............................ 90, 91, 101, 102


semi-transparent


opaque

“No matter what people tell you, words and ideas can change the world.� Robin Williams

Event Syntax


opaque

EVENT syntax Spatial Re-ordering

Church square takes on the construction of a printer’s

forme - printer’s selected type from a printer’s tray and arranged them on a composing stick. The configuration of these sticks was locked into a chase and was then ready for inking and printing. All of the elements explored on site through the various language categories and the lexicon take on the form of a printer’s type in a printer’s tray. The elements are rearranged on site through the programme of a parade. The rearrangement combines syntax manipulation rules with the definitions and principles established in the Glossary.


opaque

The Parade

157


158

Event Syntax

‘Inking the Printer’s ‘Type’ ’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

159

The Printer’s Tray


160

Event Syntax

‘Printer’s ‘Forme’ - Site Model’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

161


162

Event Syntax

opaque

Demolition sequence demonstrator

dem·on·stra·tor | \ ˈde-mən-ˌstrā-tər \

noun 1. A participant in a public protest meeting or march.

spectator

spec·ta·tor | \ ˈspek-ˌtā-tər , spek-ˈtā- \

noun 1. A person who looks on or watches; onlooker; observer. 2. a person who is present at and views a spectacle, display, or the like; member of an audience.

machine

ma·chine | \ mə-ˈshēn \

noun 1. An apparatus using mechanical power and having several parts, each with a definite function and together performing a particular task.

The parade unfolds as a choreographed demolition

sequence. Each sequence is scripted in terms of rearrangement and actors. The actors consist of machines, demonstrators and spectators. The machines are used as stage breakers and stage makers. The spectators can take on the role of demonstrator and effect change upon the site as well. Each re-arrangement subverts either the principles of composition or the definition, function or hierarchy. The ‘Other’ Archive creates a space for people to rebel, to become conscious, to have a platform for their voice. The re-composition of Church Square creates a multi-programmable space, allowing more than one script to unfold - whereas before it only permitted one script and narrative to exist. It has been transformed into a public space that allows a democratic voice and multiple functions to co-exist.


opaque

demolition sequence 01___statue relocation 02-1_soapboxes 02-2_tiered seating 03-1_statue screen 03-2_stage set 03-3_bridge 03-4_path obstacle 04-1_wishing well 04-2_tiered seating 05-1_raised platforms 06-1_ferris wheel 06-2_staircase

The Parade

163


opaque

demolition sequence 01 __statue relocation [enter] ____crane + construction workers //[construction workers demarcate working area] [enter] ____spectators

//[occupy designated areas]

[reorder]___use crane to move paul kruger statue | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break attachment to origin | //remove as focal point | //remove hierarchy by lowering elevation |_spectators cheer at the removal + spray confetti [reorder]___use crane to move 4 x soldier statues

‘Demolition Sequence 01_Statue Relocation’

//create imbalance in symmetry //change definition from auxiliary to single statues //remove hierarchy by lowering elevation


opaque


166

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 01__statue relocation 16/12/2017 08:47:52

The spectators gathered to witness a pivotal change as the crane shifted the larger than life image of Paul Kruger and removed it from political dominance.

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

167


168

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 01_Statue Relocation’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

169


170

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 01_Statue Relocation’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

171


172

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 02-1__soapboxes [enter] ____crane + construction workers

//[construction workers demarcate working area]

[enter] ____spectators

//[occupy designated areas]

[delete]___use crane + forklift to demolish podium lid [reorder]__use crane to move 4 x soldier statue columns onto scissor lift | //break rhythm sequence | //create multi-focal points | //change function from column to soapbox | //change hierarchy by raising elevation [insert] |_install ladder + loudspeaker | [enter] |demonstrators appropriate podiums + use loudspeaker

‘Demolition Sequence 02-1_Soapboxes’


opaque

The Parade

173

demolition sequence 02-2__tiered seating [reorder]__use crane to lift 4 x curb sections onto forklifts | //break rhythm sequence |_rotate + arrange 4 x curved curbs in s/w corner of square | //create imbalance in symmetry | //change function from pathway indicator to seating [insert] |_use scaffolding to create tiered platforms of curbs | //change hierarchy by raising elevation | [enter] |_demonstrators appropriate tiered seating for parade vantage point

‘Demolition Sequence 02-2_Tiered Seating’


174

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 02-1__soapboxes 16/12/2017 09:13:07

In the midst of the cheering spectators, the statue

plinths were shifted and elevated to give the demonstrators a platform and a mouthpiece as a module of expression.

opaque


The Parade DRP

opaque

175

demolition sequence 02-1__tiered seating 16/12/2017 09:49:25

For

an elevated perspective, the demonstrators climbed onto the rearranged tiered curbs. They were given vantage over the spectators.


176

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 02_Soapboxes + Tiered Seating’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

177


178

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 02_Soapboxes + Tiered Seating’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

179


180

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 03-1__statue screen [enter] ____crane + construction workers

//[construction workers demarcate working area]

[reorder]__construction workers to break podium into 4 x segments | |_use crane to move 4 x podium segments around paul kruger statue | //break attachment to x + y-axis | //create imbalance in symmetry | //change function from podium to enclosure | //remove hierarchy by lowering elevation [enter] |_demonstrators climb onto statue and topple over in new enclosure

‘Demolition Sequence 03-1_Statue Screen’


opaque

The Parade

181


182

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 03-2__stage set [insert]___attach eye bolt + support cables from statue supporting column to podium floor slab | [delete] |_use crane + forklift to demolish podium supporting walls | //create instability [insert] |_install scissor lifts underneath podium floor slab |_install scaffolding underneath podium floor slab [reorder]__use crane to move 2 x flag posts on top of statue supporting column + attach | //change hierarchy by raising elevation | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change function from decorative to structural |_use crane + forklift to relocate 6 x lamp posts on to stage | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence |_attach support cables between lamp post + flag posts //[allow for lamp post to slant] //change function from path indicator to stage light

[insert]___install 4 x loudspeakers on podium | //change function from podium to stage [enter] |_demonstrators storm stage and seize the focal point //[stage tilts upon ascent]

//[stage tilts in reaction to movement]

‘Demolition Sequence 03-2_Stage Set’


opaque

The Parade

183


184

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 03-1__statue screen 16/12/2017 10:05:14

As the podium walls were arranged to screen Paul

Kruger, the demonstrators became incensed. They stormed the statue and, while they were clambering up, the statue toppled over from the weight.

opaque


The Parade DRP

opaque

185

demolition sequence 03-2__stage set 16/12/2017 11:12:48

The demonstrators mounted the suspended stage,

hung by a cable from the central column. The floor gave way underneath their feet, responding to their presence on the stage - the more of them there were, the lower they sank.


186

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 03-2_Stage Set’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

187


188

Event Syntax

opaque


opaque

The Parade

189

‘Demolition Sequence 03-2_Statue Enclosure’


190

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 03-2_Stage Set’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

191


192

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 03-3__bridge [reorder]___use crane to shift 15 x decorative columns from square’s western border buildings | |_relocate decorative columns between ou raadsaal and square’s south edge | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change function from decorative to structural | //change hierarchy by lowering elevation [reorder] |_use crane + bracing to shift 2 x floor slab from ou raadsaal + | relocate on columns | |_use crane + bracing to shift 1 x floor slab from post office + | relocate on columns | |_use crane + bracing to shift 1 x floor slab from fnb building + relocate on columns //change function from floor to bridge [insert]____assemble 3 x scaffolding modules + planks + stairs between floor slabs | |_assemble 2 x scaffolding modules + planks + stairs between floor slab + | west pavilion //create multiple entry points | //change function from structural brace to temporary bridge | //break rhythm sequence |_assemble scaffolding + ladder at end of bridge inside square [reorder]___use crane to shift 2 x windows from ou raadsaal + relocate on bridge | |_use crane to shift 2 x windows from western border buildings + relocate on bridge //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change function from decorative to threshold | //change hierarchy by raising elevation [enter] |_demonstrators ascend the ladder and charge ou raadsaal //change definition from private to public


opaque

The Parade

193

‘Demolition Sequence 03-3_Bridge’


194

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 03-3_Bridge’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

195


196

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 03-3__bridge 16/12/2017 11:32:26

The

demonstrators took advantage of the temporary scaffolding structures connecting the platforms between Ou Raadsaal and the square to charge the private threshold.

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

197


198

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 03-3_Bridge’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

199


200

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 03-3_Bridge’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

201


202

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 03-4_Path Obstacle’

opaque


The Parade

opaque

203

demolition sequence 03-4__path obstacle [reorder]__use forklift to relocate 4 x entrance posts onto x or y-axis

| | |

//create imbalance in symmetry //obstruct direct views of site origin //change function from path indicator to barrier

|_2 x entrance posts onto scissor lifts //change hierarchy by raising elevation // create new focal point

[reorder]__use forklift to move 5 x lamp posts | //break rhythm sequence

| //create imbalance in symmetry |_1 x lamp post onto scissor lift

‘Demolition Sequence 03-4_Path Obstacle’


204

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 03-4__path obstacle 16/12/2017 11:49:22

The scissor lift creaked as the construction worker

cranked the wheel to raise the posts and lamp post. It attracted the spectators attention and they realised the pathways were partially obstructed.

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

205


206

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 03-4_Path Obstacle’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

207


208

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 04-1__wishing well [enter]____crane + construction workers

//[construction workers demarcate working area]

[reorder]__use crane to relocate 4 x columns + 2 x eaves from cafe riche to surround fountain | //change function from structure to decorative | //break rhythm sequence | //create new focal point | [enter] |_demonstrators spray ‘wishing well’ on eaves //change function from decorative to a signboard //change definition from decoration to sacred

‘Demolition Sequence 04-1_Wishing Well’


opaque

The Parade

209

demolition sequence 04-2__tiered seating [reorder]____use crane to lift 4 x curb sections onto forklifts | //break rhythm sequence |_arrange 4 x curb sections in s/w corner of site | | //create imbalance in symmetry | | //change function from pathway indicator to seating [insert] | |_assemble scaffolding underneath curbs | //change hierarchy by raising elevation | //change hierarchy by raising elevation [enter] |_demonstrators appropriate tiered seating for parade vantage point


210

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 04-1__wishing well 16/12/2017 12:15:31

The demonstrators’ marked the fountain as their own by spraying the brand “wishing well” on the rearranged shelter - creating their own sacred place where they could whisper their hopes and desires.

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

211


212

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 04_Wishing Well’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

213


214

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 05-1__raised platform [reorder]___use crane and bracing to lift x balconies from eastern boundary buildings | //create connection from surrounding buildings to square |_relocate balconies onto forklifts to create series of raised platforms | | //change function from machinery to structural | |_forklifts to rearrange around square for different views | //[raised platform retain transitional state] [enter] |_demonstrators to seize forklifts

‘Demolition Sequence 05-1_Raised Platforms’


opaque

The Parade

215


216

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 05-1__raised platform 16/12/2017 13:21:10

As soon as the platforms were installed upon the

forklifts, the demonstrator’s grabbed them to be used as portable stages for simultaneous demonstrations at any selected location on site.

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

217


218

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 05-1_Raised Platforms’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

219


220

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 05-1_Raised Platforms’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

221


222

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 05-2__promenade [reorder]___use crane to shift 5 x decorative columns from square’s eastern border buildings | |_shift 21 x decorative columns from square’s southern border buildings | |_shift 7 x decorative columns from square’s western border buildings | |_relocate decorative columns between tudor and fnb buildings | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change function from decorative to structural | //change hierarchy by lowering elevation [reorder] |_use crane + bracing to shift 4 x floor slab from fnb building + | relocate on columns | |_use crane + bracing to shift 3 x floor slab from southern border building + relocate on columns //change function from floor to promenade [insert]____assemble 4 x scaffolding modules + planks + stairs between floor slabs | //create multiple entry points | //change function from structural brace to temporary bridge | //break rhythm sequence |_assemble scaffolding + ladder at end of bridge inside square [reorder]___use crane to shift 4 x windows from western boundary buildings + relocate on promenade | |_use crane to shift 3 x windows from southern border buildings + relocate on promenade //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change function from decorative to threshold | //change hierarchy by raising elevation [enter] |_demonstrators ascend the ladder and charge fnb building //change definition from private to public


opaque

The Parade

223

demolition sequence 05-2__promenade 16/12/2017 13:35:42

like a catwalk, the narrowly rearranged promenade

allowed for a single file procession of spectators and demonstrators from the Tudor chambers and FNB to converge and spill out onto the square.

