Informal Dwellings: Housing Solutions in Kenyaâ€™s Largest Informal Settlement
Informal Dwellings: Housing Solutions in Kenyaâ€™s Largest Informal Settlement
a project by
Stephen Williams M. Arch Spring 2012
chair: Martin Gundersen co-chair: Lisa Huang
This Masters Research Project is presented to the University of Florida and the School of Architecture in partial fulfillment of the requirement of the Masters of Architecture program.
Ackn owl e dge m e n t s Considering this is the first, and likely the last, book that I have written, I am going to take the time to acknowledge the people who have supported me on this crazy journey: First and foremost I’d like to thank the most gorgeous woman in the world, my wife Jen. You are my sunshine and my everything. You have survived being an “architecture widow” and your never-ending love, support and encouragement is the only reason I was able to make it through this crazy journey. My love for you grows exponentially every day. To my family for your unconditional love and instilling in me the values of hard work and dedication. I’ve gotten this far because of your love and support. I’d like to especially thank my beautiful mother for never giving up, no matter how hard things have gotten. Your perseverance is inspiring. I’d be remiss if I didn’t thank my grandpa, the man who helped to shape the person I have become. I think of you often and I hope I’ve made you proud. To “Baby Bee,” I pray our sacrifice inspires you to achieve your dreams no matter how long it takes or how difficult it gets. And always remember that no matter what, I love you. To the three best friends that anyone could have, we have pushed each other to better ourselves as men, husbands, fathers and sons. May we never lose focus of who are called to be. To Martin Gundersen and Lisa Huang, your impact on my career as an architect will never be forgotten. I have grown so much learning under you and I can’t thank you enough for taking me in. To the Thursday Morning MRP crew, the conversations we had were priceless. May we all find future conversations to be so rich and fulfilling. And finally, I must give all honor and glory to the One, without whom none of this would be possible, Jesus Christ. You have been a lamp unto my feet and a light unto my path. I pray that all I have done and all I will do brings you praise.
Ta bl e o f C o n te n ts In t r o d u c t i o n
Precedents Pr ec edent
Introducti on Pr ec edent M ap Jik o y a Jami i Kibera P roducti v e Space P roj ect 0 1 Kibera P roducti v e Space P roj ect 0 2 Kibera P roducti v e Space P roj ect 0 3 28 Mi l l i m eters : Wom en Kenyan Sl um Upgradi ng P rogram Hid den Ci ti es : K i bera Pr ec edent Summar y & the Rol e o f A rc h i te c tu re
Proposal Dia gram m ati c
P ropos al of Uni ts Com ponent Sy s tems of Uni ts S ite P l an S ite Render S ec ti onal Si te Anal y s i s Contex tual Renders Conceptual Renders
10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
30 32 46 48 50 58 64
S u mma r y
Wo r k s C it e d
â€œThey are seeking control over their own lives, and ways to solve the daily problems of subsistence. They reject the negative image that outsiders hold of them and will go to great lengths to alter it, given the opportunity.â€? - - Marc Howard Ross
image courtesy of Lori Thicke
In tr odu ct i on
The beginning of the 21st century has seen unprecedented international economic growth and with it the rise of rapid worldwide urbanization. Projections of global urban populations exceeding fifty percent in the first half of this century are commonplace. It is imperative that developing countries accommodate urban growth by taking steps that allow the new population to seamlessly integrate into their surroundings by loosening barriers of entry into the marketplace and providing an underlying infrastructure that aids and assists this transition, as opposed to hindering and obstructing. The growth of slums and the drain on economic resources are the by-products of inadequate infrastructure. Africa is a prime example. Whether it’s the Kibera slums of Nairobi or the refugee camps of Johannesburg, slum growth in the major cities of Africa stand in stark contrast to developing metropolis’ in Asia and South America where slum dwelling has decreased in direct relation to increases in largescale infrastructural investment.2 The people who live in these informal settlements are: “neither looking for handouts nor threatening the social and political order of their society. Instead, they are seeking control over their own lives, and ways to solve the daily problems of subsistence. They reject the negative image that outsiders hold of them and will go to great lengths to alter it, given the opportunity. A better understanding of these aspirations will, I hope, result in a more reasonable and humane government orientation toward urban squatters and greater assistance in helping people to help themselves.”1
History Early Kenyan urbanization was limited to the coastal cities of Mombasa and Lamu, but quickly spread inland as resources around the coast became more scarce.3 Before British colonization, Arab traders established caravan trade routes that bolstered some pre-existing indigenous trade centers. Once colonization took hold, these trade centers were replaced by European-centered trading posts that reshaped the economic
landscape and catered to European interests. Nairobi was one of these trading posts and post-colonial migration into the city from poor rural areas has put an unprecedented burden on city resources, infrastructure and transportation.4 Poor housing, a decaying environment and rundown infrastructure are the results of rapid spatial city expansion without the benefit of proper formal city planning and effective governance and management.5 This problem was readily apparent in colonial Nairobi where the indigenous people, British colonizers and Indian immigrants interacted on an urban scale and in modernday Nairobi, specifically Kibera, where there is a blurring of the lines between ancient tribal lands, residual colonial planning strategies and political allegiances. Dubbed the ‘cities of tomorrow’ slums aren’t going anywhere and it is best to engage and adapt to them, as opposed to destroying the intricate systems that have been established. Urban centers in America and Europe are places where slums were once prevalent but through proper investment in resources and infrastructure have turned into thriving urban landscapes.6 Often overlooked when considering the conditions of places like Kibera is many of the inhabitants have moved there from mostly rural areas where living conditions were much worse and have found happiness and relative prosperity in these new urban environments. The various locations of the slums tend to run adjacent to employment opportunities as they serve as labor for the various industrial or service sectors. This allows for a greater economic freedom than previously enjoyed. In fact, some residents don’t feel constrained at all by the material conditions within Kibera, but instead feel liberated by the existence of freedom from the restrictions and control that takes place in the ‘legal’ parts of the city.
