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安那其建築園丁 Anarchist Gardener

“ 革命尚未成功

家陣連狗都唔敢食 河裡面啲魚呀

同志仍須努力

廢墟玩咩花臣


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Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

廢墟建築學院

5th Floor Sauna

廢墟建築學院是研究建立第三代都市知識建構所成立實驗性平台,主旨 在於要將現存工業城市廢墟化。學院以人文環境和都市作為研究主體,提 供跨領域交流和公共論域的空間。不將論述焦點放在個別藝術和科學領 域,學院著重地方知識的累積、常人的生活智慧和潛層的記憶故事。有別 於教育場所,廢墟建築學院是 PUB 的原型,一座對外開放公共客廳。或 者更像芬蘭國淬三溫暖,無論警察或是總統一律得脫掉外衣,才能進入公 共桑拿間無絆享受,人人皆平等。 定要在建築學院築座公共三溫暖。 為更美好的都市、人民和大自然,廢墟建築學院面向大眾,徵集對城市 環境未來的意見。廢墟,是當人造的成為大自然的一部分。我們需要更進 一步理解台北城廢墟化的過程。人們藉著在地知識將工業城市廢墟化。誰 會是台北在地知識專家教授?他們應當來廢墟建築學院做酒保。

4th Floor Lounge

廢墟建築學院提供自主而獨立的平台,讓來自不同領域的學生團體和有 志同心者互相交流。學院本身就是知識建構的載體,這裡是座工地也是廢 墟,兩者同時並存發生。雖尚不能預知我們會發現何種新鮮事,但將城市 廢墟化,破壞現存方盒空間會是建構學院的第一步。我們不管學術理論的 統制操縱,卻要邀請大自然自由入門,在廢墟中有機共生,大自然是唯一 皈依的準則。這裡是大伙兒的客廳,我們同在的 PUB。

Ruin Academy

3rd Floor Professors Dek

The Ruin Academy is an experimental platform for knowledge building on the way towards the Third Generation City – the ruin of the industrial city. The Academy offers a public sphere for cross-disciplinary communication within the general field of built human environment, city. We don't focus in the different disciplines of art and science. We focus on local knowledge, people and stories. The Academy is more like a Pub than a University – or like a public sauna in Finland, where everybody is stripped naked from the President to the Police. We must build a public sauna to the Ruin Academy.

2nd Floor Student Dormitory

1st floor

The Ruin Academy sends an open call to think on the urban environment – the city, the people and the nature. We want to understand the ruining processes in Taipei. Ruin is when man-made has become part of nature. People are ruining the industrial city; this is connected with the local knowledge. Who are the professors of the Local Knowledge in Taipei? They should be the bar-tenders of the Ruin Academy. The Ruin Academy is an independent and free platform where the different student groups and other players can meet. The Academy is about knowledge building. It is a simultaneous construction site and a ruin. We don't know what we will find but the first step is to break the box, ruin the city. What comes to the academic control, we will give up in order to let nature step into our ruin. There is no other discipline than nature. There is our Pub.


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

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手繪 Drawing | Marco Casagrande


4

Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

邁向第三代城市 廢墟建築學院-安那其建築園

文|馬可 . 卡薩格蘭(Marco Casagrande) 譯|巫祈麟、林倩如、林宜珍、邱郁晨、陳右昇

廢墟建築學院成立的主旨在於實踐「第三代城市」(Third Generation City)的可能性, 讓工業化都市成為有機的廢墟,使慣於生活在水泥方盒的現代人重新思考。本建築學院 獨立於傳統壁壘分明的學術領域之外,無礙自由地跨界建築、都市規劃、環境藝術、地 景景觀、社會學和尊重在地知識,融合交流創新各學門所長,賦予知識新定義。

北本身就是一座非官方認可的第三代城

以非常精簡參與式規劃的研究手法,就能讓原 破人為控制且邀請自然停駐。

市 。 這 座 有 機 城 市 成 型 於 工 業 機 器 之 僅在田野裡做研究的社會學家和人類學家能相互 •建築施工團隊/園丁皆來自台灣各大學學生及專

上,而下漸次滲透到現代都市最為冥頑堅硬遲鈍 藉由在地場域特定性,量身探索與真實的現實產 業人士 的部分,直貫台北盆地的地土表面。靈敏度極高 生連接。其在地的研究成果將能無時差就地和建 的市民感知與大自然親密相依共生的召喚,化身 築 師、 都 市 規 劃 師 與 藝 術 家 們 專 案 報 告 分 享 調 2. 都市針灸術(Urban Acupuncture)