‘Demolition Sequence 05-2_Promenade’


224

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 06-1__ferris wheel [enter]____4 x cranes to square’s northern entrance | //obstruct views | //create imbalance in symmetry | //create new focal point |_assemble scaffolding poles connecting telescopic beams of cranes | //change function from temporary to permanent structure |_assemble 9 x crane arms in a radius //create imbalance in symmetry //create new focal point [reorder]__use crane to lift + brace 6 x balconies from eastern boundary buildings | |_attach to crane hooks | //change function from balcony to ferris wheel passenger cars | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change hierarchy by raising elevation [enter] |_demonstrators to seize passenger cars //change hierarchy by raising elevation

//[create vantage point] //[view oculus screen in voortrekker monument from top of ferris wheel]


opaque

The Parade

225


226

Event Syntax

opaque


opaque

The Parade

227


228

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 06-1__ferris wheel 16/12/2017 15:23:33

A

large crowd of demonstrators had gathered to witness the spectacle of the ferris wheel, which raised their focus above the site. Each demonstrator was eager for their turn on the temporary ferris wheel constructed of jumbled parts to gain the perfect vantage point of the Voortrekker Monument on this symbolic day.

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

229


230

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 06-1_Ferris Wheel’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

231


232

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 06-1_Ferris Wheel’

opaque


opaque

The Parade

233


234

Event Syntax

opaque

demolition sequence 06-2__staircase [enter]____6 x forklifts into monument atrium [insert]___install 4 x scaffold towers | //create new focal point | //change function from atrium to stairwell |_install intermittent scaffold units between scaffold towers to platform one | [reorder] |_use forklifts +rigging to collect 32 x marble chevrons | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change hierarchy by raising elevation | //change function from ornamentation to circulation |_use forklifts + rigging to shift exterior screen + create platform one //change function from screen to circulation

//break rhythm sequence //create imbalance in symmetry //change hierarchy by lowering elevation //[partially block light from oculus to cenotaph]

[insert]___install intermittent scaffold units between platform one + two in reverse direction | //break rhythm sequence [reorder] |_use forklifts +rigging to collect 37 x marble chevrons | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change hierarchy by raising elevation | //change function from ornamentation to circulation |_use forklifts + rigging to shift exterior screen + create platform two //change function from screen to circulation //break rhythm sequence //create imbalance in symmetry //change hierarchy by raising elevation //[partially block light from oculus to cenotaph]

[insert]___install intermittent scaffold units between platform two + three | //break rhythm sequence [reorder] |_use forklifts +rigging to collect 27 x marble chevrons | //create imbalance in symmetry | //break rhythm sequence | //change hierarchy by raising elevation | //change function from ornamentation to circulation |_use forklifts + rigging to shift exterior screen + create platform three //change function from screen to circulation //break rhythm sequence //create imbalance in symmetry //change hierarchy by raising elevation //[partially block light from oculus to cenotaph]


‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase [original state]’



‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase [platform one]’



‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase [platform two]’



‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase [platform three]’



opaque

The Parade

243

[platform one]

[platform two]

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase [original state]’

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase [platform three]’


244

Event Syntax

demolition sequence 06-2__staircase 16/12/2017 16:15:11

Spectators

gathered around the cenotaph in the monument’s basement to witness the annual spectacle. But as the sun started to shine on the shrine, the staircase being assembled upstairs systematically started to block the sunlight’s entry into the dark chamber.

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase - Basement’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

245

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase - Platform One’


246

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase - Platform Two’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

247

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase - Platform Three’


248

Event Syntax

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase - Elevation Section’

opaque


opaque

The Parade DRP

249

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase - Cross Section’


250

Event Syntax

opaque

‘Demolition Sequence 06-2_Staircase’



252

Event Syntax

opaque


The Parade

opaque

“Until they became conscious they will never rebel, and until after they have rebelled they cannot become conscious.� George Orwell

253


opaque


opaque

Masters Year One

“It was a bright cold day in April, and the clocks were striking thirteen.” George Orwell


opaque

Urban mutations redefining edge conditions

“…politics aims at the creation of unity in a context of conflict and diversity…” - Chantelle Mouffe

The social and spatial effects of apartheid remain in

Johannesburg. This paradigm influences thoughts and identities of urban users and inhabitants and their relations to each other on a subliminal level. The city is undergoing an urban mutation where the form and nature of the city is changing to reconstruct a new identity instigated by social equality. This transition is creating edge conditions between the social and structural constructs. The Station is located at a convergence of disparate social and spatial constructs in Johannesburg’s Inner City where this condition is evident. It seeks to create new architectural paradigms to bridge these two constructs to create a common ground between Johannesburg’s new identity and old – to instigate platforms for new contextual narratives.

The proposal explores notions of the connective tissue between the disparate social and structural constructs by redefining the edge conditions between them. The Station generates neutral spatial environments by integrating recreational programmatic responses that seek to bridge disparate social constructs and engage the friction between social and structural. The Station is a library – a station of knowledge and memory, where the built environment acts as “containers of knowledge” that will shape rather than sustain memory. (Shotton, 2013)


opaque

Fig. 1 ‘Collections’

Urban Mutations

257

Two binary pairs of physical changes emerged in Johannesburg: embrace + discard singularity + collective


258

Masters Year One

opaque

According to psychologist Carl Jung, we all possess

a ‘common unconscious’. This inherent collective knowledge comprises of twelve archetypes that condition how we view others. I utilise this ‘common unconscious’ analogy on the multitude of spaces, territories and typologies found within Johannesburg. Basing them upon my perceptions of the city - created through significant experiences and encounters - that have been moulded into the built environment.

the explorer

the creator

the caregiver


opaque

the sage

the orphan

the ruler

Urban Mutations

259


260

Masters Year One

‘Mapping Spatial Archetypes - Johannesburg Metro Scale’

opaque


opaque

Urban Mutations

261

‘Mapping Spatial Archetypes - Johannesburg Regional Scale’


262

Masters Year One

‘Enclave Creation Through Urban Regeneration’

‘Archetype Manipulation’

opaque


opaque

Urban Mutations

263

My research established that a combination between archetype, architectural programme and vehicle of urban regeneration created different edge conditions.

‘Programme + Archetype + Vehicle = Edge Condition’


264

Masters Year One

Maboneng

is in a paradoxical state of urban regeneration by creating hard edge conditions and enclaves through solely private urban as well as the exclusive use of a select few archetypes. The stark difference between inside the borders of Maboneng and outside them has created friction between the residents of these two areas. The methods of using only private vehicle to regenerate the decayed city displaces existing residents, pushing them further to the edges.

opaque


opaque

Urban Mutations

265

‘Mapping Stages of Decay - Maboneng’


266

Masters Year One

A

catalogue of 16 identified programmes was generated based on three classification systems: - Vehicle of Regeneration Public Agency Public + Private Alliance Private Channel - Archetype - Perception Each programme can be classified under one to three vehicles of regeneration. Each of these programmes is given a ratio in terms of implementation to create a balance between the three vehicles.

opaque


opaque

Urban Mutations

267

‘Programme + Archetype Catalogues’


268

Masters Year One

An ideal urban framework for urban regeneration

was constructed from the 16 programmes identified. It creates a balance between public agency, public + private alliance and private channels. It gives a ratio of each programme and a portion to each applicable vehicle.

opaque


opaque

Urban Mutations

269

‘Ideal Urban Regeneration Framework’


270

Masters Year One

‘Maboneng Current Condition’

opaque


opaque

Urban Mutations

271

When the current paradigm of

Maboneng is plugged into the urban framework, it exposes the gaps found within the current urban regeneration framework.


272

Masters Year One

Private Channel The existing urban fabric is composed of urban regeneration via the private channel actor only. Urban Fabric Stitches Place holders in the urban fabric to stitch together the private and public layers. Mutation Points Points located in the urban fabric to be altered into connective tissue due to its malleable nature. Public Agency A zoning rationale for the public agency actor to implement urban regeneration. Connector An altered mutation point - utilising the private channel, urban fabric stitches and public agency to become the connective tissue at key locations.

‘Precinct Scale of Implementation’

opaque


opaque

Urban Mutations

273

‘Architecture Scale of Implementation’

‘Connective Tissue Scale of Implementation’


274

Masters Year One

opaque

The connective tissue module is comprised of

all three vehicles of urban regeneration. It contains the place-holder to contain any programme found within these three vehicles as determined by the catalogue. It is designed to attract urban inhabitants from all backgrounds and to stitch together disparate areas found within the city.

‘Connective Tissue Model’


opaque

Urban Mutations

275


276

Masters Year One

opaque


opaque

Urban Mutations

277

‘Connective Tissue Proposal’


278

MDP References

opaque

REFERENCES coursework: Derrida, J. (1981). Dissemination. Translated by B. Johnson. London: Athlone Press

Sarkar, N. N. (2008). Art and Print Production. Oxford Press: New Delhi.

Die Voortrekker Monument Amptelike Voortrekkerpers Beperk: Johannesburg.

[S.a].

Shotton, E. (2013). ‘Memory, Perception & Intuition’. UCS School of Architecture Yearbook (forthcoming).

Finkelstein, D & McCleery, A. (2005). An Introduction to Book History. New York: Routledge. [O]. Available: https://books.google.co.za/books/about/An_Introduction_to_ Book_History.html?id=EUUAFOeg-ioC&redir_esc=y Accessed 8 October 2017.

Visser, R.P. 1957. Die Vaderland Gedenkboek. Johannesburg: Afrikaanse Pers Boekhandel

Gids.

Golden, C. [S.a]. [O]. The 12 Common Archetypes. Available: http://www.soulcraft.co/essays/the_12_common_archetypes.html Accessed 7 May 2016. Hentrich, H. (1970). Standard Bank Centre Johannesburg. Standard Bank Investment Corporation Limited: Johannesburg. Introduction to Linguistics. [Sa]. [O]. Available: http://people.brandeis.edu/~smalamud/ling100/f09-outlinesy Accessed 21 February 2017. Mouffe, C. (2000). Deliberative Democracy or Agonistic Pluralism, Institute for Advanced Studies,Vienna. Orwell, G. (1949). 1984. [Sl]: Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd.


MDP References

opaque

279

IMAGE SOURCE LIST coursework: Fig 15.

Die Voortrekker Monument Amptelike Gids. [S.a]. Voortrekkerpers Beperk: Johannesburg.

Kyle Hollis (photographer), Elixir Review, 2017.

Fig 16.

Fig 4.

Jody van Aswegan (photographer), Miniland Site Visit, 2017.

Regard Vermeulen (photographer), Voortrekker Monument 16 Des....Reconciliation, 2011.

Fig 17.

Fig 5.

Ian Walters, Statue of Nelson Mandela, Parliament Square, 2007. Bronze, 2.7m. Parliament Square, London, England.

Voortrekker Monument. 1945. Die Vaderland. December: 13.

Fig 18.

Church Square. 1958. Die Vaderland. September: 20.

Fig 6.

Vibhuti Narain Rai (photographer), Sharepeville Massacre, 1960.

Fig 19.

Fig 7.

David Goldblat (photographer), Migration, Misery, 1975.

Map of Church Square. [S.a]. [O]. Available: http://melvinresidence.blogspot.co.za/2015/02/ timeline-of-pretorias-history.html Accessed 17 September 2017.

Fig 20.

President Paul Kruger’s Funeral. [S.a]. [O]. Available: https://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/46351 Accessed 16 September 2017.

Fig 1-2

Christian Cook Review,2016.

Fig 3.

(photographer),

Iconoclast

Santarama

Mining,

Fig 8-9.

Kyle Hollis (photographer), Artifact + Anti-fact Review, 2017.

Fig 10-11.

Visser, R.P. 1957. Die Vaderland Gedenkboek. Johannesburg: Afrikaanse Pers Boekhandel

Fig 13.

Standard Bank. 1954. Die Vaderland. February: 13

Fig 14.

Hentrich, H. (1970). Standard Bank Centre Johannesburg. Standard Bank Investment Corporation Limited: Johannesburg.

Fig 21&23. Paul Kruger being moved from Pretoria Station. [S.a]. [O]. Available: http://melvinresidence.blogspot.co.za/2013/12/ Accessed 26 September 2017. Fig 22.