Local People, Local Resources, Local Design Strategies
‘Dubai Fever’ has struck many cities in Africa. It is a syndrome where politicians and architects with a little bit of money hope to ‘cut and paste’ buildings seen in magazines in hopes of increasing their power base. These monuments are being built using local money to purchase foreign labor, foreign materials and serving mostly foreign and political purposes without any return benefit to the local community.7 In addition, these buildings are designed in a way that puts a strain on already limited energy resources, so any project that doesn’t take these factors into consideration during the design phase are doing a great disservice to the people. Projects that encourage the application of diverse economic and construction models that are dependent on local material, culture and labor to deal with infrastructural deficiencies should be given priority over massive schemes like the Grand Housing Project in Ethiopia.8 The utilization of local people and resources in the design and development of low-income affordable housing satisfies the needs of the people in a way that capitalizes on the strengths of all involved parties. While architectural intervention is not the cure all to the problems faced by the residents of the world’s informal settlements, it can be used as a tool to bring together people with various degrees of vested interest to provide for the betterment of the community as a whole. This Masters Research Project is an attempt to find architectural solutions that provide better living conditions to the residents of Kibera. Housing solutions have historically been neglected so that community scale infrastructural improvements can be implemented. Therefore, this project will propose solutions to housing problems in areas where community level infrastructural improvements have been made. It begins with an analysis of different projects that consider the larger scale, before I present my ideas relating to improving small-scale living conditions.
Located along the Indian Ocean in eastern Africa, Kenya is bordered by Ethiopia and Sudan to the north, Somalia to the east, Tanzania to the south and Uganda to the west. A British colony until the 1980â€™s, it is considered the most stable government in East Africa and its capital, Nairobi, is a UN World City that is home to many international government and charitable agencies. Political strife, war and famine have made it the home of refugees from neighboring countries. With no source of income many refugees move into urban areas in search of economic opportunities and end up living in informal settlements. There are over fifty such settlements, with Kibera being the largest. It is also considered one of the largest slums in the world. Kibera lies roughly 15 miles from Nairobiâ€™s city center and is bordered on the south by the Nairobi River and the Nairobi Dam. The Uganda Railway Line provides the northern boundary, although there are moments where Kibera crosses over the track. Kibera is consists of twelve neighborhoods: Kianda, Soweto West, Raila, Gatewekera, Kisumu Ndogo, Kambi, Mashimoni, Lani Saba, Lindi, Silanga, Makina and Soweta East.10
Physical Characteristics With topographical changes of more than 100 feet and the vast majority of buildings consisting of a single story, Kibera is an undulating landscape of densely-packed, self-built wattle and daub structures, roofed in corrugated metal. Unpaved roads, some with inclines upward of 20Â°, create an intricate system of pedestrian walkways that facilitate the movement of people.11 Lack of basic infrastructural necessities, like clean water, sewage and waste disposal are some of the major issues that face the residents. Inadequate water management policies and the unforgiving topography contribute to widespread flooding that often renders land unsuitable for building. In turn the land is used for waste disposal, resulting in a noticeable absence of public space.
Demographics According to a 2009 census, the total population of Kenya is a shade over 38.6 million people, compared to 28 million in 1999, indicating an increase of one million people per year. Despite a slight decline of fertility rates, 63 percent of the population is under 25, which shows a definitive need to invest and improve a struggling educational and economic infrastructure that could help transform Kenya into a middle-income country. The population is proportionate in regards to gender distribution with 19,192,458 males and 19,417,639 females. Kenya is a multi-ethnic state that has a diversity of cultures, demonstrated by the lack of a truly dominant ethnic group or community. The most populous community is the Kikuyu with 6.62 million people (which is only 17 percent of the total population), while the Luhya, Kalenjin, Luos and Kamba communities each account for at least ten percent of the total population. About 32 percent of the population currently resides in urban
areas, however most predictions call for more than 50 percent of the population to be situated in urban centers in the next 20 years. Kenyaâ€™s location in Eastern Africa, its relatively stable government and its designation as a UN world city has made it a haven for political refugees and an oasis of economic hope for those seeking employment. This has led to a sizeable increase in the Kenyan Somali population that has reached almost 2.4 million people and makes it the sixth largest community in Kenya. Religion also plays a major role in the population with only 2.4 percent of the population claiming no religious affiliation, while 83 percent (or 31.8 million people) of the population claims affiliation with a branch of Christianity. This overload towards one religious group stands in stark contrast to the diversity found in the many ethnic communities throughout Kenya where no group claims more than 17 percent of the population. Nairobi is the most densely populated area of Kenya and the most populous city in East Africa with an estimated 3.1 million people, hosting 1.5 million females and 1.6 million males. The change in male proportion of population shows a migratory pattern of men from rural areas. Nairobi is the home of over 100 major international companies and organizations, including the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the main coordinating and headquarters for the UN in Africa and the Middle East. This is all despite the fact that Nairobi is the youngest city in the region. Half of the population of Nairobi now lives in informal settlements but they only cover five percent of the land area of the city. There are sixty-six identified slums in Nairobi, with Kibera being the biggest. The population estimate for Kibera has ranged from 150,000 to 1.5 million over the years, but the latest census counted only 170,000 people. There is also some
controversy to the census methods used, so most conservative estimates put the current population around 250,000. Theories about the inflation of population numbers are plenty, but unfortunately any controversy surrounding actual numbers can draw attention away from the fact there is a definitive need that exists.12
Family Structure Like most countries in Africa, Kenya has historically been a patriarchal agrarian society with a distinct division of labor between sexes and as is common among agrarian societies, polygyny is an accepted form of family building. Societies, such as this, had long survived on subsistence production, apart from a capitalistic model, that established a total social system emphasizing kinship as the “essential idiom of social relations.”13 In Kenya the definition of family isn’t just “a bond between people for the purpose of sexual union and child rearing. It is an institution for the organization of labor,” and the establishment of a “household.”14 As reported earlier, men are migrating to urban centers looking for work, which necessitates an increase in family size. This urban migration also establishes a fresh take on polygyny as men are establishing households in the cities that remain autonomous from their rural establishments. Western society, beginning with colonialism and continuing today with the increase in globalization, has attempted to redefine households in urban areas to more closely resemble the “nuclear family” that we are used to. This shift in focus has put a strain on historic social behaviors as they move towards a more individualistic social control. Children are no longer as dependent on parents and often disregard filial duties, allowing their social importance to be simultaneously diminished. Husbands, who have gained economic stability become less dependent on their wives labor and they family becomes less connected with
other social groupings.15 The evolving role of family in the urban structure has led to a rethinking of familial commitments. There are more economic opportunities in the cities of Kenya; however there is an increasing economic burden as well. Rising school fees (free elementary education was just recently adopted, yet secondary education is private), clothing and food costs, along with the decreased significance of labor has caused a decrease in the size of urban families. This is evident by the fertility rates of rural and urban mothers. On average rural women have two more children than those living in urban areas. The gap increases to 2.3 children when looking at educated and uneducated women.16 In the slums of Nairobi, specifically Kibera, one gets the sense that households are as diverse as the people who inhabit them. The standard housing unit is a 10 foot x 10 foot one room dwelling, with occupation ranging from 2 to 15. Eighty-four percent of the units in Kibera fit this description, while only four percent are larger than two rooms.17 Depending on the location of dwellings to community open space or existing infrastructural paths, urban women have the ability to balance their existing societal roles with expanding economic opportunities. This expansion of duties has not diminished the role of the extended family structure in Kenya and despite pressure from education, globalization and cultural change: “The fundamental benefits of the extended family – as a source of wealth, productivity, and distribution of goods and opportunities; as a sociocultural bulwark and integrator of change; and as a regulator of childbearing and interpersonal relationships – have not been replaced by any other institutions.” 18
By involving the inhabitants of an area in community projects, a trust is formed that can allow access to more personal architectural intervention.