成為第三代城市的仲介者,他們深知若自然環境 研。換句話說,人類學者在這整個設計藝術研究 •研究台北各區裡的非法菜園並繪風貌區域圖,記 被城市機器毀壞,人類亦無法獨善其身。

計畫裡的田野過程中是最敏感的器官,提供設計 錄這些難得的都市農園花園為台北城帶來有機調 者和藝術家於其設計過程,一個真實的、人性的 節效應。

第三代台北城有著在地場域特定性,根植於地 面向,一個敏感且人文的互動。這種共同操作能 •本工作營與國立台灣大學社會系合作。

方知識(Local Knowledge)承載如何在台北盆 連 結 聽 見 人 民 和 社 群 的 真 實 需 求, 也 連 結 到 自

地流域餬口為生創造價值的真髓。藉著世代自發 然。經由這些幫助設計者,從陳腐學院式所主導

3. 河流都市學(River Urbanism)

性社群的行動與對集體共業口耳承傳在地知識和 資本消費集合無感物中抽身,從虛構喧囂都市藉 • 各學術單位共同的研究和著手設計,致力讓人為 自然密切聯繫瞭然自然。第二代城市崩毀人類生 口無限放大,人類毫無邊界邁向自以為是的發展 都市和自然河流的重新合而為一。 存價值,主事的官方單位,工業化的生產單位與 與大自然斷裂的關係中逃脫出來。廢墟建築學院 • 讓受污染的河流復原成和大自然共生的狀態、拆 現實社會三者皆悖離在地知識,無視自然環境的 聚焦於恢復介於都市與建築尺度相互對話銜合平 除防波堤使河水自由穿越城市 、保護都市中珍貴 重要性。第二代城市是座冷酷無情工業城池,試 台。

的紅樹林。

圖自立於偉大有機的自然機器之外。

• 本工作營與芬蘭阿爾托大學全球可持續性能源科 隨 著 個 別 / 獨 立 小 型 靈 活 的 研 究 單 位 越 趨 活 技研究中心、國立台灣大學社會系、淡江大學建築

若我們思惟著第三代城市的實踐,絕不能僅靠 躍, 傳統定義上的大學/學術研究單位則越見式 系、寶藏巖聚落、三腳渡文化發展協會、溪洲阿美 官方當局和官方數據領我們向前行。我們必須能 微。因為各大學各系所跨學門的無法施行參與式 族文化永續暨社區發展協會、台北市政府都發局、 夠理解在地知識與之合鳴。那些非官方認可的行 規劃( participatory planning)的研究計劃,這 台北市政府水利局、迪化污水處理廠、翡翠水庫合 動思潮,讓工業機器朝向有機之道才會使第三代 也肇始官方各部會和部門間的參與式規劃亦無法 作。 城市有誕生的可能。老阿媽的智慧才值得我們信 發生。各系所/部會僅把精力傾注於自家的研究 任。

邀 功 自 身 產 生 的 成 果, 系 所 間 是 競 爭 資 源 的 關 4. 城市游牧 (Urban Nomad)

係,於是築起壁壘分明的學術高牆,以防非我族 • 尋探在台北城中竄流不息的都市推進方法論和即

.游擊學術圈

類踰矩壟斷。這種保護主義違反了大學設立的初 興社會戲劇考(social drama),歸集其中心思想,

衷,也違背了政府以民主議會作為國家建設的討 並提出報告和設計方案作為知識傳承的研究報告 學 院以人文環境和都市作為研究主體,提供各 論 基 礎。 廢 墟 建 築 學 院 在 各 樣 的 規 定 戒 律、 大 • 夜市、高架橋橋下活動、流動式神明、 帳篷、街

