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RESEARCH PAPER SERIES No. 2003-03

College Fee Structure and Philippine Inflation

Edita A. Tan

PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas


Dr. Edita A. Tan is a Professor Emeritus of Economics at the University of the Philippines School of Economics (UPSE) and a past member of the Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS) Board of Trustees. She holds a Ph.D. in Economics from UPSE. This paper was prepared for the PIDS-PES Distinguished Speakers Lecture Series on August 29, 2002 as part of the PIDS celebration of its silver founding anniversary. The paper also appears in the second semestral issue for 2002 of the Philippine Review of Economics.


College Fee Structure and Philippine Inflation

Edita A. Tan

RESEARCH PAPER SERIES NO. 2003-03

PHILIPPINE INSTITUTE FOR DEVELOPMENT STUDIES Surian sa mga Pag-aaral Pangkaunlaran ng Pilipinas


Copyright 2003 Philippine Institute for Development Studies

Printed in the Philippines. All rights reserved.

The views expressed in this paper are those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views of any individual or organization. Please do not quote without permission from the author nor PIDS.

Please address all inquiries to: Philippine Institute for Development Studies NEDA sa Makati Building, 106 Amorsolo Street Legaspi Village, 1229 Makati City, Philippines Tel: (63-2) 893-5705 / 892-4059 Fax: (63-2) 893-9589 / 816-1091 E-mail: publications@pidsnet.pids.gov.ph Website: http://www.pids.gov.ph

ISBN 971-564-062-1 RP 10-03-800


Table of Contents I.

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1

II. The higher education-labor market. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2

III. Fee structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7

IV. Regression results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 V. Fee increases in private HEI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 VI. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Appendixes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

iii


List of Tables 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2

3 4 5 6 7 8

Number of schools by tuition fee per unit range 2000-2001, Civil Engineering Number of schools by fee range 2000-2001, Nursing Number of schools by fee range 2000-2001, Accountancy Number of schools by fee range 2000-2001, Education-Elementary Number of schools by fee range 2000-2001, Education-Secondary Colleges and universities charging high tuition fees (P250 and Higher) and passing rate by field, 2001 Tuition fees, unit cost and performance in licensure examination of SUCs, 2001 Regression results, dependent variable (tuition per unit) Regression results, dependent variable (program fee) Regression results for SUCs only, dependent variable (passing rate) Percentage of private HEI increasing tuition and rate of tuition increase, 1997-2001 Tuition fee increase in architecture and engineering in selected HEIs, 1994-2001

Appendix Tables 1 Passing rate in board examinations, tuition, and enrollment (Engineering and Architecture) 2 Passing rate in board examinations, tuition, and enrollment (Nursing) 3 Passing rate in board examinations, tuition, and enrollment (Accountancy) 4 Passing rate in board examinations, tuition, and enrollment (Education)

iv

9 10 11 12 13 15

16 19 21 23 25 26

31 59 68 81


Introduction School fee increases are a contentious but vague issue in Philippine education. Although students have rallied intermittently during the last three decades against fee increases through street demonstrations and media statements, these have failed to attract a large following, were short-lived and, on the whole, ineffective in influencing decisions on fees by higher educational institutions (HEI) or colleges and universities (CU). Lack of information and analyses about school fees is perhaps an important reason for the lackluster reception to students’ demands. After all, very few studies have been undertaken on the subject. The paper examines the country’s highly complex HEI fee structure and its changes over time. School fees vary widely across private CUs almost in continuous fashion, ranging from P4,000 to more than P100,000 per year. In state universities and colleges (SUCs), fees have been arbitrarily set, ranging from less than P500 to P11,000 per year. Fee increases also differ across schools and appear to be adjusted to inflation in an unpredictable manner. School fee is the price of an education product (in the form of a degree program) offered by a particular HEI (e.g., BS Mathematics, Ateneo University). In general, private CUs are fully financed by school fees since minimal grants are obtainable from philanthropic works and from the government. It may, therefore, be reasonably assumed that CUs operate like business firms, which have to recover their cost from sales or revenue from school fees. It is assumed there is a production function for each degree program from which a cost function may be derived. The inputs are students, teachers, teaching materials and physical capital. It is also assumed that production cost differs across programs for a number of reasons. Laboratory-intensive programs are generally more expensive to produce than book-based programs, e.g., natural science vs. social science or literature. Graduate programs are expected to be more expensive than undergraduate programs because of the higher quality of faculty and larger instructional inputs the former require. Each degree program can be produced at different levels of quality, with cost expected to rise as quality rises. Quality depends on the qualification of faculty, faculty time per student and quality of other inputs. Fees are therefore expected to differ according to level, field of specialization and quality of instruction. The institutional character of a CU may also affect cost. There are more than 1,100 private CUs that have been categorized into sectarian or religious, nonsectarian foundation or nonsectarian. The sectarian

1


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

HEIs are essentially nonprofit institutions and founded for missionary and charitable objectives. Most were founded and have been operated by Catholic religious orders and organizations. Some sectarian schools obtain financial and other forms of support from their mother organizations. The nonsectarian foundation schools are, on paper, nonprofit in nature; the ordinary nonsectarian schools are operated mainly as a business. This study therefore aims to determine whether the institutional character of HEIs influences fees. The paper tries to explain fee variation by quality, enrollment and institutional character using cross section data of HEIs for each degree program. Quality is very roughly indicated by the graduates’ performance in professional board examination, the only available objective indicator of quality. Regressions were run to test for the relationship between fees and the other variables. Very poor results were obtained. This study explains the results by market imperfections in information and credit. It discusses the information dissemination problem faced by would-be college students, a concern that is seen to obstructs competition among schools, possibly allowing them to operate inefficiently. Capital market imperfection is another very serious concern because students’ choices are delimited by their families’ resources. The implications on choice are discussed in the next section. The discussion is organized as follows: The next section briefly discusses imperfect conditions in the higher education-labor market and their implications on the structure of demand for the various HEI programs and fees; the third section presents the fee structure across schools and programs; and the final section tests the relationship between fee level and quality of instruction and school characteristics.

The higher education-labor market Basic competitive model Consider i programs with known expected market valued benefits Y, school fees and other costs C. Assume no capital constraints so that a student’s choice is principally determined by his ability and expected rate of return. Some i programs require high ability: call them i, h programs. The other i programs require low ability: call them i, l programs. High-ability students qualify for both high-ability and low-ability programs but low-ability students qualify only for the latter.

2


The Higher Education-Labor Market

There is a production function for each program with inputs of students, faculty, learning materials and facilities. High-ability students are desired by all programs for their positive influence on their fellow students and the prestige they tend to render their school. They learn more from any given instructional situation; hence, their average cost of learning is lower than that of low-ability students. There is a labor market for graduates of each higher education program based on the productivity effect of the knowledge and skills they have acquired from it. Graduates of i, h programs are expected to have higher productivity and greater trainability than graduates of i, l programs. Under competitive conditions, students are adequately informed about the expected returns on the two programs. High-ability students will continue pursuing i, h programs until the internal rate of return relative to i, l programs is just equal the market rate of interest or that their net present value is zero. Low-ability students will pursue i, l programs so long as their internal rate of return relative to other lowability options exceeds the market rate and stop where they are equal. These students may pursue i, h programs if there is a shortage of labor with i, h credential, but they will have to exert extra effort to qualify for the program. Their investment cost will be larger than that for the marginally bright students. Each program category (field level and quality) may be provided by any number of competing HEIs. Maximizing the rate of return from a program entails enrolling in the school offering the program at lowest cost. Competition among schools will force HEIs to operate along the (efficient) production frontier and at the most economic scale. There will be one price for each program type. Students will be distributed across programs depending on their marginal rate of return. A change in either demand for graduates of a program or its cost due to input price and/or instructional technology change will redistribute students across programs until a new equilibrium rate of return is reached.

The imperfect world of Philippine higher education market In the Philippines, capital market imperfections are serious and palpable. Except for the relatively new but small college insurance plan, little credit from the financial system is available for educational investments. Most students depend on family resources to finance

3


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

their education. There are self-supporting or working students but they are relatively few. Scholarships are available from government and private sources to about 15 percent of higher education students but most of these finance the tuition offered by the low-tuition CUs. Few scholarship grants support students in high-cost CUs. Only a few, too, cover cost of living and books (Tan et al. 2002). For most students, choices are therefore limited by their family’s resources. Worse, students in rural areas far from capital towns and cities where HEIs are located are further constrained by the additional cost of transport and extra living expenses. CUs charge fee levels that families can afford. Considering that family income is low on average and unequally distributed, an increasing number of schools charge decreasing fee levels. Most HEIs charge low fees and only a few charge high fees. These are the socalled elite private HEIs which include the Ateneo de Manila, De La Salle University and the convent colleges for girls. Information is generated informally and formally. The activities in the education-labor market produces information to the market participants who in turn relay it to those with whom they come in contact with. Job applicants acquire knowledge about hiring criteria, unemployment and search cost, job openings and wage offers in the course of their job search. Those employed know their firm’s wage scale, working conditions, employment growth, and others. The information is relayed to the applicants’ and the employee’s circle of relatives and friends and other persons in the community. The education/training institutions get feedback from their graduates and their community. The earnings of those informally employed are similarly relayed to the community and its schools. Some firms advertise jobs in newspapers but the great majority recruit through their employees and personal contacts. While newspaper advertisements have a wider reach than personal contacts, advertised jobs comprise only a very small fraction of all available jobs. There are only two newspapers that carry substantial advertisements : The Manila Bulletin and the Philippine Daily Inquirer, each of which has only about 250,000 to 300,000 daily circulation. The Manila Bulletin has traditionally been the main medium for advertisement; the Inquirer has less than 30 percent of the Bulletin’s advertisements. According to the Bulletin’s circulation manager, 65 percent of their subscribers belong to the upper income classes and large firms. Social contact can be restrained by all sorts of class barriers.

4


The Higher Education-Labor Market

The information requirement for an efficient education-labor functioning would depend on the degree of specialization of skills and factors that contribute to differences in rate of return. For the substitutable education/training or skills, the information needed will be for the group as a whole compared to other groups since the labor force with these skills can move between jobs without much loss of investment. As a rule, information is important for skill categories where rates of return differ. In an imperfect market, rates of return could differ among levels of education and among highly specialized skills. Quality differences may also result in differences in rate of return. A fairly good, detailed and useful education-labor market information is regularly collected by the government through the National Statistics Office (NSO), which is ran by well-trained professional statisticians. The statistical information collected by other agencies such as the Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) and the Central Bank is coordinated under the National Statistical Coordinating Board (NSCB), which is chaired by the National Economic Development Authority and administered by the NSO director-general. The NSO is responsible for the national census (every five years), the national income accounts (semi-annual), the trade statistics (monthly), the family income and expenditure surveys (every three years), and the labor force surveys (quarterly). The DOLE collects its own wage data from establishments, while the NSO’s labor force data are household-based. The DOLE’s Bureau of Employment Services has recently instituted placement service offices in selected cities. Data on vacancies and employment are collected and made available on the web to institutional subscribers, which include a few large universities. The Department of Education and Culture (DECS) collects information on enrollment, graduates, educational institutions and teachers on an annual basis. It also administers achievement tests to primary and secondary students. The Professional Regulatory Board produces information on the performance of graduates in the various professional licensure examinations. Despite the volume of statistics available, the data have not been published in useful forms. Their distribution has been confined only to official and academic circles. The labor force survey (LFS) contains most useful information about the education-labor market. The first LFS was undertaken during harvest and post harvest seasons in 1956

5


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

(around April and October each year). Since 1976, the LFS has been made on a quarterly basis. Through time, increasing amount of information was collected with more explanatory variables and a higher degree of disaggregation. Available data are on the working age population or manpower, employment and unemployment, the employee’s hours worked and earnings by major industry and major occupation, and schooling attainment. These data and the analyses using them such as Alba’s (2002) rate of return estimation, however, have not been disseminated.

Some facets of Philippine higher education system The quality of precollege education significantly determines the chance of admission to good quality HEIs. The quality of elementary and high school education and the learning environment at home are determined by a child’s socioeconomic background. Rich families send their children to the “best” precollege schools. They have a richer learning environment at home. Location also matters. Big cities tend to provide their population with better information on schools and employment. Here, the city elementary and high schools generally have better learning facilities than small towns and rural schools. Cities offer more higher education alternatives because of the presence of more CUs, including the quality ones. City students, therefore, face lower distance-related cost. There is no clear gauge of quality. There is a core curriculum of courses for the older and more traditional degree programs such as accountancy, civil engineering, medicine and law. However, the course content and the quality of teaching can differ substantially from school to school. Religious schools prescribe religion-related courses such as theology and church history in addition to the core curriculum. These courses add to the cost. Many directly inculcate discipline and provide amenities for social and cultural activities. The elite private CUs give training in social graces. Some occupations and some firms view these traits positively and there might have developed statistical biases favoring graduates from religious CUs. Many religious groups who run sectarian schools provide management and teaching services pro bono or at below market wage rates. They are viewed to have greater commitment to their instructional tasks and so provide better services than lay school officials. In contrast, nonsectarian CUs must cover all costs, including the shadow wage of officials plus profits. The foundation nonsectarian

6


Fee Structure

schools are, on paper, nonprofit. Profits can, however, be hidden under many accounts such as transport and travel, rental and services. The labor market is expected to pay a premium for quality education. Such premium for quality is not equal across firms and HEIs. High-tech firms engaged in global trade possibly pay a higher premium for quality than small traditional firms producing low-tech products. The qualification of an accountant or engineer for Microsoft or Bechtel is higher than the qualification for a small local semiconductor or construction company. The more reputable HEIs such as University of the Philippines (UP), Ateneo de Manila or De La Salle University require much higher qualification for their faculty than other schools. Other schools appear not to discriminate their faculty based on the graduate school the latter comes from. Many low quality HEIs hire from their own graduate programs, resulting in in-breeding among their low quality faculty. The government is the single biggest employer of college graduates. While many positions require the passing of a civil service examination, many are hired because of political influence. The practice might have muddled the value of quality education since career outcome was not totally based on qualification. It has increased the demand for poor quality graduates and led to the overstaffing of the government bureaucracy.