The Consequences of Nationalism. [S.a]. [O]. Available: https://johanfourie.wordpress.com/2015/04/ Accessed 17 September 2017


opaque


opaque

Annexure A

“He drove his mind into the abyss where poetry is written.” George Orwell


opaque

ABSTRACT Memory NOUN (plural: memories) 1. The faculty by which the mind stores and remembers information. 2. Something remembered from the past.


semi-transparent

It is often overlooked in the architectural world that

our spatial constructs have the ability to contain memories and knowledge – just as the human mind is able to store and retrieve information – and that our cities are animated constructs, continually oscillating in form and substance. Memories – physically manifested or existing only in our minds – are the natural instrument that generates our personal identities and, through agglomeration, our cultural identities. The memories that have been physically manifested into our built environments can either be personal in nature or, hold a deeper significance that can affect an entire culture. Juhani Pallasmaa stated that cultures can “share certain experiences of existential space that constitutes their collective identities and sense of togetherness. We are, perhaps, held together by our shared memories more than by an innate sense of solidarity.” (Pallasmaa, 2013, pp27) Memories that have been physically manifested into our spatial constructs lend themselves as a subliminal tool with the power to impart a message to the people who perceive and experience it. There are two dimensions that are in concert, a tangible and, a mental dimension. These dimensions are entwined and share a reciprocal influence on one another through the agency of people – if something is altered in one dimension, it is emulated in the other. My thesis is the combination of speculation and veritable contextualization of the theme ‘Memory Devices in the Built Environment’. The factual and fictional mediums enabled me to impart to the reader the efficacy of utilizing memory as a device in spatial constructs to generate the identity of a nation.

History + Theory

283

‘The other archive’ utilises the themes of architecture as text, propaganda, manipulation and authorship. They are explored in relation to the theme of memory and identity in architecture as well as to the archive programmatic function of the built environment. In ‘A CITY INHERITED’, I explore how memories generate individual and cultural identities and, how the memories are physically manifested into our built environments and contrivances. This theme is contextualized in Johannesburg, an inherited city, where the residents are faced with the decision to co-habitate with the previous ‘segregated’ cultural identity – which has been physically manifested – or, to initiate the transmutation of the memories and built environments to emulate the current democratic social identity - which has been the ‘fresh air catalyst’ in Johannesburg. In the fictional piece, ‘APEIRON’, I speculate on the subtle power of memories in our spatial constructs and how it is used and manipulated by individuals in power. The piece has dual functions, to read as a guide to the device, the Apeiron – which controls and manifests memories in the spatial constructs, as well as the institution which manages the device, the Organization – and a time capsule to impart information of a hidden truth. It is human nature to have the desire to emulate our lives in the spatial constructs that surrounds us; in ‘APEIRON’ I have shifted this perception to speculate on a device that operates through the agency of people to record humanity’s existence into their spatial constructs. The piece hinges on the social and spatial constructs which metaphorically represent the tangible and mental dimension.


284

Annexure A

semi-transparent

THE 'other' archive Masterclass

Text - Textus - Texere “An ancient metaphor: thought is a thread, and the raconteur is a spinner of yarns - but the true storyteller, the poet, is a weaver. The scribes made this old and audible abstraction into a new and visible fact. After long practice, their work took on such an even, flexible texture that they called the written page a textus, which means cloth.� - Robert Bringhurst

The origins of the word text have been traditionally

Read at the GSA Colloquium 2017

- or rather, modernly - understood as the wording of anything written. But the etymology of text has been extracted from the Latin word textus, meaning a tissue, which was further extracted from texere, which means to weave. Before text became accepted as simply the written word, they were inexplicably linked with the perception of the woven cloth and its nature as "a tissue woven of many threads" (Text/Textuality - Etymology, [sa]). The writing or composition of a


semi-transparent

text should be viewed as Walter Benjamin describes as "the dialectic of raveling and unraveling" (cited in Text/Textuality - Etymology, [sa]). These origins of the word text describes an artifact containing a far richer complexity than just stringing words after one another to create sentences and paragraphs - it is quintessentially the weaving, raveling and unraveling threads consisting of notions, ideas, thoughts, opinions, truths, untruths, fact, fiction, and myth. Cities and landscapes can be equated with the origins of the word text as they too are innately a composite "tissue woven of many threads" - generating what we term, the urban fabric. Architecture has been associated with many historical moments and the ethea of the eras to which they belong collectively and individually. Buildings, cities, landscapes and spaces are physical and tangible manifestations of political, cultural or economical initiatives - and as such can be read like a word, a sentence or even a paragraph of a story. When contrasting architecture and programmes become interlaced, it begins to compose a complex urban fabric woven of many threads much like a text. In his essay, Space, Place, Memory, and Imagination, Juhani Pallasmaa poetically states that “buildings project epic narratives” (2013: 18). They exhibit our technological advancements, economical climates, cultural customs and political systems at play – a perpetually shifting and changing monument to humanity’s permutations. Our built environments have inherently become a full scale repository of humanity, and, as Elizabeth Shotton illustrates in her essay, Memory, Perception and Intuition, architecture can be viewed as “containers of knowledge” and it is essential that we “understand the role they play in shaping, rather than sustaining, memory” (2013: 5). Dissemination of memories or knowledge may not be the built world’s predominant or conscious purpose, but it still partakes in transcribing and imparting events (Treib, 2013: XI). Unlike traditionally acknowledged archives, the stories, narratives and events that become archived in the built environment are not regulated to ensure its integrity. Our built environments are entirely subject to manipulation that can twist the narratives represented in them – making them ‘truer’ to the archiving of present power plays than a logical or planned narrative would.

Authorship

Architecture has a life of its own and requires two

Masterclass

285

essential parts to animate it – the author and the reader. Architects are traditionally viewed as the authors of the structures which – intentionally or not – act as archives of humanity's narratives. The reader is viewed as or inhabitant of cities, landscapes and spaces. The reader imbues architecture with their own narrative based upon their own experiences and frames of reference. The control of reading architecture is relinquished by the author once the occurrence has been fabricated – the author loses ownership of what they’ve written. In Narrative Architecture, Nigel Coates states that the “curious citizen can easily discover architectural narrative everywhere. Narratives arise spontaneously in the course of navigating the world – from inside to outside, private to public, personal experience to collective myth” (2012: [sp]). The reader automatically saturates architecture with their stories and narratives – be they based in reality or fiction – but the architecture is not reliant on the architect to have woven these narratives into them in the first place. Be that as it may, architecture still relies on both parts for animation. Hypothetically, imagine an architect builds a city with an idiosyncratic narrative in a secluded spot on the earth, but throughout the ages no one person ever stumbles across it. It has never been read or experienced by someone – and therefore has never been given life. It is similar to the tale of a tree falling over in a forest, with no one there to hear it. Roland Barthes creates a dual character to the reader, referring to them as “the spectator” as well. With each character having a specific occupation. In his essay, The Death of the Author, Barthes states that “the reader is the very space in which are inscribed... all the citations a writing consists of ”. The reader becomes an active place where all of the individual threads of a text – threads originating from “several cultures and entering into dialogue with each other, into parody [and] into contestation” – can be isolated, identified and interpreted. But the reader is also the place where these threads are reassembled into a weaving of multiple frames of reference (Barthes 1977: 315). The spectator takes on a passive role, being the exit character of the space the reader occupies – already being able to understand the dualities in a text and just observes the narrative unfolding. Without the narrative flesh that gives architecture and cities life, architecture becomes an assemblage of bones. Having said that, narrative is also generated through the author and not only through the reader. The author controls what is seen. They control the particular order that certain aspects are viewed – they essentially control the journey on which the reader is taken. But the skill of weaving fiction and narrative


286

Annexure A

semi-transparent

into the walls, passageways, stairwells, the depths of their fabrications and how all of these singular elements construct a narrative has either faded or been shrouded in misconception. One could say that the organisation of these smaller parts is an authorship in itself, a control mechanism of how journeys are taken. Each smaller part could potentially have narrative woven into it by its author and a collection of these smaller elements forms a syntactic structure of the city and can be read as a narrative. In spite of this they are still the author of spaces, landscapes, cities – even if narrative is not overtly woven in. Barthes portrays quite vividly that “narrative is never undertaken by a person, but by a mediator, shaman or speaker, whose ‘performance’ may be admired (that is, their mastery of the narrative code), but not their ‘genius’” (1977: 311). It is important to establish here that architecture is a repository of knowledge, cultural identities, memories and events – whether through the agency of architects, through the inhabitants themselves or through a propaganda filtered narrative. The author can therefore be seen as the mediator of a culture or an individual’s narrative – they are merely the author by the mastery of a spatial narrative code rather than their own ‘genius’.

Manipulation – the singular and plural narrative

Architecture relates stories and narratives, whether it’s the intention of the author or not. These stories relayed through our built environments can be influenced, interpreted and manipulated by texts and publications disseminated to the public. Michel de Certeau writes “that readers map the conceptual space of literary texts in much the same way that they orient themselves in physical space”. Based upon de Certeau’s notion, Thomas Rice believes that “the converse is equally true: the text is a landscape, a readable space” (Rice, 2005). Readers immerse themselves in these carefully composed and woven texts, unknowingly giving the authors of these texts authority and sway over their perceptions.

Historically, many countries with political conflict – such as America, Russia, South Africa – have used propaganda as a popular political strategy employed by leaders to persuade their people and the world of what the ‘truths’ that they want them to believe. George Orwell is an author who delved head first into this world of propaganda and the written word in his seminal novel, 1984. One of Orwell’s base themes in that novel is that people willingly accepted


Masterclass

semi-transparent

the lies that “the Party” forced upon them, and that if all of the official records reflected these lies – “then the lie passed into history and became [accepted] truth. ‘Who controls the past,’ ran the Party slogan, ‘controls the future: who controls the present controls the past.’ ” (Orwell, [sl]) Propaganda was employed to influence a few chapters of South Africa’s narrative – tweaking a few threads here and there to twist the narrative represented. In this particular ethos it was to promote the Afrikaner narrative – portrayed to the world to hide their actual agenda. But by aggrandizing the singular narrative of the Afrikaners to the country as well as to the world, the plural narratives indigenous to the country, existing pre and post colonisation, were been suppressed or systematically erased. The Afrikaner narrative was superimposed without allowing an interweaving of the multiple threads of narrative. It stands as a singular narrative on a pedestal, in place of the other narratives. South Africa is a country in a paradoxical state – experiencing political conflict stemming from historical suppression and separation while parading the status of a democratic state without fully resolving the root problems. Even though the narrative threads were not intertwined, but rather superimposed, the Afrikaner’s didn’t have a blanket suppression technique. It was performed systematically – manipulating singular threads at a time which in turn corrupted or disintegrated that thread of narrative. During the apartheid era in South Africa, propaganda techniques were employed by the ruling party to manipulate both local and international perceptions of the country. Through censoring and editing information, altering sentence structures to modify meaning and inserting exaggerated misinformation, the Nationalist Party silenced protest, leading ultimately to its own overthrow. Texts went hand in hand with architecture to corrupt the plural indigenous narratives. Through the insertion of buildings that emulated the Afrikaner narrative into the urban fabric under the guise of the ‘avant-garde nation’ – it distracted attention from the core actions of the Nationalist Party. Buildings such as Standard Bank, which was imbued with architectural and engineering ingenuity; the Voortrekker Monument, which quite literally had the singular Afrikaner narrative woven into every ‘thread’ of the architecture; and Church Square, which signified an empty heart of the city. They were all designed to distract from the separation and erasure taking place.

287

The Unheimlich

Sigmund Freud constructed the term unheimlich as

an antonym for heimlich didn’t exist in the German language. Heimlich, meaning that which is withheld from sight and others; and unheimlich, meaning ‘[that which] should have remained hidden and secret and yet comes to light’ (Freud, 1919: 12). The acts of the Nationalist Party through the tool of propaganda served under the term heimlich – but the narratives which were suppressed or erased still remain hidden. Barthes writes that in a text of multiple influences, “everything is to be distinguished, but nothing deciphered.” He further explains that the construction of a thread in a text can be followed or “‘threaded’ (like a stocking that has run)” (1977: 314). The corruption of the threads of the plural narratives can be identified in our built environments – they are repositories of what has occurred and the exaggeration of the singular Afrikaner narrative. Under our present democratic climate, this ends up highlighting the absence of the plural narratives. In his essay, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind and the Morality of Memory – which was based upon the 2004 movie of the same name, Christopher Grau theorised that “if a memory-removal procedure can function in such a way that it brings about more happiness than would otherwise be possible, the use of such a procedure is not only justified, but in fact morally required” (2006). The characters of this movie went through a memory removal procedure but as the story unfolded, the happiness they sought was not achieved through the procedure. Discomfort arose with their surrounding by knowing that something was missing from their lives. Grau describes that you don “a pair of metaphysical blinkers [that your] mind represents the world less accurately than it did before” (2006). Even though the removal of memories could bring about happiness for all parties involved, this was not the case in the South African context and the acts of the Nationalist Party. The reader of South African cities can read between the lines that are present and see what is not there, what is not represented. An abundance of the political conflict still present in this country is due to the fact that the plural narratives that were suppressed or erased are not fully acknowledged or revealed. Consequently the reader feels ill at ease in their surroundings. These narratives should be allowed to resurface and become interwoven into the urban fabric. Like the stocking that has run, the corrupted


