Issuu on Google+

1 Pearl Villa

Guide for consultants Version 1 September 2010


Introduction to Estidama Four pillars of estidama

l a i

v i n e ron

estidama

cu l t

s o c

The Pearl Rating System for Estidama is one of the key tools for driving and determining of sustainable development. The completion of the Pearl Rating System for Communities, Buildings and Villas marks a critical step in the progression of Estidama by providing a suite of tools that will be the basis for sustainable development from master plan to plot.

eco

mic no

The aspirations of Estidama are incorporated into Plan 2030 and other Urban Planning Council (UPC) policies such as the Development Code. Estidama began two years ago and is the first program of its kind that is tailored to the Middle East region. In the immediate term, Estidama is focused on the rapidly changing built environment. It is in this area that the UPC is making significant strides to influence projects under design, development or construction within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.

a t l n e m

al ur

Estidama, which means ‘sustainability’ in Arabic, is the initiative which will transform Abu Dhabi into a model of sustainable urbanization. Its aim is to create more sustainable communities, cities and global enterprises and to balance the four pillars of Estidama: environmental, economic, cultural and social.


Introduction to Estidama the pearl rating system for estidama

estidama for villas

The Pearl Rating System for Estidama aims to address the sustainability of a given development throughout its lifecycle from design through construction to operation. The System provides detailed requirements for rating a villa’s potential performance in relation to the four pillars of Estidama.

As of September, 2010, all new villas in Abu Dhabi will have to achieve a minimum 1 Pearl Rating. This means that design teams will have to demonstrate that each of the required credits of the Pearl Villa Rating System will be achieved. These required credits are as follows:

The Pearl Rating System is organized into seven categories that are fundamental to more sustainable development. Integrated Development Process: Encouraging cross-disciplinary teamwork to deliver environmental and quality management. Natural Systems: Conserving, preserving and restoring critical natural environments and habitats. Livable Villas: Ensuring quality of outdoor and indoor spaces. Precious Water: Reducing water demand and encouraging alternative water sources. Resourceful Energy: Targeting energy conservation through passive design measures, energy efficiency and renewable sources. Stewarding Materials: Ensuring consideration of the ‘whole-of-life’ cycle when specifying and disposing of materials.

IDP-R1: Integrated Development Strategy IDP-R2: Systems & Envelope Performance Verification NS-R1: Natural Systems Assessment & Protection LV-R2: Outdoor Thermal Comfort LV-R3: Minimum Ventilation PW-R1: Minimum Interior Water Use Reduction PW-R2: Water Monitoring RE-R1: Minimum Energy Performance RE-R2: Energy Monitoring RE-R3: Ozone Impacts of Refrigerants SM-R1: Hazardous Materials Elimination SM-R2: Basic Construction Waste Management SM-R3: Storage & Collection of Waste & Recyclables Villa development teams can also seek a higher rating, up to Five Pearls, by pursuing voluntary credits. The detailed requirements of both the required and optional credits are available from the Pearl Villa Rating System, available for download at www.estidama.org. The Pearl Villa Rating System applies to villas and multi residential buildings of three or less stories above grade For most villas, the Abu Dhabi Municipalities will review documentation of the mandatory 1 Pearl credits. Those developing sites with more than 10 villa dwelling units will be reviewed by the UPC.

Innovating Practice: Encouraging innovation and cultural expression in building design and construction to facilitate market and industry transformation.

4


How to use this guide ENGINEER

This 1 Pearl Villa Guide is intended to complement the Pearl Villa Rating System, which is the primary reference document for Estidama compliance. This document provides guidance to a design team for achieving the required credits. Key features of the document organization are highlighted below.

hold regular design workshops for collaboration and continuity

Systems Thinking

Enabling true Collaboration and Continuity within the design and development team. By discussing project goals early on and meeting face-to-face as a single group, the project team will be able to coordinate work smoothly and make decisions more rapidly.

develop an implementation strategy for continuity

modelling

1 2

The IDP process should be coordinated by a member of the design team who has been certified as a Pearl Villa Rating System Professional. It is not necessary that this person be a dedicated sustainability consultant. They could be any member of the design team who has received the villa certification. More information about this certification is available about this at www. estidama.org.

E - Engineer C - Contractor A - Architect O - Owner

ecology

targets budget

suppliers cost constructability

operations

Role

example 1.1 Team Structure Owner

Architect

Building Design

X

X

Landscape Design

X

X

Contractor

Engineer

X

X

Structural Engineering

Skills

X

MEP Engineering

X Maintenance

8

The members of the design team responsible for requirements discussed on the page are highlighted on the left.

layout

X

X

X

Submission

Every member of the project team should contribute to the design. In order to develop more integrative ideas, team members should consider themselves collaborators in the design, even before the Architect even puts pen to paper. Although the Contractor is typically involved later in the process, they should be involved as early as possible.

Passive designs

location vision

3

Promoting System Thinking when developing strategies and solutions. By considering the interconnections between each discipline, the project team can deliver a high performing building more creatively, and without expensive technological “add ons.�

building systems

The project team should consider several points as it organizes its work: Each member of the team should become familiar with Estidama and the One-Pearl requirements under the Villa Rating System. This is available on the Estidama website (www.estidama.org).

CONTRACTOR

(project PQP) vision

efficient designs

A villa project team in its simplest form will be comprised of an Owner, an Architect, an Engineer and a Contractor. Typically the Contractor will be responsible for all subcontractors. Specialists may also be brought onboard to undertake specialized work in areas such as sustainability, landscape architecture, interior design, ecology or energy modelling.

Context

Defining a Sustainability Framework with clear vision and objectives and specific indicators and targets to monitor ongoing performance. By establishing goals early and holding themselves accountable to these, the project team can meet ambitious goals more efficiently and avoid any incidental slippage in project performance.

assemble integrated development team

examples:

AR CH IT EC T

12 3 4 assemble integrated development team

The Integrated Development Process (IDP) aims to foster creativity and coordination in the project design and development. Thefore, an IDP should involve all members of project team, especially the client/owner or financial decision maker.

Organise

An IDP can be the foundation of a successful design and development team, bringing out the best input of each member. In particular, once the design team has been assembled, it facilitates the design process by:

As the project team organizes its schedule, an IDP framework should be incorporated into the development process. This framework can be broken down into four steps, which are detailed on the following pages.

1.1 Assemble integrated development team

OR CT RA NT CO

Approach

Related Credits: IDP-R1: Integrated Development Process

Process

ER NE GI EN

Before beginning the design and development process, the team should be organized in a way that integrates the contribution of different trades and specialities. This coordination, called an Integrated Development Process (IDP) in the Pearl Rating System, is simply a framework to support the development of holistic, creative, and efficient design solutions. The Pearls Rating System requires an IDP to extend throughout the project life cycle from inception to design, construction and commissioning.

OW NE R

1.0 Organise team + work

9

Tabs on the right organize the Guide by stages of the project process, and key times for submitting documentation to the relevant municipality (e.g. ADM). ORG - Organize Team and Work CON - Understand Site Context OUT - Design Outdoor Spaces IND - Design Indoor Spaces SYS - Design Building Systems SUB - Estidama Submission for Building Permit Application BUIL - Build Villa VER - Verify Performance SUB - Estidama Submission for Completion Permit Application

5

ARCHITECT

OWNER


6


The Manual

7


1.0 Organise team + work Before beginning the design and development process, the team should be organized in a way that integrates the contribution of different trades and specialities. This coordination, called an Integrated Development Process (IDP) in the Pearl Rating System, is simply a framework to support the development of holistic, creative, and efficient design solutions. The Pearls Rating System requires an IDP to extend throughout the project life cycle from inception to design, construction and commissioning.

Approach An IDP can be the foundation of a successful design and development team, bringing out the best input of each member. In particular, once the design team has been assembled, it facilitates the design process by:

Related Credits: IDP-R1: Integrated Development Process

Process As the project team organizes its schedule, an IDP framework should be incorporated into the development process. This framework can be broken down into four steps, which are detailed on the following pages.

12 3 4

Defining a Sustainability Framework with clear vision and objectives and specific indicators and targets to monitor ongoing performance. By establishing goals early and holding themselves accountable to these, the project team can meet ambitious goals more efficiently and avoid any incidental slippage in project performance.

assemble integrated development team

establish initial vision and targets

hold regular design workshops for collaboration and continuity

Systems Thinking

Enabling true Collaboration and Continuity within the design and development team. By discussing project goals early on and meeting face-to-face as a single group, the project team will be able to coordinate work smoothly and make decisions more rapidly. Promoting System Thinking when developing strategies and solutions. By considering the interconnections between each discipline, the project team can deliver a high performing building more creatively, and without expensive technological “add ons.� 8

develop an implementation strategy for continuity


1.1 Assemble integrated development team examples:

vision

The project team should consider several points as it organizes its work:

1 2

The IDP process should be coordinated by a member of the design team who has been certified as a Pearl Villa Rating System Professional. It is not necessary that this person be a dedicated sustainability consultant. They could be any member of the design team who has received the villa certification. More information about this certification is available about this at www. estidama.org.