Fee structure Descriptive statistics on individual CUs by region are analyzed in this section. Quality is indicated by the passing rate (count of those who passed/number of examinees) in professional licensure examination. The analysis covers the more important (older and larger) fields of specialization: elementary and secondary teacher training, nursing, accountancy, electrical, mechanical and civil engineering. Two measures of schools fees are identified: (1) tuition fee per academic unit; and (2) program cost, which is equal to tuition fee plus other fees for fulltime enrollment for the duration of a degree program. In general, CUs charge a common tuition fee per unit and extra for miscellaneous expenses, including laboratory, sports and other expenses. These may differ from field to field. This study used the Commission on Higher Education computer files on individual CUs’ passing rate in each professional board/licensure examination conducted by the Philippine Professional Regulatory Commission (PRC), data on fees and data on enrollment. The three files were

7


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

merged. The complete set of individual school data are given in the Appendix Tables. They give a good insight into the full structure of fees. Noted, however, that not all CUs reported or gave a complete report of the data. The conclusions have to be qualified for this problem. Tables 1.1 to Table 1.5 give the distribution of tuition fee per academic unit in each of the seven important professional fields in each region. Tuition fee per unit ranges from P100 to P1,442 across all private CUs nationwide. The highest fee is given by Ateneo de Manila. De La Salle University is supposed to have an even higher fee than Ateneo de Manila, although the amount is not available in the CHED database. Translated into a 20-units-per-semester load (or 40 units per school year), the tuition fee for a school year ranges from P4,000 to P57,680. Additional fees for laboratory and other charges substantially increase total fees, but again, the increases are highly differentiated across programs and CUs. In general, miscellaneous fees are a fraction of total tuition fees but in many cases, they exceed tuition fees. The program cost, which includes tuition plus miscellaneous fees for the full duration of a degree program, is P20,000 to P321,000. Focus now on the lower end of the distribution of fees of P250 or less per unit (equivalent to P10,000 or less per school year). Note that the distribution differs between regions. The proportion of CUs that charge P250 or less is much smaller in NCR than in the other regions: NCR has zero in civil engineering, 5.7 percent in accounting, 16.7 percent in nursing, 5.9 percent in elementary education and 9.0 percent in secondary education. Relatively fewer CUs charge low fees in the richer regions (III, IV, VI and VII) than in the poorer regions. Proportionately fewer engineering and nursing schools charge lower fees than for accounting and teacher training. This is to be expected considering that both engineering and nursing entail some laboratory work. Teacher training for elementary and secondary education charge the lowest fees. Outside Metro Manila, only three CUs charge tuition fee per unit of P500 or more. These CUs are each located in Regions III, IV and VII. These three regions are the same ones that have relatively fewer CUs in the low tuition ranges. They are more urbanized and include large cities such as Pangasinan, Tarlac, San Fernando, Batangas, Lucena, San Pablo, Cavite, Cebu and Dumaguete. They have sufficiently large population of rich students to support high-cost programs.

8


Table 1.1. Number. of schools by tuition fee per unit range 2000-2001, Civil Engineering* Tuition fee per unit range/Region

NCR

II

1 5

III

2 3 1

1

IV

1 4 4 3 2 1

4

V

VI

2 2 1 2

1 3 4 2

VII

VIII

1

1 1

1 3 4

IX

1 1

X

2 3 2 1 1

1

XI

XII

4 4 2 1

4 2

CAR

ARMM Total

1 2 1

2

2

1

1

1

7

6

1 14

3 6

8

85.7 7 175 313

83.3 6 150 261

28.6 15 214 403

16.7 9 165 484

50.0 8 152 425

*Private schools only with students who took the board exam. Source: CHED computer file

1 10

1 10

40.0 20.0 11 11 186 110 320 624

2

2 2

9

1 12

6

4

100.0 2 145 155

100.0 4 170 220

55.6 9 173 350

66.7 13 180 432

100.0 6 157 237

25.0 4 220 312

0.0

2 19 29 26 17 7 6 3 2 1 1 1 13 114 43.9 2 254 283

Fee Structure

9

100 to 150 150 to 200 200 to 250 250 to 300 1 300 to 350 2 350 to 400 4 400 to 450 3 450 to 500 2 500 to 550 2 550 to 600 1 600 to 650 more than 1000 1 no data 4 Total, with data 16 % of total with data with tuition below P250 0.0 Overall total 20 Minimum fee (pesos) 275 Maximum fee (pesos) 1,160

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College Fee Structure

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12

In -lation


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

Next, look at the fees, program cost and passing rate for the higher-cost CUs fees. A cursory look at Table 2 shows passing rate to be weakly related to program cost. In civil engineering, the passing rate ranges from 17 percent to 91.7 percent. The highest fee school (Perpetual Help University) has a modest performance of 52.9 percent while University of Negros Occidental de Recoletos, which has a modest fee of about one-third of Perpetual Help, has the best performance at 91.7 percent. In mechanical engineering, Xavier University has a 100 percent passing rate although its tuition fee is relatively low for its group. Also note that a school’s performance may differ across fields. The University of Negros de Recoletos did well in civil, mechanical, and electrical but less so in chemical engineering. Central Philippine University has a consistently high performance in all engineering fields. Table 3 gives the comparable data for state universities and colleges (SUCs). They charge minimal tuition fees that ranged from P4 to P300 per academic unit or P144 to P10.800 per fulltime school year in 2001 (where full load is about 18 units per semester or 36 units per year). School fees contribute less than 6 percent on average to total current expenditures of SUC. In 1998, instructional cost per student per school year (referred to as unit cost) ranged from P9,606 (Tarlac State University) to P102,658 (Technological University of the Philippines or TUP). UP has a unit cost of P77,390. Unlike private CUs, Metro Manila SUCs—except for TUP and UP—have unit costs comparable to provincial SUCs. SUCs generally have a higher performance in licensure examinations than private CUs and have much fewer members with extremely poor passing rates. The passing rate in each field varies across SUCs. UP Diliman has a 100 percent passing rate in civil, mechanical and electrical engineering, 96.6 percent in nursing and 95.6 percent in accountancy. As in the private system, SUCs’ passing rate appears not to vary closely (positively) with unit cost. TUP, which has the highest unit cost, has a passing rate in all engineering fields that is lower than UP’s. Other SUCs with lower unit cost have higher passing rate in a number of engineering fields than TUP. This can be gleaned more clearly in the regression of passing rates on program cost. On the whole, the performance of SUCs in engineering, nursing and accountancy compares well with that of better quality private CUs. The best performing SUCs have lower cost than their private counterparts.

14


Table 2. Colleges and universities charging high tuition fees (P250 and higher) and passing rate by field, 2001 Region

Total Tuition Engineering

I I III III IV IV IV V V V V V VI VI VI VI VI VII VII X X XI CAR CAR II II

58 63 74 80 59 96 51 48 60 68 85 86 46 60 60 60 58 64 125 61 70 86 63 51 53 40

105 129 132 156 322 98 109 101 107 120 102 86 93 270 161 109 114 106 77 34

Mechanical

Pass % PC 17 23 39 33 53 57 20 16 15 39 68 15 92 35 51 82 11 80 12 60 84

95 106 133 142 322 123 111 109 100 105 339 170 na 105 80

Pass % 22 27

Chemical

Electrical

PC Pass %

PC

100

100 33 83 61

67

112

64

107 103 128 134 157 322 117 103 98 269 162 na 113 114

80

75

41

80

50 56

51 92 78 44 88

105 104 92 97 92 336 -

100

PC = Program cost = Total fees for completing the degree program in P000. Pass = Passing rate or number passing to number taking the exam in percent. Total tuition is for five-year engineering programs and four-year accounting program in P1,000. Source: CHED computer file.

9

85 10 38 23 53 6 62

Electronics

Pass % PC 25 22 67 45 80 33

109

39

134 138

47

97

71

132 106

59 66

105

50

50 79

Total

Pass % Tuition

86 339 na 113

100 16

101 81

17 58

83

45

50 59 64

41 38 48 54 68 69 37 48 48 48 46 51 100 49 56 69

42 32

Accounting PC

Pass %

94 110 118 77 97 77 94 107 107 90 89 93 91 76 236 153 71 91 101 79 75 59

9 13 19 15 11 14 4 9 14 18 17 21 14 28 58 10 23 100 64 25 25 8 31 28 23

Fee Structure

15

1. Phil. College of S&T 2. Luzon Colleges 3. Baliwag Colleges 4. Holy Angels Univ. 5. Univ. of Batangas 6. Univ. of Perpetual Help 7. Divine World College 8. Aquinas University 9. Univ. of St. Anthony 10. Naga College Foundation 11. Univ. of Nueva Caceres 12. Ateneo de Naga 13. Central Phil. Univ. 14. Colegio de San Agustin 15. Univ. San Agustin 16. Univ. Saint La Salle 17. Univ. of Negros de Recoletos 18. Univ. of San Jose-Recoletos 19. Siliman University 20. Xavier University 21. Liceo de Cagayan 22. Ateneo de Davao 23. Univ. of Baguio 24. St. Louis University 25. Univ. La Salle-Santiago 26. St. Paul University

Civil PC


Table 3. Tuition fees, unit cost and performance in licensure examination of SUCs, 2001 Region

540 1440 9180 10800

I I I II II III III III III III III III IV IV IV

900 1080 1440 900 1620 1800 900 144 1440 1440 1440 1440 2160 3961 720 720 1764 1800 3600 1080 1800 900 1800 1620 1620

Unit cost per year (000)

Program cost (000)

12.8 12.8 102.7 77.4 13.7

51 51 411 310 55

19.8 15.2 16.2 18.2 33.5 27.1 22.3 22.9 9.6 9.9 31.6 22.3

79 61 65 73 134 108 89 91 38 139 127 89

31.0 19.1 12.8 27.3 13.0 11.1

124 76 51 109 56 44

12.4 14.1 23.3 13.9 52.7

50 56 93 56 210

Civil

Mechanical

Electrical

Nursing

Pass

N

Pass

N

Pass

N

13.3 26.7 82.5 100.0 60.6 54.6

15 15 40 40 109 33

7.7 58.3 67.1 100.0 66.3 75.0

13 40 88 22 83 16

17.4 45.8 54.1 100.0 45.5 37.5

23 24 61 11 88 32

17.8 22.5 61.7

100 40 47

26 29 55

14 11

44.7 62.9 35.6 19.7 0.0 20.0 100.0 60.0 42.9 43.5 100.0 57.1 54.8 100.0 34.3 27.8 17.7

85 62 73 61 1 145 1 5 7 46 1 35 73 26

16 17 54 13 21 13 33 32

26.9 51.7 58.2

64.3 90.9

68.8 58.8 53.7 76.9 66.7 61.5 36.4 75.0

48.6 74.5

72 51

25.6

43

16.7

24

31.7

60

26.3

152

50.0

4

28.6

7

100.0 66.7 83.3

2 9 60

88.0 71.3

25 80

81.8 44.1

11 118

66.7 25.8

12 155

37.9 45.5 20.0

29 11 10

23.8 44.4 6.3

21 9 16

137 115 17

Pass

Accountancy N

Pass

N

9.1

3 90 795 172

96.6

29

93.8

48

95.6 25.9 33.7

53.4

163

35.7

28

76.5

68

57.1

21

0.0 0.0

1 3

25.0

76

34.1

41

15.8

19

27.3

22

26.7 36.2 10.0

30 58 40

90.9 60.6 32.2 40.0

33 94 59 25

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

16

1. E. A. Rodriguez 2. Rizal Technology 3. TUP Manila 4. UP-Diliman 5. PUP Manila 6. PLM 7. PNU 8. Univ. of Northern Phil. 9. Pangasinan State Univ. 10. MMSU 11. DMM MSU 12. Cagayan State Univ. 13. Isabela State Univ. 14. Nueva Viscaya State Univ. 15. Tarlac State Univ. 16. Bulacan State Univ. 17. CLSU 18. Don Honorio Ventura College 19. RM Polytechnic College 20. Nueva Ecija Univ. of S & T 21. Bataan Polytechnic SC 22. Aurora SC of Technology 23. Cavite State Univ. 24. Marinduque State Univ. 25. State Polytech. College Palawan 26. Palawan State Univ. 27. Pablo Borbon MIT 28. UP Los Banos 29. Southern Luzon Polytech. College 30. Bicol University 31. Catanduanes University 32. Camarines Sur Polytech. College 33. Panay State Polytech. College 34. Capiz Institute Technology

Tuition fee per year (000)


Table 3. Contnued Region

35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43.