image courtesy of JR
Informal settlements, by their very nature, lack the typical infrastructural necessities required to provide basic human living conditions. Lack of running water, electricity, toilet facilities and sanitary sewer systems are common deficiencies found throughout the world’s poorest areas and Kibera is no different. Waste and refuse are the predominant material composition of building foundations in the area. Only five percent of Kibera residents have direct access to water in their home, while twenty-six percent of the homes have electricity and forty four percent of homes have no waste collection.19 Because of these factors, it is understandable that most outside interventions (whether government or NGO) refrain from developing individual residential improvements in order to deal with large-scale community projects that can benefit a more diverse group of people. These upgrades are a necessary first step to the restoration and prosperity of informal settlements. Another important, but often overlooked, aspect in implementing large-scale infrastructural projects is the development of critical relationships within the community. Undoubtedly, some communities still feel the scars of their colonialist past and have a uneasiness about foreign intervention. By involving the inhabitants of an area in community projects, a trust is formed that can allow access to more personal architectural intervention. The following precedents look at a variety of ways that architects, artists and government agencies have intervened in Kibera on a community level.
Jim Archer A Nairobi-based architect, Archer has had a distinguished professional and academic career in Kenya, Uganda and the UK. Having a partnership stake in various firms, in all three countries, he has a diverse portfolio that ranges from low-cost housing,
hospitals, recreational lodges that has resulted in five international and twelve national awards/nominations/commendations for architectural excellence.20 Despite his vast experience his most important work may be his simplest. Recognizing the vast amount of garbage present on the streets of Kibera and the need for a cheaper fuel source, Archer saw an opportunity develop an architectural system that allows for the collection, sorting and conversion of solid waste into a lowcost alternate fuel source that reduces the need for traditional fuel sources.
Kounkuey Design Initiative (KDI) Founded in 2006 by a group of architecture students from Harvard’s Graduate School of Design (GSD), KDI began as an attempt to transform “impoverished communities by collaborating with residents to create low-cost, high-impact built environments that improve their daily lives.” Since then they have developed in an “innovative international partnership specializing in the practices of architecture, landscape architecture, engineering, and urban planning.” Creating a system that works with communities from schematic design through implementation. During every phase, KDI seeks the input of the residents and augments ideas with “technical knowledge and design innovation” while connecting them to existing resources. The resulting “Productive Public Spaces” (PPS) empower communities to address the major physical, social and economic challenges they face.21 These spaces are designed to transform not only the communities, but also the physical land where they sit. Unusable, and often unsafe, land is chosen and basic infrastructural elements are designed to stabilize the area and cultivate active public spaces, where income-generating economic opportunities can be optimized. The residents are also put in
charge of managing these spaces.22 KDI has implemented these ideas in Haiti, Morocco and the United States, however their most accomplished work has been the three projects in Kibera. The Kibera Productive Space Project (KPSP) recently won the 2012 International ReSource Award for Sustainable Watershed Management from the Swiss Re for their implementation of watershed management and sustainability principles.23 All three KPSP’s include shoring up the river bank, environmental remediation, improvement of the water supply, inclusion of sanitation facilities and community buildings that have a positive educational, social and economic impact on the surrounding settlement.28 The prize money earned from the ReSource Award will be allow KDI to bolster their efforts in Kibera and allow construction of three more projects to add to the KPSP network.25
JR An artist who began his career shortly after finding a camera in the Parisian subway, JR freely exhibits his art in the streets of the world alongside the very subjects of his photography. Expanding, and often ignoring, the traditional definition of a gallery, his art attempts to transcend social and political boundaries. Portrait of a Generation, huge format portraits of “suburban thugs” posted in bourgeois districts of Paris and Face 2 Face, a large-format portrait exhibition of Israelis and Palestinians standing face to face placed throughout eight Palestinian and Israeli cities. These illegal exhibitions served as a prelude to his most ambitious work, 28 Millimeters: Women, an international project that underlined the dignity of women who are typically the targets of conflict.
engaging the community, the line that separate actors from spectators is blurred as the participants not only see the art, but are instrumental in making it.26
UN-HABITAT Mandated by the UN General Assembly, UN-HABITAT is the United Nations agency for human settlements that “promotes socially and environmentally sustainable towns and cities with the goal of providing adequate shelter for all.” Designed to find feasible, long-term solutions to rapid urbanization in human settlements that will improve the lives of millions of slum dwellers, they have laid out a strategic vision of attaining cities without slums.27 The Participatory Slum Upgrading Program (PSUP) was launched in 2008 and there are currently 29 countries and 63 cities in Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP) states that are involved in the program.28
Gareth Kingdon Dubbed “Virtual Reality,” Kingdon created panoramic images consisting of “twenty individual frames taken in a multi-row 360° rotation.” The increased visual field of information allows the viewer to gain a greater understanding of the subject matter while capturing the entire context. This method was devised in reaction to the complaint of Kibera residents that traditional “photographers photograph poor sanitation or rubbish where outside the picture a flourishing business or school is ignored.”29
Described as “Pervasive Art,” JR installs his canvases in uninvited places allowing people who live with the bare minimum to discover something absolutely unnecessary. By
K ib era Pr e ce den t M ap 12
Jiko ya Jamii Architect_ Jim Archer Date_ 2008
One of the major infrastructural challenges taking place in Kibera, and throughout Kenya, is the lack of access to low-cost reliable fuel source. In fact, most of Kenya’s forty million residents cook with charcoal or wood-based fires, which can cause respiratory diseases and contributes to large-scale deforestation. The award-winning “Community Cooker” is a communal oven that uses trash from the community as fuel. This machine can easily be built and repaired by members of the local community, while incurring minimal operating expenses. Residents collect, transport and sort the trash in exchange for cooking time. Others can pay a small fee, which is less than the price of other fuel sources, to use the cooker. A community-based organization sorts the collected trash onto racks, which is then dried and distributed to the burn box. Recyclables are put aside to be sold separately and biodegradable scraps become compost.30 The cooker, which is capable to burn upwards of 40 Kg of trash per hour, reaches temperatures over 1600° F. This allows for the burning of just about anything while eliminating toxic gases that are produced as a by-product.31 The roof of the structure collects water that is heated and used to cook meals and provide hot water for showers.