288

Annexure A

semi-transparent

thread can be followed to the source of manipulation and subversion – and by occupying the space of the reader that simultaneously unravels and weaves the threads of a text it is possible to insert the threads of the plural narrative. Freud would refer to resurfacing of these past historical ‘edits’ as unheimlich. “War is peace. Freedom is slavery. Ignorance is strength” ran the party slogan (Orwell, 1949). Orwell wrote in the novel 1984 that “until they became conscious they will never rebel, and until after they have rebelled they cannot become conscious” (Orwell, 1949). We allow ourselves to believe in the term ‘ignorance is bliss’, but the opposite is true. The inhabitants of our country are exhibiting signs of discomfort with their surroundings because it does not reflect the nation we proclaim to be - we have donned a pair of metaphysical blinkers. The syntax of our cities and architecture needs to be altered in order for the plural narratives to be archived and revealed. Architecture is a psychological tool that can be used to create control or to create comfort.


semi-transparent

References Barthes, R. 1977. ‘The death of the author, in Modern Criticisms and Theory: A Reader’, edited by D Lodge & N Wood. New York: Routledge: 311-317. Coates, N. 2012. ‘Narrative Architecture’. [O]. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. Available: https://ofs-a0396a758043fb438a907c5262330776. read.overdrive.com/?p=fCBzJ2rquiEv63u1Ykua3Q Accessed 10 March 2017. Freud, S. (1919). The ‘Uncanny’. [O]. Available: http://web.mit.edu/allanmc/www/freud1.pdf Accessed 8 March 2017. Grau, C. 2006. ‘Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind and the Morality of Memory’. [O]. The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Winter 2006. Available: https://www.academia.edu/208537/Eter nal_ Sunshine_of_the_Spotless_Mind_and_the_Morality_ of_Memory?auto=download Accessed 12 April 2016. Orwell, G. (1949). ‘1984’. [Sl]: Martin Secker & Warburg Ltd. Pallasmaa, J. 2013. ‘Space, Place, Memory, and Imagination: The Temporal Dimension of Existential Space’ in Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape, edited by M Treib. New York: Routledge: 16-41 Rice, T. J. 2005. ‘Mapping Complexity in the Fiction of Umberto Eco, in Umberto Eco: Sage Masters of Modern Social Thought Volume 1’, edited by M Gane & N Gane. Cornwall: SAGE Publications Ltd: 369-389. Shotton, E. 2013. ‘Memory, Perception & Intuition’. [O]. UCD School of Architecture Yearbook (forthcoming). Available: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266555127 Accessed 12 April 2016. Text/Textuality - Etymology. [Sa]. [O]. Available: http://science.jr ank.org/pages/11410/Te xtTextuality-Etymology.html Accessed 25 May 2017. Treib, M. 2013. ‘Yes, Now I Remember: An Introduction’, in Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape, edited by M Treib. New York: Routledge: X-XV.

Masterclass

289


290

Annexure A

semi-transparent

A CITY INHERITED:: on memory and democracy

I

t is often overlooked in the architectural world that our spatial constructs have the ability to contain memories and knowledge. Just as the human mind is able to store and retrieve information (in addition to being constituted of it) our cities are animated constructs, continually reverberating in form, substance, and meaning. Memories – material or immaterial – are the natural instrument that generates our personal identities and, through agglomeration, our cultural identities. The memories that have been physically manifested into our built environments can either be personal in nature, or hold a deeper significance that can affect an entire culture. A Perpetual Library of Memories

M

Published in FOLIO Vol. One Winter 2017

emories are an unavoidable existential essence of being human – Juhani Pallasmaa described an existential reality ‘as a thick, layered and constantly oscillating condition.’ (Pallasmaa 2013: 18). We are all constructed of an amalgamation of memories, past and present. Memory is what we base our identity and


History + Theory

semi-transparent

sense of self upon, it creates a reference library to which we refer continually – the experience of every event in our lives is identified through this library, our frame of reference – this, in turn, gives us a platform for our imaginations to unfurl and compose. As Pallasmaa put it, ‘one who cannot remember can hardly imagine because memory is the soil of the imagination. Memory is also the ground for selfidentity; we are what we remember.’ (Pallasmaa 2013: 19). Our memories also include the histories – or rather stories – of the people that have gone before us. It is human nature to either sustain the traditions of respective cultures or to learn from and build upon mistakes and victories. In Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape, Marc Treib touches on the influence of the dead when he states that ‘we live with their achievements and residue in our traditions, our laws, our cities, and our buildings.’ (Treib 2013: XII). These memories are lingering echoes from the past They can exist both as tangible elements in our physical surroundings and as a lingering mental presence. Pallasmaa reinforces this when he writes that,‘we do not only exist in a spatial and material reality, we also inhabit cultural, mental, and temporal realities.’ Our existential space – our lived space – is a ‘multi-sensory space saturated and structured by memories and intentions.’ (Pallasmaa 2013: 18 & 23). We cannot help but embed and project our memories onto everything we make. These two dimensions – the tangible and mental – cannot be separated from each other, they are entwined, making it an intricate coalescence and nearly impossible to differentiate the individual strains. It is also possible that collectives – even nations – can share certain aspects of their reference libraries in relation to the existential space that they occupy. Treib unfurls the relationship between individual and collective memory; he perceives the collective recall as being the aggregate of personal recollections (Treib 2013). As such, the accumulation of personal memory (generated through experiences and interpretations) is the origin of collective memory. If memory is the ground for self-identity, it can therefore be argued that the accumulation of personal memories constructs the nation’s identity. It is through this identity that we create a platform for the generation of new memories – which will further develop our identities, both personal and collective.

291

Codes

T

he fundamental anatomy of memories is that they are encoded, stored and retrieved. They are embedded in writing, music, physical objects and the built environment, which we inhabit daily. Roland Barthes describes writing as ‘a space of many dimensions’ which is no longer original, and states that ‘the text is a tissue of citations, resulting from the thousand sources of culture.’ (Bathes 1977: 4). The act of decoding memories – ones of history, culture and civilisation – from their manifestations creates a relationship between the ‘writer’ and the ‘reader’. An allegorical relationship exists between the memory itself and the ‘reader’ through the act of decoding. As we inhabit spaces, we interact with them and the spaces unconsciously cause us to recollect memories of either personal experience or recollections of histories learnt. A common understanding is that memories can be seen as a subjective renditions of events, while history can be seen as the objective portrayal of events. History is perceived as storing objective information for the collective memory. It is selective about the information it stores, starting out with the memories of individuals and communities, refining them until there are no more subjective characteristics in the events that have transpired, giving history authority over memories. But if history is distilled and ‘subjective’ characteristics removed from memory by subjective human beings, is it truly possible to have an ‘objective’ history? Pierre Nora describes history as ‘the reconstruction, always problematic and incomplete, of what is no longer’. The difference between memory and history is integral to understanding how our country’s narrative is being translated. Nora writes further that memories are ‘by nature multiple and yet specific; collective, plural and yet individual (takes root in the concrete, in spaces, gestures, images and objects) . . .history belongs to everyone and to no one, whence its claim to universal authority.’ (Nora 1989: 3). If our histories, which we have innocently (or rather naively) accepted as fact, have been rendered from a subjective human being’s interpretation, can we blindly place credence in history? Or should we view history as memories that are constantly being ‘subjectified’ and disseminated as fact? Shouldn’t we take history with the proverbial ‘pinch of salt’?


292

Annexure A

semi-transparent

Architecture can be seen as ‘containers of knowledge’ and we need ‘to understand the role they play in shaping, rather than sustaining, memory.’ (Shotton 2013: 5). Having said that, ‘our built world may choose not to engage communication or memory as its primary vocation . . . it records and transmits history nonetheless.’ (Treib 2013: XI). As cities are inherited by new generations, we are left with the decision of whether to preserve the memories of the previous generations, or to start the process of converting the memories into history through different mechanisms. This process will subliminally alter the identity of the nation with which it is associated. These efforts have ‘extended beyond the monument to the site, and beyond sites to increasingly larger areas of both cities and rural landscapes. This tendency may likewise be a reflection of the uncertainty of a future identity and of the nature of the collective.’ (Shotton 2013: 3). As we are consciously transforming memories into history, we have to be conscious of the effects that the built environment (as a ‘container of knowledge’) has, and how these containers may be altered and transmuted by its inhabitants. Sculptor Juliana Cerquere Leite explores how seemingly invisible actions affect the environment around her. She develops the interior of a sheath of clay to create an environment to accommodate her body ‘with laborious pushing, crawling, scratching and climbing.’ (Shamman 2013). She then casts a sculpture of the interior of the sheath to demonstrate the effect that her actions have had, how the ‘impressions of feet, knees, elbows and fingers defining the surface condition, frozen imprints of her movements’ have embodied the effect she has had on her environment. Leite describes the antithesis of her work as ‘a body fixed and defined by its social functions, by its temporal and political contexts. A body that isn’t allowed to change is a body as prison.’ (Shamman 2013). If we do not allow the environment around us to change and are ignorant to the effects that the inhabitants have on their environment, we are keeping our environment in a virtual prison of time. We should permit new inhabitants of the city to shape and mould it, as the built environment catalogues the marks we have all left behind. Democratic Catalyst of Change

The

1972 film, Roma, by director Federico


semi-transparent

Fellini, portrays the ‘collective nightmares shared by the engineer, the builder, the cineaste, and the archaeologist.’ While tunnelling for a new subway line underneath Rome, a huge hall is discovered. Upon entering the hall, the characters are confronted with ‘painted figures who seem to be looking at them’. Before they realise what they have done, the fresh air that has chaperoned them into the hall ‘catalyses a chemical reaction that destroys the pigments’, resulting in these ancient frescoes ‘disintegrating before their very eyes’ — the process is rapid and irreversible. The destruction of these ancient images has erased these likenesses, their histories, and the memories that accompany them” (Treib 2013: XI). Democracy has been the fresh-air catalyst that has entered into our cities and accelerated the process of change in response to the need to reflect the spirit and identity of the people who inhabit it. It has altered the social and political dynamics of our country and the relationship between them. The essence of this catalyst was the undertaking to complete the constitutional mandate of South Africa – to grant equal freedoms and opportunities to all its citizens. This radically stimulated change has only recently begun to manifest itself in the built environment through the endeavour to create equitable spaces for all people in our diverse nation. Democracy has also marked a temporal pivot where the memories of apartheid begin to be transformed into ‘subjectified’ history which will transform our nation’s collective memory and identity. As we move through this transitional period, we must be conscious that, since architectural works are ‘containers of knowledge’, we are not only transforming our inherited cities and landscapes, but also, through interpretation and ritual (or use), the broader culture. We are in the midst of creating a new identity for our city, Johannesburg, and the city’s identity is being translated by its spectators and participants. If we are aware that what we create will be interpreted, we can then guide the narrative that is portrayed by the city. But the question remains: which memories should be retained and which should be forgotten? The Reverberating Echo

T

he primary options available to us are removal and distortion of the existing fabric of the city. This can distort or remove the memories associated

History + Theory

293

with them as well. Consequently, our identity is being altered as, piece by piece, the city is slowly altered to reflect our new democratic ‘breath of life’. Christopher Grau postulates that ‘although removing memories is not the same as distorting them, the removal of all the memories of a person does account to a form of distortion: [t]hrough a voluntary “lie by omission”, the narrative of your life has been, in part, fictionalized.’ (Grau 2006: 127). However, our city has been built on past social constructs and should metamorphose into something new. If we do not welcome this change, we could find ourselves suffocating in our own past, leaving no room for growth. An epoch-defining moment could be the realisation that remembering something from the past does not necessarily mean that it has to dominate our present and possible futures. Grau theorises – based upon the film ‘Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind’ (where characters remove painful memories) – that ‘if a memoryremoval procedure can function in such a way that it brings about more happiness than would otherwise be possible, the use of such a procedure is not only justified, but in fact morally required.’ (Grau 2006: 120). Yet, as was witnessed in the film, happiness was not achieved through the memory removal process, but rather one saw the development of a vague discomfort as the characters intuited that something was missing from their lives. When toying with the concept of memory removal, we should remember that ‘just as we want our mind to accurately represent the world, we also want the world to accurately represent us.’ (Grau 2006: 127). If we distort – or rehabilitate - the existing memories, Immanuel Kant is of the opinion that it ‘is actually no more than an attempt to mould people into what we think they ought to be.’ (Grau 2006: 124). There will inevitably be a time and a place to remove the antecedent narrative of our city – to erase it from being. Our past should be remembered, leaving its echoes reverberating into our present. We should remember that we are in our current condition because of the mistakes and achievements of those who have preceded us, and because of the sacrifices that others have had to make. Grau deduced that removing memories harmed the people who’d had them eradicated, but also that ‘we naturally think that this procedure involves harming those who are erased as well.’ (Grau’ 2006: 126). An excerpt from Jorge Luis Borges’ poem ‘Limits’, explains this poetically:


294

Annexure A

semi-transparent

If there is a limit to all things and a measure And a last time and nothing more and forgetfulness, Who will tell us to whom in this house We without knowing it have said farewell? - Louis Borges, 1973 One might plausibly argue that painful memories stay with us for good reason: they allow us to learn valuable lessons from the past and thus be better prepared for the future.’ (Grau 2006: 120). It is important to learn from the past’s mistakes while recognizing the struggle and sacrifices of the people who have come before us. We hold the privilege of telling their stories when reassembling the fragmented inherited landscapes which were designed to segregate different kinds of people. This has been the topic that has divided us for many years, but is now ‘the issue that brings people together because it divides them.’ (Latour 2005). Common Ground

O

ur cities need to be altered in order to heal the wounds that have been inflicted upon our societies. We are left to cope with existing cities that need to be shaped into our new identity using the existing material at hand. At the same time, we are dealing with an exceedingly diverse population – a democratic pluralism – and the interstices of these multiple cultures are still fragile. Chantelle Mouffe argues for an ‘agonistic’ approach to creating a common ground where we can eventually ’acknowledge the real nature of its frontiers and the forms of exclusion that they entail, instead of trying to disguise them under the veil of rationality or morality.’ (Mouffe 2000: 17). If we view our democratic politics as ’agnostic pluralism’, the aim is to construct ‘them’ in such a way that it is no longer perceived as an enemy to be destroyed, but an ‘adversary’, i.e., ‘somebody whose ideas we combat, but whose right to defend those ideas we do not put into question.’ (Mouffe 2000: 15). We are still blinded by the ideology that pluralist democracy would be able to reach a rational consensus in the public sphere – but we have to realise that ‘such a consensus cannot exist. We have to accept that every consensus exists as a temporary result of a provisional hegemony, as a stabilisation of power, and that it always entails some form of exclusion.’ (Mouffe 2000: 17). Present democratic South Africa has inherited urban landscapes and cities that were engineered towards a


semi-transparent

culture of racial segregation. It is a natural experience of life to have our memories archived into history. The only discrepancy in our cities is that we have the opportunity to choose what gets processed into archives and what gets to be deliberately retained in the environments around us. Our task, as architects, is to make sure that these inherited landscapes and cities have conscientiously rehabilitated the negative connotations of the past into something positive and supportive of our new narrative and culture. As a nation, we are intentionally opposing our past blunders by attempting to treat each other as equals – but in this transition from a segregated society into a new heterogeneous cultural identity, a great deal of friction has arisen as we still subconsciously think of each other as enemies, as ‘us’ and ‘them’. Chantelle Mouffe explains that ‘politics aims at the creation of unity in a context of conflict and diversity; it is always concerned with the creation of an “us” by the determination of a “them”. The novelty of democratic politics is not the overcoming of this us/ them opposition – which is impossible – but [enabling a] different way in which it is established.’ (Mouffe 2000: 15). We should rather strive to create a common ground in which we can view each other as legitimate adversaries as opposed to enemies. ‘To accept the view of the adversary is to undergo a radical change in political identity. It is more a sort of conversion than a process of rational persuasion.’ (Mouffe 2000: 15). We now realise that we can create a space, a common ground, where we can recognise our differences as they are juxtaposed against one another.

History + Theory

295

References: Barthes, R. (1977). ‘The Death of the Author’, transl. Howard, R., in Lodge, D. & Wood, N. (eds.) 2013. Modern Criticisms and Theory: A Reader, 3rd ed., pp. 311-317, Routledge, New York. Borges, J. L. (1973). ‘Limits’, in Selected Poems, 19231967 edited by A. Lane. The Penguin Press, London Grau, C. (2006) ‘Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind and the Morality of Memory’, in The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Winter 2006, 119-133 Latour, B. (2005). ‘From Realpolitik to Dingpolitik or How to Make Things Public’, in Latour, B. & Weibel, P. (eds.), Making Things Public : Atmospheres of Democracy, pp.14-44, MIT Press. Cambridge, MA Mouffe, C., (2000). ‘Deliberative Democracy or Agonistic Pluralism’, Institute for Advanced Studies, Vienna Nora, P. (1989). ‘Between Memory and History: Les lieux de mémoire’, Representations, Vol. 26, Spring 1989. [O]. Available: http://www.timeandspace.lviv.ua/files/session/ Nora_105.pdf Accessed 12 April 2016. Pallasmaa, J. (2013) ‘Space, Place, Memory, and Imagination: The Temporal Dimension of Existential Space’, in Treib, M. (ed.), Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape., pp. 16-41, Routledge. New York. Samman, N. (2013). ‘Juliana Cerqueira Leite: One Of Today’s Most Exciting New Sculptors on Pushing Her Body Through Clay’, in Dazed. [O]. Available: http://www.dazeddigital.com/artsandculture/ article/15523/1/juliana-cerqueira-leite Accessed 2 May 2016 Treib, M. (2013). ‘Yes, Now I Remember: An Introduction’, in Treib, M. (ed.), Spatial Recall: Memory in Architecture and Landscape., pp. X-XV, Routledge. New York. Shotton, E. (2013). ‘Memory, Perception & Intuition’. UCD School of Architecture Yearbook (forthcoming).


296

Annexure A

semi-transparent

APEIRON the spatial indefinite

H

ave you ever wondered what happens to cities and landscapes when they are laid to waste in the wake of a war, if it is a social, political, civil or intercontinental war? I suspect that you have never speculated about what happens to the landscapes and spatial constructs and, that the particulars and practicalities of these events simply resolve themselves. I suspect that it is, in all probability, imagined by the nescient inhabitants of the world that their hastily assembled governments – post-war governments which, presumably, will be inundated with the collateral damage resultant of the events that transpired to place them in their position of power – would make it their top priority to rebuild and clean up their dismantled cities or towns. As per usual, just how people romantically muse over other’s paradisal designations and the lifestyles that follows suit, their fallacious dreams of their new leaders are that – just a dream. The recently instated leaders are, without fail, first and foremost absorbed by the politics of their novel role, as well as, fortifying their new status with the people they now shepherd. A leader possesses a great deal of power over the


semi-transparent

nucleus of a nation’s identity – contemplate on the dexterity of the world’s and, the citizenry’s perception of a nation when it is reconstructed in perpetuity after an unhinged commander supervenes? The world effortlessly embraces a contorted perception of a nation as a result of their leader – even though the event of this commander has long been in the dust and was a sin of a select collective of people who were most likely manipulated into their tasks – these legacies have a prodigious potential to remain as an ineffaceable trace in the identity of a nation for centuries. When a new authority comes into effect, one encapsulating radical reform, it will undoubtedly recast the identity of the people they govern. To clarify, a new ruler is not primarily concerned with the reconstruction of the cities and landscapes, but, the new identity of their territory and the extent of their control and authority. Yet, despite this dearth of directorate initiative to rebuild and ameliorate the built environments, the structural constructs which the citizens populate still manage to be episodically transformed and altered to reflect the newly transformed identity of their nation. It has been recognised and documented as a distinction of humanity to continually manifest their memories physically in order for their spatial constructs to emulate their identities – on the surface it seems that it is through the agency of people that the spatial constructs and landscapes are altered after a drastic shift in the social constructs has occurred. History has assumed that the inherent tendency of a human being to reshape and mould their spatial constructs and landscapes in an effort to record their existence in material contrivances – in their literature, art, built environments and landscapes, all of these physical manifestations which evince their consequence in the world – has been present in their nature in perpetuity. It is not known that this instinctual characteristic was only cultivated into their nature after human kind’s paramount and sole occupation developed beyond mere survival. Once survival was no longer the only occupation in their existence, the Apeiron was formed. Not much has been unearthed as to how it came into existence – the Organisation developed theories that perhaps it had only been initiated once the Author was provided with attestation that we were a feasible genus to inhabit the earth. The Organisation has been able to document and archive the Apeiron’s movements and ascendancy through the aegis of history. We have observed that the Apeiron has select prime operations – amongst

History + Theory

297

them are the perpetuation of memories or, in idiomatic terms, history and their eternized state, the chronology and ensuing removal of memories which have faded and become marcescent, the transmutation and permutation of existing memories into another form, as well as, sundry secondary functions. These operations, which the Apeiron performs, occur naturally and most commonly without aid through the agency of people. But, for all that, the Apeiron’s sole salient purpose is convalescing the built environments and landscapes posterior to a war, the aim of which is to succour and aid in the transition of the identity of the citizens who inhabit those spatial constructs and landscapes. During the undertaking of this salient purpose, the Apeiron is in an acutely vulnerable position, as after such a calamity transpires it is subjected to all the ensuing chaos and havoc – due to all of these extreme circumstances, the Apeiron can be led into a confused and inundated state. At some point in the transitional evolution of an identity of a nation or civilisation, a myriad of epoch-making memories could effortlessly be erased by the Apeiron. These memories could be those which are fundamental to the root characteristics of a culture – simply erased as a result of war. The Apeiron is for-bye, quite vulnerable during the course of these transitions because this is when its efforts are the most conspicuous and vulnerable of being too exposed to humans. If a nescient human being were to stumble upon the existence of the Apeiron and manipulate the subtle power of memory manifested into the spatial constructs, it would have far-reaching consequences that would culminate in a cataclysmic event that would alter the world as it is widely perceived. When the Apeiron unpremeditatedly erases memories from the landscapes and articles of significance – it leaves a vestige of the memory in the people who partook in creating or experienced the memory. These people are left ill at ease with their spatial constructs because it no longer reflects their version of temporal existence. The thought has probably entered your mind, pondering why the memories weren’t removed from the people as well if it left them so distraught? Memories are an extension of our minds, just as our limbs are an extension of our bodies – the one relies on the other to function at full capacity. Once one of them is removed, the other is restricted and will most likely wither or falter – the mind will be in a state of discomfort with its environment as it can no longer observe what it thought to once be a truth and a shroud of doubt is placed on the memory. But, with time, the mind learns to adjust to the new reality


298

Annexure A

semi-transparent

– eventually the agitation of no longer seeing their memory physically manifested fades. The memory still exists as a trace in their mind and, potentially, their spatial constructs as well. The Author witnessed that we became shells of who we were when our memories were forcibly removed or altered as the traces of the memories could never fully be erased – as a consequence, it is no longer among the Apeiron’s capabilities to erase a memory from a human being’s mind. It was observed that the minds entered into an unalterable state of psychosis after memory removal and, for that reason did not achieve the desired results amongst human beings. The Author determined that people should be allowed to have their memories naturally fade despite the discomfort with their spatial constructs – but the danger with this is that people are not aware of the

failures and complications that memory removal entails, or they are potentially aware of the consequences and intentionally seek to cause havoc with the human psyche. Trials and investigations have been conducted by curious scientists to attempt to remove memories from willing minds – even though these people were aware of and desired the procedure; they were left discomforted with their spatial and social constructs. The traces of their memories could never be effaced and subliminally reminded them that something was flawed with their reality. One of the forefathers of the Organisation, Sigmund Freud, dipped his toe into the permanent traces left on the spatial indefinite of the Apeiron when he published an essay on the ‘Mystic Writing Pad’. He described it as a well-grounded portrayal – or, in his words, a sort of metaphor – of the human mind and its abilities to retain memories. What Freud had not subsumed into this essay was that the metaphorical ‘Mystic Writing Pad’ is also an accurate portrayal of the spatial constructs and landscapes. Our spatial constructs, along with the human mind, possess the ability to have stories and memories written onto them as well as expunged – but they cannot be entirely effaced and as the memories get erased, traces and vestiges remain behind on the somatic aspects – much like the Freudian ‘Mystic Writing Pad’. Freud had been ostracised from the Organisation on the grounds of his desire to share the secret of the Apeiron with the world – ironically this is precisely what I am perpetrating through this document. After he had been cast out of the Organisation, he wrote the essay which encompassed barely veiled secrets of the Apeiron – which he had not fully alluded to, but left inconspicuous indications that could possibly lead someone with existing suspicions towards the Organisation expeditiously. It is not common knowledge that memories contain the authority to subliminally affect our thoughts and actions.


semi-transparent

The inhabitants of every city, town, hamlet and agrestic landscape in the world – conduct their diurnal rhythms thinking that they are independent and uncontrolled – that they have the proverbial ‘free-will’ to choose, or rather to be aware of, what influences their thoughts and actions. Little do they know that not only can memories affect them, but the environments by which they are surrounded have powerful influential abilities to affect their psyches on an extensive level, an extent to which no nescient human being could ever ideate. We exist in a world that intentionally catalogues our existence – where humanity’s actions reflect and manifest physically in our environs and contrivances – through the Apeiron. Long ago this was common knowledge, the people were aware of the influential capabilities of their environments and that everything they did manifested into the built environment – that the Apeiron was methodically and chronologically cataloguing humanity’s existence. Nonetheless, as the centuries have unfolded the Apeiron has become mythological speculation – akin to an old wives’ tale told to children to inspire or scare them. The world leaders of old unequivocally decided that this knowledge was dangerous among the public after the occurrence of a single man, with malicious intentions, who had managed to alter the course of an entire civilisation. After the repercussions of his actions had settled, it was decided that the existence of the Apeiron was to be concealed. The world leaders formed the Organisation, whose directive is to regulate and conceal the Apeiron – with a task team assigned to every city in the world. This strategy was needed as the Apeiron’s anatomy does not consist of a central location, the only means to describe it would be to portray it as analogous to the root system of sod – with rhizomes uncontrollably traversing the unmitigated surface of the earth. We have managed to keep the existences of the Organisation and the Apeiron off of any official records – it has been a spoken secret that has been handed down from ruler to ruler for centuries. As a result, governments have covered up the existence of the ability to change the memory device of the landscape, and therefore the identity of the people. Our ancestral leaders thought it would be too dangerous to have the people know that the spatial constructs are capable of being manipulated and can therefore manipulate people – they were afraid that another person with malign pursuits and a morbid curiosity would alter the course of our world – or worse, efface yet another culture from existence. The Organisation had faith in them and neglected to deliberate whether it could be the world leaders that would allow themselves to be led down a deceitful path – rendering them the people the Apeiron and the Organisation should have been concealed from as well.