3

Every member of the project team should contribute to the design. In order to develop more integrative ideas, team members should consider themselves collaborators in the design, even before the Architect even puts pen to paper. Although the Contractor is typically involved later in the process, they should be involved as early as possible.

Passive designs layout ecology

location vision

Each member of the team should become familiar with Estidama and the One-Pearl requirements under the Villa Rating System. This is available on the Estidama website (www.estidama.org).

OR CT RA NT CO

modelling

ER NE GI EN

building systems

AR CH IT EC T

efficient designs

A villa project team in its simplest form will be comprised of an Owner, an Architect, an Engineer and a Contractor. Typically the Contractor will be responsible for all subcontractors. Specialists may also be brought onboard to undertake specialized work in areas such as sustainability, landscape architecture, interior design, ecology or energy modelling.

OW NE R

The Integrated Development Process (IDP) aims to foster creativity and coordination in the project design and development. Thefore, an IDP should involve all members of project team, especially the client/owner or financial decision maker.

targets budget

suppliers cost constructability

operations

Role

example 1.1 Team Structure

Skills

Owner

Architect

Building Design

X

X

Landscape Design

X

X

Engineer

X

Structural Engineering

X

MEP Engineering

X X

Construction Operations & Maintenance

9

Contractor

X

X

X


1.2 Establish initial vision + targets The most important aspect of an IDP is a shared vision and targets established to achieve it. These should be developed early in the design process and be aligned with the minimum 1 Pearl requirements.

1 2 3 4

Develop a vision for the villa project. This should be a general, aspirational target that will give coherence to the design process. Establish objectives for achieving the vision. These should be more specific goals. Establish specific and measurable targets for achieving the objectives and vision. These will form a framework for the design process. Develop solutions for reaching the targets. Identifying practical, cost effective, integrated solutions will be the outcome of the design and development process.

Example 1.2, Narrative summarizing vision, objectives, targets (partial)

Vision

“The Villa will be a modern high-tech home that will avoid wastful resource use”

Objectives

Provide sensors and controls to reduce unnecessary lighting

Targets (credits)

“Reduce lighting loads per square meter 20% below a typical villa” (RE-R1 Minimum Energy Performance)

Solutions

Architect: Strategic window placement and shading Engineer: Automatic daylight-dimming of lights occupancy sensors and automatic shut-off when rooms are unoccupied.

10


1.3 Plan & hold regular design workshops After a kick-off workshop and the establishment of vision, objectives, and targets, it is important to continue holding multidisciplinary design workshops to foster creativity and collaboration and to ensure everyone is aware of important decisions throughout the development process. Schedule regular multidisciplinary workshops at the outset of project planning. These should include the following topics, at minimum: • site and ecology • orientation and climatic response • energy, water • waste management • indoor comfort • sustainable materials specifications. Additional workshops can also be scheduled on an asneeded basis. Establish a protocol for documenting the occurrence of meetings. This could take the form of photographs or signatures of design members present at workshops. Preplanning Design Construction Submittal to Municipality

workshop documentation

Month 1 Organise team and work Understand site context Plan site layout Design outdoor space Design indoor space Design building systems Design Submittal Build villa Verify performance Construction Submittal

Month 2

Month 3

Month 4

Month 5

Month 6

Month 7

Month 8

W

W W W

W

W

Workshops are marked with a "W"

Example 1.3: Process chart

11

W


1.4 Develop an implementation strategy A strategy for implementing the sustainability goals of a villa should be developed to ensure that sustainability targets established during design are met during construction and occupancy. This can be facilitated as the team is organized. Engage all members of the development team early in the process, including the contractor and commissioning agent (who will verify the performance of building systems). If possible, these members should be involved in the whole IDP process. Ensure that the Specification documents contain the sustainability targets and solutions established during the IDP workshops. There should be language ensuring compliance with all the mandatory Estidama credits. Make sure that the villa occupants will receive a Villa Occupancy Guide. This will provide instructions on efficient operation and proper maintenance of building systems, as well as behaviors that reduce the waste of resources. (See further details in section 7.2 “occupancy guide� of this guide.)

implementation between project stages:

Specifications Commissioning Villa Occupancy Guide

12

Design Construction Occupancy


2.0 Understand site context At the start of the design process, the design team should seek ways to understand and optimize the relationship between the villa plot and its surroundings. A thorough understanding of the site’s natural and urban context will help inform an optimal site layout and villa design. This will support many design objectives, including: improved outdoor thermal comfort, energy use reduction, water conservation and ecological enhancement. There are many resources that can support an analysis of both natural and urban systems, including the master planning documents for a villa’s neighborhood, if available. Others are listed in “Useful Resources.” Natural systems, such as existing habitat and topography, and urban systems, such as nearby community facilities, could be examined in separate assessments or one merged analysis. But ultimately all site information should be integrated in order to identify opportunities and constraints associated with building on a particular site. The design team will then be able to move on to the next step in the process: planning the site layout.

Assess Natural Systems + Assess Urban Systems

Related Credits: NS-R1: Natural Systems Assessment & Protection

Useful resources: •

UPC Plant Information Database (www.upc.gov.ae)

Wild Flowering Plants of UAE, Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency, 2002

Geographical information database for UAE (http://geoportal.abudhabi.ae)

Birds of Abu Dhabi - Checklist , Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency, July 2001

• •

Google Map/Earth EnergyPlus Weather Data (http:// apps1.eere.energy.gov)

Vascular Plants of Abu Dhabi Emirate, Gary Brown and Sabitha Sakkir, August 2004

Interpretation Manual of Major Terrestrial Natural and Seminatural habitat types of Abu Dhabi Emirate, Gary Brown and Benno Boer, Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency, September 2004.

Regulation and Supervision Bureau (RSB) (www.rsb.gov.ae)

Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Authority (ADWEA) (www.adwea.com/en/index.html)

Abu Dhabi Water and Electricity Company (ADWEC) (www.adwec.ae)

Abu Dhabi Distribution Company (ADDC) (www.addc.ae)

Al Ain Distribution Company (AADC) (www.aadc.ae)

Terrestrial Environment of Abu Dhabi Emirate, Environment Agency Abu Dhabi, 2008 (www.ead.ae)

Handbook for Phase 1 Habitat Survey – a technique for environmental audit, JNCC, 2007 (www.jncc.gov.uk)

Environment Agency (http://www.ead.ae)

Abu Dhabi National Energy Company (TAQA) (www.taqa.ae/en/uae.html)

Union for Conservation of Nature, IUCN, (www.iucn.org)

Abu Dhabi Transmission and Dispatch Company (TRANSCO) (www.transco.ae)

Identify Opportunities & Constraints

13

Step 3. Design Outdoor Spaces


2.1 assess natural systems At the beginning of the design process and before site work, the natural systems of the villa plot should be assessed. If general information prepared as part of a wider masterplan is available, this should be used as part of the submission.

Flora & fauna Most villa plots in Abu Dhabi will contain limited habitat, but this means that even small areas of vegetation are particularly important. The following items should be included in the natural system assessment: • Pictures (with a date and location stamp) and details of existing flora and fauna assets in the plot. Particular attention should be paid to “valuable assets” such as healthy native trees, shrubs and grasses. See the Plant Information Database on the UPC website for species identification information. • Map based on the previous information identifying areas to be protected, enhanced, allocated for habitat creation/ restoration or connected to adjoining properties.

Soil conditions and topography Soil conditions and topography are important for understanding how building foundations should be constructed, how well different areas will accommodate landscaping and how the site will drain both rainwater and irrigation.

Waste & contamination (where applicable)

Related Credit: NS-R1: Natural Systems Assessment & Protection

Microclimate Local site microclimate, including winds and shaded areas, should be evaluated to identify synergies with the villa design. Abu Dhabi’s characteristic sun angles, diurnal temperature swings, and relative humidity should also be fundamental to a villa’s design. An east-west building orientation generally maximizes the opportunity for shading controls. Leaving a building or courtyard open to nocturnal winds facilitates natural ventilation and cooling.

Example 2.1a: Narrative (partial) • “Although sparsely vegetated, the plot includes two notable ecological assets, depicted in photos: a spinytailed lizard burrow and several ghaf trees.” • “The existing ghaf trees, as a native species, are valuable for both habitat and landscaping. They are preestablished, non-invasive and, as a drought-resistant, salt-tolerant species, will require less irrigation than other species.” • “The soil of most of the plot has been found to be sandy up to a depth of 35 cm with a more rocky substrate underneath. In the northwestern portion of the parcel, soil contains more sandy load, in part in relation to the presence of the trees.” • “The neighborhood masterplan included an inspection of the site for potential contamination. As a previously unutilized location, no contamination has been identified or suspected on this villa site.”