opposite top conceptual sketch of the Jiko ya Jamii image courtesy of Design with the Other 90%
opposite middle water tanks image courtesy of Architecture for Humanity
opposite bottom trash collection and sorting area image courtesy of Architecture for Humanity
top Jiko ya Jamii being used by local residents image courtesy of Design with the Other 90%
far left worker placing sorted and dried trash into the furnace image courtesy of Architecture for Humanity
left stoking the burn box image courtesy of Design with the Other 90%
Kibe r a P r odu ct i ve Pr oje ct 0 1
S pa c e
Architect_Kounkuey Design Initiative Date_ 2006-2010
Lying on the border of the Soweto East and Silanga villages in southeast Kibera, KSPS 01 occupies an important area adjacent to the river running through Kibera and the Nairobi Dam. Due to seasonal flooding the site served as a dumping ground because of the inability to build and pass on foot. In an effort to reclaim the unusable land and combat the lack of traditional open space, KDI, with the input of the local community, first designed and constructed a gabion wall system along with a bridge that sits above the 100-yr flood plain and allows access between important parts of Kibera and allows the previous dumping ground to house amenities that meet the primary needs of the community. After addressing the critical issue of access, KDI designed a multiuse public pavilion that provides shade, captures rainwater, and has operable panels that also serve as drying racks for water hyacinth harvesting. The pavilion can also accommodate over 200 residents and has the capability to be used to host income-generating activities. A playground was built to provide a safe environment for the children of Kibera to play while encouraging social interaction. An on-site office is purposed to store materials, host visitors and do paperwork. It is now home to weekly community and business meetings and occasionally as a health clinic. After addressing the social aspects of the site, KDI looked into strategies that would maximize opportunities for economic development. A compost farm was introduced to become a main part of the economic activity of KSPS 01. Organic waste is collected at homes and brought to the farm to be harvested into organic fertilizers. The compost is then sold or used in the local gardens to cultivate a food source. The nearby dam is currently being overrun by the invasive Water Hyacinth weed. Fortunately, the weed can be easily harvested and used to make a variety of products. A group of community members were trained to harvest, cure and weave the fibers of the Water Hyacinth and have formed a group, the Kiki Women Weavers, that sells handmade products and capitalizes on spaces created by KSPS 01.32
top original site conditions of KSPS 01
middle community gathering in the pavilion
below children using the playground
top the bridge linking two important areas of Kibera. all images courtesy of Kounkuey Design Initiative
right installation of the gabion wall at KSPS01
Kibera Productive Space Project 02 Architect_Kounkuey Design Initiative Date_ 2010-2011
Located in a dense residential area at the intersection of a major circulation route and the river, the site of KSPS 02 was unsuitable for building because of flooding and erosion and, like the site of KSPS 01, was used as a dumping ground. Four makeshift toilets dumped directly into the river. The community expressed concern over the use of the site as a dumping grounds and eighty residents joined in the cleanup effort before construction began. A gabion wall system was installed along the banks in order to combat existing erosion and flooding problems, while providing soil stability for building use. Listening to the priorities laid out by the community, KDI developed an infrastructural intervention that consisted of a more complex set of buildings than KPSP 01. Replacing the makeshift toilets with a public sanitation center, consisting of six toilets, four showers, a water tap, connections to Nairobi water and sewer lines, provides the infrastructural stability necessary for better hygienic conditions. A community partner will run the sanitation block and usage fees allow for proper maintenance. Staying true to form, after KDI dealt with important infrastructural issues, a playground, made of bamboo and locally sourced wood, was built to activate the space and provide a safe place for children to gather and play. Upon completion of the sanitation block and playground, KDI built commercial kiosks that provide space for local vendors, who have formed a womenâ€™s baking cooperative, to sell their goods. The roof of the kiosks collect water that is used in the sanitation block. Soil-stabilized bricks, made by a co-op that was founded in the area, were used in the construction of the kiosks and sanitation block. The co-op provides an economic opportunity in the area and has to continued to make bricks that are being sold wholesale.33
above previous site conditions at KSPS 02 below children playing on the new playground both image courtesy of Kounkuey Design Initiative
top opening celebration at KSPS 02
left improvised swing typically found in Kibera
right sanitation block viewed from the river on ground stabilized by the gabion wall far right construction of kiosks by local laborers all images courtesy of Kounkuey Design Initiative
Kibera Productive Space Project 03 Architect_Kounkuey Design Initiative Date_ 2011-current
KPSP 03, located in southwest Kibera, is situated along two large river banks that flood during the rainy season. Despite pollution from waste disposal, the river serves as a public gathering space as families do laundry and kids play. Pedestrian access is affected by poor drainage in the area. Improving pedestrian access and drainage was priority number one and was accomplished using cement and stones to create a drainage channel abutting the paths. Gabion walls were constructed to stabilize the river banks and encourage recreational and leisure uses. Recycled metal and locally sourced lumber were used in the construction of a playground, while a community center, housing a school and clinic, is in the works. KDI also plans on constructing a poultry farm and kiosks to provide economic opportunities for local residents.34
above playground, gabion wall and new drainage ditch at KSPS 03 left top drainage before KDIâ€™s intervention
left middle new drainage ditch
left bottom new gabion structure along the river
right girls posing for a picture on the playground
opposite top river at KSPS 03
opposite bottom women washing laundry in the contaminated river all images courtesy of Kounkuey Design Initiative
28 Millimeters: Women Artist_JR Date_ 2008
JR’s 28 Millimeters: Women work was used to bring awareness to the plight of women in disadvantaged areas of the world. JR photographed women in conflicted areas of the world, such as Kibera. After editing and resizing the images, he installed the gigantic canvases on walls and roofs in the areas where the original pictures where taken, turning traditional public spaces into open-air galleries. To wrap up his work, JR then photographed the installations.35 The intervention, while not necessarily architectural, explores existing spatial conventions and the residents of Kibera’s relation to them. JR emphasized the expressive nature of his subjects by distorting the traditional image typically portrayed in the west. JR understood and capitalized on an important part of engaging these disadvantaged communities. By involving locals in every stage of the project, he was able to foster a sense of community ownership that brought pride and recognition to an area that is often not considered.