學術單位知識圈跨領域交流和公共論域的空間。

學、市政府層級制度之外獨立運作。置身學術權 道露天卡拉 OK、賭博、理髮師、街頭小販和非法

這好比入侵學術界三不管地帶的無人之境,不被 力圈中的無人之境,提供一個圓桌,讓各系各門 市場、資源回收。 任何既定成規約束,確鼓勵各專業學門間與在地 各 部 會 共 同 參 與。 擁 有 在 地 知 識 的 都 市 河 流 漁 • 與阿爾托大學環境藝術系、台灣大學社會系、淡 知識藉著參與式的規劃手法無礙交融,進而交織 夫、都市農夫、園丁、街道小販、計程車司機和 江大學建築系合作。 探問知識學問更為豐饒的可能。截至目前學院舉 老阿嬤們將是圓桌會議的座上嘉賓。 5. 城市盆景(Urban Bonsai)

行 的 工 作 營 的 工 作 營 迄 今 已 與 社 會 科 學( 社 會 學、人類學、語言學)、建築、地景建築、都市

• 如何在建物裡讓大自然亦能彼此共生?如何捨棄

設計、園藝、新聞媒體和當代藝術的專業人員共

人造的成為自然的一部分?

同發聲研究。學院並獲得淡江大學建築系、國立

廢墟建築學院所舉行的系列工作營是建立第三 • 將現代水泥方盒,轉化成有機的生態建築物成為

台 灣 大 學 社 會 系、 芬 蘭 阿 爾 托 大 學( Aalto 代城市的鑑定礎石:

University) 全 球 可 持 續 性 能 源 科 技 研 究 中 心

( Sustainable Global Technologies Center, 1. 安那其建築園丁 (Anarchist Gardener)

廢墟。讓自然作為支配建築物的力量。 • 與淡江大學建築系與台灣大學園藝系合作。

SGT)和環境藝術系( Environmental Art)等系 • 將台北一棟已廢棄五層樓公寓,改建變身成為 所大力支持。

廢墟建築學院的設立空間 • 在屋內種植蔬菜並意望綠意穿透人為建物,打

充分認識河流都市學對理解都市的尺度至為重要


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

5

THIRD GENERATION CITY Ruin Academy - Anarchist Gardener

Text | Marco Casagrande

The Ruin Academy is set to think of the Third Generation City, the organic ruin of the industrial city and to re-think the modern man in the box. The cross-over architectural Academy is operating outside the conventional academic disciplines and freely mixing the gifts of architecture, urban design, environmental art, horticulture, sociology and local knowledge.

T

he Third Generation City is an un-official reality anthropology, and linguistics), architecture, landscape Knowledge: urban river fishermen, urban farmers

t h a t a l r e a d y e x i s t s i n Ta i p e i . T h i s o r g a n i c architecture, urban design, horticulture, journalism and gardeners, street vendors, taxi-drivers and

city grown on top of the industrial machine and is and fine arts. The Academy has been supported by grandmothers.

penetrating through the hard and insensitive layers the Tamkang University Department of Architecture,

of the modern urbanism and reaching the original National Taiwan University Department of Sociology The Ruin Academy workshops to determine the ground of the Taipei Basin. The agents of the Third and Aalto University Sustainable Global Technologies qualities of the Third Generation City are: Generation City are the sensitive citizens who feel and Department of Environmental Art. the calling of sustainable co-operation with the rest

1.Anarchist Gardener

of the nature, sensitive citizens who are aware of the I n a s i m p l e p a r t i c i p a t o r y p l a n n i n g w a y t h e • Changing an abandoned 5-story Taipei apartment destruction that the insensitive modern machine is sociologists and anthropologists are on the field building into the Ruin Academy. causing to the nature including human nature.

doing research and getting connected to the site- • Growing vegetation inside and through the building,

specific realities. They are then reporting real time breaking the human control and inviting nature to

Third Generation Taipei is site-specifically rooted to the architects, artists urban designers who can step in.

with the Local Knowledge, that is carrying the react on this information through design and art. In • Constructor-Gardeners from various Taiwanese essence of surviving and being productive in the other words the humanists are the sensitive organs universities and professional people.