History + Theory

299

The information was buried from the public, the existence of the Apeiron faded into mythology and speculation. There were those who remembered its existence and handed the knowledge down through the generations – these were the progenitors of those who tried to look for its existence. They were convinced that it was as real as Atlantis – coincidentally the culture that had been erased from existence at the mere whim of a single man, the event that was depicted in a story written by Plato and manifested into History – and that one just had to look for it. Quite a few of them stumbled upon the Organisation in pursuit of the Apeiron – these individuals became recruits of the Organisation and created dynasties of agents within our ranks to keep the Apeiron a secret. Dynasties have also been generated through those who have tried to warn the people of the Organisation’s, and detrimentally, the Apeiron’s existence – that the Organisation was an extensive government conspiracy cover up and that we were all just children following the tune of the notorious pied piper. These people were labeled as unstable ‘doomsayers’ that should be avoided and, have been the single greatest threat to the Organisation – they have actively been seeking us through the years and they are excruciatingly close to unearthing our existence to the world. Some have even managed to succeed, but because of their skewed perceptions of the Organisation’s enterprise we could not sway them to the cause and they had to be eliminated. People do not comprehend that memories shape the very anatomy of all our identities, they are too engrossed and encapsulated by their consumption driven lives to have cognizance of this. Whether they are aware of it or not, memories create their individual identities and, it subsequently follows that through the agglomeration of individuals it will create our cultural or national identities. Our memories define our moral compass, our reference library (an accumulation of our experiences to which we compare everything which we encounter), our ethical boundaries, our proclivities and, our laws. It is the instrument which our minds utilise to make decisions – individually and culturally – that guides us down particular paths. Our memory is the natural instrument which guides us amongst life’s perpetual bifurcations – for that reason the influential capabilities of the Apeiron is, for the most part, inconspicuous and impalpable, the efficacy of a subtle force. As I hastily touched on previously, the Apeiron operates through the agency of people to manifest the memories – the memories which are bound and revived through humanity’s written texts, literature, the arts, landscapes and the built environments; these are constituted as the most important externalised manifestations of human memory and add to the catalogue of the spatial indefinite. The preponderance of endeavours to manifest memory occur naturally as it was encoded into human nature to


300

Annexure A

semi-transparent

record and chronicle their lives – it has been this way since the Author determined that we were a viable genus. The naturally manifested memories reinforce the cultural, societal and individual identities – the Apeiron’s natural instinct is to intercede to effectuate the transmutation of the landscapes and built environments when drastic change has taken place. I have already expressed how these events have substantial influence over cultures as their spatial constructs no longer reflect the inhabitants – people become ill at ease with their environments as their identities have been altered through the drastic change in the societal or political constructs, the spatial constructs are no longer an accurate representation of their new identities. This sparks the Apeiron to initiate change in the landscape in order to reflect the people – its nature is to balance out the disparity between the spatial and social constructs. One of the founders of the Organisation, Christopher Grau, elucidated that just as we want our mind to accurately represent the world, we also want the world to accurately represent us. If we have entire cities or nations with their spatial constructs that no longer

emulate them, it could lead to unrest, riots and, the razing of their own cities – advancing the diegesis of the city’s natural course.

These drastic changes are typically instigated through men in power or men consumed with the desire to be in power but are ignorant of the consequences of their actions – these are the very men who should not have been privy to the existence of the Apeiron or the Organisation, nor had any jurisdiction in our affairs – culminating in their greed for dominance, authority and, control, resulting in their nation’s demise. These adjustments to the social constructs could be executed through a heteroclitic person whose mind is filled with a contorted perspective on the world and how they perceive it. People with these characteristics inculcated into their psyche and eventually act upon those proclivities, upset the natural balance of the power and cultural structures amongst civilisations – their lustful and avaricious natures mutilate and mutate landscapes and the spatial constructs to satiate their own desires. Rarely, there are individuals who have the faculties needed to bring about a noble and righteous alteration to the social constructs present in the world. When there is a saturation of unscrupulous and corrupt leaders in the world, the Apeiron actively seeks out a leader that could change the tide and, when one is found they are cultivated and tested. One was discovered, half a century ago in a country subjugated by a law that segregated the races from one another – where one race proclaimed that they had the entitlement to


semi-transparent

call themselves superior. The Apeiron tested him with hardships and strife in his life, hoping that he would emerge from the process a flawless cabochon ready to shift the course of events and transmute the corrupt social constructs. He prevailed and ushered in a new era for the greater good of an entire nation – his actions induced ripple effects in multifarious social constructs across the globe – and initiating necessary change in others. When these rare and uncommon alterations to the social constructs come to pass, the disparity and disassociation between people and their spatial constructs is more palpable and has the potential to instigate intense vehemence. The citizenry are faced with a choice, they could allow themselves to be preoccupied by the past and the damage inflicted on their societal structures – engrossed by the repercussions of the actions of their antecedent leaders. On the other hand, they could rather embrace and immerse themselves in the novel ameliorated culture and choose to exonerate past sins and administered inequity. These are the consequences of this paradigm of a substantial shift in the social constructs – not a physical war – that has been achieved. The choices that the people are faced with are not easy to decide upon – their social constructs have been altered but their spatial constructs still reflect their former circumstances. Their new reality was not reflected in their environments landscapes. They were entreated to move forward but they were subjected to encounter the physical manifestation of their still smarting abrasions day in and day out, initiating the recall of their odious memories of culpability or suffering. The Apeiron’s salient role after a war is to mould the landscape to represent our identities. If the social constructs that have been created is detrimental and corollary to ostracism – then the Apeiron will shift the landscape and spatial constructs to reflect those sentiments. If this has been the nucleus of the identity of a nation for a protracted period of time, or has been present since the origins of the spatial construct, the physically manifested identity will be fabricated in a myriad of layers. It would take the Apeiron a prolonged period of time to reassemble the fragments of the spatial constructs to emulate the ameliorated social constructs. During this period of time, the habitants tend to digress to or exacerbate their antecedent social constructs as they are confronted with their former identity – this has the possibility of prohibiting them from moving forward. When the Apeiron ventures to alter such a fragmented spatial construct, it often does not have the scope of

History + Theory

301

time needed to complete the transmutation before another corrupt ruler is inaugurated. The Author has cognizance that there could never be an absolute balance of power – he devised us to be divergent from one another. Once there is more than one aspiration or proclivity in play, an equitable social construct amongst the human genus cannot exist. Wars arise from differences in desires or ideals, once the battle has been concluded the result is a provisional hegemony as a stabilisation of power. The power is never stable for prolonged periods of time as some form of exclusion is always enacted, and physically manifested in the special constructs, by the new power balance. The Author’s desire in creating our genus, as an investigation into humanity, was that we would eventually create a balance in the power structures and create an agonistic social construct where we would all have a dais for our beliefs and convictions. His desires were never realised. The memories that have been manifested into the spatial constructs have a subtle authority over our identities – it can restrain and prevent us from progressing and evolving. Or, it can be utilised as the instrument that guides us through life’s perpetual bifurcations to ameliorate or dismantle our social constructs. The social and spatial constructs have a reciprocal influence over one another through the Apeiron. The Apeiron presides over this authority – but the Organisation failed in protecting its existence and capabilities when we failed to catch someone that had slipped through the cracks. During the lengthy transmutation of the spatial construct to emulate the ameliorated social construct, the Apeiron was vulnerable to discovery and, was conquered by a psychopath who utilised its abilities to manipulate the spatial constructs into satiating his personal desires – his actions brought to pass the eradication of the world’s social constructs. This cataclysmic event was, naturally, physically manifested and set in motion the procedures necessary to end the world as it is widely perceived. I have taken great risk in divulging the secrets of the Organisation and the Apeiron to you, but I do so in the hopes that you will do better than we did. The Apeiron has recorded and catalogued our memories and history in the spatial indefinite to be recollected by the Author. The Organisation is near the end of its existence and will no longer be able to protect the Apeiron – whatever social constructs are built out of the ashes of the antecedent ones will be physically manifested. You have the chance to fulfill the desires of the Author.


opaque


opaque

“How can I help it? How can I help but see what is in front of my eyes? Two and two are four.” George Orwell

Annexure B


opaque

Professional practice contents Business Plan Part A vision statements.........................305 goals and objectives.....................306 Part B executive summary........................307 business description.......................307 vision + mission.............................308 objectives + goals...........................308 practice style...................................308 business model...............................309 differentiation + value model......309 marketing.......................................309 competition analysis......................310 operating procedure.......................310 accommodation requirements.....311 personnel.........................................311 business insurance.........................312 monthly cost estimate....................312 capital equipment required..........313 profit + loss projection..................313 break even projection....................313 Manifesto ..........................................................314 References ..........................................................315


semi-transparent

Professional Practice

305

Part a Vision + Mission Statements Vision and mission statements are utilised by companies to summarise their goals, objectives, values and ideals. Both of these statements serve a specific purpose but are often confused with each other. Time frame is the main difference between a vision and mission statement. A mission statement is a statement which outlines what the company wants to do now. A vision statement outlines what the company wants to do in the future (Diffen.com, 2015). A mission statement is focused on the present, it’s defines the clients, critical processes of the firm and defines the desired level of performance which they want to achieve. A vision statement is focused on the future, it is a source of motivation and inspiration to the company leaders and employees. It not only describes the future of the practice, but it also describes the impact that the practice wants to achieve on the industry to which they belong. As an example of these I will use Toyota’s mission and vision statement: Mission Statement: “To attract and attain customers with high-valued products and services and the most satisfying ownership experience in America”. Vision Statement: “To be the most successful and respected car company in America” (toyota.custhelp.com) From this example it is clear that their mission statement is focused on the present and their vision statement is focused on what they want to be in the future. The purpose of a mission statement is to aid in the day-to-day operations of a company. It helps the leaders in their decision-making process. The statement is an aide to get everyone on the same page on how the organisation operates, what they should do and how they should do it – essentially, what the overall objective is. It, therefore, also helps to inspire employees to achieve a short-term or mid-term goal. If this is not in place, it might be difficult to motivate amongst the people in the company. The purpose of a vision statement is to inspire the employees as well as the leaders – it serves as a guide

to the future of the company. It describes why the company exists, the answer as to why the business was conceptualised and started, the long-term view or outcome of the company and, the ultimate objective and impact. It is also a tool that can attract future clients or desirable employees that believe in the vision that has been set for the company. In Simon Sinek’s book, Start With Why, Sinek states how a vision not only guides you, but also helps you stay out of “the rat race”. An excerpt from his book describes this: “All organizations start [out knowing] why [they are in business], but only the great ones keep their “why” clear year after year. Those who forget why they were founded show up to the [rat] race every day to outdo someone else instead of to outdo themselves. The pursuit, for those who lose sight of why they are running the race, is for the medal or to beat someone else [and not to fulfil the vision they set out to achieve.]” (Sinek, 2009) The aim of your business should be to outdo yourselves everyday, not to beat every other business in competition with you. The vision statement helps to keep the company focused on this rather than the “rat race”. To recapitulate, a vision statement acts as a guide and a reminder to employees and employers why the company exists. It provides the framework for the mission statement to work within. Sinek states in another part of the book, “People don’t buy what you do, they buy why you do it.” (Sinek, 2009) People buy into the vision of a company and how it is implemented, not it’s day-to-day tasks. Your vision should be uses as a reference point for everything you do, from informing the mission statement, to marketing, influence your day-to-day tasks and, all the way down to the way you treat your clients and employees. This is the essence of a vision statement. Both statements should be clear, concise and easily understood, simple to execute and inspirational enough to get you and your employees to work everyday. The statements shouldn’t contain inauthentic claims, if you utilise false statements customers will be cynical, as Simon Sinek stated in a lecture he we giving for 99U, “At the slightest hint that the things they [the companies] say might be a lie cynicism sets in.” (Sinek, 2014) Once customers think you are inauthentic, it will be hard to gain their trust again. They will also not keep this information to themselves – word-of-mouth marketing counts for more than a dazzling marketing campaign.