VIII

1512 1800 900 1008 1440 1440 1440 1800

IX X XI XII XII XII

I VI VI

360 2700 1440 360 360 360 540 1440 1440 4356

Unit cost per year (000)

Program cost (000)

5.6 20.5 18.0 14.7

23 82 72 59

16.8 11.6 16.1 14.8 16.6 34.1 56.1 14.8

67 46 65 59 67 136 224 59

31.1

124

11.8 29.9 11.7

47 119 47

2160 28.3

113

Civil

Mechanical

Pass

N

57.1

7

39.1 36.3 15.8 26.0 43.2 11.1 21.1

46 322 19 50 44 18 109

61.7 33.3 38.3 76.9 76.9 52.1 9.1 58.8 12.5

47 6 47 39 13 73 22 17 16

Pass

N

Electrical

Nursing

Pass

N

66.7 14.3

3 7 73 2 11 12 5 100

45.0 32.3

20 65

33.3

15

25.2

88

35.6 50.0 45.5 75.0 40.0 16.0

66.7 0.0 69.6 94.4 100.0 70.6

9 1 23 18 9 17

64.0 71.4 68.2 78.3 100.0 100.0

25 28 22 23 30 12

66.7

3

Accountancy

Pass

N

77.5 65.2

57 23

58.0

Pass

N

0.0

1

40.0 35.3

30 17

0.0

1

16.7

6

14.5 31.9 20.0

55 91 100

0.0

15

274

100.0

12

26.9 64.4 100.0 0.0 87.5 53.8

104 59 117 1 24 26

Program cost = unit cost x four years Pass = Passing rate in lisensure examination number passing/number of examination N = number of examinees Source: Passing rate and Tuition from CHED computer file; Unit costs from ADB-WBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s The 1998 Philippine Education Sector Study, Technical Background Paper Number 3, Higher Education in the Philippines.

Fee Structure

17

44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58.

Central Visayas Polytech. College Cebu State College Of S & T Univ. Eastern Phil. Leyte Institute Tech. Eastern Samar State College Samar Poltech. College Tiburcio Tancinco Naval Institute Tech. Western Mindanao State Univ. Bukidnon State Colleges Central Mindanao Univ. Mindanao Polytech. State College Univ. of SE Phil. MSU - General Santos MSU- Iligan MSU- Marawi Cotabato City Polytech College Univ. Southern Mindanao Mountain Prov. Polytech. College Urdaneta Comm. College Bataan Polytech. State Univ. West Visayas State University Panay Polytech. and College (Manbusao) Benguet State University Cebu General Hospital

Tuition fee per year (000)


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

For instance, UP compares well with De La Salle University and Mapua Institute, although the last two have higher program costs. Some private CUs, however, have better performance than some SUCs for a given program cost. The data highlight a number of policy questions. There is no rhyme or reason for the tuition levels to be so low in SUCs. All SUC students are subsidized to the extent of the unit cost-tuition differential irrespective of their socioeconomic background, ability and academic performance. Low tuition encourages lax study habits and prolonged schooling. A recent study of access to higher education (Tan et al. 2002) found that SUCs admit mostly the nonpoor; furthermore, that the better quality SUCs which attract more applicants admit even fewer poor students.

Regression results The following function is tested by OLS regression: (1)

Fees = f1(Quality, Enrollment, Type of School)

Quality is proxied by passing rate in licensure examinations. Type of school is proxied by a dummy for sectarian and nonsectarian. Equation (1) is run for each of seven fields: civil, mechanical and electrical engineering, nursing, accounting, elementary and secondary education in private CUs. Tuition fees and program cost were alternatively used. For the SUC, the passing rate is regressed against program cost and number of examinees. The program cost of SUCs is estimated to be the annual per student instructional cost multiplied by four years. Schools were grouped into five adjacent regions: Northern Luzon, Southern Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao and the NCR. Overall, a total of 35 regressions were run for seven fields in five regional groupings. The regional groupings account for distance-related costs that tend to segment the market. The results are given in Tables 4-7. Table 4 uses tuition fee per unit as the dependent variable. The results on the 35 regressions are generally not very robust. Passing rate that significantly influences tuition fees is significant in only 13 out of the 35 groupings. Specifically, passing rate significantly determines tuition fees in accounting in Southern Luzon and Mindanao, in civil engineering and nursing in Southern Luzon, in elementary education in all regional groupings, in secondary

18


Regression Results

Table 4. Regression results, dependent variable (tuition per unit)

Independent Variables

NCR

Regression Co-efficients Northern Southern Luzon Luzon

Visayas

Mindanao

Accounting Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

3.951 -0.091 0.000 102.859 417.834 1.352 0.162

-0.757 0.054 0.000 0.172 232.598 2.729** 0.182

5.748** -0.046 0.000 7.332 217.296 5.546** 0.402

0.239 -0.085 0.000 24.911 243.504 0.880 0.144

1.862** 0.227 -0.000* -3.552 173.360 4.731** 0.395

Nursing Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

0.363 0.313 0.000 100.586 283.291 0.600 0.130

0.517 -0.132 0.000 14.121 234.162 0.454 0.057

3.161* -0.300 0.001 -0.131 183.814 3.761** 0.578

0.381 0.440** -0.000* 11.329 168.763 1.783 0.393

0.291 0.751* -0.001 -24.663 166.95 1.056 0.260

Elementary Education Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

3.267** -0.409 0.000 17.046 219.859 4.163** 0.495

0.969* 0.072 0.000 8.699 165.464 1.219 0.070

1.035* -0.292 0.001 34.405 194.155 2.135* 0.148

1.938** 0.085 0.000 36.145 99.168 3.823** 0.353

0.521* -0.001 0.000 8.010 159.461 1.141 0.063

Secondary Education Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

2.412 -0.213 0.000 71.208 227.462 1.467 0.227

0.639* 0.151 0.000 11.542 180.901 1.812 0.094

1.896** 0.471 0.000 26.632 114.809 9.386** 0.424

1.665** 0.125 0.000 14.965 139.145 5.088** 0.421

1.202** -0.003 0.000 -0.561 154.231 2.865** 0.165

Civil Engineering Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

4.187 -0.523** 0.000** 158.802* 434.903 43.054** 0.972

0.053 0.217 0.000 -42.332 242.706 0.878 0.163

-0.375 0.418 0.000 -42.295 215.152 0.086 0.103

1.115 0.116 0.000 -31.846 218.226 1.061 0.278

4.542 -0.404**

1.206 0.342

0.409 0.499

1.684 -0.726

Electrical Engineering Passing Rate ENR

19

3.837* 0.162 0.000 -133.186 209.380 2.253 0.643

-2.136 10.307


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

Table 4. Continued

Independent Variables

NCR

Regression Coefficients Northern Southern Luzon Luzon

ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

0.000** 6.398 307.623 23.604** 0.950

0.000 -46.286 206.066 0.908 0.342

-0.033 -250.341 3.878 0.921

Mechanical Engineering Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

1.023 -0.341* 0.000** 133.063 420.280 19.752** 0.919

-1.928 1.379 -0.003 85.311 229.038 1.011 0.503

-

Visayas

Mindanao

-0.001 -28.952 185.841 0.406 0.619

0.002 -40.271 251.474 0.525 0.344

-0.515 0.429* -0.001 43.185** 246.217 7.467** 0.909

0.575 0.273 0.000 14.147 202.964 0.576 0.434

* Private schools only with board examinees numbering 10 or more. ** Northern Luzon includes Regions I,II,III and CAR;Southern Luzon includes Regions IV and V.

education in all regional groupings except the NCR. The significant coefficients of passing rate vary across fields and region. Expectedly, the coefficient is larger for accounting, nursing and civil engineering than for teacher training. A percentage point increase in passing rate in accounting in Southern Luzon increases tuition per unit by almost P6 (or P920 for the whole four-year program). The corresponding figures for civil engineering are P4 and P614 while those for elementary education are P1 and P160. In other words, raising the passing rate or the quality of teacher training would require much smaller increase in tuition fees, perhaps because a much smaller increase in instructional cost in teacher training would be required than in the other three fields. The next set of regressions (Table 5) used program fees as the dependent variable. Note that program fees include both tuition and miscellaneous fees. The latter adds varying proportions to tuition fees. Program fees are significantly and positively influenced by passing rate in nursing in Northern Luzon. The sign is reversed for Mindanao. The variable is also significant and of the right sign for both elementary and teacher training in all areas except the NCR. For nursing in

20


Regression Results

Table 5. Regression results, dependent variable (program fee)

Independent Variables

NCR

Regression Coefficients Northern Southern Luzon Luzon

Visayas

Mindanao

364.744 92.135 -0.141 -935.916 41369.525 1.972 0.226

Accounting Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

366.168 -60.721 0.014 17914.749 134543.951 0.557 0.105

8.947 7.901 0.012 2312.505 57407.261 2.786** 0.210

1096.043 24.250 -0.004 14320.620 53634.724 4.112 0.370

23.514 16.393 -0.008 18616.118 49705.119 1.295 0.198

Nursing Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

322.140 -11.857 0.011 960.893 79888.445 0.151 0.052

675.227** -140.893 0.224 -5116.890 68995.147 3.263** 0.395

742.794 206.159 -0.359 36924.727 47610.974 3.465* 0.634

437.984 198.293* -0.319** 52797.399** 44124.479 10.138** 0.890

-709.608* -11.197 -0.022 23786.585 112481.82 0.920 0.315

Elementary Education Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

494.450 -134.859 0.131 24544.172 58072.577 4.49** 0.666

302.401** -6.650 0.004 4776.813 36380.671 2.197* 0.142

394.67* -167.084 0.424 17031.538 46301.399 3.315** 0.236

557.962** 48.246 -0.032 11291.599* 10616.614 4.297** 0.380

172.148** -0.691 0.000 -540.551 34585.962 1.415 0.081

Secondary Education Constant Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian F-stat R-squared

77870.671 115.158 -150.388 0.155 30960.235 1.828 0.422

36330.868 276.336** 21.916 -0.017 3879.745 3.339** 0.182

23256.421 673.457** 62.228 -0.048 13188.933 7.99** 0.415

25662.387 647.412** 76.082 -0.106 -3669.296 11.031** 0.629

34707.411 293.986** -0.941 0.000 -3180.190 2.151* 0.137

99886.432 318.327 -397.978 1.188 21260.083 0.688 0.479

69401.686 63.777 152.393 -0.198 -22418.004 0.681 0.476

59356.072 -325.957 167.399 -0.270 -19573.456 1.204 0.325

Civil Engineering Constant Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian F-stat R-squared

113985.815 72494.101 -1926.792 419.602 18.124 55.720 0.039 -0.085 -23102.43** 31.389** 2.139 0.979 0.379

21


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

Table 5. Continued

Independent Variables

NCR

Regression Co-efficients Northern Southern Luzon Luzon

Visayas

Mindanao

Electrical Engineering Constant Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian F-stat R-squared

120747.538 74387.749 -502.363 405.259 -104.367 78.097 0.140* -0.070 -30117.358 24.154** 1.386 0.973 0.442

-

-

64967.756 1468.460 -482.546 1.016 -15333.037 0.658 0.467

Mechanical Engineering Passing Rate ENR ENR^2 Sectarian Constant F-stat R-squared

-801.550 -663.051 -4.209 867.578 0.0402* -1.896 212119.671** 118719.096 116297.126 49009.991 51.443** 0.421 0.986 0.360

-

370.139 -5.058 -0.073 6268.937 74876.240 6.284 0.926

-6.351 210.277 -0.496 431.934 60313.625 0.232 0.317

*private schools only with board examinees numbering 10 or more. **Northern Luzon includes Regions I,II,III, and CAR;Southern Luzon includes Regions IV and V.

Northern Luzon, a percentage point increase in passing rate raises program cost by P675. The effect, however, is lower for teacher training. Enrollment is a significant determinant for nursing in Visayas only. Being a sectarian school raises program cost in nursing in Visayas and mechanical engineering in the NCR. Except for the above cases, passing rate, enrollment and type of school exert no significant effect on program cost. The last regressions were run for SUCs which relate passing rate to program cost (Table 6). Recall the argument that improving quality generally entails cost. The data on program cost was obtained from the 1998 WB-ADB estimates of per student operating cost. We find the cost is significant for only two fieldsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;civil engineering and accountancy with rather small parameter values. This implies a rather small effect of budgetary increases on quality in the SUCs. A thousand peso increase in cost raises passing rate by 0.167 percentage point in civil engineering and 0.262 percentage point in

22


Fee Increases in Prvate HEIs

Table 6. Regression results for SUCs only, dependent variable (passing rate) Independent Variables Constant Program cost (P000) Observations F-stat R-squared

Civil Engineering 29.278 0.167** 37 12.649** 0.265

Mechanical Engineering

Electrical Engineering

Nursing

Accounting

51.194 0.053 30 0.895 0.031

43.948 0.078 30 2.299 0.076

54.446 0.136 11 2.793 0.237

4.269 0.262** 20 15.546** 0.463

*10 percent significance **5 percent significance Note: Program cost is per unit cost x four years in 1998.

accountancy. Equivalently, it would take about P6,000 ([1/0.167] x P1,000) additional budget to raise the passing rate in SUCsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; civil engineering program by one percentage point. It would take a smaller additional budget to raise it for accountancy: only 1/0.262 or P3,816. In the other three fields, there is no significant relationship between program cost and passing rate. On the whole, the level of spending in SUCs did not affect their performance in licensure examinations.