Any contamination on site by petrol, refuse, or any other chemical or materials that could be harmful to human health or the environment should be identified to determine the need for remediation. If previously unreported contamination is found or suspected, villa developers should contact the relevant environmental agency to determine further testing and remediation requirements. 14

• “The microclimate generally corresponds to Abu Dhabi averages with some particularities, as follows: ° High midday sun with marginal overshadowing from adjacent developments to the south. ° High levels of solar radiation year-round ° Exposed on north and south sides, ° Warmer southern winds prevailing during day ° Cooler NW winds in mornings & E winds at night ° Site allows for optimized building orientation ° Existing trees on site provide shaded zones ° Adjacent properties can break-up wind regime and introduce turbulence”


Example 2.1b: Time-stamped site photographs

Ghaf tree (dated picture)

Example 2.1c: Site plan showing protected features

Spiny-tailed lizard burrow (dated)

Ghaff tree and burrow

UPC Plant Information Database

15


2.2 Identify opportunities + constraints

Related Credits:NS-R1: Natural Systems Assessment & Protection

Every villa will benefit from some characteristics of its context. It will also be limited by other characteristics. A synthesis of these opportunities and constraints can be derived from information obtained in the Natural Systems Assessment and other urban systems analysis. An example study is shown below, illustrating how opportunities and constraints can be used to inform the design of a villa.

Consistently sandy and at parcel

Minimal shading from adjacent villas

Existing trees identiďŹ ed for protection (Limited adjacent habitat) Set-back requirement from adjacent villas and road

Utility Connections Access to nearby mosque, retail, and community center

16


3.0 Design outdoor spaces The impact of a building can be reduced most significantly by decisions made early in the design process. The relative location of buildings, windows, and outdoor areas has a significant impact on the amount of energy and materials required to keep a villa comfortable. The villa’s orientation and massing can be planned to reduce heat gains, harness daylight, provide external shading, and shield areas from prevailing winds. Courtyards and terraces should be comfortably shaded. Landscaping should be designed to protect and link natural habitat. Useful resources: • Abu Dhabi weather data from EnergyPlus (http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/energyplus)

17

Related Credits: NS-R1: Natural Systems Assessment & Protection, LV-R2: Outdoor Thermal Comfort, RE-R1: Minimum Energy Performance, SM-R1: Hazardous Materials Elimination, SM-R3: Storage & Collection of Waste & Recyclables


3.1 Building layout The layout of the buildings on the plot has many ramifications later in the design process, especially with regard to energy performance and external shading. The development team should therefore be careful to consider the following:

Optimize natural light but minimise solar gains

1 2 3

Position villa toward South and West of the site; this will generate shaded areas on the North and East sides Use the shadow cast by surrounding buildings to provide shade and reduce solar gains Place windows in shaded areas, recessed into the wall, or facing North to provide light to indoor spaces

Align with cool winds but shelter from hot winds Cool breezes can reduce heat build up in external areas as well as freshen the air in courtyards and externally accessible areas. Hot winds cause unpleasant and uncomfortable conditions; building up heat in external areas and increasing the heat load on the villa itself.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Use cool night and early morning breezes, generally arriving from southern and eastern directions. Shield the villa from hot winds during the middle and later part of the day particularly from northwestern directions. Position and shape the villa to catch and direct the wind flow into courtyards and open areas; whilst also sheltering from the hotter winds. Stagger roof heights to capture and scoop winds to key areas. Consider the position of surrounding buildings, particularly taller buildings, that can substantially modify local wind conditions and potentially require a different villa position and orientation. In order to generate renewable energy on-site, allocate space at roof level for future installation of renewable energy equipment. This area should be equivalent to at least 15% of the total roof area, excluding the space taken up for solar collection and mechanical plant.

18


Example 3.1: Outdoor shading plan

Building and courtyard orientation minimize solar exposure on the East and West.

Principle windows for daylight are on Northern side of buiding, inside courtyard for privacy. Building and courtyard are open to evening winds from the East.

Outdoor area in courtyard is shaded by building.

19

Front entrance walkway is shaded by garage.


3.2 Outdoor thermal comfort The Estidama outdoor shading requirement is to achieve 50% coverage of key areas. It is based on shade cast on the ground on March 21st (spring equinox, when day and night are about the same length of time) and June 21st (summer solstice, the longest day of the year) at 13:00. For Abu Dhabi, designers should use the following sun altitude and azimuth: Summer Solstice (alt = 81.4º, azi = -94.6º), Spring Equinox (alt = 64.2º, azi = -161.6º). The architect may use any 3D CAD software and project these angles to demonstrate compliance. In the diagram below, “h” is the altitude, and “A” is the azimuth.

Step 1

Step 2

Identify whether the following key outdoor areas will exist within the villa plot boundary:

Lay out the outdoor areas within the villa plot to provide efficiently shaded outdoor areas. See diagrams at right for design alternatives.

• Walkways and passageways linking separate buildings within the plot (‘separate’ means buildings on the plot that are not linked in any way through an indoor environment and that the only means of travel between is through the outdoors). • Walkways between villa entrance(s) to plot access points (‘plot access points’ would be located in a plot boundary wall via, for example, a gate intended for pedestrian passage, but would not include car park driveways leading to gates intended solely for vehicular passage) • Front Entrances to Villas • All amenity areas such as patio’s, family areas and courtyards • Balconies and accessible roof spaces (‘accessible roof spaces’ would only include those designed and intended for roof level amenity use and would exclude any areas housing HVAC services equipment and renewable technologies. • Water features (this is any water feature within the plot boundary but excludes swimming pools)

20

Step 3 Use 3D CAD software or free 3D tools to project shade (e.g. Google Sketchup) After positioning key outdoor areas requiring shade, use 3D CAD software or 3D tools such as google sketchup to determine shade patches and to demonstrate compliance. Simply drawing and copying sun path lines for summer and equinox scenario will enable quick and easy determination of shade areas.


Example 3.2: Outdoor shading plan Outdoor areas adjacent to a Northfacing wall The area immediately adjacent to a North-facing wall is the ideal location for amenity spaces as these spaces may benefit from ‘free’ equinox shade so that the only additional shade required would be for the summer solstice.

Outdoor areas adjacent to a East-facing wall The area immediately adjacent to an East-facing wall is also useful to provide some building self shade. Care should be taken to identify the shade that is ‘coincident’ at both the equinox and solstice.

Outdoor areas adjacent to a South or West facing wall and The area in front of a South facing wall is the most difficult to provide shade for since the lower altitude equinox sun would require extended shades. Eliminate or minimise areas requiring shade in front of south facades. Similar to the South facing wall, spaces on adjacent to a West facing wall are difficult to shade. Alternatively, use a combination of vertical trellis in conjunction with horizontal shade or, where amenity areas are rectangular, orient them with the long side north to south to provide the easiest shade. When vertical shading must be provided, this will more efficiently shade an area when it is closer to the ground (i.e. less than about 2 m high).

Roof area (next to minimal East-facing wall)

East-facing Wall

Outdoor area and shading structure runs more along North-South axis.

North-facing Wall

“Free” shade from building at Equinox

Equinox shading at 1 PM

“Free” shade from building at Solstice also permits a smaller additional shading structure for Solstice.

(Alternative is to provide vertical shading on southern side (e.g. tree.))

Equinox shading at 1 PM

Qualifying areas shaded on both Equinox and Solstice Solstice shading at 1 PM

Solstice shading at 1 PM

21


3.3 Landscaping

Related Credits:NS-R1: Natural Systems Assessment & Protection

By considering the landscaping approach early, the design team can more efficiently protect natural assets and provide external comfort. The development should consider the following:

1 2 3

Build around existing natural assets identified during the Natural Systems Assessment. Plan landscaped areas that will complement adjacent natural assets or habitat areas. If possible, extend habitat corridors. Although not required for a 1 Pearl Villa, consider landscaping that does not require extensive irrigation. This could be accomplished with the use of rock sculpture, non-vegetative shading structures, and native shrubs or trees.

Build villa around existing vegetation where possible.