Ta i p e i r i v e r v a l l e y. L o c a l K n o w l e d g e s u r v i v e s of the whole research-design-art process on the field

t h r o u g h s p o n t a n e o u s c o m m u n i t y a c t i o n s a n d providing the designers and artists a real humanistic 2.Urban Acupuncture

collective philosophy passed on orally through dimension to their design processes, a dimension of • Research and mapping of the illegal community

generations. Local Knowledge is tied to the nature, it sensitivity and humane interaction. This co-operation gardens and urban farms of Taipei that are tuning the is understanding of nature. City authorities, industrial and link to the real people and real communities and city towards the organic.

production and modern times have alienated from to the nature through them help the designers the get • Together with the National Taiwan University

t h e L o c a l K n o w l e d g e a n d n a t u r e h a s b e c o m e away from the ideology of developing the built human Department of Sociology. meaningless to this second generation corruption of environ ment as a collage of insensitive objects

human existence. The second generation city is the hosting a collection of consumers in which case the 3.River Urbanism

hard industrial city, a piece of machinery trying to urban fictional reality disconnects the modern man • Multidisciplinary research and design aiming for the claim independence from the great organic machine from nature. Ruin Academy is focused in restoring re-union of the city and the river nature.

of nature.

When we are thinking on the Third Generation City,

this connection in urban scale and in architectonic • Natural River Restoration, free flooding, urban scale.

mangrove.

• Together with Aalto University Sustainable Global

we cannot rely on the city authorities and the official Universities have grown weaker as the individual Technologies (Finland), National Taiwan University

data does not take us far. We have to be able d i s c i p l i n e s h a v e g r o w n s t r o n g e r. P a r t i c i p a t o r y Department of Sociology,

Tamkang University

to communicate with the Local Knowledge. Third planning in-between the different departments and Department of Architecture, Treasure Hill community,

Generation City will be born from these routes, there universities does not really happen, nor does it J i a n t a i F i s h e r m e n C o m m u n i t y, X i Z h o u A m i s

un-official streams of energy and knowledge that will happen between the different departments in the city Community, Taipei City Government Department

tune the industrial machine to become organic. In governments. The strength of the disciplines is to be of Urban –Development, Taipei City Government grandmothers we trust.

focused and to determine the core of their research, Department of Hydraulics, Dihua Sewage Treatment

ACADEMIC SQUATTING

protected territories inside the universities and city 4.Urban Nomad

create the research questions and then stick to them. Facility and Feitsui Water Reservoir.

This same disciplinary strength builds walls and

government between the different departments and • Research- and design methodology reacting on the

The Ruin Academy is a public sphere in-between disciplines. This industrial focusing and academic liquid quality of the Taipei urbanism and social drama.

different universities and academic disciplines. It is protectionism is against the idea of a university and • Night markets, under-bridge activities, moving

operating on a kind of an academic no-man's land, the idea of the city government as a parliamentary Gods, pin-lan booths, street karaoke, gambling,

not tied to any specific discipline, but celebrating acting body based on discussions. Ruin Academy is barbers, street vendors and illegal markets, waste

the richness of many disciplines getting together set to operate outside the disciplines and outside the recycling.

with the Local Knowledge starting up spirals of new university and city government hierarchies. It is on an • Together with Aalto University Department of

knowledge building through participatory planning. academic no-man's land and offering a round table Environmental Art, NTU Sociology and Tamkang

Our workshop teams have by so far been combined for the different disciplines to participate. On this Architecture. o f r e s e a r c h e r s o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e s ( s o c i o l o g y, table the quests of honour are the experts of Local


6

Anarchist Gardener

.RIVER URBANISM 都市河流學

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

來自阿美族的張祖淼先生,是現任新店溪洲部落 發言人。溪洲部落是新店溪邊非常英勇的社群。他

河 流 是 台 北 為 何 在 此 立 地 存 在 的 原 因, 基 隆 原是來自台東三個家族北上定居溪洲部落的後人之 河、淡水河、新店溪中乾淨可飲用的水,是定居其 一,部落裡的人們前仆後繼在河邊爭取他們的居住 沿岸社群中仍然鮮活的記憶。對台北居民來說,河 權。前些年官方政府為了修築自行車道,剷除部落 流曾是日常生活不可缺的重要元素。那時,河岸並 的河邊菜園。幾乎巡著寶藏巖的命運,官方代表雙 無高聳的防洪牆,城市尚與自然環境共生。台北仍 邊利誘威脅,要部落「遷居」別處,就如同當年逐 然負載著關於河流的集體記憶,城市還沒成為全然 步毀了寶藏巖聚落使用相同招數。 工業化的虛構神話。然而,關於河流的新記憶必須 要快快生成。河流必須再次成為都市的生命線,維