top row JR’s portraits of the women of Kibera
opposite right portrait placed in a community space
opposite far right aerial image of Kibera after the introduction of JR’s work on the roofs of the residences bottom row JR’s portaits interacting with the community in a uniquely interesting way all images courtesy of Kounkuey Design Initiative
KENyan S l u m U pgr ad i ng Pr oje ct (KENS U P ) UN-Habitat & Government of Kenya Date_ 2008
With an objective to improve the overall the livelihoods of people living and working in the informal settlements of Nairobi, the government of Kenya and UN-HABITAT partnered to achieve their goal through targeted interventions that address shelter, infrastructure services, land tenure and employment issues.36 A series of committees and institutional arrangements, undertook social and economic mappings of the twelve neighborhoods of Kibera in an attempt to identify important liaisons that assisted in sensitizing communities on slum upgrading by ensuring that intent is effectively communicated. From there a physical map, showing detailed information of the physical features of the neighborhoods and structural properties, was digitized to show the rearrangement of structures to lessen density and provide infrastructural services.37 The resulting solution was the integration of government-controlled apartments that provide the basic necessities of water, power and sewage. Residents of Soweto, one of the twelve neighborhoods in Kibera, were relocated to a nearby â€œdecanting site,â€? while the existing structures are upgraded to create a formal settlement. Facing its fair share of both admiration and controversy, this project has done an admirable job of solving infrastructural insufficiences. However, these positives have been at the cost of cultural and economic traditions. An increase in rent has added to the economic burden, while most residents who relied on commercial-type home businesses have been removed from their customer base.
above KENSUP â€œDecanting Siteâ€? sitting along the edge of Soweto image courtesy of Victoria Cronin
opposite top women with an informal shop in the courtyard image courtesy of Victoria Cronin
opposite bottom kids posing in the courtyard image courtesy of Victoria Cronin
left a wash basin in units image courtesy of Victoria Cronin
right informal shop set up on the porch of a unit image courtesy of Forbes
Artist_Gareth Kingdon Date_ 2010
H idd en C i ti es: Ki be ra
all images courtesy of Gareth Kingdon
image courtesy of Kounkuey Design Initiative
Architectural design inextricably linked to an intimate understanding of the needs of the
The preceding case studies seek to gain an understanding of the attempts that have been made to identify and solve the infrastructural, social and economic problems facing the residents of the largest informal settlement in East Africa. Lack of clean water, sanitary sewer systems and waste disposal highlight the existence of insufficient infrastructural commodities, while minimal public spaces and poorly designed and constructed buildings contribute to less than ideal social and economic conditions. It is no coincidence then that the most successful projects are those that recognize all three areas of deficiency and design an integrated, multi-prong approach that carefully considers the needs of the people of Kibera. The success of KDI’s Productive Space Projects can easily be traced to their efforts to involve the community in every step of the decision making process. From pre-planning through construction, they trained and educated the community on how to capitalize on the infrastructural, social and economic improvements that were made. KDI did not just build a infrastructure, they used locally-sourced materials or taught people how to manufacture them, so that they could use that skill for future economic benefit. They recognized the lack of public gathering space and made the implementation of it a priority. That is why every project incorporates a playground in an area of reclaimed land. This three-pronged holistic approach to community intervention has endeared them to the residents and laid the foundation for future development opportunities. The “Community Cooker” has gained attention from all over the world for its simple approach to a complex problem. An all-in-one unit that has the ability to collect and sort garbage. The garbage is then converted into fuel, that is used to purify water, provide warm showers and cook, or compost, which is sold to locals who use it fertilize their gardens. The ovens are
being used by local women in their bakery and earthenware businesses. The success of this project is in the understanding of the needs of the community and a design that met those needs. Understanding the approach taken by the previous projects, with an emphasis on small-scale urban renewal, it is easy to see why the largest project has been the most controversial. The Kenyan Slum Upgrading Program (KENSUP) is an extremely ambitious project that has divided communities from the outset. Unlike the aforementioned projects, KENSUP’s focus was primarily driven by much-needed infrastructural improvements, with little if no regard from the social and economic implications of development. Shop owners were moved from their street front units in Soweto to the “decanting site,” separated from their customer base and put into a unit that could be off the ground level. Residents have adapted and many seemingly enjoy the new facilities, however lawsuits from advocacy groups have seemingly stopped the project in its tracks. The Role of Architecture So far, the discussion has been on social, economic and infrastructural issues, with little mention of the architectural design process and the role of the architect in improving the lives of the residents of Kibera. This can be attributed to the fact that I am not necessarily interested in a full critique on how “good” the architectural design of a project is, as much as I am interested in an approach to design that acknowledges the complexity of issues facing the communities and works diligently to address those issues. This approach often leads to the most interesting architecture. The “zoomed out” view of Kibera’s patinaed landscape evokes a sense of homogeneity that upon first glance begs for a grand, master plan that “formalizes” the “informal,” as if 250,000+
people from a variety of social, ethnic, and religious backgrounds could be shoehorned into a singular architectural vernacular. This is where I believe that the KENSUP project has fallen woefully short. Their one-size-fits-all solution to poor urban redevelopment (which is obviously influenced by public housing models implemented in the US and Europe) architecturallyt whitewashes an established vernacular, imagining a tabula rasa on which a new architecture would arise. Design innovation has been exchanged for political expediency with the communities interests deemed less important than the bureaucrats who control the capital. The result is an architecture of uninspired individual and communal spaces. The character that gives Kibera its beauty is exchanged for a homogenous social ideal. This is why there has been so much opposition. The architectural solution ignores the people who are affected most by the change. On the other hand KDIâ€™s success must be attributed to an architectural design inextricably linked to an intimate understanding of the needs of the community, resulting in an architectural dialogue with limitless design opportunities.
implemented by the government of Kenya and UN-HABITAT with an architecture that capitalizes on the lessons learned from preceding case studies. While structures in Kibera can span over 120 feet in length and 30 feet in width, 84 percent of the units are single rooms that are no bigger than ten feet by ten feet and in some instances house upwards of 15 people.38 The work of Gareth Kingdon shows the many different ways that these small units are being used on a daily basis. Through a series of diagrams I will investigate the spatial conditions of the existing units and compare them to initial design ideas that take into consideration three factors: an infrastructural core, the ability to introduce light and air into the interior spaces and a structural system that allows for flexibility of programming. Each individual building component will be analyzed for its architectural and social significance before being integrated into the site plan. From there a sectional study and series of renders will display the possibilities of my design proposals.