22


3.4 Location of external waste storage A waste storage area should be located to faciliate recycling as well as efficient and clean waste management.

examples:

Space should be allocated as the villa dimensions are being established. The Abu Dhabi Center of Waste Management suggests allowing space for three 240 liter wheelie (wheeled) bins, or four if organic waste is collected. Suggested internal dimensions are 1m by 2.1m for three wheelie bins (1m by 2.8m for four), with a height of around 2.2m. The location of the waste storage space within the villa plot should be selected considering the following aspects:

1 2 3

Make sure the storage area is easily accessible both from the inside by residents and from the outside by waste collection crews and vehicles. Make sure the storage area minimizes nuisance. For example, ventilation openings for the waste area should not be near windows or air intakes for other rooms. Doors should also shield unpleasant views of waste storage from other rooms. No obstacles, e.g. kerbs, or steep slopes should be in the path between the waste storage room and the point where the refuse collection vehicle will potentially stop for collection. Additionally, the path should have a hard and smooth surface and be around 1m wide, i.e. enough for a 240 liter wheelie bin to be moved along it.

Conveniently located waste storage area, easily accessible from the street.

Some potential locations include garages or perimeter walls adjacent to a road where refuse trucks can circulate.

23


3.5 External building materials As the building and plot areas take shape, it is important that the appropriate materials are selected for external structures and facade. There are several variables to consider when specifying these materials.

U- values The materials that comprise the structure and facade of the villa will form its thermal envelope – the main barrier to external heat and solar energy. Keeping the occupied space cool and comfortable is an easier task with a high performance envelope. The U-value is a measure of how much heat passes through a given material (i.e. how much insulation the material provides). Estidama credit RE-R1 has the following U-value requirements.

Thermal mass Place concrete elements adjacent to the occupied spaces, to buffer thermal energy and provide a cool surface feel for the occupant.

Vapor barrier Provide a barrier to restrict ingress of moisture through the villa walls, floor and roof. This is a critical protective consideration given the high humidity in the UAE.

Surface finishes Use light colors to reflect sunlight and reduce absorption of solar energy; This also reduces surface temperatures and resultant heat gain through the walls and roof.

Construction Element

U-Value (W/m2K)

Glazing design

floor

0.15

roof

0.14

wall

0.32

basement wall

0.28

Glazing design is important for overall villa energy usage, because windows bring light, heat and solar energy into occupied spaces. In credit RE-R1, there are Estidama requirements for both window insulation (U-values) and heat gain (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC)). These apply to both the window and frame as follows:

crawl space wall

0.36

The UPC has developed a U-Value Calculator to assist in showing compliance. But, in general, to achieve the mandated values: • Provide insulation between the earth and concrete floor slab to reduce heat from the ground warming the rooms • Insulate above the roof slab and apply finishing in a light color • Include a layer of insulation in the villa walls In addition to the basic U-value heat transfer reduction the following factors can also benefit the energy and internal environment:

Parameter

Target

U-Value (W/m2K)

2.20

SHGC

0.40

These factors can be specified to the glazing manufacturers; a wide range of suitable, compliant products are available within the UAE. In addition it is also necessary to ensure that the total glazed area of the villa façade is less than 15% of the conditioned floor area.

24


Villa U-value calculator The U-Value Calculator (available for download at www. estidama.org) is a spreadsheet that can help the design team select appropriate materials for the villa and demonstrate compliance with the U-value requirements. For each construction element (Floor, Roof, Wall, and Glazing), there is a page similar to the below:

The Fabric Performance Summary tab provides a summary of calculated U-values and compliance with Estidama targets for each construction element.

Wall U-value Calculator Overview

Summary

Wall U-value

Floor U-value

Roof U-value

Glazing Spec

Materials

Glossary

Fabric Performance Summary

Entering the required information will enable calculation of the wall U-value. The material in each layer can be selected and the thickness varied to match the proposed design. Variations in material properties can be achieved via the materials section, once they have been entered below.

Internal Design Temperature 24

Surface Finish

Layer Thickness

Thermal Conductivity, k (W/m.K)

(m)

Light

Thermal Resistance, R

Orientation of Faรงade

Total Area of Opaque Faรงade

2

(m .K/W)

(m )

2 0.050 m .K/W External Surface Resistance

Material

Overview

North

Rendering

0.020

1.130

0.018

Polystyrene

0.080

0.030

2.667

Cast Concrete (Medium)

0.150

0.590

0.254

Plaster (Gypsum)

0.010

0.510

0.020

to

Element

2 0.127 m .K/W Internal Surface Resistance

North-West

2 3.136 m .K/W

Target Average U-value

2 0.320 W/m .K

Element Average U-value

2 0.319 W/m .K

Enter internal design temperature and surface finish type

107.0

West

80.0

Total Area

369 0 369.0

0.260 m

Total Thermal Resistance

Previous

South South-West

Construction Passes RE-R1 U-value Target

Home

Enter material characteristics and thickness.

Next

Calculator quantifies the U-value and confirms whether wall achieves target

Floor U-value

Roof U-value

Target Value

Design Value

Enter Orientations and Areas of Facade

25

Glazing Spec

Materials

Glossary

Compliant

Wall

0.320 W/m2.K

0.319 W/m2.K

Yes

Floor

0.150 W/m2.K

0.133 W/m2.K

Yes

Roof

0.140 W/m2.K

0.134 W/m2.K

Yes

Glazing

2.200 W/m2.K

2.200 W/m2.K

80.0

South-East

Inside

2 958 2.958 Construction Thickness

East

Wall U-value

This section provides a summary of the individual element performance and confirms compliance with the target U-value requirements

102.0

North-East Outside

Summary

Elemental U-value Compliance

2

Previous

Yes Home

All opaque fabric elements achieve average U-value targets

All glazed elements achieve average U-value targets Next


3.6 Hazardous materials As materials are selected, it is also important to ensure that they do not contain hazardous components excluded by the requirements of credit SM-R1. The design team should be aware of these requirements while designing exterior spaces. The prohibition of hazardous materials should also be written into the project Specification documents. (These are documents developed during the design stage that provide detailed instructions for the Contractor to follow during the construction stage.)

1 2

Specify that materials, including walls, insulation, and interior materials as well, will not contain asbestos. Specify that wood materials exposed to the outside and within human reach – such as shading structures, playgrounds, and decking – will not be treated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA).

Sample specification language Example 3.6: Confirmation from specifications “In compliance with the Pearl Villa Rating System for Estidama, required credit SM-R1 Hazardous Materials Elimination, the following materials shall not be used in the Work: 1. Asbestos Containing Materials (ACM) 2. Chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated timber, where timber is used for external structures subject to frequent and intimate contact. These materials include, but are not limited to, shading devices, playground equipment and handrails”

26


Summary of outdoor strategies

Courtyard shading is open to cool eastern winds, redirects hot northwestern winds

Windows for daylighting on northern side of building External shading features for walkways, courtyard, and accessible roof area Front entrance is receded for shade. Walkway is shaded by garage.

Walls and roofs meet U-value requirements Solar Heat Gain targets and do not contain asbestos

Vertical shading on eastern and western windows

Water-eďŹƒcient landscaping

Waste storage near road Building footprint accommodates existing trees Wood in external structures does not contain chromated copper arsenate (CCA)

27


4.0 Design indoor spaces There are many factors to consider when planning the rooms inside a building. These include strategies to use daylight, to provide clean and comfortable indoor air, and to prevent unwanted noise. As the villa is being designed, these considerations are as important as the more personal requirements of the future owners.

Related Credits: LV-R3: Minimum Ventilation, RE-R1: Minimum Energy Performance, SM-R1: Hazardous Materials Elimination

useful resources: •

ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. Thermal environmental conditions for human occupancy International Mechanical Code 2009, International Code Council, (http://publicecodes.citation.com/icod/imc/2009/index.htm)

•

International Building Code (IBC) 2009 section 402

Approach The layout and position of rooms within the villa to suit daylight and natural ventilation air movement have to be considered at this stage as per credit RE-R1. It is also necessary to define glazing specifications to ensure optimal trade-off between light and solar transmission. This design should be done bearing in mind credit LV-R3 that requires that all spaces should be ventilated according to the requirements of the International Mechanical Code 2009, Chapter 4, or local code, whichever is more stringent (as they pertain to both natural and mechanical ventilation). As in previous steps, materials forbidden by credit SM-R1 (asbestos and chromated copper arsenate treated wood) should not be specified for indoor spaces. All the decisions affecting the design of the villa indoor spaces should be part of the Integrated Development Strategy.

28


4.1 Ventilation strategy Ventilation of indoor spaces can be achieved by natural or mechanical ventilation. Natural ventilation of an occupied space would be through openings to the outdoors, typically windows that can be controlled by the villa occupants. LV-R3 in the Pearl Villa Rating System refers to the requirements of the International Mechanical Code (IMC), section 402, that occupied rooms (such as living rooms, dining rooms and bedrooms) should have a minimum openable area of 4% of the floor area being ventilated. The procedure undertaken by the designer for establishing and calculating the openable area is shown below.

Step 2

Step 3

Determine the size and number of windows that are to be provided to the space. This will usually be a result of a balance between daylight, glare, heat gain, aesthetics and cost.