阿美族人拒絕官方的要脅並且抗命至今。現在部

繫已都市化台北盆地活力的神經系統。新種的都市 落和新北市府展開協商,約定遷居部落,往河岸遠 學必須能創建與河流的自然環境產生溝通對話的生 些的地方移,承諾出資為部落蓋新房子。但部落的 活形態。從自然河川的角度發想都市地景,這就是 人想,政府提供的房舍怎能跟現在住的地方比呢? 台北都市河流學( Taipei River Urbanism) 。

.LOCAL KNOWLEDGE 在地知識

部落世代以有機地型式以人的尺度蓋自己的房

← 第三代台北城是座從後工業台北變身而來的有機廢

子,這共生的社群中,他們不僅作建築還再造城市

墟。廢墟,當是人造的化為自然的一部分。

花園!部落人寧願在新的落角處蓋新房,希望能將

→ 點狀社區花園和都市農園為台北施行都市針灸術,使

這 有 機 的 造 屋 之 方 延 續 下 去, 和 周 邊 鄰 人 保 持 對

這城轉向有機。

位於台北捷運劍潭站附近的三腳渡,是世代以來 話,共營集體空間。 往返基隆河與淡水河間捕魚抓蝦行船交通貨運的樞 紐。在此地長大的造船師傅阿正師娓娓的說:「居

部 落 發 言 人 今 年 37 歲, 一 生 都 住 在 溪 洲 部 落

民從前在颱風大水來時,將廟中的神明暫時搬往高 裡。 他 在 河 邊 渡 過 童 年, 河 流 是 部 落 家 常 食 材 來 處避難。河水如此清澈,能直飲。早年河岸還沒蓋 源。原本,河岸邊的集體菜園與河流本身營構的社 防 洪 牆, 雖 然 洪 水 每 年 報 到, 但 受 災 情 況 並 不 嚴 區意識,是他最真貴的童年記憶。但如今,河川早 重, 水 勢 有 泛 流 的 寬 廣 空 間。」 他 把 手 指 著 膝 蓋 被污染了。 處,提點颱風來時淹水高度。 阿正師回憶,有回水災淹到三腳渡附近獨裁者蔣 .OFFICIAL MISTAKE 錯誤的官方政策 中正的家。專制的蔣總統對大自然生氣,發怒下令 築起堤防。逐漸增高的防洪牆,劃界獨裁者和他的

官方政策企圖介入人類與自然之間的關係,同時

城 市 與 日 漸 凋 零 的 三 腳 渡。 漁 民 們 仍 然 滂 河 安 也介入人與人性的聯繫中,官方規劃的城市是現代 居, 直 到 現 在 他 們 還 是 不 明 白 築 牆 的 真 正 意 義 為 化 且 沒 有 人 情 味 的, 一 昧 地 想 要 清 潔 台 北 所 有 後 何。 「日本人用著更好的概念治理河川,比如,日 巷,並且「美化」它們,但確阻止人們在河岸邊耕 據時期就有專家提出,把基隆河道挖深解決水患問 作。事實上,河岸兩側都已被劃定作為防洪區,禁 題。然後國民黨來了,河被污染越顯髒臭並築起高 止任何的耕植行為。陳阿媽終其一生都在新店溪畔 牆。」

耕 作, 溪 洲 部 落 的 原 住 民 也 是 一 樣。 對 他 們 來 說, 河 水 氾 濫 是 自 然 現 象, 直 到 政 府 單 位 介 入 來

寶藏巖社區陳阿媽鄰長,一生都在新店溪周邊討 「 保 護 」 他 們, 如 同 史 坦 利• 庫 柏 力 克( Stanley

生活,她和丈夫曾在河邊的採沙廠工作。早年從河 Kubrick) 導 演 的 經 典 電 影《 發 條 橘 子 》 ( A 底採建築工程用的沙需要大量人力,陳阿媽在廠裡 Clockwork Orange)的情節,一名學校校長極力使

↑三腳渡的漁民駕駛著他的小船運行河面,他認為河水應 能自由泛流延伸到都市之中,都市理當親近河流。

負責煮飯燒茶水。廠裡工人和退守台灣國民黨軍人 調 皮 冥 頑 殘 暴 的 男 主 角 亞 歷 克 斯( Alex) 不 遭 受

們, 都 發 現 寶 藏 巖 適 合 在 都 市 邊 緣 成 家 落 腳。 於 「自己」的傷害,但卻徒勞無功一般。從官方的觀 是, 他 們 開 始 自 力 造 屋, 形 成 非 法 違 建 的 小 社 點來看,當人類企圖接近自然,或是行使人類的天 群。自河岸泛洪區到寶藏巖小丘上,佈滿星羅般自 性之時,也同時向著危險趨近,而且很可能會失去 耕社區菜園。河水清澈能見底,涉水來往新店溪兩 控制。 岸非常安全。小孩們甚至能騎在水牛背上過溪。陳 阿媽還說,當時附近家家戶戶都有船,方便探訪親