After Infrastructure As previously stated, the vast majority of architectural intervention in Kibera deals with infrastructural needs, while ignoring existing residential conditions. The question then becomes, what happens after infrastructure? By locating my experimental site in the vicinity of KPSP 02 I can assume a community where the basic infrastructural needs are met and can shift my focus to architectural solutions that stabilize individual infrastructural needs, while providing opportunities for creative design solutions.Secondly, this project is an attempt to counter the architectural solutions proposed and
Diagrammatic Analysis of Units This diagrammatic investigation looks at the spatial relationship (in both plan and section) of the existing residential units (bottom) and proposed units, based off the existing 10â€™ x 10â€™ module, with the integration of infrastructural cores (shaded areas), access to light and air and structural flexibility. Arrangement of units in relation to the infrastructural core took precedent over the other two criteria and led to a variety of possible solutions that could be investigated further, including a continuous public infrastructural bar, square cores would create a common infrastructural area accessed by the four connecting units, while rectangular cores would allow private access to the two adjacent units. Core and unit spacing were also investigated to allow ease of human and air circulation between units. Spacing could also allow for future expansion of units.
Component Systems of Units Understanding the interdependence of the component systems is vitally important to the deployment of the proposed units in this project. The set of axonometric drawings (opposite page) and the following pages show the stages of component systems analysis, while highlighting their relationship to each other.
System 01: Foundation
System 04: Enclosure
System 02: Structural Grid
System 05: Roof [Structure]
System 03: Infrastructural Cores
System 06: Roof
Fou n da t i on It is widely understood that in order for a building to maintain structural integrity, the foundation must be well designed. There are many ways in which one can accomplish this, but an option that will never be reasonably considered is the use of trash or rubbish. Yet, this is exactly what the majority of structures in Kibera are built on.(CAROLINE FOR KIBERA CITATION) Besides the obvious structural deficiencies, buildings being built in this manner undoubtedly have a negative impact on the health and living conditions of the people who occupy the interior spaces, as anyone or anything that comes into contact with it risk contamination. Factor in the susceptibility of many units to flood during the rainy season and the need for foundational stability is the most important architectural issue facing the residents of Kibera. However, I would be remiss if I limited the understanding of the foundation’s importance to structural integrity and health concerns. The footprint can serve to benefit the social and economic needs of the inhabitants. Therefore I propose a plinth that extends beyond the walls of the residential units and permits the introduction of porch space that can be used for social or economic activities. This exterior space can be programmed to fit the needs deemed most important by the occupants of the individual units. It can serve as the storefront where a shopkeeper displays the items up for sale or a local gathering space for social interaction. As displayed in Kingdon’s work, the people of Kibera are experts at maximizing the use of existing space, so the potential for spatial innovation is boundless.
The plinth will bear the load of the infrastructural core as well as the roof structure that sits inside the individual units. The exterior roof structure will be attached to floating footings that allow for flexible adaptation in future expansion. The depth of the plinth will be adjusted based on conditions specific to the site and top of the footing will as a rule sit three inches above the top of the plinth. Beyond the relationship of the foundation to the individual units, its design allows for a flexibility of form in the grouping of units. Typical groupings usually take traditional “I”, “L” or “U” forms. The proposed plinth can be designed to react to site-specific contextual issues, providing a variety of design solutions that do not currently exist. The manipulation of foundational form allows for the possibility of creative interstitial design opportunities that begin to stitch together public and private spaces. Material selection should take into consideration the availability of local resources, expected product life span, cost, skill set of the local labor force and the ability to transport the material to the site. Concrete has become more readily accessible to the people of Kibera and should be the first option. However, there are examples of rammed earth technology being incorporated into building foundations, which provides another viable material solution. For the purposes of this project a concrete plinth and footings were assumed.
Plans showing variation in the forms of possible foundation based on the response to contextual understandings of the chosen site.
St r u ct u r al Gr i d In order to achieve the design goals of allowing light and air into the unit and providing an adaptable living space to the occupants, an independent structural system, separate from the infrastructural cores, is necessary. A seven and a half foot structural grid, designed to provide sufficient structural stability while minimally impacting the interior spaces, is overlaid at the area of intervention. This grid informs the form of the foundation, while also creating grid points for the structural elements. The resulting columns serve as the major structural component supporting the roof. The dividing wall of the infrastructural cores, which provides privacy and mid-span roof support, lies on the central grid line. The structural grid also informs spatial planning of the infrastructural cores in relation to one another. Care should be taken if “breaking the grid” is deemed necessary. The location and design of cores, columns and the roof have been carefully linked to the grid and proper consideration must be given to the spatial ramifications of manipulating unit placement in response to contextual conditions. The resulting spaces can create interstitial opportunities to connect to the
surrounding context or they can become “bad space”. Material selection of the columns should be consistent with the considerations specified in the other building components, such as access to local resources, expected product life span and the ability of local labor sources to work with the material. Flooding has long been an issue in Kibera and the resulting long- and short-term structural damage done to units should be taken into consideration. It would be advantageous for exterior columns to sit above flood levels. Therefore, they will rest on the footings outlined in the section on foundations. The top face of the footing should sit a minimum of three inches above the top face of the foundation. The structural integrity of wood or bamboo would run the risk of being compromised without the use of the footings. Considering the propensity of areas of Kibera to flood, placing the base of the structure onto the footings provides flexibility in material selection for the structural components. For the purposes of this project, wood was chosen as the material option for the columns, with metal connections to the concrete plinth and footings.
Plans showing the structural grid overlaid onto the previously developed foundations.
In fr ast r u ct u r al C or e The previously examined architectural precedents were chosen because of their emphasis on the infrastructural needs of the community. The infrastructural core addresses the needs of the individual tenants. While the shape of the core is rigid, it permits a flexibility in program that is determined by the occupant. It could be the site of a small cistern used to collect rainwater or the location of a small kitchen. Shopkeepers could utilize the area to store their goods or it could be used as extra living space for a larger family.
will separate residences while providing private access to the divided core.
As units are grouped, shared core walls create sound barriers to allow for privacy. The shared wall would then serve as the structural element supporting the middle span of the roof. In cases where two units are combined into a single, larger unit, the shared wall can be removed and replaced by the standard structural elements.
Material selection will be determined with an emphasis on the availability of locally-sourced products, expected life span, cost, skill set of the local labor force, the ability to create a sustained source of income generation and the ability to transport materials to site. Traditional wattle-and-daub construction should be avoided in the construction of the infrastructural core. Advancements in technology have made Stabilized Soil Blocks, Concrete Masonry Units, rammed earth and concrete tilt wall relatively accessible to the people of Kibera.