Highlight the actual openable area of the window (illustrated in red below). For top-hung windows that cannot open further than 150 millimeters (mm), the openable areas are the rectangular opening between the tip of the window to the edge of the sill and the two triangular side openings on the side. For windows that can open further than 150 mm, the openable area is the full opening of each window.

2. Overall Window Dimensions

3. Identify Openable Window Area

Step 1 Once the internal layout of the villa is determined, develop a spreadsheet listing the internal floor areas for each of the rooms along with a description of whether or how they will be mechanically or naturally ventilated. Often a plan view such as that shown will be useful to convey the room and window sizes. Internal rooms (such as dressing rooms) that are intended to be ventilated through an adjacent space should also be highlighted as the requirements for these spaces will differ. The next steps will be iterative to arrive at the best solution.

openable area if opening is 150 mm or less

1. Floor Plan & Area

window window

openable area if opening is more than 150 mm

Example 4.1: Natural ventilation plans and window details

29


Step 4

Step 6

Establish the key dimensions associated with these openings identified in step 3. For example, the distance between the sill edge and the frame will be a key dimension that will need to be obtained from window manufacturers or suppliers.

Finally, total up all the areas for each of the openings for each of the windows associated with a particular space and ensure that this area is more than 4% of the internal floor area of that space. This requirement needs to be achieved for all relevant occupied spaces.

4. Establish Key Dimensions

Adjoining spaces In the example, the dressing room is an internal space (rest of floor plate not shown) and is intended to be ventilated through the primary bedroom. In this case the total floor area is the sum of the areas for the dressing room and primary bedroom. The size of the openings in the primary bedroom needs to exceed 4% of this total floor area. In addition, the size of the opening between the dressing room and primary bedroom (shown in green) needs to be least 8% of the dressing room internal floor area and no less than 25 sq ft (whichever is greater).

Step 5 Also consider the effect of walls surrounding the window frame as these will typically restrict the size of the side openings and need to be accounted for. The designer can use dimensioned hand drawings or CAD software to establish the areas of the openings. 5. Additional Considerations: Wall Influence

window

window

window

30


4.2 Waste storage Internal waste storage Storage that allows for separating different waste streams (waste that can be recycled and waste that can’t) should be provided in the kitchen. This can be in the form of pictured at right.)

External waste storage finishes

1 2

3 4

The waste storage space should be designed following these principles:

5

Cleaning. A hose union tap connected to the water supply should be provided and the walls and floor of the waste storage room should be tiled. The floor should have a slope towards a gulley positioned so that it does not interfere with the wheels of the bins and connected to the wastewater network with a permanent smell trap.

* Check with the Abu Dhabi Center of Waste Management about provision of external bins. (http://www.cwm.ae/)

Security. Waste bins* should be accessible from outside the villa but undesired access from the outside should be blocked. Therefore, a double set of doors should be used. Internal doors should be individually lockable from the inside of the villa whilst refuse collection vehicle crews should be able to open the external doors from the outside with a generic key. The doors should allow for an opening of at least 0.9m to manoeuvre the bins. Lighting approrpiate for the waste room should be provided. The lights should be able to withstand splashing from water cleaning and ideally fitted with low energy lamps and with automated switching.

Example 4.2: Depictions of waste storage room connection

Waste storage area (internal view)

Separated waste streams (internal kitchen)

Enough constant ventilation, either natural or mechanical, has to be supplied to the waste room to avoid odors or contaminant build-up. Natural ventilation inlets should not be less than 0.2 m2, and be fly and vermin proof. They should be located as near to the ceiling and the floor of the room as possible and away from other air intakes or windows.

Waste storage area (external view)

31


5.0 Design building systems

Related Credits:LV-R3: Minimum Ventilation, PW-R1: Minimum Interior Water Use Reduction, PW-R2: Water Monitoring, RE-R1: Minimum Energy Performance, RE-R2: Energy Monitoring, RER3: Ozone Impacts of Refrigerants Systems, SM-R3: Storage & Collection of Waste & Recyclables

The lighting, shading and ventilation strategies established earlier in the design process will reduce the requirements for building systems. But careful detailing of systems to providing cool, comfortable, and convenient indoor spaces can reduce the villa’s environmental impact still more.

Credit SM-R3 requires that the waste room be separately ventilated to prevent odors. This can be either natural or mechanical ventilation. Waste rooms must also be easy to clean, with a water supply, tiled internal surfaces, and a gulley connection.

Approach

Under the requirements of credit IDP-R1, decisions regarding the design of building services should be agreed in integrated development workshops.

The villa must comply with all ventilation requirements set out in the International Mechanical Code 2009, Chapter 4 or local code, whichever is more stringent (for both natural and mechanical ventilation) as per credit LV-R3. Consistent with credits RE-R1, the air conditioning system, especially fans, have to meet performance requirements. Fixed lighting systems are also required to achieve performance standards, while exterior lighting elements must have daylight sensors.

useful resources •

ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals 2009.

ASHRAE/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 – 2007: Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low- Rise Residential Buildings.

ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 90.2-2007: Energy-Efficient Design of Low-Rise Residential Buildings.

International Mechanical Code 2009, Chapter 4.

Credit RE-R2 requires energy sub-metering, which have to be clearly labeled and provided in easily accessible locations. They must measure, at minimum, lighting electrical distribution (for both internal and external lights), small power electrical distribution, and air conditioning (including external condensers and associated pumps and air handling units). Credit RE-R3 specifies that only refrigerants with an ozone depletion potential of zero can be used for any purpose on-site. Efficient water fixtures and metering are required by credits PW-R1 and PW-R2. Estidama requires specific flows rates for water fixtures, fittings, and appliances, as well as automatic shut-off control. As with energy meters, water meters must be easily accessible and clearly labelled, to sub-meter the villa’s external water use. This must have a pulsed output and be capable of remote monitoring.

32


5.1 Energy system Air conditioning

Appliances

Although the cooling requirements of a villa will be reduced by minimizing heat gain through windows and other external surfaces, energy must also be used to condition spaces in Abu Dhabi’s climate. Efficient system performance is a critical factor in achieving reductions in energy usage.

It is also necessary to ensure that energy usage associated with household appliances is minimized. This can be achieved through demonstrating that any appliances, lighting fittings and other electrical items not already detailed achieve a suitable energy efficiency performance. This means a performance rating of at least “B” under the EU Energy Rating system, or an equivalent level from a similar rating system, including the U.S. Energy Star rating system.

For most villas the performance of the air-conditioning system is based upon (a) the efficiency of energy conversion from electricity to “coolth” (the opposite of heat) and (b) the effectiveness of the fans driving the air flow. There are requirements for both aspects of the system. The minimum air conditioning seasonal average Coefficient of Performance and maximum fan power are:

(a) (CoP) = 3.40 (b) Maximum fan power = 2.80W/l/s

Lighting Good lighting design can also reduce unnecessary energy waste, both internally and externally. Internal lighting energy is restricted on a basis of power used per unit area for the following different zone types: Zone Type

Power Density (w/m2)

family dining

22.6

food prep

12.9

restrooms

9.7

dormitory/living quarters

11.8

lounge/recreation

12.9

corridor/transition

5.4

Renewables RE-R1 requires that 50% of the villa’s total annual hot water usage comes from a renewable source. This can be most easily achieved through the use of a Solar Thermal Hot Water system. From the information used in the Villa Water calculation tool (PW-R1) the villa water usage (based on occupancy) can be provided to the system supplier who can ensure that the RE-R1 target of 50% generation is satisfied.

Swimming pools If the villa has a conditioned swimming pool (heated or cooled), a pool cover must be provided that achieves a minimum U-value of 0.47W/m2.K

External lighting is to be controlled by daylight sensors, which will reduce energy wastage by ensuring that they are only operational when required. 33


5.2 Energy metering The Regulation & Supervision Bureau (RSB) has required new villas to install only a single electric meter, which can record both cumulative energy consumption as well as incremental values using a pulsed output. While this meter provides useful data, it provides limited information about where energy is being consumed. and provides littlle guidance for reducing energy use associated with particular activities. Estidama credit RE-R2 therefore requires separate metering of the following:

1 2 3 4

Lighting electrical distribution board (including internal and external) Small power electrical distribution board Air conditioning (at a minimum all external condensers and where applicable associated pumps and air handling units) Any single piece of plant exceeding a maximum load of 20kW

If a data collection facility is installed, meters must have data logging capability and be connected to the central system to monitor ongoing energy consumption.