Fee increases in private HEIs A school may decide to raise tuition for at least three reasons: one is to cope with inflation in its input prices especially wage rate; the second is to improve the quality of its instructional facilities and personnel; and the third is to open new degree programs that may entail adjustment costs. Schools appear to differ in the manner they increase their fees. Some schools undertake consultations with the parents to explain the bases of the proposed fee increases. Some smaller and reputable sectarian schools such as Ateneo de Manila practice this. De La Salle University, which is reputed to enroll mainly very affluent students, need not consult the studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; parents. Because of their large enrollment, CUs such as University of Santo Tomas (UST), Far Eastern University (FEU) and University of the East (UE), may find it impractical to make such consultations. High-quality HEIs have also been exempted from obtaining CHED approval for fee increases. Therefore, there is as yet little information on the bases of fee increases. The next section merely presents information of fee increases. The CHED collected tuition fee increases by HEIs for school years 1997-2001. Table 7 gives a summary of the increases across

23


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

regions. Not all HEIs increase tuition each year and the percentage of those that do varies from region to region each year. The rate of increase also differed across regions. Each year, less than half of the HEIs raised their fees. It is possible that the schools would raise their fees after two to three year s interval instead of annually. About 40 percent of HEI raised fees in 1997-1998, 38.2 percent in 1998-1999, 47.6 percent in 1999-2000 and 36.9 percent in 2000-2001. The average rate of increase was 16 percent in the first three years and 13 percent in 2000-2001. Albeit crudely, the cumulative rate of increase is estimated by taking the average rate of increase weighted by the percentage of HEIs that are raising their tuition fees. Over the fouryear period, the cumulative rate of increase averaged 25 percent or about 6 percent per year. This is very close to the average inflation rate for these years. There is a very wide variation in fee increases across HEIs within each region. Take, for instance, the tuition fees for 1994 and in 2001 for architecture and engineering fields to illustrate the range of variation across schools (Table 8). In Metro Manila, eight of the 18 reporting schools tripled their fees, eight doubled their fees, and two increased by 74 percent and 40 percent each. The majority of schools outside Metro Manila raised their fees more modestly at less than 100 percent. Those which raised their rates at more than 200 percent consisted of the reputable sectarian schools: St. Louis University in Baguio at 203 percent, Holy Angel University in Region III at 212 percent, University of St. Anthony in Region V at 200 percent, La Consolacion in Region VI at 214 percent, Silliman University and San Carlos University in Region 7 at 364 percent and 270 percent, respectively. Only four nonsectarian HEIs raised their fees by 200 percent or more. Not all the schools that raised fees by three-digit rates had high performance in the licensure examinations. It is not clear that the large fee increases helped improve the quality of instruction in the HEIs.

Conclusion The paper started with a simple model of a competitive educationlabor market where there is good information and available credit at competitive rates. Higher education is categorized into degree programs or fields of specialization and quality. Students are assumed to choose a category that maximizes their rate of return. Higher

24


Table 7. Percentage of private HEI increasing tuition and rate of tuition increase, 1997-2001 Region

1997-1998

1998-1999

1999-2000

2000-2001

Percent Average Percent Average Percent Average Percent Average Cumulative rate of HEIs w/ percentage of HEIs w/ percentage of HEIs w/ percentage of HEIs w/ percentage increase tuition fee increase tuition fee increase tuition fee increase tuition fee increase 1997-2001 increase increase increase increase

59.4 76.9 32.2 32.7 39.1 42.4 50.0 38.5 57.1 66.7 51.4 7.9 30.0 53.5 22.9

18.0 19.0 17.0 19.0 14.0 17.5 16.6 16.4 16.6 21.2 12.9 12.0 18.4 13.7 12.5

60.9 80.7 25.0 15.0 34.1 49.2 38.2 61.5 45.7 62.5 50.0 23.8 35.0 92.3 14.3

16.2 13.8 15.1 18.9 15.8 16.7 13.6 13.4 19.3 18.7 14.9 15.6 15.1 23.1 10.4

50.8 75.0 56.8 35.4 37.4 61.7 35.6 75.8 61.5 55.8 38.0 32.9 49.6 86.0 45.2

23.6 13.0 17.7 12.7 16.1 12.4 16.9 20.8 12.4 13.9 15.5 12.9 16.3 18.0 14.2

62.1 37.1 34.9 26.0 44.8 52.9 30.1 34.2 65.6 42.0 29.1 8.8 35.7 66.7 52.9

13.0 10.3 13.0 13.4 14.0 12.5 13.0 17.0 13.0 11.3 17.0 11.0 12.1 14.1 12.0

40.0 41.3 23.9 17.0 23.2 30.0 23.4 36.1 34.4 38.3 24.9 9.9 23.2 54.0 17.1

Note: The cumulative % increase from 1997-2001 is the weighted sum of the annual increases; the weights are the % of HEI that increased fees. Source: CHED, Tuition Fee Increase AY 2001.

Conclusion

25

I II III IV V VI VII VII IX X XI XII NCR CAR CARAGA


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

Table 8. Tuition fee increase in architecture and engineering in selected HEIs, 1994-2001 School

NCR DLSU MIT UST Central College FEU Adamson Univ. TIP Manila FEATI Univ. MLQ Univ. National Univ. TIP Quezon City Lyceum UE Kaloocan UE Manila G. Araneta New Era Don Bosco NAMEI

Annual fee 1994 (P000) (1)

Annual Fee 2001 (P000) (2)

Tuition fee increased 1994-2001 (%) (2)/(1)

22.6 13.1 10.1 7.5 7.1 7.0 6.1 6.1 5.0 4.8 6.1 6.9 5.7 5.7 6.3 4.0 13.6 8.6

44.7 46.4 20.8 16.9 21.4 19.5 13.6 14.4 16.2 14.9 13.6 22.0 17.5 14.4 13.5 11.0 23.7 12.0

97.8 254.2 105.9 125.3 201.4 178.6 123.0 136.1 224.0 210.4 123.0 218.8 207.0 152.6 115.7 175.0 74.3 39.5

CAR St. Louis Univ.

3.1

9.4

203.2

REGION I Luzon College Northwestern College Lyceum Northwestern University of Pangasinan St. Louis College of San Fdo. Divine Word College - Laoag

7.3 6.9 4.9 5.8 4.4 4.3

12.5 7.0 7.0 9.7 9.4 9.2

71.2 0 42.8 67.2 113.6 114.0

REGION II St. Louis College of Tuguegarao St. Paul Univ.

4.8 4.7

8.0 8.0

66.7 70.2

REGION III Univ. of the Assumption Guagua Nat’l College Pamantasan ng Araullo Baliuag College Holy Angel Univ. East Central College Columban College Bataan Educ’l Inst. Bataan Heroes Mem’l College

9.0 6.0 6.1 7.2 5.2 4.1 4.0 4.0 3.5

15.2 13.3 8.6 14.7 16.2 10.2 10.3 8.8 10.5

68.9 123.2 41.0 104.2 211.5 148.5 157.5 120.0 200.0

26


Conclusion

Table 8. Continued School

Annual fee 1994 (P000) (1)

Annual Fee 2001 (P000) (2)

Tuition fee increased 1994-2001 (%) (2)/(1)

REGION IV Perpetual Help - Laguna College of Calapan Golden Gate College Manuel S. Enverga Univ.

7.9 6.1 5.1 4.5

19.4 10.3 11.4 10.7

145.6 68.9 113.5 137.8

REGION V Univ. of Nueva Caceres Naga College Foundation Divine Word - Legazpi Univ. of St. Anthony Annunciation College Aquinas Univ. Univ. of North. Phil

5.8 5.0 4.5 4.0 4.3 5.7 3.2

17.0 13.4 9.8 12.0 6.1 9.5 11.1

193.1 168.0 117.7 200.0 41.9 66.7 246.9

REGION VI Univ. of San Agustin Central Phil. Univ. Univ. of Iloilo West Negros College Univ. of Negros Occ. - Reco. St. Anthonyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s College Western Inst. of Tech. Aklan College College de La Purisima Con. La Consolacion College University of St. La Salle College de San Agustin de Bac.

5.5 5.4 5.0 4.5 4.2 4.0 3.6 3.4 3.0 4.1 6.6 4.7

12.0 9.3 10.0 11.0 11.4 10.3 9.8 8.2 7.4 12.9 12.8 12.0

118.2 72.2 100.0 144.4 171.4 157.5 172.2 141.1 146.7 214.6 93.9 155.3

REGION VII University of San Jose - Rec. University of San Carlos Cebu Inst. of Tech. Southwestern Univ. Silliman Univ. University of Bohol Salazar Inst. of Tech. Cebu Central College Univ. of the Visayas

5.0 3.7 6.8 4.3 5.6 5.0 3.2 3.0 2.4

12.8 13.7 10.0 12.0 25.0 9.5 4.4 10.4 10.1

156.0 270.0 47.1 179.1 364.3 90.0 37.5 246.7 320.8

REGION VIII St. Joseph College

3.6

6.2

72.2

REGION IX Zam A. Eustaquio Found.

4.4

8.8

95.5

27


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

Table 8. Continued School

Annual fee 1994 (P000) (1)

Annual Fee 2001 (P000) (2)

Tuition fee increased 1994-2001 (%) (2)/(1)

Southern Mindanao College

4.1

6.8

65.9

REGION X Xavier Univ. Liceo de Cagayan Capitol College Misamis Univ. Misamis Inst. of Tech

7.6 6.1 5.8 5.6 3.6

12.3 14.0 12.2 9.6 8.4

61.8 129.5 110.3 71.4 133.3

REGION XI Notre Dame of Dadiangas St. Mary’s College I. Concepcion College MATS College of Tech. Agro-Indus’l Found. College Notre Dame of Marbel College Cor Jesus College Rizal Mem’l College Univ. of Mindanao

5.6 4.7 5.6 4.9 4.7 4.7 3.6 3.3 2.5

9.8 8.2 12.3 8.0 7.2 9.8 10.4 8.0 7.5

75.0 74.5 119.6 63.3 53.2 108.5 188.9 142.4 200.0

REGION XII Notre Dame Univ. Cen. Mindanao College St. Peter’s College

6.2 3.8 3.0

7.4 7.2 8.4

19.4 89.5 180.0

Source: CHED computer file for 2001 and Table 14, DECS Philippine Task Force for Higher Education, Higher Education in the 21st Century, 1995.

quality programs are assumed to produce more benefits of different forms, including higher monetary labor market returns. The market will equilibrate at equal marginal rates of return to alternative programs. Equality of rates of return does not mean equality of wage and other benefits from schooling. The more costly programs will have to generate larger benefits. At the same time, high-ability students would tend to earn rent on their ability. That is, they will tend to learn more out of a given set of educational inputs and exude positive externalities on their classmates and institutions for which they may be compensated by scholarship grants. This neat equilibrium will not hold when the market is imperfect. Different forms of inefficiencies will prevail. Imperfect capital market would constrain choice to what families can afford. Students are

28


Conclusion

hindered from pursuing the globally optimal options. Imperfect information would prevent students from choosing the best choice from among his affordable alternatives. This will weaken competition among schools in producing their programs most efficiently. Without competition, schools may use inefficient instructional techniques and/ or operate at inefficient scale (i.e., either too small or too large). One testable hypothesis is that no single price for a given higher education category will prevail. This brings the discussion now to the unexplained fee structure. This paper presents several tables to show the highly differentiated fees and passing rates of the HEI. Readers might be interested to see the whole cross section of HEI and their fees, performance in licensure examination and enrollment given in the Appendix Tables. Schools are ranked by fee level for each of seven degree programs: civil, mechanical and electrical engineering, nursing, accountancy, elementary education and secondary education. One can easily see that the passing rate does not necessarily increase as fees increase. Reputable CUs usually charge high fees and perform well in the examinations. However, many high-fee CUs perform poorly. There are also modest-fee CUs that perform well. The regression runs of fees against passing rates and generated poor results. Overall, passing rate influences fees in less than half of the groups of fields and regions. Students appear to be unable to choose the best school for their budget. The national government allocates almost all its subsidy to higher education for the operation of SUCs. Budget allocation to individual SUC, however, is not based on economic criteria but on political and historical grounds. Budgetary increases are principally based on initial budget allocations and strength of political lobbies. Congressmen and other politicians lobby for continuous and increased support to the SUCs in their political district. As chartered institutions, the SUC officials have discretion on program offerings, enrollment and fee levels. Some SUCs are found to be quite competitive with the better quality pirvate HEIs in terms of passing rates and per unit cost. Majority are, however, extremely inefficient. For instance, the regression of passing rate against program cost have significant results for only two out of five fields. For civil engineering, it would take an additional budget of P6,000 to raise passing rate by one percentage point. In accounting, it would take less or about P3,000 additional budget to increase the rate by

29


College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

one percentage point. The policy issues raised in the study center on the two market imperfections. Modest investment and effort are required to vastly improve information about schools and the labor market. The crosssection data on schools are directly useful to students. Quarterly labor force surveys provide information on employment and wages of labor by education, occupation and field of study. Some rates of return and employment/unemployment analyses have been undertaken on the labor force surveys (Alba 2001, Carnaje 1998). The recent study on access to higher education (Tan et al. 2002) concluded with policy strategy for breaking the imperfect capital market constraints. If the indiscriminate subsidy to SUC students and the irrational budget allocation to SUCs are replaced by a scholarship system, there would be two desirable effects. First, it would provide subsidy to deserving students who could be directed to programs of higher social returns, say, physics and history at the graduate level. If the scholars are given the choice of the best schools, this would foster competition, particularly between the high quality private and public HEIs. The less deserving students in SUCs will be made to bear the full cost of their studies. This financing system will stop the serious and intensifying crowding out of private HEIs by SUCs. Enrollment in private HEI has fallen from 90 percent to 75 percent over the last two decades. Private HEIs complain of difficulty in hiring good faculty since under the standard salary scale, SUCs pay better especially in provinces. It appears, however, that the crowding out in the supply of inputs is not as serious as the crowding out in enrollment. For how can a private HEI like Silliman University or University of San Carlos compete strongly with the SUCs, which offer their education at minimal fees? These policy issues are being debated, but only quietly and ineffectively among researchers. They have not reached the attention of Congress and other decisionmakers in government.