Inserting these cores into the footprint of the existing units would provide little benefit to the residents who currently deal with a limited amount of occupiable “living” space. To maximize occupiable space, the cores will be situated along the perimeter of the residential unit. Standard unit grouping will consist of two dwelling units with a single attached core. A shared core wall
Two cores can be attached to create a “quad” of units or they can be separated to allow for greater circulation between units, with the understanding that any future expansion efforts would take place on non-core walls. The grouping of units will be arranged on the plinth as a reaction to the same contextual issues raised in the development of the foundation.
For the purposes of this project, the infrastructural core was envisioned to be made of soil stabilized bricks.
Plans showing the placement of the infrastructural cores in relation to the structural grid.
En c losur e Intimate and private, the dwelling unit (more than any other component) should provide the greatest flexibility to the occupants. Any interior spatial planning, outside of the placement of the cores, should be left up to the individual. That doesn’t, however, imply that there is no role for design. Working off the existing 10’ x 10’ modular unit, the new standard unit covers the same amount of area, while having slightly different proportions. This shift is due to the relationship of the occupiable space to the structural grid. Depending on the placement of the structural cores, some larger units may occur. As previously noted, the roof does not rely on the enclosure for structural stability. This allows flexibility in building design decisions because of the decrease in necessary structural load requirements. The enclosure wall should be no shorter than nine feet and should remain detached from the roof. The gap between the top of the enclosure wall and roof should not be enclosed, except with a insect screen. This provides visual privacy to the occupants, while allowing the free flow of air and penetration of ambient light into the units and prevents the entrance of
disease carrying insects. Another consideration that should be given to the construction of the enclosure is the utility of its uses. Shopkeepers could install moveable panels that could create storefronts for trade. As with all other components, material using should take into consideration the availability of local resources, expected material life span, skill set of the local labor force and ability to transport the selected material to the site. The design intent for the enclosure is to allow for future expansion and modifications to the units, so concrete and other “permanent” materials should be avoided. Traditional wattle-and-daub construction is acceptable, although innovative new ways of construction are consistently being introduced into the marketplace. For the purposes of this project, the material for the enclosure was proposed as high-quality corrugated metal sheets set between and lightweight steel structure. Woven hyacinth screens, made by the Kiki Weaver at KPSP 01, are overlaid on the exterior of the enclosure to provide visual texture while manipulating the scalar effect.
Plans showing the introduction of the enclosure systems to the foundation and structural components
Roof Improvement of living conditions is a critical part of the design goals of this project. Manipulation of the roof is the primary design solution to introducing light and air into the unit, collection of rainwater and providing opportunities for healthier dwelling spaces. The distinctive patina of traditionally pitched, corrugated metal roofs are prominent in almost any image of Kibera. Serving as protection from the elements, the roofs, supported by wattleand-daub walls, prevent the flow of air and penetration of light and contribute to the flooding issues by having no rainwater retention capabilities. With a foundation of waste and refuse, and the dark, damp conditions the resulting air quality is detrimental to the respiratory health of the individuals living in the existing units. Air quality is even further impacted in units where cooking is done indoors. The toxic smoke emitted by wood- or kerosene-based fires compounds the health risks to potentially deadly levels. Supporting the roof with columns instead of the unit walls provides opportunities to accomplish established design goals. It is best achieved by detaching the unit from the roof and inverting the traditional pitch. Considering nine foot walls in the standard unit and that the lowest point of the roof attaches to the dividing wall of the infrastructural core at almost eleven feet, the gap allows for the natural flow of air, while dramatically increasing
the amount of ambient light available in the unit. The inversion also provides a means to collect rainwater, which can be used for cooking or household chores, while preventing erosion from run-off. The roof plane can be manipulated to react to contextual conditions and will typically mirror the form of the slab. Spanning over multiple unit groupings, the roof ensures covered entrances into units and protection from the elements. Kiberaâ€™s proximity to the equator and altitude provides a high sun and moderate temperature year round. Skylights installed in the roof can allow natural light into the units throughout the day. The skylights can also be adapted to assist in rainwater collection or serve as a chimney for a kitchen. Because of this, the installation of skylights should be dependent on the needs of the individual units and uniformity between skylights should be avoided. Material choices for the roof, its structure and the skylights should consider the availability of local resources, the expected product life span, skill set of the local labor force and the ability to transport the selected material to the site. For the purposes of this project, a wood sub-structure supports a stone-coated metal roof. The skylights are locally handmade clay pots that have had the bases removed.
Plans outlining the roof condition and its relation to the structural and enclosure systems.
Site Plan Developing a site plan that works in the area that has seen community-scale infrastructural improvements is the in way to sufficiently answer the question posed earlier, â€œWhat happens after infrastructure?â€? This site plan examines the different ways that the proposed units can be deployed in the context surrounding the Kibera Productive Space Project 02 by Kounkuey Design Initiative (KDI). With the river and two major pedestrian paths, this area provides an opportunity to explore the reaction of the units to the contextual ideas of Edge, Embed and Engage. Edge Aligning porch space along the pedestrian paths gives residents the ability to adapt the use of their units to create an income stream that capitalizes on the existing edge conditions. Manipulating the form of the units to react to the path creates a large community space that is connected through the units. Embed When dealing with an area as dense as Kibera, the inclusion of public space is vital to the health of the community. Shearing the form of the units creates an embedded open space that provides opportunity for social interaction or a possible garden. Engage Public space is rare in Kibera, so it is necessary to take care in engaging the space that exists along both pedestrian paths and the river. The inclusion of units in these areas assists in the interstitial mediation of public and private space.
Sec ti o na l S i te Ana l y s i s With elevational shifts of over one hundred feet, the dramatic sectional nature of Kibera present both opportunities and hindrances. The following sectional analysis explores the sectional qualities of the proposed units and how they interact with the landscape and the existing urban fabric.
C o ntex tua l R end ers By overlaying the proposed units into images of Kibera, these renders explore how the units could be integrated into the existing context without the benefit of other interventions. The resulting images display a richness of texture that highlights the opportunities for the inhabitants to ownership in the architecture.
C o nc ep tua l R end ers The following conceptual renders examine the proposed units and their relationship to each other and to the context. Render 01 examines the relationship of the set of units to an existing edge condition along a tight pedestrian path. The roof extends over the plinth and engages the path to create a covered area that can be used as a commercial space. Render 02 examines the relationship of two sets of units that straddle a pedestrian path. The two roofs extend over their respective plinths to create a commercial corridor accented with a new public space. Render 03 examines a set of units along a major pedestrian path and an existing public space. The new units are able to mediate the create an interstitial space that mediates an existing commercial edge with a more intimate public space.