34


5.3 Refrigerant Refrigerant Many of the refrigerants currently used in air conditioning systems cause damage to the ozone layer, which allows greater levels of damaging radiation to reach the earth’s surface. This effect can be reduced by the appropriate selection of refrigerants with a zero ozone depletion potential (ODP). RE-R3 requires that all refrigerants installed within the plot have a zero ozone depletion potential. For many of the smaller villa systems this would require avoiding refrigerants such as HCFC-22 and choosing refrigerants with ODP levels of zero, for example HFC-407c. Chlorofluorocarbons

ODP

CFC-12 Hydrochlorofluorocarbons

1.0

HCFC-22

0.055

HCFC-123 Hydroflurocarbons

0.02

HFC-134a

0

HFC-245fa

0

HFC-407c

0

HFC-410a

0

HFC-417a Natural Refrigerants

0

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

0

Ammonia (NH3)

0

Propane (C3H8)

0

Isobutene

0

Air

0

Water

0

Although many ozone-depleting refrigerants have been banned internationally and within the U.A.E, illegal systems can still be found.

35


5.4 Ventilation Ventilation Ventilation rates for the villa must comply with the requirements of the International Mechanical Code, the table details private dwellings (as below). Use the Pearl Minimum Ventilation Calculator, entering program details for an automatic generation of ventilation requirements. The calculator will automatically list the required flow rates in liters/second and/or window opening sizes. which the mechanical designer should use to determine the appropriate fan selection.

Dwelling Occupancy Classification

People Outdoor Area Air Rate in outdoor Breathing Zone Airflow Rate

Default Occupancy Density

Exhaust Airflow Rate in Exhaust Airflow cfm/ft2 Rate in m3/s/m2

Kitchens

N/A

N/A

N/A

25/100 per room continuous fan / intermittent fan)

Living Areas

0.35 ACH but not less than 15cfm/ person (0.0762)

N/A

Based upon number of bedrooms. First bedroom, 2; each additional bedroom, 1

N/A

Toilet Rooms and bathrooms

N/A

N/A

N/A

20/50 per room (continuous fan / intermittent fan)

0.13/0.51

0.1/0.25

International Mechanical Code,Table 403.3

36


Villa ventilation calculator Example 5.4: calculations showing fresh air ventilation rates

Estidama Villa Ventilation Calculator v1.0 1 Pearl Compliance Input Cells

Villa Space Name (Must Be Unique )

Project Info

Enter project details

IMC Occupancy Class

Floor Area (m2)

Space has openable windows?

Space Total Window Area (m2)

Total Window Openable Area (m2)

Target

Pass / Fail

Open Area Between Spaces (m2)

Pass / Fail

Required Exhaust Air Flowrate (liters / sec)

Extract Fan Operation

Ventilation Method

Fan Flowrate (liters / sec)

Pass / Fail

main kitchen

Kitchen

12

Yes

10.00

0.50

0.48

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

Windows

PASS

Building/Project Name

Living Room

Living Area (non-bedroom)

22

Yes

10.00

1.20

0.88

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

Windows

PASS

Location

kitchenette

0.24

FAIL

Pearl QP

Master Bedroom

8.00

0.50

0.48

PASS

primary

Kitchen

6

No

Living Area (bedroom)

12

Yes

Living Room

2.33

PASS

47.2

FAIL

select extract fan operation

Windows

PASS

intermittent

Extract Fan

50.00

PASS

Living Area (bedroom)

10

Yes

7.00

0.40

0.40

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

Windows

PASS

Toilet / Bathroom

10

Yes

5.00

0.40

0.40

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

Windows

PASS

2

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

2

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

2nd bedroom

Project Details

main bathrrom

living room

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

Mechanical Ventilation Calculator

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

Person Responsible

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

Company

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

Contact Number

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

Date of Issue

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0 00 0.00

PASS

FAIL

select l t extract t t ffan operation ti

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

Villa Project Overall Status

PASS

Enter open area and ventilation methods for adjacent spaces

Calculator assesses whether areas meets requirements

Ventilated through this adjoining space

Project ID

Number of bedrooms in villa Number of Bedrooms listed in IMC Occupancy Class

Enter project spaces, occupancy types, floor area, and window dimensions

Set Primary Bedroom

Last Revised: August 2010

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

0.00

PASS

FAIL

select extract fan operation

FAIL

Report a Template Bug :

37

tbc


5.5 Water fixtures Optimize interior water consumption Interior water consumption within a villa is attributed to fixtures and appliances such as taps, toilets, washing machines etc. Large water savings can be made simply by using lower flow fixtures and highly efficient appliances. PW-R1 sets a minimum standard for fixture flow rates and appliance efficiencies. These flow rates are as follows:

In order to comply with PW-R1, a project must demonstrate that the proposed villa design water consumption is less than or equal to the baseline villa water consumption based on the flow rates prescribed above. This must be demonstrated by EITHER:

1

Simply installing the fixture/appliance with the prescribed flow rates as given above.

OR Fixture/Appliance

Unit

Rate

Kitchen Taps

liters/minute

6.0

Bathroom Washbasin Taps

liters/minute

6.0

liters/flush

6.0/4.0

Bidets

liters/minute

6.0

Shower Head

liters/minute

9.5

Ablution Fixtures

liters/minute

6.0

liters/place setting

1.3

liters/kg of dry load

8.5

Toilets Dual Flush

Dishwashers Washing Machines

2

Utilizing the ‘Estidama Villa Water Calculator v1.0: 1 Pearl Compliance’ to demonstrate that the proposed villa design water consumption is less than or equal to the baseline consumption through trade-off measures.

The second route allows the project to trade-off between flow rates so that the efficiency of certain fixtures/ appliances may be relaxed only if others are improved upon to ensure the overall proposed villa design water consumption is less than or equal to the baseline. On the next page is an image of the ‘Estidama Villa Water Calculator v1.0:1 Pearl Compliance.’ This will help the design team select appropriate fixtures and document compliance with the Estidama requirements.

38


Villa water calculator Example 5.5: Villa water calculator output

    

















 







 











Enter information about fitting flow controls/sensors









 





 

 





























Enter project details



































































































































 

���



 



























Enter fitting flow rates







 



















   





 











 





 









 



 



 



39



Calculator estimates water usage Calculator confirms whether credit is achieved.


5.6 Water metering Water metering

Example 5.6: Diagram of water monitoring

PW-R2 requires a sub-meter to be installed on the pipe supplying water to the villa exterior (e.g. landscaping, water features etc.). In combination with the meter for the whole site, this will allow water usage inside the villa to be tracked as well. The meters are also required to have a pulsed output capable of remote monitoring. This, and a better understanding of both interior and exterior water use will help determine areas of high water consumption, identify leaks quickly, and pursue opportunities to save water. Note: In addition to this, all swimming pools in excess of 30 cubic meters are required to be separately metered as per the requirements of the Regulation and Supervision Bureau (RSB) Water Supply Regulations 2009 Guide.

Kitchen taps Bathroom taps Toilets Bidets

Primary incoming meter

Showers Baths Ablution fixtures Exterior sub-meter

Appliances

Irrigation Water features Swimming pools

40


Estidama design submission at building permit application IDP-R1: Integrated Development Process Team structure listing team members and their roles (Example 1.1) Narrative summarizing initial vision, objectives and targets set jointly by the project team for the project (Example 1.2) Process chart for the IDP developed at project inception, listing design milestones and planned workshops (Example 1.3) Implementation strategy for achieving transition between project stages and project packages

NS-R1 Natural Systems Assessment & Protection Narrative on flora and fauna, soil conditions and topography, waste and contamination (where applicable) and microclimate (Example 2.1a) Photographs with time-stamp and location confirmation (e.g. GPS, Global Positioning System, coordinate stamp) (Example 2.1b) Site Plan showing protected features (Example 2.1c)

LV-R2 Outdoor Thermal Comfort Short narrative of outdoor shading systems and plan showing shading provision and the minimum % of shading achieved (Examples 3.1/3.2)

LV-R3 Minimum Ventilation If natural ventilation strategy is selected then provide: Narrative, plans and details of windows describing how the villa design meets the credit requirements for natural ventilation. (Example 4.1) Calculations demonstrating compliance with the minimum openable area criteria for all occupied spaces. If mechanical ventilation strategy is selected then provide: Narrative of the mechanical ventilation strategy as well as mechanical drawings and specifications details from manufacturers of the ystems used to meet the credit requirements for mechanical ventilation system; Calculations showing fresh air ventilation rates. (Example 5.4)

41


Estidama design submission at building permit application PW-R1 Minimum Interior Water Use Reduction Villa Water Calculator output showing a water consumption lower than the baseline using efficiency measures only (Example 5.5) Brief narrative of proposed water conservation strategies including specifications of proposed fixtures, fittings and appliances.