306

Annexure C

The following should be considered when constructing a vision statement for an architectural practice: • What do we want to do in the future? • When would we like to achieve it? • How do we 2 want to achieve it? The characteristics of a vision statement should: • Portray a clear, hopeful and non-ambiguous • Deliver an engaging expression of your vision • Contain realistic and achievable aspirations • Be aligned with your company’s values and culture • Have a time frame when referencing a goal or objective The following should be considered when constructing a mission statement for an architectural practice: • What do we want to do now? • Whom are we doing it for? • What does this benefit? The characteristics of a mission statement should: • Contain core company values and purpose • Describe who the primary clients are and what service the business wants to deliver • Describe the main objectives to support the company in achieving its mission (Diffen.com, 2015) Goal + Objectives Like vision and mission statements, goals and objectives are often confused with each other. Time frame is also the main difference between goals and objectives. According to the comparative website diffen.com, “Both are desired outcomes of work done by a person but what sets them apart is the time frame, attributes they’re set for and the effect they inflict”. (Diffen.com, 2015). Both contain things that the company wants to achieve or attain. An example explaining the difference: my goal is to complete this assignment, but my objective is to learn the skill of doing a business plan and achieving a mark for the assignment. Objectives are the smaller, specific and more attainable milestones. They can be comprised of the steps that need to be completed in order to achieve a broader goal. In other words, the goal is the final achievement and the objectives are the steps required to reach the final achievement. Objectives can be singular or numerous, depending on the broader goal. The purpose of goals and objectives are to have milestones and a clear destination pictured for your company. If you do not have these set in place prior to

semi-transparent

setting out on this endeavour, you will wander along the path envisioned for the company. Essentially, you will not achieve the tasks and goals needed to push your company to where you want it to go. You will wander aimlessly with no systematic approach to get where you want to go. This will most likely result in failure. Setting goals and objectives does not guarantee that your company will not experience failures, but if you do not have a goal (or product) in mind your failures will be random, useless, and, not constructive. These goals and objectives motivate us, in spite of failures, to pursue what we set out to do. Key characteristics found in both goals and objectives should: • Contain realistic and attainable goals • Describe clear objectives that are easily understood by all who need to participate in completing the task • Contain a desirable objective that people will want to achieve • Have a clear plan of how to achieve the goals and objectives set • Set time frames to the goals and objectives (Diffen.com)


semi-transparent

Professional Practice

307

Part b EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will be a company that prides itself on a high quality buildings produced in a short span of time. We will prioritise a coalescence of architecture and engineering while advancing the art, science and practice in the architectural and engineering professions. The firm was conceptualised as the directors saw a need for a small business that wanted to make a meaningful contribution to the construction consultancy industry by delivering a product that was detailed, clear, concise and easily understood by the contractors. The directors also foresee the designing and building processes in the country being produced and completed at a rapid rate in the near future. We believe that combining architecture and engineering in every project that the practice undertakes will give BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. the differentiation and cutting edge from ordinary architectural firms. The directors also saw the need to incorporate sustainable design in every building as resources, such as electricity, are getting expensive and are a burden to clients. BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd will strive to deliver high quality sustainable architecture to its clients.

BUSINESS DESCRIPTION BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. Will be a new practice comprising of professional architectural and engineering services. We will provide high quality design and technical services to our clients. BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. is scheduled to begin operations on 9 January, 2017. BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will be a private company, owned and managed by Sabine Waskow and Dirk Gibson. Ms Waskow and Mr Gibson both have left their respective jobs in order to create a turn-key design solution company for small to large architectural and urban design projects. Ms Waskow’s previous employment was with Louis Architects acting as a Project Architect. Mr Gibson’s previous employment was with BT Civil Engineering Solutions acting as

chief civil engineer. They have both acquired the skill and experience to start and run a successful firm. BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will target clients seeking to incorporate engineering design elements from day one. BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will also offer sustainable design services to our prospective clients. Our geographical scope will be within the limits of the greater Johannesburg area in the start-up years of the company. We will pursue to expand to architectural and urban design projects outside of these limits after Year 2. BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. has made strategic alliances with other industry related services, such as Elemental Interiors, who specialise in interior and exhibition design, as well as other professional firms to provide consultant services to our clients. These comprehensive design solutions will allow our projects to reach construction phase earlier than is usually expected of the average architectural firm. Our integrated design approach will ensure that all services and structural designs are thought of and implemented prior to the construction process ensuring less mistakes are made during the construction phase. This will therefore save our clients time and money. It will allow our company to successfully secure and complete projects with varying elements. The market for comprehensive architectural and civil engineering design solutions has continued to be under serviced in Johannesburg, South Africa. Ms Waskow and Mr Gibson have both recognised that there is a high demand for these services as well as a short supply. Through their extensive contacts, they have determined that most architectural firms do not offer such services of engineers and sustainable design engineers or procured quite late in architectural projects. Therefore, BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. has initially set the stage as a possible goto practice for clients seeking to have fully integrated designs in a shorter period of time.


308

Annexure C

semi-transparent

VISION AND MISSION BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. vision is to advance the art, science and practice of the architectural and engineering professions. We will strive to combine essential design skills with the required technical expertise needed to engage architectural and urbandesign projects of various scales. Our projects will be located in various geographical, social and economical settings. We integrate a critical approach to every site, design and budget to give every client a personal product considering the constraints that each project presents. The distinctive skills that BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. possesses will enable the practice to tackle large and small-scale projects of various natures simultaneously. Our clients will benefit from an amalgamation of skills acquired in interior and exhibition design, an in-house sustainable design and engineering team. Part of our vision will be to create a niche in the market by delivering three dimensional construction documents and interactive digital presentation to clients. BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. mission will be: To work with dedication, honesty and integrity To be socially + environmentally responsible To be responsive + service orientated To exercise our discipline through creative problem solving To engage in social + spatial transformation BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. mission is to pursue the progressive boundaries of the architectural and engineering professions. We strive to stop, look and listen. Our observations become the platform for the practice in a collaborative process of client + architect + task + place

OBJECTIVES AND GOALS In fulfilment of our mission and vision, we at BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. pursue the following broad goals: Enhance staff expertise to deliver efficient and easily enacted design • Send staff for regular training in industry related software programmes • Promote attendance of courses and conferences

relating to the progressive and existing materials utilised in the industry, as well as council regulation courses Push the boundaries of our design expertise • Enter various architectural competitions to expand our design skill set Improve client service • Emphasise efficiency, reliability, transparency and leadership in employees to reduce billable hours • Increase workforce by Year 2 Turn the practice into a turn-key solution • Bring a respectable construction company into the fold by Year 4 • Employ full-time sustainable and interior designers by Year 2

PRACTICE STYLE BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES will be opened as a private company. The company will be initiated with two shareholders, namely Sabine Waskow and Dirk Gibson. Ms Waskow and Mr Gibson will be the managing directors of the company. Shares in the company will be sold to select individuals approved by both MS Waskow and Mr Gibson. The managing directors will retain the majority of shares in the company. A shareholder can become an associate of the company by proving their skill and dedication to the company. By entering into a private company we will be limiting our personal liability if claims are brought against the practice. To further limit our liability, we will add in an additional clause in the PROCSA agreement (or any other agreement entered into with another party/ client) stating that our liability will be restricted to five years after the final completion (construction completion) of the project has been achieved. We have retained legal council, Bianca Waskow, who will aid us in our legal liabilities, contracts & financial structures of the practice and our personal affairs so as to protect ourselves and the company. We will be undertaking Professional Liability Insurance as well as Basic Business Insurance which will be covered under the Business Insurance section.


Professional Practice

semi-transparent

309

BUSINESS MODEL

Differentiation AND VALUE MODEL

BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will be based on an ‘expertise based’ business model. To begin, the practice will be based on a “highly flexible and informal structure, operating in a changeable and flexible environment that could provide great satisfaction and profit” (Vosloo, 2015) As we will be focusing on innovative and expertise based projects, the structure of our company will be predominantly senior staff. We will begin with only one draughtsperson as a result of this. In the start-up years of BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd., the managing directors (Ms Waskow and Mr Gibson) will be managing all of the projects that are undertaken by the practice.

BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. Will differentiate themselves by providing clients with the unique dual service of architect and civil engineer as part of every project that the practice will undertake. This will set us apart from most other firms in South Africa. We will take it upon ourselves to create architecture that is fully integrated and thought out prior to entering the construction phase which will save our clients time and, therefore, money. We believe that integrating the civil engineering aspect from the fist sketch proposal to a client will greatly benefit the client as well as the architectural aspects. It will allow our projects to be completed at a more rapid rate than most other firms. There will be fewer mistakes in the construction phase, saving our clients time and money.

In the future, we will be redirecting the practice towards an ‘experience-based’ business model as we will ideally be “organised with a view to delivering experience and reliability on complex projects” (Vosloo, 2015). We will be aiming to employ staff of various levels and skill. Our staff will consist of more senior staff but with adequate support staff. We will be aiming to structure the practice on a team based model. The teams will be allocated an appropriate amount of projects which they will handle exclusively. As the managing directors, we will aim to have control and input in all of the teams. The team leaders will have an opportunity to become an associate of BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. Once BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. Is capable of expanding the workforce, we will pursue to educate students that have recently graduated as the support staff to the senior staff members. We believe that students entering the architectural and engineering professions deserve the chance to learn. By having both engineering and architectural professions in the same practice, it will provide a unique opportunity for employees to grow in their knowledge of the other professions. This will allow our employees to incorporate gained knowledge into all of our projects as well as contribute to the future of the industries.

“Everything requires time. It is the only truly universal condition. All work takes place in time and uses up time. Yet most people take for granted this unique, irreplaceable, and necessary resource. Nothing else, perhaps, distinguishes effective executives as much as their tender loving care of time.” – Peter F. Drucker

Marketing BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. projects will form marketing in and of themselves. Print media (magazine, flyers, etc.) is a dying form of marketing and no longer achieves the results they once did. Magazines only market their work to other architects, not to the clientele we are targeting. Both managing directors have created contact networks from their previous employments. They will utilise these networks in sourcing projects in the start-up years of the practice. Acquiring a commercial project from Ms Waskow’s contact network is the main drive to startup BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. The projects which we source in the start-up years will provide the word-of-mouth marketing that the practice desires. Word-of-mouth marketing is critical for a start-up business as clients put their own reputation on the line when recommending your practice’s services to their own contacts. “Word-of-mouth is


310

Annexure C

triggered when a customer experiences something far beyond what was expected.” (Entrepreneur, 2016) We will pursue to deliver services to our clients that are above and beyond what they have experienced elsewhere. We are aware that this is a slow process, but it will a effective if our overheads are low and we can afford to operate a lean company in the beginning. BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will pursue to develop its social media marketing strategy. The marketing resource website Search Engine Land stated that: “88% of consumers trust online reviews as much as personal recommendations” (Anderson , 2014). This shows that clients prefer to get validation of a product or service from other people, whether personal or online, rather directly from the brand itself. We will aim to publish high-quality content on social media platforms to generate interest in our services. “If you publish amazing, quality content and work to build your online audience of quality followers, they’ll share it with their own audiences on Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, their own blogs and more”. (Entrepreneur, 2016). We will pursue to engage all participants on our social media pages to develop relationships as this can generate further ‘word-of-mouth’ marketing.