Su mmar y
Rapid Urbanization is a serious issue facing the developing countries of the world. Population growth is outpacing infrastructural development, resulting in informal settlements popping up all over the globe. These areas, despite their cultural and contextual differences, typically suffer from squalid living conditions, lack of running water, electricity and access to economic opportunity. Kibera is a prime example of this condition, yet despite the inherent setbacks, the people can thrive given the opportunity. Massive, one-size-fits-all schemes rarely work as planned and often result in unintended consequences. They typically ignore the cultural and societal differences and assume that a single solution will satisfy all the needs of the people. Kibera, with twelve neighborhoods and hundreds of thousands of residents, is as diverse as any large urban area in the West and should be treated with the same sensitivity to the existing historical fabric. It is important for any architectural intervention to not only take into consideration the needs of the community, but to involve them in every aspect of design and planning in order to foster a sense of pride in ownership, while also providing opportunities to foster growth that can further their educational or vocational skill sets. Inherent in this is the use of locally sourced materials for construction, ensuring the flow of capital to stay in the area and benefit the community long term. It is important to note, that my proposal is meant as â€œconfetti in the landscapeâ€? and I encourage additional explorations into other architectural possibilities. My one regret through the process of this project was my inability to visit Kibera, but I am confident that one day I will be able to meet and interact with the people of Kibera and imagine that the impact they will have on me will be immeasurable.
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Aerni, P. (2010). Sustainable Urbanization: The Missing Bottom-Up Dimension. African Technology Development Forum (ATDF) Journal , 7 (1/2), p 44. Ross, M. H. (1973). The Political Integration of Urban Squatters. African Urban Studies. Chicago, IL. Northwestern University Press. As quoted by Brian Ekdale. “Same-Same Mathare.” www.brianekdale.com. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. Otiso, K. M. (2005). Colonial Urbanization and Urban Management in Kenya. In S. J. Salm, & T. Falola (Eds.), African Urban Spaces in Historical Perspective (p. 73 - 97). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. ibid. Adebayo, A. (2002). The Future African City. Cities, 19(5), p 351-355. Neuwirth, R. (2006). Shadow Cities: A Billion Squatters, A New Urban World. Routledge. Giorghis, F. (2009). Lecture. University of Florida. Hebel, D. (2010). Appropriateness Is A Moving Target: The Re-invention of Local Construction Technologies and Materials in Ethiopia. African Technology Development Forum (ATDF) Journal, 7(1/2), p 40-43. ibid. Kibera. www.wikipedia.org/wiki/kibera. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. Smith, D. (2005). Kibera: Africa’s Largest Slum. Affordable Housing Institute:United States. Blog. Posted Jul. 7, 2005. http://affordablehousinginstitute.org/blogs/us/2005/07/kibera_africas.html. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. All demographic data was parsed from census data through the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics. www.knbs.or.ke. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. Oheneba-Sakyi, Y and B. Takyi. (2006) African Families at the Turn of the 21st Century. Greenwood Publishing Group. p 204. ibid. p 205. ibid. p 216. ibid. p 212 ETH Studio Basel. (2010). Kibera as a City. Lotus 143: Learning from Favelas. p 25. Oheneba-Sakyi. p 22. ETH Studio Basel. p 28 - 29. Archer, James H. “Profile”. http://www.planning-kenya.com/about_team.php. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. Kounkuey Design Initiative (KDI). “About”. www.kounkuey.org/about.html. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012 ibid. Swiss Re. “Home”. www.resourceaward.org. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012 Swiss Re. “Kibera Productive Space Project”. http://www.resourceaward.org/kibera-productive-public-space. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012 KDI Blog. “KDI Wins 2012 ReSource Award. Blog. http://blog.kounkuey.org/2012/03/23/kdi-wins-2012-resource- award/. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. JR. “JR.” www.jr-art.net. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. UN-Habitat. “Mandate”. http://www.unhabitat.org. Accessed Apr 29, 2012.
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UN-Habitat. “About PSUP”. http://www.unhabitat.org/content.asp?typeid=19&catid=592&cid=10980. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. Kingdon, Gareth. “Life in Kibera - Celebrating the Ordinary.” Blog. http://garethkingdon.wordpress.com/. Posted Feb 10, 2010. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012 Cooper Union National Design Museum. “Community Cooker (Jiko ya Jamii)”. Design with the Other 90%: Cities.
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http://www.designother90.org/cities/solutions/community-cooker-jiko-ya-jamii. Access Apr 29, 2012. Davis, J. 2011. “Smart is When You Convert Trash Into Heating for Cooking.” Sunday Nation. http://www.nation.co.ke/. Posted Feb 28, 2011. Accessed Apr 29, 2012. KDI. “Kibera Productive Space Project 01 (KPSP 01).” Projects: Kibera: KPSP 01. http://www.kounkuey.org/Kibera_ PPS1.html. Accessed Apr 29, 2012. KDI. “Kibera Productive Space Project 03 (KPSP 02).” Projects: Kibera: KPSP 02. http://www.kounkuey.org/Kibera_ PSP2.html. Accessed Apr 29, 2012. KDI. “Kibera Productive Space Project 03 (KPSP 03).” Projects: Kibera: KPSP 03. http://www.kounkuey.org/Kibera_ PPS3.html. Accessed Apr 29, 2012. JR. “JR.” www.jr-art.net. Accessed Apr. 29, 2012. UN-Habitat. “Kenya Slum Upgrading Project (KENSUP).” http://www.unhabitat.org/. Accessed Apr 29, 2012. ibid. ETH Basel. p 25
Ima ge s C i t e d Architecture for Humanity - All images cited found at www.architectureforhumanity.org/files/Anna%20Oursler_FINAL_DOM%20 2011.pdf Design for the Other 90% - All images cited found at www.designother90.org/cities/solutions/community-cooker-jiko-ya-jamii Forbes - Image cited found at http://www.forbes.com/sites/megacities/2011/04/12/location-location-location-how-one-manspatio-is-another-mans-paycheck/ JR - All images cited found at http://www.jr-art.net/ Lori Thicke - image cited found at http://lori4twb.wordpress.com/2011/12/13/394/ Kounkuey Design Initiative - All images cited found at www.koukuey.org or www.blog.kounkuey.org Victoria Cronin - All images cited found at https://plus.google.com/photos/103124809952362694834/albums/53850846801 58774945?banner=pwa