河 川 會 失 控 - 至 少 是 脫 離 人 類 的 控 制。 事 實

友和上市場買賣蔬果。 「我有個舅舅常喝醉,喝到 上,河川根本就不應該被人類所掌控。工業化城市 深 夜 就 慘 了, 不 知 如 何 把 他 摸 黑 搬 上 小 船 划 回 正是人類控制慾的終極表現,利用機械調效著人類 家」她道。

生活。這座人造機器和水文自然規律一樣掙扎想融 入 台 北 盆 地。 河 川 會 氾 濫, 這 並 不 是 城 市 想 要

寶藏巖常淹水,居民在小丘下河岸設置簡單不住 的,相對地,城市污染著河川,亦非河川所願。在 人 的 如 豬 舍 和 儲 藏 室 等 棚 架 式, 結 構 不 複 雜 的 建 河川與城市之間建起一道高牆,是種輕忽怠慢如吃 物。 水 患 驚 動 官 方 政 府 出 手 藉 口 要「 保 護 」 居 速食般粗糙的解決手法。泛流的洪水與河川在「有 民,所以得剷除寶藏巖社區並且明文禁止其周邊菜 機 」 共 存 的 彼 端, 被 限 制 僅 能 一 定 的 範 圍 內 作 園農耕活動。

亂。這牆也將飽受污染發臭的河水,阻絕在居民的 視線之外, 眼不見為淨,彷若從此相安無事,心無

阿媽指稱污染來自河的上游,幾乎在很短的時間 罣礙。 裡,水變污濁連河裡的魚也吃不得,現連狗都不敢 吃魚。當污染的尚未如此嚴重時,你能喝直接喝溪

←寶藏巖社區陳阿媽鄰長 2011 年受訪時說:「現在連狗 都不敢吃河裡的魚! 」可見河水受污染的嚴重程度。陳 阿媽一生都在新店溪周邊討生活,見證著人們先視河為寶 維持生計的恩物,再轉換態度把河當作工業發展污水排放 溝渠的現況。

這道牆已然聳立數十年,對於年輕的台北市民來

→現任新店溪洲部落發言人來自阿美族的張祖淼先生。定

水, 在 河 邊 洗 衣 和 清 潔 蔬 果, 河 裡 有 魚 和 螃 蟹 可 說,河流幾乎不存在,大自然成為一種城市裡的神

居在溪洲的族人多在台北從事營建相關工作,下班回到市

抓。河流,是居民們日常生活的重心。

區邊緣靠河的部落,裡頭處處可見生意有機的自建房舍。

話。如今,市政府已承認建蓋這道堤防以及污染河 川是「錯誤的官方政策」, 開始尋找彌補台北市民


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

7

5.Urban Bonsai

of buffaloes. All the families also had to have a boat

surrender man-made to be part of nature?

go on markets to sell their vegetables. “Sometimes

• H o w t o g r o w n a t u r e w i t h a r c h i t e c t u r e , h o w t o according to Missis Chen, to visit their relatives and to

• Organic bio-climatic buildings more as ruins than an uncle was so drunk that we didn't know how to send modern boxes. Nature as the dominating force of him home in the dark to the other side of the river with architecture.

his little boat.”

Architecture and NTU Department of Horticulture.

Because of the flood the Treasure Hill settlers did not

• Together with Tamkang University Department of

build valuable properties to the flood area down the

In urban scale the understanding of the River Urbanism hill, but used that for secondary buildings such as pig

is the most important.

RIVER URBANISM

houses and storages, but even then the government

wanted to “protect” them and bulldozed the houses

away and in the end forbid them from farming.

The pollution comes from the up-stream, Missis Chen

Taipei is here because of the river. The clear, drinkable says. Suddenly the river got so dirty that they could not

← Third Generation Taipei is the organic ruin of the industrial Taipei. Ruin is when man-made has become part of nature.