30


Appendix Table 1. Passing rate in board examinations, tuition, and enrollment (Engineering and Architecture) Region

Program

Pats Schl of Aeronautics Central Colls of the Phils Technological Inst of the PhilsManil Technological Inst of the PhilsQuezo Feati Univ Natl Univ Adamson Univ Manuel L Quezon Univ Far Eastern UnivManila Mapua Inst of Tech Univ of Santo Tomas Technological Inst of the PhilsManil Technological Inst of the PhilsQuezo Adamson Univ Mapua Inst of Tech De La Salle UnivManila Univ of Santo Tomas New Era Univ Technological Inst of the PhilsQuezo Technological Inst of the PhilsManil Univ of the EastManila Feati Univ Natl Univ Univ of Perpetual Help RizalLas Pina Manuel L Quezon Univ Central Colls of the Phils Univ of the EastCaloocan

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

86 36 147 101 27 75 127 65 185 108 322 34 44 93 189 45 93 61 136 307 13 75 75 19 91 30 149

32.56 27.78 22.45 30.69 37.04 24.00 25.20 20.00 23.24 47.22 38.51 8.82 9.09 36.56 37.57 75.56 55.91 21.31 33.09 19.87 23.08 20.00 10.67 42.11 13.19 33.33 44.30

69,000 48,350 68,020 68,020 72,200 74,300 81,929 83,600 106,800 232,000 68,020 68,020 98,262 232,000 55,000 68,000 68,020 72,040 72,200 74,300 78,400 80,800 84,350 87,400

90,285 106,013 107,537 99,000 90,659 116,644 150,390 311,361 104,217 98,000 297,441 70,735 98,000 105,427 115,000 98,953 116,549 102,780 156,320 -

754 479 364 1034 214 981 1592 1042 241 588 1023 408 916 538 152 236 678

Appendixes

31

PRIVATE More than 10 examinees NCR Aeronautical Engg NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg

School


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com

School

Adamson Univ Far Eastern UnivManila Far Eastern UnivQuezon City Lyceum of the Phils Mapua Inst of Tech De La Salle UnivManila Univ of Santo Tomas Alejandro Coll Univ of Manila New Era Univ Technological Inst of the PhilsManil Technological Inst of the PhilsQuezo Feati Univ Natl Univ Univ of Perpetual Help RizalLas Pina Manuel L Quezon Univ Central Colls of the Phils Univ of the EastCaloocan Adamson Univ Far Eastern UnivManila Lyceum of the Phils Mapua Inst of Tech Univ of Santo Tomas New Era Univ Technological Inst of the PhilsManil Technological Inst of the PhilsQuezo Feati Univ Natl Univ

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

124 53 19 24 412 35 115 11 18 31 232 152 42 37 24 81 28 85 95 13 27 236 83 174 296 203 62 22

33.06 7.55 5.26 20.83 55.34 77.14 80.87 54.55 11.11 22.58 22.41 28.95 11.90 8.11 37.50 12.35 28.57 38.82 31.58 7.69 40.74 67.37 90.36 27.59 25.34 24.14 17.74 13.64

97,352 106,800 106,800 110,000 232,000 55,000 68,020 68,020 72,200 74,300 78,400 80,800 84,350 87,400 98,723 106,800 110,000 232,000 55,000 68,020 68,020 72,200 74,300

314,841 71,010 105,104 98,000 90,967 115,189 93,372 156,320 110,933 311,361 74,035 103,567 98,000 96,751 120,736

1046 26 2590 178 162 642 701 76 168 305 1027 25 1696 1222 1187 2213 122

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

32

NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg

School

Central Colls of the Phils Univ of the EastCaloocan Adamson Univ Lyceum of the Phils Don Bosco Technical CollMandaluyong AMA Computer CollMakati City AMA Computer CollQuezon City Mapua Inst of Tech De La Salle UnivManila Univ of Santo Tomas Alejandro Coll Saint Francis of Assissi Coll Feati Univ Phil Merchant Marine SchlManila Namei Polytechnic Inst Phil Merchant Marine SchlLas Pinas Technological Inst of the PhilsManil Technological Inst of the PhilsQuezo Feati Univ Phil Maritime InstManila Phil Maritime InstQuezon City New Era Univ Technological Inst of the PhilsManil Technological Inst of the PhilsQuezo Feati Univ Natl Univ Univ of Perpetual Help RizalLas Pina Manuel L Quezon Univ

Examinees

% Pass

84 317 181 64 71 27 49 445 122 145 16 10 59 120 24 129 212 83 69 10 380 13 260 105 43 28 20 23

34.52 34.70 38.12 46.88 45.07 25.93 26.53 68.09 86.07 82.07 12.50 30.00 40.68 44.17 66.67 70.54 69.34 77.11 60.87 40.00 63.68 46.15 28.08 26.67 25.58 10.71 50.00 21.74

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

84,350 87,400 94,296 110,000 118,688 145,224 152,138 232,000 72,200 46,000 60,000 60,000 68,020 68,020 72,200 55,000 68,020 68,020 72,200 74,300 78,400 80,800

113,475 259,705 266,440 261,502 312,521 102,266 70,260 88,747 80,000 68,024 69,910 107,848 98,000 99,094 115,016 74,164 156,320

Enrollment

1013 1938 1135 467 717 652 487 2456 115 592 163 553 597 69 -

Appendixes

33

NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Naval Archi and M Architecture Architecture Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com

School

Central Colls of the Phils Univ of the EastCaloocan Adamson Univ Lyceum of the Phils Don Bosco Technical CollMandaluyong Mapua Inst of Tech De La Salle UnivManila Univ of Santo Tomas Namei Polytechnic Inst Univ of Pangasinan Luzon Colls Luzon Colls Northwestern Univ Virgen Milagrosa Univ Fndn Lyceum Northwestern Divine Word CollLaoag Saint Louis Coll of San Fernando Univ of Pangasinan Luzon Colls Northwestern Univ Virgen Milagrosa Univ Fndn Luzon Colls Natl Coll of TechSan Fernando La Uni Northwestern Univ Virgen Milagrosa Univ Fndn Lyceum Northwestern Computronix Coll Phil Coll of Science & TechCalasiao

Examinees

% Pass

23 67 94 13 38 334 45 101 16 39 22 23 30 12 19 24 59 119 53 26 10 147 13 17 23 53 86 31

26.09 61.19 46.81 30.77 78.95 63.77 95.56 94.06 68.75 23.08 31.82 8.70 16.67 25.00 26.32 20.83 62.71 31.09 16.98 11.54 40.00 21.77 7.69 17.65 21.74 9.43 15.12 38.71

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

84,350 87,400 96,459 110,000 118,688 232,000 60,000 48,884 62,612 62,612 35,000 40,432 45,758 45,960 46,962 48,884 62,612 35,000 40,432 62,612 33,400 35,000 40,432 45,758 50,000 58,000

114,392 265,639 292,801 65,953 106,360 100,205 67,676 66,909 78,120 74,244 70,878 75,590 104,620 67,676 63,370 102,785 42,251 67,676 62,970 75,600 88,679 108,610

Enrollment

204 375 832 62 176 2433 51 385 108 90 132 63 81 157 485 244 123 67 384 140 177 359 1290 150

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

34

NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Geodetic Engg Geodetic Engg Architecture Architecture Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg

School

Saint Louis Coll of San Fernando Pangasinan Merchant Marine Acad Northern Phil Coll for Maritime & Te Virgen Milagrosa Univ Fndn Lyceum Northwestern Luzon Colls Saint Louis Coll of Tuguegarao Saint Paul Univ Saint Marys UnivBayombong Univ of La SalleteSantiago Aldersgate Coll Saint Louis Coll of Tuguegarao Saint Louis Coll of Tuguegarao Saint Paul Univ Northeastern Coll Saint Louis Coll of Tuguegarao Saint Paul Univ Pamantasan ng Araullo Univ of the Assumption Nueva Ecija Univ of Science & TechSa Pamantasan ng Araullo Angeles Univ Fndn Columban Coll Inc Bataan Heroes Meml Coll Guagua Natl Coll Baliuag Colls Univ of the Assumption Holy Angel Univ

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

12 56 11 14 10 92 41 29 79 44 14 22 50 29 32 30 11 21 63 28 68 32 47 38 64 26 96 84

75.00 50.00 100.00 28.57 20.00 27.17 26.83 34.48 37.97 34.09 28.57 63.64 48.00 44.83 15.63 70.00 45.45 23.81 38.10 17.86 4.41 25.00 68.09 28.95 20.31 23.08 10.42 39.29

46,962 36,600 40,400 40,432 45,758 62,612 39,986 39,986 42,950 52,272 39,082 39,986 39,986 39,986 29,000 39,986 39,986 42,870 75,736 12,000 42,870 48,000 51,492 52,610 66,314 73,370 75,736 80,500

70,665 57,924 38,127 34,985 69,800 105,490 58,308 79,662 74,320 84,204 50,409 59,225 64,749 83,292 22,375 63,399 78,388 34,150 76,622 72,830 128,492 131,902

379 301 52 111 307 316 166 7 236 61 94 494 8 142 80 48 150 243 335 118 238 271 221 82 188 367

Appendixes

35

I I I I I I II II II II II II II II II II II III III III III III III III III III III III

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Architecture Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg

School

Republic Central Colls Holy Angel Univ Wesleyan Univ of the Phils Baliuag Colls Holy Angel Univ Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsBataan Pamantasan ng Araullo Central Luzon Inst of TechOlongapo Baliwag Maritime Acad Bataan Heroes Meml Coll Holy Angel Univ Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsBataan Manuel S Enverga Univ FndnLucena Cit Golden Gate Colls Palawan Polytechnic Coll Inc Divine Word CollCalapan Manuel S Enverga Univ FndnLucena Cit Univ of Batangas Univ of Perpetual Help SystemLaguna Holy Trinity Coll Laguna Coll Golden Gate Colls Univ of Batangas Univ of Perpetual Help SystemLaguna Palawan Polytechnic Coll Inc Golden Gate Colls Lyceum of Batangas Golden Gate Colls Colegio de San Juan de LetranCalamba Univ of Perpetual Help SystemLaguna

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

15 51 48 15 105 13 42 18 11 59 50 12 15 14 11 44 101 81 17 52 54 49 15 21 10 16 52 68 76 16

20.00 45.10 27.08 .00 46.67 15.38 23.81 72.22 100.00 20.34 50.00 50.00 26.67 7.14 9.09 56.82 15.84 33.33 52.94 23.08 18.52 24.49 80.00 33.33 30.00 75.00 57.69 38.24 53.95 56.25

80,500 56,400 73,370 80,500 42,870 41,800 106,089 52,610 80,500 53,400 56,836 33,000 51,580 53,400 59,236 96,744 56,836 59,236 96,744 43,000 56,836 65,550 56,836 88,200 96,744

133,491 133,841 138,120 81,784 103,274 142,149 80,594 63,739 78,173 98,187 67,967 155,618 321,536 87,853 66,012 157,369 321,536 60,595 90,372 65,444 321,536

130 235 256 155 1110 97 115 484 241 143 26 13 152 254 257 94 69 202 163 56 108 165 519 211

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

36

III III III III III III III III III III III III IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Architecture Architecture Architecture Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Architecture Architecture Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg

School

Aquinas Univ Univ of Northeastern Phils Univ of Saint Anthony Annunciation Coll Aquinas Univ Divine Word CollLegazpi Univ of Northeastern Phils Univ of Saint Anthony Naga Coll Fndn Univ of Nueva Caceres Univ of Northeastern Phils Univ of Nueva Caceres Ateneo de Naga De Vera Inst of Tech (Albay Schl of Univ of Northeastern Phils Mariners Polytechnic Colls FndnLegas Mariners Polytechnic CollNaga Univ of Nueva Caceres Univ of San Agustin La Consolacion CollBacolod City Central Phil Univ Western Inst of Tech West Negros Coll Univ of Negros OccidentalRecoletos Colegio de San AgustinBacolod City Univ of Saint La Salle Colegio de La Purisima Concepcion Aklan Coll Central Phil Univ

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

29 11 11 11 70 87 39 25 13 102 34 10 34 10 10 57 33 55 79 46 13 10 15 19 10 13 58 10 19

17.24 45.45 45.45 .00 20.00 8.05 7.69 16.00 15.38 39.22 20.59 50.00 58.82 10.00 50.00 61.40 78.79 50.91 31.65 39.13 84.62 .00 20.00 52.63 10.00 23.08 17.24 .00 68.42

47,440 55,600 60,090 30,394 47,440 48,840 53,200 60,090 67,052 84,960 53,200 84,960 95,800 53,200 60,640 70,434 84,960 60,106 64,640 46,640 48,920 54,976 57,200 60,100 63,980 37,241 41,000 46,640

87,668 70,942 113,364 59,365 108,773 67,042 101,248 107,774 120,419 68,120 116,566 131,819 69,056 89,558 100,852 123,054 104,791 98,532 104,604 65,013 87,838 91,524 104,075 96,750 69,271 70,775 101,728

260 40 43 3 242 89 68 49 345 78 132 375 98 18 225 175 426 61 157 61 80 55 86 174 6 232

Appendixes

37

V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg

School

Western Inst of Tech Univ of Iloilo Saint Anthonys CollAntique West Negros Coll Univ of Negros OccidentalRecoletos Univ of San Agustin Garcia Coll of Tech Colegio de La Purisima Concepcion Central Phil Univ Western Inst of Tech West Negros Coll Univ of Negros OccidentalRecoletos Garcia Coll of Tech Central Phil Univ Univ of Saint La Salle Saint ThereseMTC CollsTigbauan Colegio de La Purisima Concepcion Visayan Maritime Acad John B Lacson Colls FndnBacolod Western Inst of Tech Univ of Iloilo John B Lacson Colls FndnIloilo Central Phil Univ Western Inst of Tech Univ of Iloilo West Negros Coll Univ of Negros OccidentalRecoletos Univ of San Agustin Garcia Coll of Tech