COMPETITION ANALYSIS Essentially, every architectural practice in South Africa poses competition to BLACK BOX ARCHITECTS (Pty) Ltd. However, with our business model, company structure, and, skill set, it is more complicated than that. Because we are integrating engineering and sustainable design into our service (and not as external consultants), we are now competing with a handful of other firms in South Africa. Our main competitors are large well established firms that operate mainly outside of Johannesburg, but do generally have offices in Johannesburg. We will be able to differentiate ourselves from these competitors by being able to provide a personal hands-on service as we will not have as many projects as our competitors. There are no small-medium sized firms of this nature, giving us a small niche in the market. However, when we grow to a larger practice we will have to compete directly with these companies and keep our eye on them. Our competitors are:

semi-transparent

Miradi Architects They have completed projects such as: the Emthongeni Public Transport Facilities in Johannesburg and Scorpio Early Childhood Development Centre in Cape Town. The reason that they are competitors: they are a large established firm based locally and internationally. They offer mainly public and residential architectural projects. They are based in Johannesburg, Cape Town, Vredenburg, Ladismith, Nairobi and Wilmington, USA. MDCC Civil and Structural Engineers, Architects and Project Managers They have completed projects such as: the IPP Gelani Office Block in Klerksdorp and the Rio Casino Extension in Klerksdorp. The reason that they are competitors: they are a large established firm based locally and internationally. They specialise in a large array of projects, ranging from hospitals to retail buildings. They have offices in Klerksdorp, Johannesburg, Pretoria, Krugersdorp, Lagos and New Delhi. Fox Civil and Environmental Engineers They have completed projects such as: projects with/ for partnered corporations such as Telkom, Balwin Properties, BP and Sasol. The reason that they are competitors: they are a large established locally based firm. They offer land, urban and housing development services. They are based in Rosebank, Johannesburg which is in the centre of the area which we would like to operate. They will likely pose as a key competitor as they are solely based in Johannesburg.

OPERATING PROCEDURES BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will operate systematically and efficiently. This will ideally prevent staff from working onerous hours and overworking themselves. The managing directors will make it their prerogative to create an uplifting working environment for the employees, as well as themselves. Protocols will be enforced to increase efficiency and ensure that work is completed within working hours. Time allocations per project will be generated according to project income, tasks needing to be


semi-transparent

completed and hours available. This will promote employees to work within the time frame for a specific task. This will also prevent employees and directors from spending too much time on non-crucial tasks, but rather to focus their energy on critical tasks. It is a flaw of architects to over produce. We will strive to produce enough information to have our projects completed to a high standard. This will ensure that the practice does not run at a loss, but rather generates maximum profits. In the start-up years of BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. the managing directors will make sure that all work is completed in a timeous manner. Once the practice starts to grow, team leaders will be instated – they will take over the responsibility to make sure all of their projects reach their set deadlines. The team leaders will have the opportunity to become shareholders, therefore they will have a share of the profits received from the practice’s projects. In the transition period between not being able to employ another full-time employee but needing to expand the workforce, we will offer prospective employees the opportunity to work in a virtual office on a consultant basis. Tasks needing to be completed can be sent to them digitally and submitted to the practice digitally. However, this will only provide as a temporary solution as architecture and engineering are detailed professions. Many decisions are made on the go every day. It would be difficult to operate in a complete virtual office as this would result in details being overlooked and work not being able to get out of the office – putting the practice as risk to claims.

ACCOMMODATION REQUIREMENTS In order to operate, BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will require a small office location. A studio or garden flat office adjoining a house is an unprofessional working environment – it makes it difficult for the managing directors to separate their work and family life. A small open plan office space would be ideal for BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. as this will allow for information to be shared quickly and freely in a small practice environment. The practice will start off with five people in the office at full capacity, including the managing directors. Two employees will be working as consultants and will not be in the office permanently, however they will require space to work when in the office. If each person

Professional Practice

311

requires 15m² work space, the office space will need to be a minimum size of 75m². This is considered a small office space and could be easily located in a desirable area, offices of this size will also be affordable. The ideal office space will require the following: • A central location in Johannesburg, locations considered would be JHB Inner City, Illovo, Sandton, Rosebank, Parkhurst or any location in those regions • Be a minimum of 75m² in size • Have strong data coverage as no office can operate without internet • Have at least 4 parking bays allocated to the office • Have adequate ablutions • The office should be private, not shared with other companies or individuals • Should be a safe, clean and professional environment • Provide easy access to clients, consultants and suppliers • The lease should allow for the occupants to alter the interior to suite the image of practice, i.e. painting

PERSONNEL BLACK BOX ASSOCIATES (Pty) Ltd. will start out with three full time people and two consultants. Two people will be Sabine Waskow (MTech (Prof) Architecture) and Dirk Gibson (BSC Civil Engineering (Hons)). We will employ a student who will be responsible for the day to day running of the office. Below is a list of responsibilities for each person. SABINE WASKOW Managing Director - Mtech (Prof) Architecture • Marketing • Project acquisition • Drawing • Site visits • Administration • Client meetings DIRK GIBSON Managing Director - BSC Civil Engineering (Hons) • Marketing • Project acquisition • Drawing • Site visits • Administration • Client meetings • Accounting LEANI VAN DER WALT


312

Annexure C

Student - BAS • CAD & Revit • Rendering • Graphic design • Site visits • Website tasks • Social media updates • Research SANDY HSU - Sustainable Design Consultant MArch (Sustainable Design) • Client meetings • Site visits • Drawing BIANCA WASKOW Legal Counsel - BCom Law, LLB • Client meetings • Administration • Contract administration We hope to employ more full time professionals to integrate a team work environment. As the teams are established we would like to employ more students as support staff to the qualified professionals. They are affordable employees while they get the opportunity to be educated in the workings of a practice. By the end of 2019 (two years after establishment) we hope to have a staff of five, excluding managing directors. We would like to employ two more professionals, have two students employed (rotating) and have Sandy Hsu as a full-time employee rather than a consultant.

BUSINESS INSURANCE Due to the nature of the practice, namely architectural and engineering services, special insurances are required. The practice will still require the basic business insurance to cover the assets of the practice. Basic business insurance is also essential to the wellbeing of the practice. Basic Business Insurance includes: • R20 000 cover on office contents (i.e. desks, chairs, microwave, etc.) • R22 000 electronic equipment cover • R8 000 laptop cover • R100 000 Public Liability cover • R1 000 000 Employer’s Liability (workman’s compensation) As architects and engineers, we have to take out

semi-transparent

Professional Liability Insurance. It is absolutely crucial to have this in place prior to opening a practice. Architects and engineers are recognised as professionals, we need this insurance to ensure that if a client or builder claims against us due to mistakes made in the information sent out and our conduct, it could close the practice. To start with, we will take out R1 million cover. As our practice expands we will need to increase this as our project base (completed, undergoing and future) gets larger. We will be liable for claims for five years after final completion (construction completion) of any project. Therefore, as more projects are completed by the practice, our liability and risk profile increases as well as potential to make mistakes. This insurance protects the names of the professionals and covers things such as costs incurred due to incorrect drawings/dimensions, etc. for the duration of the project and for five years thereafter. Professional Liability Insurance includes: • An office of 5 Employees • 2mil turnover per year • 1mil cover for damages • Fee recovery (Up to 50000)

MONTHLY COST ESTIMATES


semi-transparent

CAPITAL EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

Professional Practice

BREAK EVEN PROJECTION

This is considered as the start-up cost of a company. Below is a list of capital required to start the practice and keep it operational. It includes once-off items needed at start-up and three times the monthly expenses to keep the practice operational until the practice generates income.

sabine@blackbox.co.za dirk@blackbox.co.za info@blackbox.co.za

PROFIT AND LOSS PROJECTION

074 656 6552 072 800 1049

Follow us

Call us

313


314

Annexure C

semi-transparent

Manifesto Rapid urbanisation is an expanding issue in Johannesburg as well as most cities globally. The quandary that we, as architects, face is how to tackle the arising issues with the skills which we have honed through rigorous training. We need to adapt to our present circumstances and transform our private skills towards a social resource and change our role from provider to supporter.(ASF, n.d.a) The infrastructures of these cities that are experiencing rapid urbanisation cannot manage the influx of people. This is a global problem, not a local and isolated event. However, the solutions which are generated are not a ‘one size fits all’ resolution to the common issue. Each city has a heritage, culture and society that are critical factors to consider in order to generate a sustainable resolution – having said that, we can still learn from other cities in order to resolve a local issue. As was seen in the case study on Euston, London, measures have been taken to upgrade or regenerate infrastructures to create a better lifestyle for their inhabitants. Although the changes to infrastructure would benefit the residents, the establishment and construction would displace and disrupt existing social and structural constructs. In the Woodstock, Cape Town case study, it was made evident that the social and spatial constructs of the city are in a delicate balance. The shift towards economic growth and global competitiveness have disrupted the current equilibrium. Poor spatial development frameworks are enabling the displacement of many residents in the Woodstock region. (ASF, 2016) The actors and stakeholders at play in both of these schemes have a certain amount of influence and power in how the progressive changes to the urban fabric take place. Unfortunately, it has been an accepted stereotype that the stakeholder with the largest capital has the most amount of power to wield. The impacted communities have the capacity to generate influence and employ their collective power to have a platform to voice their priorities in the events that take place. There are multiple approaches that can be utilised to confront the problems of rapid urbanisation and gentrification. It is through discussion and engagement that the interests and obstacles of each stakeholder can be voiced and taken into consideration. Undeniably, each actor and stakeholder has certain interests and objectives but not every need or want can be met. Compromises need to be made from all stakeholders in order to achieve the goal. When economic, social and ecological factors are considered, a more cohesive approach can be taken

to develop sustainable solutions to rapid urbanisation. (ASF, n.d.b) Other issues created in rapid urbanisation are the marginalisation of racial or socio-economic groups in order to segregate the social constructs in cities. Not only should the structural constructs of cities be altered to combat issues created through rapid urbanisation, policies need to be altered in order to change the way that cities have been constructed. ASF is an external actor that can operate as a mediator between the impacted or marginalised communities and the private / public agencies at play in scenarios such as Euston and Woodstock. They have developed tools and approaches to integrate economic, social and ecological factors in order to allow social and structural constructs to progress and regenerate. The issues that have been created through rapid urbanisation are an intrinsic component to the research that I have undergone at the University of Johannesburg. As an emerging architect, it is important to have these tools and approaches in my arsenal when approaching projects that deal with the urban spatial and social issues that are abundant in our city and the world. I believe that these tools can be used on almost any project that I undertake. As architects, we are seen as the ultimate mediator between the economic, social and ecological factors involved.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mnAZJMeMoA0


semi-transparent

References Anderson, M. 2014. ‘88% Of Consumers Trust Online Reviews As Much As Personal Recommendations’. [O]. Available: http://searchengineland.com/88-consumers-trust-onlinereviews-much-personal-recommendations-195803 Accessed 25 May 2016 Company Description Example. 2010. [O]. Available: http://www.business-plans-guide.com/companydescription-example.html Accessed 24 May 2016 Mission Statement vs. Vision Statement. 2015. [O]. Available: http://www.diffen.com/difference/Mission_Statement_ vs_Vision_Statement Accessed 24 May 2016 Drucker, P.F. [S.a]. [O]. Available: http://timeman.com/time-management-tips/timemanagement-quotes-and-sayings Accessed 25 May 2016 Entrepreneur. 2016. ‘Word-of-Mouth Advertising’. [O]. Available: https://www.entrepreneur.com/encyclopedia/word-ofmouth-advertising Accessed 25 May 2016 Entrepreneur. 2016. ‘10 Laws of Social Marketing’. [O]. Available: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/218160 Accessed 25 May 2016 Sinek, S. 2009. ‘Start with why’. New York: Portfolio. Sinek, S. 2014. ‘If You Don’t Know People You Don’t Know Business’. [O]. Available: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8grVwcPZnuw Accessed 24 May 2016 Vosloo, C. 2015. ‘Establishing Viable Architectural Firms’. Dept, of Architecture, University of Johannesburg. ASF (Architecture Sans Frontiéres International). [S.a]. ‘Participation’. [O]. Available: https://challengingpractice.org/participation/ Accessed 31 August 2016 ASF (Architecture Sans Frontiéres International). [S.a]. ‘Sustainable Approaches’. [O]. Available: https://challengingpractice.org/sustainable-approaches/ Accessed 31 August 2016 ASF (Architecture Sans Frontiéres International). 2016. ‘Contested Site in Woodstock, Cape Town – South Africa’. University of Johannesburg, Johannesburg.

Professional Practice

315


opaque

DECLARATION: A dissertation in partial fulfillment for the degree

of Master of Technology in Architecture (MTech (Prof)). Faculty of Art, Design and Architecture UNIVERSITY OF JOHANNESBURG By: Sabine Waskow Supervisors: Sumayya Vally & Stephen Hobbs Co-supervisors: Stephanie Ryder & Darren Sampson 2017


opaque

I, Sabine Waskow, declare that the minor dissertation

submitted for the degree of MTech (Prof) Architecture to the University of Johannesburg, apart from the help acknowledged, is my own work and has not been previously submitted to another university or institution of higher education for any other degree.

Signed: _________________________

Date: October 24, 2017


opaque

“Imagination is the only weapon in the war against reality� Lewis Carroll Alice In Wonderland


opaque


| Architectural Masters Graduate |


Millions discover their favorite reads on issuu every month.

Give your content the digital home it deserves. Get it to any device in seconds.