→ The punctual community gardens and urban farms performing urban acupuncture on Taipei and tuning the city towards the organic.

water of the Keelong, Danshui and Xindian Rivers is eat the fish anymore. Even the dogs don't eat the fish

still in the living memory of the communities along the today. Before the pollution they drank the river water, rivers. For these people and for Taipei the rivers have washed their clothes and vegetables in the river and

been the everyday source of life. This is time before ate the fish and crabs. River was their everyday life.

the flood walls and time before the city was separated

from its natural environment. Taipei still carries the The Amis spokesman of the Xi Zhou village is a

river in its collective memory and so the city has not representative of a very brave riverside community.

yet become a total industrial fiction. But new memories The descendants of the original three families from

need to be made and fast. The rivers must become Taidong Amis the community have been fighting for

again the lifeline and nerve system of the urbanized their rights to live along the river. First the government

Taipei Basin. A new kind of urbanism must be created destroyed their riverside farms and build a bicycle track

living in straight dialog with the river nature; landscape instead. Same pattern as with Treasure Hill.

urbanism from the viewpoint of the river: Taipei River Urbanism.

LOCAL KNOWLEDGE

Then the officials tried to kick the Amis from their

homes and “resettle” them, as they did with the

Treasure Hill's original community. The Amis refused and have been fighting ever since. Now they are in

a dialog with the government, who has proposed to

The Jiantai fishermen have been operating on the move the village a bit further from the river and build to Keelong and Danshui Rivers for generations fishing, them new homes. The Amis think that the government

crabbing and transporting cargo and people on the houses will be nothing compared to their self build

rivers. They used to carry their Local God with his houses that form a unique organic community that is as temple to higher grounds when the river was flooding. much a garden as it is architecture. The Amis prefer to

The river was so clean that they could drink the water. build their new homes by themselves too in the same

Jiantai fisherman motoring on his river. They say the river should flood into the city and the city should come to the river.

Flood came every year, the boat building master told organic way as the community is built now and keeping us, but it was not so bad since there was no flood the same dialog with the neighbors and collective walls: the water have plenty of space to spread around. spaces.

He showed the level below his knee where the water

used to rise during the typhoon.

The Spokesman is 37 years old and tells us that he spent all his childhood with the river, who provided the

Then one time the dictator's home was flooded. He tells community its everyday food. The collective farming

us referring to Chiang Kai-Shek. The dictator got mad along the river was as essential to the community

to the nature and build the walls. The Jiantai fishermen sense as the river itself and those two cannot be

remained with their shrinking settlement close to the separated in the Spokesman's childhood memory. river, while as the mad dictator with his city was walled Then: the river got polluted. up from the river. Still today the fishermen don't find

a reason why to build the walls. “The Japanese had OFFICIAL MISTAKE better ideas for the rivers. They for example thought

of digging the Keelong River deeper. When KMT came The Official aims in coming in-between human and

the river got polluted and then came the wall.”

nature; also in-between human and human nature. The

official city is modern and inhumane. It wants to clean

Missis Chen has been living together with the Xindian up the back-alleys of Taipei and beautify them. River all her life. She and her husband used to work

for a construction company that harvested sand from It prevents people from farming on the river banks.

the river bottom. Missis Chen participated in the work In fact it forbids any kind of plantations on the river

and she also cooked tea for the working men. These banks, because they belong to the flood protection ← Missis Chen in 2011: “Even the dogs don't eat the fish today.” She has lived all her life along the Xindian

working men founded the Treasure Hill community area. Missis Chen has been farming all her life on the together with the KMT veterans from Mainland China.

River of Taipei and has personally witnessed the river's transformation from a treasure chest and source of life into an industrial sewage and threat for the city. → The Amis spokesman of the Xi Zhou riverside village. The Amis work on the construction sites around the modern Taipei, but when the day is done they return to their organic settlement by the river outside the city.

Xindian River flood plains. So have the Amis settlers.