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

138 21 22 31 36 73 86 17 14 112 36 21 26 61 154 43 27 88 92 221 104 401 12 91 10 33 32 46 24

11.59 9.52 36.36 35.48 91.67 15.07 12.79 .00 78.57 19.64 33.33 85.71 26.92 65.57 50.00 51.16 40.74 60.23 53.26 66.97 59.62 61.10 91.67 58.24 40.00 45.45 87.50 43.48 29.17

48,920 50,172 51,422 54,976 57,200 60,106 37,241 46,640 48,920 54,976 57,200 46,640 63,980 34,040 37,241 37,632 49,082 50,100 51,370 57,469 46,640 48,920 50,172 54,976 57,200 60,106 -

64,926 79,040 87,838 93,392 85,889 76,842 103,264 66,711 91,601 97,871 105,715 104,935 79,676 72,559 65,998 81,208 66,389 63,863 53,847 111,083 69,512 82,776 92,467 105,150 100,402 -

Enrollment

796 36 196 355 221 125 105 705 158 181 1002 588 146 526 197 459 610 368 2 76 576 48 153 185 68 -

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

38

VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Aeronautical Engg Architecture Architecture Architecture Architecture Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com

School

Cebu Aeronautical Technical Schl Univ of Bohol Cebu Inst of Tech Univ of the VisayasCebu City Univ of San Carlos Cebu Inst of Tech Univ of San JoseRecoletos Univ of San Carlos Univ of Bohol Cebu Inst of Tech Univ of the VisayasCebu City Univ of Cebu (Cebu Central Colls) Southwestern Univ Univ of San JoseRecoletos Univ of San Carlos Silliman Univ Divine Word CollTagbilaran Univ of Bohol Cebu Inst of Tech Univ of the VisayasCebu City Univ of Cebu (Cebu Central Colls) Univ of San JoseRecoletos Univ of San Carlos Silliman Univ Coll of Techgcl SciencesCebu Cebu Inst of Tech Univ of the VisayasCebu City Univ of San JoseRecoletos Univ of San Carlos

Examinees

% Pass

17 28 56 35 66 20 17 78 137 140 103 81 18 107 95 74 29 11 107 36 42 36 14 57 20 178 28 110 175

5.88 42.86 28.57 14.29 30.30 20.00 5.88 39.74 7.30 29.29 14.56 14.81 22.22 34.58 40.00 51.35 31.03 18.18 46.73 8.33 14.29 38.89 71.43 75.44 15.00 30.90 14.29 43.64 61.71

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

46,274 47,528 50,000 50,388 68,378 50,000 64,000 68,378 47,528 50,000 50,388 51,840 62,390 64,000 68,378 124,884 47,528 50,000 50,388 51,840 64,000 68,378 124,884 43,552 50,000 50,388 64,000 68,378

66,263 84,322 60,752 81,371 68,360 336,000 1,385 82,022 68,644 81,652 74,937 63,009 270,080 1,385 161,413 80,336 70,044 75,295 74,418 268,800 1,385 162,038 80,000 79,455 81,652 339,200 1,385

118 -

Appendixes

39

VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mining Engg Naval Archi and M Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Architecture Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg

School Divine Word CollTagbilaran Univ of Bohol Univ of Southern Phils Univ of Cebu (Cebu Central Colls) Univ of the VisayasCebu City Phil Maritime InstBohol Cebu Inst of Tech Univ of the VisayasCebu City Univ of Cebu (Cebu Central Colls) Univ of San JoseRecoletos Univ of San Carlos Silliman Univ Cebu Inst of Tech Univ of Cebu (Cebu Central Colls) Saint Josephs CollMaasin Southern Mindanao Colls Zamboanga A E Coll Andres Bonifacio Coll Southern City Colls Andres Bonifacio Coll Zamboanga A E Coll Andres Bonifacio Coll Andres Bonifacio Coll Xavier Univ Cagayan de Oro Coll Cagayan de Oro Coll Xavier Univ Misamis Inst of Tech Misamis Univ

Examinees

% Pass

20 30 59 684 257 84 110 76 67 57 80 59 18 10 34 188 94 120 23 28 42 20 33 12 28 11 26 13 56

20.00 33.33 42.37 47.81 37.35 47.62 42.73 18.42 34.33 31.58 46.25 72.88 61.11 50.00 50.00 5.32 12.77 10.00 .00 35.71 9.52 25.00 3.03 41.67 21.43 27.27 61.54 15.38 23.21

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

47,528 60,000 47,650 54,180 50,000 50,388 51,840 64,000 68,048 124,884 50,000 54,120 29,000 34,078 44,000 44,000 61,600 57,358 57,358 61,600 42,170 42,198

81,520 66,900 74,131 59,016 72,033 79,026 74,159 339,200 1,385 170,155 67,465 78,950 49,120 52,314 72,855 76,484 87,461 83,047 58,116 62,882

377 237 408 296 196 97 372 27 27 13 265 48 296 31 197

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

40

VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VIII IX IX IX IX IX IX IX IX X X X X X X

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Architecture Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg

School

Cagayan de Oro Coll Cagayan Capitol Coll Xavier Univ Liceo de Cagayan Misamis Inst of Tech Misamis Univ Cagayan de Oro Coll Misamis Inst of Tech Cagayan de Oro Coll Xavier Univ Liceo de Cagayan Immaculate Concepcion CollOzamis Cit Cagayan de Oro Coll Misamis Inst of Tech Cagayan Capitol Coll Misamis Univ Cagayan de Oro Coll Cagayan Capitol Coll Xavier Univ Univ of MindanaoDavao City Univ of MindanaoDavao City Ateneo de Davao Univ Univ of MindanaoDavao City Rizal Meml Coll Saint Marys CollTagum Notre Dame of Marbel Coll Cor Jesu Coll (Holy Cross of Digos) Ramon Magsaysay Meml Colls Ateneo de Davao Univ

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

111 24 17 37 11 24 102 15 49 33 63 17 83 58 65 10 85 11 10 37 30 11 271 13 51 42 45 28 20

19.82 12.50 82.35 10.81 9.09 20.83 41.18 20.00 20.41 100.00 15.87 29.41 25.30 56.90 53.85 30.00 16.47 54.55 100.00 21.62 13.33 63.64 17.71 .00 13.73 35.71 35.56 17.86 80.00

57,358 58,116 61,600 70,000 42,170 42,198 57,358 42,170 57,358 61,600 70,000 39,200 57,358 58,906 60,720 42,198 57,358 58,116 61,600 37,430 37,430 86,310 37,430 39,814 41,180 49,000 52,000 53,204 86,310

82,269 88,954 109,036 59,601 62,038 80,112 64,387 82,269 112,632 43,316 87,461 72,940 90,352 62,671 82,514 88,954 57,986 57,986 112,263 57,050 55,515 71,932 56,735 27,232 88,325 113,486

419 103 296 172 16 107 288 88 414 613 336 50 136 56 280 114 103 -

Appendixes

41

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Architecture Architecture Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com

School

Notre Dame of Dadiangas Coll Univ of MindanaoDavao City Rizal Meml Coll Notre Dame of Marbel Coll Mats Coll of Tech Notre Dame of Marbel Coll Univ of the Immaculate ConceptionDav AgroIndustrial Fndn Colls of the Phi Mats Coll of Tech Mindanao Polytechnic Coll Univ of MindanaoDavao City Saint Michaels CollIligan City Central Mindanao Coll Saint Peters CollIligan City Notre Dame Univ Saint Peters CollIligan City Notre Dame Univ Saint Peters CollIligan City Saint Peters CollIligan City Notre Dame Univ Saint Louis Univ Baguio Coll Fndn Saint Louis Univ Saint Louis Univ Baguio Coll Fndn Baguio Central Univ Univ of Baguio Saint Louis Univ Saint Louis Univ

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

19 176 10 14 16 45 46 45 37 41 178 17 28 22 149 58 66 14 29 35 49 12 92 133 255 31 108 133 347

47.37 21.02 20.00 78.57 18.75 37.78 50.00 66.67 64.86 56.10 34.83 17.65 14.29 9.09 9.40 50.00 34.85 28.57 37.93 22.86 46.94 33.33 41.30 60.15 22.35 12.90 12.04 60.90 57.93

37,430 39,814 49,000 39,932 49,000 61,564 36,000 39,932 44,194 37,430 52,042 36,000 41,870 47,304 41,869 47,674 41,870 41,870 46,869 43,640 51,020 43,952 43,952 51,020 51,198 62,350 43,952 43,952

57,612 56,709 57,225 17,356 57,225 81,414 55,040 17,356 41,082 57,612 63,429 51,600 58,342 69,219 63,218 68,388 64,962 65,902 68,388 74,008 58,418 75,379 76,671 56,632 71,069 105,753 80,151 81,245

16 138 167 299 219 81 204 160 41 46 440 2651 523 979 214 1 932 542

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

42

XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XII XII XII XII XII XII XII XII XII CAR CAR CAR CAR CAR CAR CAR CAR CAR

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Program

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Univ of Baguio Baguio Coll Fndn Baguio Central Univ Saint Louis Univ Urios Coll Saint Josephs Inst of Tech Saint Josephs Inst of Tech Saint Josephs Inst of Tech Saint Josephs Inst of Tech Saint Josephs Inst of Tech

29 49 43 104 75 70 16 22 32 13

17.24 51.02 32.56 79.81 12.00 14.29 43.75 18.18 43.75 15.38

62,350 51,020 51,198 43,952 50,790 56,666 56,666 56,666 62,294 56,664

101,388 55,867 78,960 79,634 60,949 83,331 83,331 83,896 76,666 85,312

1178 94 111 495 420 197 98 163 109 88

6 6 2 1 3 2 1 3 3 1 6 4 2 1 5 6 1

16.67 .00 50.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 33.33 100.00 .00 25.00 .00 .00 60.00 33.33 .00

72,200 67,550 72,200 74,300 80,800 106,800 93,504 59,062 67,550 72,040 106,800 61,164 69,000 72,040 57,400

101,890 87,501 156,320 103,384 84,020 88,179 114,577 -

39 15 36 -

Feati Univ Gregorio Araneta Univ Fndn Feati Univ Natl Univ Manuel L Quezon Univ Far Eastern UnivManila Las Pinas Coll Saint John Techgcl Coll of the Phils Gregorio Araneta Univ Fndn Univ of the EastManila Far Eastern UnivQuezon City Saint Francis of Assissi Coll Saint John Techgcl Coll of the Phils Pats Schl of Aeronautics Univ of the EastManila Colegio de San Lorenzo Philsin Marine Tech Colls Fndn Inc

Enrollment

Appendixes

43

CAR Electronics & Com CAR Geodetic Engg CAR Geodetic Engg CAR Mechanical Engg CARAGA Civil Engg CARAGA Civil Engg CARAGA Electrical Engg CARAGA Electronics & Com CARAGA Marine Engg CARAGA Mechanical Engg Less than 10 examinees NCR Aeronautical Engg NCR Agricultural Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Electrical Engg NCR Electrical Engg NCR Electrical Engg NCR Electrical Engg NCR Electrical Engg NCR Electronics & Com NCR Electronics & Com NCR Electronics & Com NCR Electronics & Com NCR Marine Engg

School


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mining Engg Mining Engg Naval Archi and M Architecture Chemical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Architecture Civil Engg Civil Engg Geodetic Engg

School

Asian Inst of Maritime Studies Natl Univ Central Colls of the Phils Far Eastern UnivManila Saint John Techgcl Coll of the Phils Namei Polytechnic Inst Gregorio Araneta Univ Fndn Las Pinas Coll Far Eastern UnivManila Far Eastern UnivQuezon City Adamson Univ Mapua Inst of Tech Univ of Perpetual Help RizalLas Pina Saint Louis Coll of San Fernando Northwestern Univ Lyceum Northwestern Computronix Coll Phil Coll of Science & TechCalasiao Central Ilocandia Coll of Scie & Tec Northwestern Univ Phil Coll of Science & TechCalasiao InterNatl Maritime & Technical Schl Luzon Colls Northwestern Univ Phil Coll of Science & TechCalasiao Saint Louis Coll of Tuguegarao Lyceum of Aparri Aldersgate Coll Saint Marys UnivBayombong

Examinees

% Pass

5 3 1 1 2 2 9 7 6 2 6 8 1 2 2 8 2 8 6 1 1 1 1 4 9 8 9 2 8

100.00 33.33 100.00 100.00 .00 .00 11.11 .00 16.67 .00 83.33 100.00 100.00 .00 .00 12.50 .00 25.00 .00 .00 100.00 100.00 .00 75.00 22.22 62.50 22.22 .00 87.50

Tuition (4 years) 60,000 74,300 84,350 106,800 59,062 60,000 67,550 93,504 106,800 106,800 96,459 232,000 62,000 46,962 35,000 45,758 50,000 58,000 35,820 35,000 58,000 35,000 58,000 39,986 30,000 39,082 42,950

Program fee

Enrollment

92,235 85,867 104,787 309,041 83,995 69,543 71,960 86,922 107,075 67,676 89,664 67,676 95,180 67,890 60,070 54,152 76,362

322 47 21 48 76 110 180 75 88 26 86 72 125 68 27

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

44

NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR I I I I I I I I I I I I II II II II

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Agricultural Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Civil Engg Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Marine Engg