PW-R2 Water Monitoring Brief narrative or diagram of how water use will be monitored with extracts from specifications and drawings indicating type, extent and location of the sub-meter (Example 5.6)

RE-R1 Minimum Energy Performance If the prescriptive method is followed then provide: Narrative including manufacturer’s details for each installed energy use device detailing its energy rating / unit efficiency / power rating of the proposed electrical item and how the requirements of each section of the credit will be achieved; Narrative, specifications, calculations and design drawings describing the Hot Water System generation strategy, the type and location of the proposed system and confirming that the required level of HWS generation will be achieved Drawings showing potential location and indicative services routes for future installation of renewable energy systems. Sections / details for each building façade element, e.g. roof, walls, floor, glazing showing how they meet the credit requirement. Summary list, specification extracts and proof of certification by Energy Star program, EU Energy Efficiency Labeling Scheme or equivalent of all appliances to be installed in the building.

RE-R2 Energy Monitoring Brief narrative of the metering strategy including metering equipment specifications and schematics indicating the type, extent and locations of all metering.

RE-R3 Ozone Impacts of Refrigerants Systems: Specification of all proposed refrigerant systems confirming ODP of each refrigerant is zero.

42


Estidama design submission at building permit application SM-R1 Hazardous Materials Elimination Confirmation and extracts from specifications indicating that no Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACMs) or Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA)-treated timber are to be used in the project (Example 3.6) Where portions of the project are reused from an existing building: Results of a hazardous materials survey following internationally recognized standards, e.g. ASTM E 256-04, documenting the existence, if any, of ACMs in the building and an asbestos removal and disposal plan if ACMs are found,

SM-R2 Basic Construction Waste Management Construction and Demolition Waste Management Plan including a narrative of the strategy to divert waste from landfill, estimated weight or volume of generated waste (Example 6.1a) and name and location of potential reclaim/recycling haulers. If applicable, also include a schedule of items to be recycled/salvaged.

SM-R3 Storage & Collection of Waste & Recyclables Drawing(s) indicating location of the waste storage in the kitchen, the plot and proposed access for collection services from the nearest road/passage (Example 4.2) Drawing indicating the waste storage room connection to the water and wastewater networks as well as lighting, floor, wall covering, and security specifications Product sheets for the proposed waste bins to be used in the kitchen and central waste storage facility.

43


44


6.0 Build villa Once all the design has been completed, the process of building the villa will start. This step covers the construction process from the potential demolition of existing structures to the completion of a new home. During this process, it will be necessary to maintain communication between the members of the design team, contractors, and developers, to ensure that the villa is built to the correct design specifications. This will be facilitated by the IDP process and the implementation strategy agreed at the beginning of the design process.

Related Credits: IDP-R2: Systems and Envelope Performance Verification, RE-R1: Minimum Energy Performance, SM-R2: Basic Construction Waste Management

useful resources: •

Environment Agency of Abu Dhabi: Technical Guidance Document: Development of Construction Environmental Management Plan (CEMP) – Onshore.

•

ISO 14000: 2004 Family of Standards on Environmental management systems.

Approach Estidama credit SM-R2 requires that 30% of the demolition and construction waste be salvaged or recycled (by weight or volume). This means the contractors need to prepare a construction and demolition waste management plan before demolition begins. This plan is to be supported by the Villa Waste Calculator. During construction, documents will need to be collected to confirm the target has been achieved. Credit IDP-R2 requires that envelope components assembled off-site be tested prior to installation. Standard envelope components must have a pre-testing certificate, while custom-made cladding systems must be tested offsite. Similarly, compliance with credit RE-R1 requires ensuring required fabric and system performance levels are achieved in the materials actually used. Credit SM-R1 requires guaranteeing that hazardous materials do not make their way into the project. There can be no asbestos or exposed wood treated with chromated copper arsentate.

45


6.1 Construction waste management Before starting any demolition or construction, it is necessary to develop a construction and demolition (C&D) waste management plan. This should incorporate:

1 2 3 4

Estimates of waste generation. The Villa Waste Calculator will help to estimate the type and amount of waste expected for the project. This can be downloaded from the www.estidama.org. A destination for each waste type leaving the site. For example, specify that aggregates will be transported to the municipal C&D recycling facility, or that fit-out leftovers will be disposed to landfill. Identification of materials to be salvaged or recycled. This percentage needs to be at least 30% of the estimated waste generation, in weight or volume. A location for storing waste on-site during construction. This should be conveniently located near the materials delivery area and large enough to allow for separating at least aggregates and other waste streams.

An example of the above is shown at right. These elements should be updated with information compiled during construction.

Example 6.1a Schedule of items reclaimed/recycled LANDFILLED C&D WASTE CALCULATION IN TONNES Landfill material description General waste March 2010 General waste April 2010 General waste May 2010 General waste June 2010 Pallets April 2010 Pallets May 2010 Pallets June 2010

Landfill hauler or location Al Dhafra Landfill Al Dhafra Landfill Al Dhafra Landfill Al Dhafra Landfill Al Dhafra Landfill Al Dhafra Landfill Al Dhafra Landfill

Quantity of landfilled waste 15 31 70 65 10 5 15

DIVERTED C&D WASTE CALCULATION IN TONNES Diverted/recycled material description

Diversion/recycling hauler or location

Concrete from demolition March 2010 Concrete from demolition April 2010 Metal March 2010 Metal April 2010 Metal May 2010 Metal June 2010

Municipal C&D plant Municipal C&D plant Local metal recycler Local metal recycler Local metal recycler Local metal recycler

SALVAGED

Quantity of diverted / recycled waste 150 200 4 3 1 1

C&D WASTE CALCULATION IN TONNES

Diverted/recycled material description

Diversion/recycling hauler or location

Spandrel panels from faรงade June 2010

Reused in new building

Quantity of diverted / recycled waste 15 Construction and Demolition Waste: 585 tonnes

Total waste generated: 585 tonnes

36.1%

Total waste landfilled: 211 tonnes (36.1%)

Landfilled Salvaged/ Recycled

Total waste diverted: 374 tonnes (63.9%)

63.9%

On-site waste segregation area

46


Villa waste calculator Example 6.1b Schedule of items reclaimed/recycled

Estidama villa waste calculator v1.0 - 1 Pearl

Step 1

Enter project details

Step 2

Project Details

Results

Report a Template Bug :

Building/Project Name

Test villa

Location

Abu Dhabi

Total Gross Floor Area, m2

500

Input Cells that may be changed by design teams

Instructions: * Design teams are required to enter information in all pink input cells not greyed out to display the results in the Results worksheet. Please do not proceed if there are any warning messages in any of the Steps. * The number of residents should include maids Note: This tool is for use with the Pearl Rating System only and to demonstrate compliance with the Pearl Rating requirements. It is not a design tool.

Rating System Details

Enter details of existing building (if applicable)

Project ID

123456789

Pearl Rating System

Villa

Pearl Rating Stage

Design

Estidama villa waste calculator v1.0 - 1 Pearl

Existing Building Details

Summary of Results

Yes

Is there an existing building in the plot?

Existing building

Override default demolition waste values for villas?

Attribute

Unit

Value

Gross floor area

m2

250

No

Demolition waste generated in m3 per 100 m2 of building:

50.0

Design Construction

Next

Yes No Demolition waste generation

Existing building

estimated demolition waste generation quantity

Estidama villa waste calculator v1.0 - 1 Pearl

Gross floor area

Unit

Value

m2

250

Unit

Value

Total Gross Floor Area

sqm

500

Value 50 m3 per 100 m2 Override default demolition waste values for villas?

175

Estimated Construction and Demolition waste

Results

Salvaged/ Recycled

Salvaged/ Recycled

Tonnes

Tonnes

Tonnes

%

175.0

61.5

113.5

64.9%

Construction waste

47.4

17.5

29.9

63.0%

Total waste

222.4

79.1

143.3

tonnes

Step 2

Value Results

15.8

SM-R2: Basic construction waste management

SM-R3: Storage and collection of waste and recyclables

47

Yes

Pre-requisite Achieved?

No

m3 per 100 m2

Yes

Pre-requisite Achieved?

64.5%

Percentage of Construction and Demolition waste recycled/salvaged

Construction and Demolition Waste: 222.4 tonnes

Construction and Demolition Waste: 222.4 tonnes

Estimated construction waste generation quantity

Construction waste generation

Step 1

Step 2

Landfilled

Demolition waste

Step 2 - Diversion from landfill Villa Attribute

Step 1

Generated

Please write the source reference of this figure:

Last Revised: August 2010

Confirm waste generation rates

Calculator confirms whether credits are achieved.

Calculator estimates construction and demolition waste generation (numerically and graphically)

Step 1 - Project Details

200

tonnes

180 160 140

35.5%

Landfilled

Construction and Demolition Waste: 222.4 tonnes

Salvaged/ Recycled

Salvage and recycling of Construction and Demolition waste

Enter construction and demolition waste management procedures

Non-technical factors Will a construction and demolition waste management plan be written? (Required SM-R2)

Yes

Will waste education be provided to construction contractors?