School

Univ of La SalleteSantiago Cagayan Colls Tuguegarao M V Gallego Fndn Colls Bataan Educational Inst Nueva Ecija Colls East Central Coll Coll of the Immaculate ConceptionCab Saint Marys Coll of Meycauayan Meycauayan Coll Nueva Ecija Univ of Science & TechSa Columban Coll Inc Baliuag Colls Saint Marys Coll of Meycauayan Midway Maritime Fndn Bataan Heroes Meml Coll Virgen de Los Remedios CollOlongapo Baliuag Colls Golden Gate Colls Roosevelt CollCainta Roosevelt CollCainta Divine Word CollCalapan Colegio de Los Banos Manuel S Enverga Univ FndnLucena Cit Palawan Polytechnic Coll Inc Roosevelt CollCainta Catanduanes Coll Dynamic Computer CentrumLegaspi Naga Coll Fndn Bicol Merchant Marine Coll Inc

Examinees

1 2 1 2 1 6 1 1 1 2 1 3 2 3 3 1 5 1 4 3 7 1 2 5 1 2 5 8 2

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

100.00 100.00 .00 .00 .00 33.33 .00 .00 .00 100.00 .00 66.67 50.00 66.67 100.00 100.00 .00 .00 50.00 33.33 71.43 100.00 50.00 20.00 100.00 100.00 .00 87.50 100.00

52,272 45,920 53,546 44,000 46,768 50,972 56,406 61,312 68,250 12,000 51,492 73,370 61,312 30,350 52,610 73,370 56,836 51,580 57,000 53,400 33,000 31,680 33,000 64,994 43,590

82,636 52,935 65,585 57,948 35,770 75,123 127,695 46,094 133,329 96,773 60,197 75,993 62,610 110,426 44,680

26 109 23 32 40 218 53 117 72 6 39 50

Appendixes

45

II II III III III III III III III III III III III III III III III IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV V V V V

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Mechanical Engg Naval Archi and M Agricultural Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Architecture Architecture Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Civil Engg Chemical Engg Electronics & Com Marine Engg Marine Engg

School

Holy Trinity Junior Coll Mariners Polytechnic CollNaga Central Phil Univ Univ of San Agustin Univ of Saint La Salle Aklan Polytechnic Inst Colegio de San AgustinBacolod City Univ of Bohol Fndn Univ Univ of Southern Phils Salazar Inst of TechCebu City Univ of Southern Phils Bohol Inst of Tech Univ of Southern Phils Bohol Inst of Tech Univ of Southern Phils Cebu Inst of Tech Southwestern Univ Cebu Aeronautical Technical Schl Cebu Polytechnic Schl Bohol Inst of Tech Univ of Bohol Univ of Southern Phils Southwestern Univ Saint Josephs CollBorongan Zamboanga A E Coll Mein Coll IncZamboanga City Dipolog City Inst of Tech Zamboanga del Sur Maritime Inst of T

Examinees

1 1 2 8 1 9 9 1 1 2 3 7 4 1 9 3 1 4 1 1 3 7 3 5 1 7 3 3 5

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

.00 100.00 100.00 37.50 .00 44.44 77.78 .00 100.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 100.00 .00 .00 100.00 50.00 .00 .00 33.33 28.57 66.67 .00 100.00 .00 .00 .00 40.00

75,286 46,640 60,106 63,980 60,100 47,528 41,000 60,000 22,000 60,000 43,868 60,000 43,868 60,000 50,000 62,944 43,868 47,528 60,000 62,390 30,900 44,000 -

118,007 116,970 92,230 109,248 71,100 27,220 64,200 67,200 67,800 64,194 78,676 66,000 63,009 70,394 -

8 72 48 126 29 45 11 31 -

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

46

V V VI VI VI VI VI VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VII VIII IX IX IX IX

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Agricultural Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Geodetic Engg Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Aeronautical Engg Agricultural Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Civil Engg

School

Misamis Univ Saint Ritas CollMisamis Oriental Immaculate Concepcion CollOzamis Cit Medina Coll Saint Peters CollBalingasag Misamis Medina Coll Xavier Univ Liceo de Cagayan Saint Peters CollBalingasag Misamis Central Mindanao Univ San Isidro Coll Liceo de Cagayan Golden Heritage Polytechnic Coll (NM Misamis Inst of Tech Mats Coll of Tech Ateneo de Davao Univ Notre Dame of Marbel Coll AgroIndustrial Fndn Colls of the Phi Univ of MindanaoTagum Mats Coll of Tech Mindanao Polytechnic Coll Univ of the Immaculate ConceptionDav Mindanao Polytechnic Coll Ateneo de Davao Univ Davao Merchant Marine Acad Rizal Meml Coll Mats Coll of Tech Mindanao Polytechnic Coll Ateneo de Davao Univ North Cotabato Inst of Tech

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

9 2 1 2 3 1 5 9 1 1 1 1 5 7 7 1 4 2 1 2 6 7 1 6 4 8 2 9 3 6

22.22 .00 .00 .00 33.33 .00 100.00 33.33 100.00 .00 100.00 100.00 20.00 14.29 28.57 .00 75.00 .00 .00 .00 16.67 14.29 100.00 83.33 100.00 12.50 .00 66.67 66.67 .00

47,734 34,606 39,200 46,956 26,820 46,956 61,600 70,000 26,820 2,000 35,190 70,000 40,034 42,170 39,932 86,310 49,000 36,000 36,850 39,932 44,194 61,564 44,194 86,310 39,814 39,932 44,194 86,310 31,306

72,879 43,316 58,323 54,655 112,918 62,422 17,356 56,000 17,356 78,644 113,677 57,306 17,356 33,661 104,555 50,107

18 86 20 14 103 64 18 8

Appendixes

47

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XII

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Civil Engg Civil Engg Electronics & Com Marine Engg Marine Engg Geodetic Engg Mining Engg Architecture Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg

48

GOVERNMENT More than 10 examinees NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Architecture NCR Chemical Engg NCR Chemical Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Electrical Engg

School

Notre Dame of Salaman Coll Notre Dame of Kidapawan Coll Saint Michaels CollIligan City Iligan Capitol Coll Cotabato Maritime Acad Saint Louis Univ Saint Louis Univ Saint Josephs Inst of Tech Agusan Inst of Tech Mn Inst of Tech Andres Soriano Coll

Eulogio A Rodriguez Inst of Scie & T Rizal Technological Univ Technological Univ of the PhilsManil Univ of the PhilsDiliman Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsSta Mes Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Univ of the PhilsDiliman Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Eulogio A Rodriguez Inst of Scie & T Rizal Technological Univ Technological Univ of the PhilsManil Univ of the PhilsDiliman Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsSta Mes Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Eulogio A Rodriguez Inst of Scie & T

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

1 1 1 9 1 7 4 4 2 2 1

.00 .00 .00 77.78 100.00 100.00 75.00 .00 50.00 .00 .00

36,876 38,066 52,042 46,200 43,952 43,952 56,666 47,800 30,610

59,386 76,867 87,298 -

73 2 608 81 -

15 12 34 58 65 18 90 24 30 15 40 40 109 33 23

20.00 50.00 29.41 44.83 43.08 38.89 100.00 54.17 13.33 26.67 82.50 100.00 60.55 54.55 17.39

3,000 8,000 51,000 60,000 60,000 3,000 8,000 51,000 60,000 3,000

15,860 57,405 17,380 63,270 -

426 227 684 193 376 190 -

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

XII XII XII XII XII CAR CAR CARAGA CARAGA CARAGA CARAGA

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Architecture Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg

School

Rizal Technological Univ Technological Univ of the PhilsManil Univ of the PhilsDiliman Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsSta Mes Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Eulogio A Rodriguez Inst of Scie & T Rizal Technological Univ Technological Univ of the PhilsManil Univ of the PhilsDiliman Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsSta Mes Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsTaguig City Coll of Manila Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Univ of the PhilsDiliman Technological Univ of the PhilsManil Eulogio A Rodriguez Inst of Scie & T Rizal Technological Univ Technological Univ of the PhilsManil Univ of the PhilsDiliman Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsSta Mes Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsTaguig Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila Mariano Marcos State UnivBatac Univ of Northern PhilsVigan Mariano Marcos State UnivBatac Univ of Northern PhilsVigan Pangasinan State UnivUrdaneta Mariano Marcos State UnivBatac Don M Marcos Meml State UnivSan Fern

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

24 61 11 88 32 21 64 76 54 173 22 82 109 18 28 13 12 88 22 83 11 16 29 17 12 101 40 47 55

45.83 54.10 100.00 45.45 37.50 19.05 21.88 51.32 100.00 50.87 40.91 24.39 60.55 100.00 75.00 7.69 58.33 67.05 100.00 66.27 63.64 75.00 27.59 35.29 16.67 17.82 22.50 61.70 58.18

8,000 51,000 60,000 3,000 8,000 51,000 60,000 60,000 51,000 3,000 8,000 51,000 60,000 8,000 5,000 8,000 5,000 6,000 8,000 5,000

14,780 55,875 15,660 55,875 55,975 14,105 55,875 20,480 11,100 11,280 18,685 4,210

97 183 454 366 729 568 257 199 167 1 107 16 12 252 126

Appendixes

49

NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR I I I I I I I

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Architecture Architecture Architecture Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg

School

Pangasinan State UnivUrdaneta Mariano Marcos State UnivBatac Mariano Marcos State UnivBatac Univ of Northern PhilsVigan Don M Marcos Meml State UnivSan Fern Pangasinan State UnivUrdaneta Mariano Marcos State UnivBatac Nueva Vizcaya State Inst of Tech Cagayan State UnivTuguegarao Cagayan State UnivTuguegarao Isabela State UnivPolytechnic Coll Isabela State UnivPolytechnic Coll Cagayan State UnivTuguegarao Nueva Viscaya State Polytechnic Coll Central Luzon State Univ Tarlac Coll of Agri Pampanga Agrl Coll Tarlac State Univ (Tarlac Coll of Te Bulacan State Univ (Bulacan Coll of Don Honorio Ventura Coll of Arts & T Tarlac State Univ (Tarlac Coll of Te Bulacan State Univ (Bulacan Coll of Central Luzon State Univ Don Honorio Ventura Coll of Arts & T Nueva Ecija Univ of Science & TechCa Tarlac State Univ (Tarlac Coll of Te Bulacan State Univ (Bulacan Coll of Don Honorio Ventura Coll of Arts & T Nueva Ecija Univ of Science & TechCa

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

26 29 24 16 54 16 17 15 10 14 11 21 13 13 30 12 11 20 38 46 85 62 73 61 145 72 51 24 152

26.92 51.72 83.33 81.25 53.70 68.75 58.82 33.33 100.00 64.29 90.91 66.67 76.92 61.54 56.67 58.33 18.18 30.00 44.74 19.57 44.71 62.90 35.62 19.67 20.00 48.61 74.51 16.67 26.32

6,000 8,000 8,000 5,000 5,000 6,000 8,000 5,000 9,000 9,000 10,000 10,000 9,000 5,000 8,000 8,000 800 8,000 8,000 800 8,000 8,000 8,000 12,000 800 8,000 8,000 12,000

11,260 20,085 20,245 10,200 11,040 21,325 12,800 12,000 12,700 8,085 16,445 12,455 13,120 12,495 16,325 12,840 34,150 12,295 12,760 33,790

Enrollment

8 126 210 4 163 15 163 173 49 71 81 282 220 189 187 415 620 526 626 610 361 720 1241 529 457 422 994

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

50

I I I I I I I II II II II II II II III III III III III III III III III III III III III III III

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Electronics & Com Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Chemical Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Architecture Civil Engg Civil Engg

School

Bulacan State Univ (Bulacan Coll of Phil Merchant Marine Acad Tarlac State Univ (Tarlac Coll of Te Bulacan State Univ (Bulacan Coll of Don Honorio Ventura Coll of Arts & T Nueva Ecija Univ of Science & TechCa Romblon State Coll Univ of the PhilsLos Banos Pablo Borbon Meml Inst of Tech Univ of the PhilsLos Banos Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsLopez Marinduque State CollBoac Palawan State Univ Pablo Borbon Meml Inst of Tech Univ of the PhilsLos Banos Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsLopez Southern Luzon Polytechnic Coll Palawan State Univ Pablo Borbon Meml Inst of Tech Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsCavite Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsSto Tom Southern Luzon Polytechnic Coll Pablo Borbon Meml Inst of Tech Southern Luzon Polytechnic Coll Pablo Borbon Meml Inst of Tech Bicol UnivLegaspi Camarines Sur State Agrl Coll Bicol UnivLegaspi Catanduanes State CollsVirac Bicol UnivLegaspi

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

19 113 33 32 43 60 18 35 30 66 17 46 35 73 26 14 12 25 80 31 17 17 44 11 60 42 16 86 115 137

89.47 95.58 36.36 75.00 25.58 31.67 16.67 97.14 66.67 86.36 29.41 43.48 57.14 54.79 100.00 35.71 66.67 88.00 71.25 12.90 35.29 35.29 84.09 81.82 83.33 59.52 68.75 31.40 27.83 34.31

8,000 800 8,000 8,000 12,000 4,000 2,400 9,800 20,000 2,400 6,000 20,000 2,400 2,400 6,000 6,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 5,000 10,000

12,455 111,020 12,335 12,480 35,770 1,909 25,383 26,909 4,308 14,228 18,900 8,249 18,310

Enrollment

1036 281 427 554 517 431 412 215 324 327 226 154 265 181 321 450 399

Appendixes

51

III III III III III III IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV V V V V V

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Electronics & Com Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Architecture Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg

School

Camarines Sur Polytechnic Coll Bicol UnivLegaspi Camarines Sur Polytechnic Coll Camarines Sur Polytechnic Coll Bicol UnivLegaspi Camarines Sur Polytechnic Coll Panay State Polytechnic CollMabusao Capiz Inst of Tech Technological Univ of the PhilsVisay Southern Iloilo Polytechnic Coll Western Visayas Coll of Scie & Tech Technological Univ of the PhilsVisay Panay State Polytechnic CollRoxas Ci Capiz Inst of Tech Central Visayas Polytechnic Coll Central Visayas Polytechnic Coll Cebu State Coll of Scie & Tech(Main) Cebu State Coll of Scie & TechDanao Siquijor State Coll Cebu State Coll of Scie & Tech(Main) Leyte Inst of Tech Leyte Inst of Tech Univ of Eastern Phils Leyte Inst of Tech Eastern Samar State CollBorongan Samar State Polytechnic Coll Tiburcio Tancinco Meml Inst of Scie Naval Inst of Tech Leyte Inst of Tech

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

17 155 21 11 118 29 10 16 20 28 75 35 11 10 12 26 66 17 15 10 33 33 46 322 19 50 44 18 73

17.65 25.81 23.81 27.27 44.07 37.93 20.00 6.25 60.00 57.14 70.67 88.57 45.45 20.00 33.33 80.77 63.64 58.82 40.00 30.00 12.12 12.12 39.13 36.34 15.79 26.00 43.18 11.11 35.62

10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 10,500 9,000 2,400 4,000 15,000 2,400 9,000 9,000 9,000 9,400 10,000 10,000 15,380 10,000 5,500 5,500 5,000 5,500 8,000 8,000 8,000 10,000 5,500

11,945 19,110 14,635 14,175 19,670 14,735 19,345 25,000 25,940 24,515 25,500 25,500 21,420 17,260 15,994 31,350 25,988 7,785 28,325 12,310 11,875 18,730 15,337 27,188

447 70 418 82 114 198 529 208 126 170 416 162 173 630 279 313 271 108 302

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

52

V V V V V V VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VI VII VII VII VII VII VII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Architecture Civil Engg Electrical Engg Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg

School

Samar State Polytechnic Coll Tiburcio Tancinco Meml Inst of Scie Leyte Inst of Tech Palompon Inst of Tech Naval Inst of Tech Univ of Eastern Phils Leyte Inst of Tech Tiburcio Tancinco Meml Inst of Scie Western Mindanao State Univ Western Mindanao State Univ Western Mindanao State Univ Western Mindanao State Univ Zamboanga State Coll of Marine Scies Zamboanga City Polytechnic Coll Western Mindanao State Univ Central Mindanao Univ Central Mindanao Univ Central Mindanao Univ Mindanao Polytechnic State Coll (DMM Mindanao Polytechnic State Coll (DMM Univ of Southeastern PhilsTagum Mindanao State UnivGen Santos City Univ of Southeastern PhilsDavao City Mindanao State UnivGen Santos City Univ of Southeastern PhilsDavao City Mindanao State UnivGen Santos City Univ of Southeastern PhilsDavao City Univ of Southeastern PhilsDavao City Mindanao State UnivGen Santos City Mindanao State UnivMarawi City

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

11 12 21 45 31 20 65 15 29 109 100 26 17 42 88 38 47 25 28 28 44 10 47 39 22 23 43 23 18 21

45.45 75.00 80.95 57.78 58.06 45.00 32.31 33.33 13.79 21.10 16.00 50.00 52.94 57.14 25.00 34.21 61.70 64.00 71.43 39.29 63.64 100.00 38.30 76.92 68.18 78.26 74.42 69.57 94.44 66.67

8,000 8,000 5,500 6,250 10,000 5,000 5,500 8,000 7,200 2,000 2,000 2,000 15,000 15,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 8,000 2,000

12,015 18,650 22,440 10,156 11,969 7,725 26,675 18,970 7,913 3,570 3,655 3,695 28,250 29,150 15,465 8,560 8,800 9,200 8,720 -

119 129 451 325 305 113 299 99 1 76 12 103 61 116 283 105 70 96 5

Appendixes

53

VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII IX IX IX IX IX IX IX X X X X X XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XI XII

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

NCR NCR NCR NCR NCR I I I I I II II II II II

Agricultural Engg Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Civil Engg examinees Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Mechanical Engg Mining Engg Agricultural Engg Civil Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg

School

Univ of Southern Mindanao Mindanao State UnivMarawi City Mindanao State UnivIligan Inst of Te Mindanao State UnivMarawi City Cotabato City State Polytechnic Coll Univ of Southern Mindanao Mindanao State UnivIligan Inst of Te Mindanao State UnivMarawi City Mindanao State UnivIligan Inst of Te Mindanao State UnivMarawi City Benguet State Univ (Mt State Agric C Mountain Province State Polytechnic

Technological Univ of the PhilsTagui Phil Normal Univ Marikina Inst of Scie & Tech Technological Univ of the PhilsTagui Univ of the PhilsDiliman Don M Marcos Meml State UnivBacnotan Pangasinan State UnivBayambang Don M Marcos Meml State UnivSan Fern Pangasinan Schl of Arts & Trades Pangasinan State UnivInfanta Isabela State UnivEchague Cagayan State UnivLalLo Cagayan State UnivTuguegarao Isabela State UnivCabagan Isabela State UnivEchague

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

52 14 13 73 22 17 30 12 28 17 38 16

63.46 42.86 76.92 52.05 9.09 58.82 100.00 100.00 92.86 70.59 42.11 12.50

8,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 3,000 8,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 8,000 8,000

12,745 110 5,265 11,485 110 110 1,040 12,850

253 1 156 8 179 274 197 1 332 2 253 66

4 1 1 2 3 7 2 1 1 5 6 1 7 1 1

100.00 100.00 100.00 50.00 100.00 28.57 .00 .00 100.00 40.00 66.67 .00 85.71 .00 .00

51,000 51,000 60,000 2,252 6,000 5,000 6,000 10,000 12,000 9,000 10,000 10,000

55,875 55,875 9,373 17,580 12,400 -

156 78 65 62 380 120 -

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

54

XII XII XII XII XII XII XII XII XII XII CAR CAR Less than 10

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Marine Engg Marine Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Geodetic Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Electronics & Com Agricultural Engg Electrical Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg

School

Nueva Vizcaya State Inst of Tech Cagayan State UnivGonzaga Ramon Magsaysay Polytechnic Coll Bataan Polytechnic State Coll (Bataa Tarlac Coll of Agri Cavite State Univ (Don Severino Agrl State Polytechnic Coll of Palawan Laguna State Polytechnic CollSiniloa Rizal State Coll Aurora State Coll of Tech Cavite State Univ (Don Severino Agrl State Polytechnic Coll of Palawan Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsCavite Aurora State Coll of Tech Palawan State Univ Technological Univ of the PhilsCavit Rizal State Coll Laguna State Polytechnic CollSiniloa Technological Univ of the PhilsCavit Polytechnic Univ of the PhilsCavite Aurora State Coll of Tech State Polytechnic Coll of Palawan Palawan State Univ Camarines Sur Polytechnic Coll Catanduanes State CollMasbate Panay State Polytechnic CollPonteved Panay State Polytechnic CollRoxas Ci Northern Iloilo Polytechnic State Co West Visayas State Univ

Examinees

1 1 1 1 8 5 2 1 6 5 7 1 8 7 1 2 1 1 5 5 4 2 9 1 1 6 9 8 1

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

.00 .00 .00 100.00 87.50 60.00 100.00 100.00 33.33 60.00 42.86 100.00 25.00 28.57 .00 100.00 100.00 .00 60.00 20.00 50.00 100.00 66.67 .00 .00 16.67 44.44 62.50 100.00

5,000 9,400 8,000 22,000 8,000 4,000 10,000 4,000 4,000 10,000 2,400 4,000 20,000 2,400 4,000 10,000 20,000 10,000 5,000 12,704 9,000 5,750 12,000

23,980 9,785 4,022 9,985 4,997 10,265 25,589 16,408 25,000 -

206 264 93 148 60 93 33 215 47 225 418 -

Appendixes

55

II II III III III IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV IV V V VI VI VI VI

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Marine Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Agricultural Engg Agricultural Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Civil Engg Mechanical Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg Agricultural Engg Electrical Engg Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg

UNCLASSIFIED More than 10 examinees VII Civil Engg VII Electronics & Com Marine Engg

School

Polytechnic State Coll of Antique Central Visayas Polytechnic Coll Central Visayas Polytechnic Coll Cebu State Coll of Scie & Tech(Main) Univ of Eastern Phils Visayas State Coll of Agri Eastern Samar State CollBorongan Naval Inst of Tech Leyte Normal Univ Mindanao Polytechnic State Coll (DMM Central Mindanao Univ Mindanao Polytechnic State Coll (DMM Mindanao State UnivMaguindanao Mindanao State UnivMarawi City Mindanao State UnivIligan Inst of Te Kalinga Apayao State Coll (Kalinga C Mountain Province State Polytechnic Mountain Province State Polytechnic Surigao State Coll of Tech (SDNSAT) Cebu State Coll of Science & TechCol

Divine Word UnivTacloban Cebu Technical Schl Larena Natl Vocational Coll

Examinees

% Pass

Tuition (4 years)

Program fee

Enrollment

6 7 3 7 8 9 2 5 1 6 9 1 8 1 9 4 3 3 6 7

33.33 57.14 66.67 14.29 25.00 88.89 50.00 40.00 .00 33.33 66.67 .00 25.00 100.00 100.00 50.00 66.67 33.33 66.67 28.57

16,000 8,400 8,400 10,000 5,000 8,000 10,000 8,000 15,000 2,000 15,000 2,000 2,000 2,000 10,000 8,000 8,000 13,000 -

27,300 21,420 21,420 7,275 13,680 14,637 26,600 27,950 110 17,200 13,670 12,170 -

266 69 139 79 82 61 54 116 23 36 -

72 43 26

22.22 20.93 42.31

-

-

-

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

56

VI VII VII VII VIII VIII VIII VIII VIII X X X XII XII XII CAR CAR CAR CARAGA VIII

Program


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Program

Araneta Univ Extension Fndn Dr Nicanor Reyes Meml Colls Ortanez Univ Ortanez Univ Don Bosco CollMakati Ilocos Norte Agrl Coll Cabanatuan City Colls Palawan Natl Agrl Coll Camarines Sur Inst Divine Word UnivTacloban Divine Word UnivTacloban Divine Word UnivTacloban Leyte Natl Agrl Coll InterNatl Harvardian UnivDavao City Phil Harvardian CollCotabato City Baguio General Hospital Abellana Natl Schl Unknown Araullo High Schl Montevista Learning Center Negros Inst of Tech Saint Peters CollSurigao del Sur Western Phil Colls Liceo de Agusan Liceo de Oro Coll Manuel Quezon Coll

Examinees

1 2 3 2 1 1 1 5 1 1 8 4 1 6 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 8 1 1 1

% Pass

100.00 .00 33.33 .00 100.00 100.00 100.00 60.00 .00 .00 12.50 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 100.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 12.50 .00 .00 .00

Tuition (4 years)

-

Program fee

-

Enrollment

-

Appendixes

57

Less than 10 examinees NCR Agricultural Engg NCR Agricultural Engg NCR Civil Engg NCR Electrical Engg NCR Mechanical Engg I Electronics & Com III Geodetic Engg IV Agricultural Engg V Civil Engg VII Chemical Engg VII Electrical Engg VII Mechanical Engg VIII Chemical Engg XI Civil Engg XII Civil Engg CAR Civil Engg Architecture Chemical Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Civil Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg Electrical Engg

School


Appendix Table 1. Continued Region

Electrical Engg Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Electronics & Com Geodetic Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Marine Engg Mechanical Engg

School

Unknown Coll of Mindanao Mindanao Electronics InstSchl of Mid Natl Radio Schl & Inst of Tech Pilar Coll Technical Schl Ozamis City Coll Abellana Coll of Arts & Trade Abellana Natl Schl Albatross AcadCaloocan Cebu Schl of Arts & Trades Dagupan Inst of Tech Iloilo Schl of Arts & Trades Jolo Community Coll Lyceum Merchant Marine Acad Magsaysay Meml CollTacurong Mindanao Inst of Tech Pangasinan Maritime Inst Pilar Coll Technical Schl Unknown Vocational Schl Zamboanga Polytechnic Schl Manuel Quezon Coll

Examinees

% Pass

1 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 8 2 4 1 3 1 1 1 9 1 1 2 2 1 6 1

.00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 .00 75.00 100.00 .00 .00 66.67 .00 .00 100.00 55.56 100.00 .00 .00 50.00 .00 83.33 .00

Tuition (4 years) -

Program fee -

Enrollment

-

College Fee Structure and Fee Inflation

58

-

Program


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References

References Alba, M. 2002. The distribution and structure of wages and their implications on gender and interindustry wage differentials. Background paper for the 2002 Philippine Human Development Report. Carnaje, G. P. 1988. The nature and extent of unemployment of higher education graduates in the Philippines. University of the Philippines, School of Economics. Ph.D. dissertation. CHED (Commission on Higher Education). 1995. Philippine higher education in the 21st century: strategies for excellence and equity. Paper submitted by the Task Force on Higher Education to the Commission. Johnson, R. 1998. Philippine education in the 21st century, the 1998 Philippines Education Sector study. Technical Paper No. 3 on Higher Education in the Philippines. Asian Development Bank and World Bank. Tan, E., G. Ducanes, L. Garcia, T. Puriran and L. Ramos. 2002. Studies of access of the poor to education. Paper prepared for the Asian Development Bank (ADB).

31



College Fee Structure and Philippine Inflation