Yes

Will waste education be provided to demolition contractors?

Yes

Will waste be adequately segregated and temporarily stored on-site during construction?

Yes

Will waste be adequately segregated and temporarily stored on-site during demolition?

Yes

Will there be a person responsible of C&D waste management?

No

NOTE: Capture rates represent the expected salvage/recycling rates of the project for construction and demolition waste at the design stage or those achieved during the construction stage. They are not the final salvage/recycling rates that will be achieved in the projects. These are shown in the Results worksheet. Capture rates are always <100% because they represent a combination of nontechnical factors such as education and management as well as technical factors, e.g. not all waste streams can be fully recycled.

Technical factors

Construction

What percentage of material from existing building (in weight) will be reused in the new one?

5%

Salvage rate

Yes

Non-technical capture rate

70%

70%

Technical capture rate

90%

90%

63.0%

64.9%

Municipal plant

Will demolition waste be recycled in a recycling plant(s)? Which plant(s)?

-

Overall capture rate

Yes

5%

Municipal plant

Override automatic values and introduce customised C&D capture rates?

No

Construction

Demolition

63.0%

64.9%

Please insert the source reference for these values:

Operational waste diversion from landfill rates

Enter operational waste management procedures

Residential Non-technical factors Will adequate waste storage be provided within the kitchen? (Required SM-R3)

Yes

Where will adequate waste storage be provided for the villa? (Required SM-R3)

In the plot

Waste storage description:

Waste room in perimeter wall

Previous

Next

Yes No

Is there an existing building in the plot? Pearl Rating Stage

Yes

Design

Construction and Demolition waste recycling and salvage rates

Salvage and recycling of Construction and Demolition waste

Construction

Demolition

10%

10%

Non-technical factors Will a construction and demolition waste management plant be written?

Yes

Will waste education be provided to construction contractors?

Yes

Will waste education be provided to demolition contractors?

Yes

Minimum of 10% if the plan is written otherwise 0 Yes +30% Yes +30%

47

30%

0%

0%

30%

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Demolition waste

Demolition

Will construction waste be recycled in a recycling plant(s)? Which plant(s)?

64.5%

Tonnes

Construction and Demolition (C&D) waste recycling and salvage rates

Previous

Construction waste


7.0 Verify performance

Related Credits: IDP-R2: Systems and Envelope Performance Verification

Finishing construction is not quite the last step in an Estidama project. Key to ensuring sustainability is to verify that the building will perform according to the design specifications. The performance of the structure and building systems should be evaluated, and occupants should be informed how to operate and maintain the building for best results.

Approach Credit IDP-R2 requires that a Competent Professional verify the building systemsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; performance and test the building envelope for water ingress and air tightness. The Project team must also prepare an Occupant Handbook. The envelope and systems should comply with the requirements of credit RE-R1. Information compiled by the energy and water sub-meters required by credits RE-R2 and PW-R2 credits can be used to facilitate both verification and guidelines for proper operations. Although credit IDP-R2 is completed after construction, it should be anticipated earlier in the design process. Some systems need to be tested before installation.The owner may also wish to reference verification in the Engineerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contract early on. Note that the person who conducts the verification can be from a company involved in the design process, but the individual who verifies cannot be directly involved in the project for any other purpose.

48


7.1 Systems + envelope verification Envelope verification The value of high performance materials can be negated if they are not properly installed. Energy performance is affected by the air tightness, which is a result of the materials used and the quality of the construction methods. Only a good combination of the two will achieve a suitably low infiltration rate. Wall ingress and the formation of condensate will also cause internal water damage to the villa, degrading the performance over time and contributing to health hazards such as mold growth. Therefore it is necessary to:

1 2 3

Confirm all standard envelope products have a pretesting certificate prior to installation Establish a methodology for construction and installation that will minimize the infiltration rate. Larger multiple villa projects must also test the building envelope of representative villa prototypes for water ingress and air tightness after installation. This must be conducted by a professional with a minimum of 2 years experience in envelope verification. The required infiltration limit is 0.35 ach (“air changes per hour,” i.e. a quantity of air averaging 35% of the total volume of air will leak through the fabric each hour).

Systems verification at construction completion Building systems should also be verified to ensure they perform according to design standards. Systems can perform poorly because they are poorly manufactured. damaged in transit, or installed improperly, Commissioning installed systems prevent wasteful energy use, reduces maintenance requirements, and prolongs the life of systems. Test the following systems and their controls after installation: • Heating • Ventilation • Air conditioning • Service water heating • On-site renewable technologies (e.g. solar thermal systems) • On-site water treatment systems (if applicable, e.g. swimming pools) • Stormwater management systems

1 2 3 4 5

Ensure the commissioning is conducted by a professional with a minimum of 2 years experience in systems verification. They should: Confirm and record system certifications Validate warranties Record manufacturers recommendations Ensure that illegal equipment and materials are not used. For example, R-22 or HCFC-22 based systems are banned in the UAE, although they can still be found. These are strictly forbidden.

49


7.2 Occupant handbook To ensure that building systems continue to operate at the designed level, the villa owner must receive instructions on how the systems function and how best to ensure their performance. Provide an Occupant Handbook to the owners, including a full explanation of the systems, system warranties, maintenance and operating instructions (this could be in the form of manufacturerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s user manuals), isolation points, and the commissioning certificates. Although each project will have to prepare a compilation of documents specific to each villa, generic recommendations for proper occupancy may be applicable to many villa occupants as well.

50


Estidama construction submission at completion permit application IDP-R1: Integrated Development Strategy Narrative showing an updated process chart of the IDP highlighting changes from the design stage.

IDP-R2: Systems & Envelope Performance Verification Commissioning report signed by the Competent Person detailing the results of the systems verification and confirming that all systems are operating as intended; Occupant Handbook and confirmation that this has been provided to the villa owner; Copies of certificates of testing of all standard products and any custom made cladding systems; and Building envelope verification report signed by the Competent Professional detailing the results of the testing and confirming that the performance of the building envelope is acceptable.

SM-R2: Basic Construction Waste Management Calculations, supported with detailed receipts, summarizing final results of the CDWMP activities listing items recycled/salvaged, their source within the project, their total weight or volume, the name and location of the reclaim/recycling haulers, and markets for the recyclable materials. (Example 6.1a)

PW-R1: Minimum Interior Water Use Reduction Manufacturer information, including flow rates, for all installed fixtures, fittings, and appliances

51


Estidama site inspection

In addition to documentation submitted to the Municipality at the completion certification application, the villa will also be subject to a site inspection. The inspector will seek to confirm compliance with the following Estidama requirements, in addition to other building requirements.

NS-R1: Natural Systems Assessment & Protection • Confirm preserved or protected valuable assets (where relevant)

LV-R2: Outdoor Thermal Comfort • Confirm that all shade structures have been purchased and correctly installed

LV-R3: Minimum Ventilation • Confirm that the villa was built as designed

PW-R2: Water Monitoring • Confirm the installation of the required meter(s)

RE-R1: Minimum Energy Performance • Confirm installation of HWS to meet 50% of anticipated demand. • Manufacturer’s data and as-built building services layout drawings clearly indicating the type, extent and locations of all HWS generating equipment. • Updated Manufacturer’s details for each installed appliance, light fixture, fan, AC unit and electrical usage item not specifically detailed within this section, detailing the energy rating / unit efficiency / power rating of the proposed electrical item, for confirmation on Municipality inspection visit. • Manufacturer information regarding appliance energy use or proof of certification by Energy Star program, EU Energy Efficiency Labeling Scheme or equivalent, for confirmation on Municipality inspection visit.

RE-R2: Energy Monitoring • Confirm the installation of specified meters

RE-R3: Ozone Impacts of Refrigerants • Confirm manufacturer’s data for all proposed refrigerant systems, showing ODP of each refrigerant is zero.

SM-R1: Hazardous Materials Elimination • Confirm that no ACMs or CCA-treated timber were used in the project as per the Credit Requirements.

SM-R3: Storage & Collection of Waste & Recyclables • Confirm appropriate, separated waste bins in the kitchen and central waste storage facility • Confirm location of the waste storage facility and access for collection services from the nearest road/passage • Confirm lighting, floor and wall covering, security, and ventilation (for completely enclosed waste rooms only) solutions for the waste storage facility

52


‫مجلس أبوظبي للتخطيط العمراني‬ 62221 ‫ب‬.‫ص‬ ‫ اإلمارات العربية المتحدة‬،‫أبوظبي‬

Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council P.O.Box 62221 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates

Tel: +971 2 409 6000 Fax: +971 2 443 9443 www.estidama.org


1 Pearl Villa Guide for Consultants