For them the flood is natural and they kept on farming until the government came to “protect” them, as

The illegal community by the river built their own the school head-master came to protect naughty

houses and farmed all the flood plain from Treasure Alex “from himself”. (Stanley Kubrick: A Clockwork

Hill to the river. The water was so clear that on low Orange) In official point of view when human gets

water they could walk to the other side of the river close to nature including human nature, he approaches

because they could see all the time the bottom and danger. He can get out of control.

where to step. Children used to cross the river on top


8

Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

的方式。於是,沿著河岸規劃自行車專用道,防 書的法規條文,鞏固官方權力結構和既得利益。 洪堤防能繪上官方開恩允許的塗鴉創作,河濱公 一位國王說: 「不,你不能在這裡種東西!河川 園出現了,鼓勵市民前來利用這條顏色有點黑的 泛流區屬於水利署管轄的範圍。」更糟的是,北 「藍色公路」 。奇怪的是,官方卻不允許河岸邊 市府不是淡水河唯一權責單位,僅是一條河就分 居民自發的耕作行為,高牆依舊存在,河川只在 門別類同時被新北市政府以及中央政府三方拉鋸 官方眼線底,允許範圍內存在,民眾也只能在服 把 持。 彼 此 常 就 各 自 利 益 考 量 爭 奪 或 推 諉 管 理 膺規範下親近河川。 台灣人的天性,與其他任何物種/人種的天性

權,但與此同時,卻什麼也沒有發生。 淡水河的正中央應該造一艘船。讓淡水河的股

並無二致,會對抗所有控制行為,總要推探到極 東 代 表 們 划 各 自 的 小 船, 齊 聚 新 諾 亞 方 舟 限 邊 界, 在 混 亂 的 平 衡 中 和 有 限 的 資 源 條 件 ( Noah's Ark ) 一 道 參 與 規 劃 復 育 河 川 的 未 下,找到供最多生物種類生存空間與力足活命的 來。除各城市與中央政府官員之外,學者、科學 最 大 值。 這 法 則 適 用 於 叢 林, 也 適 用 於 台 北 盆 家、非政府組織以及在地知識代表如寶藏巖陳阿 地。 在台北成為目前超工業化的狀態之前,有機 媽、健談三腳渡的漁夫以及生活在河邊的阿美族 的人類聚落,皆能找到方式與大自然共存,這是 人都應現身入席而坐。參與式的規劃須確實把都 曾 經 存 在 的 現 實 情 狀。 隨 工 業 進 步 帶 動 經 濟 成 市與河川的關係以及河川復育的種種方案,帶到 長,人們逐漸忘記如何與自然共存,反將沿自然 最終決策階段。或許聯合國可以作為本項參與性 環境居住生活的自立社群棄如敝屣。如今,全世 規 劃 案 的 主 席? 目 前 聯 合 國 人 居 署( UN-

界的環境保護意識已蔚為潮流,事實為證台北勢 HABITAT)正在尋找在都市中復育自然河川的案

必要明瞭自身是座與河川共存的河流都市。

例,並希望將復育成果廣傳全球,作為在其他都

↑ 高達十二公尺的牆獨裁者之牆隔絕現代台北的身世來 源

市環境中河川復育的表率。要知道,淨化河川以 對 台 北 城 來 說 有 個 大 哉 問, 河 流、 山 嶽、 叢 及創造永續河川都市並不是一個技術上的問題。 林、濕地 ... 等自然環境,究竟該繼續被視為一座 各方人馬如何彼此溝通進行參與式規劃才是癥結 座虛擬的生態遊樂園?或是在官方認知裡,能接 所在。 受大自然是一種真實的存在?河川是否能以誠相 待,市民能否被允許在大自然中從事自發性的自 .FIVE ELEMENTS 五種元素 然行為?一位阿嬤能否在河邊種植蔬菜,並且直 接從川流中汲取清淨的水灌溉作物?

在地知識( Local Knowledge)、集體所有權

( Collective Ownership)、 . PARTICIPATORY PLANNING 參與式規劃 使用大量的水資源才能讓城市如常運轉不息。

( Environmental Technology)、自然河川復育

( Natural River Restoration ), 以 及 建 築 ( Architecture)將是組成台北都市河流學的五 個重要元素。

台北市的水資源應用流程如下: 來自與自然河川相處的真實記憶以及具體的在 1. 來自山上的乾淨水源積存於翡翠水庫,並由 地知識( Local Knowledge),是未來台北永續

水庫導引至位於城市週遭的淨水廠,再接管到各 發展的礎石。都市農耕( Urban Farming)及社 個家庭以及其他需求單位。

區菜園總是與河川共存。這些台灣特有的現象應 是鼓勵助長都市河流學的重點。自發農耕菜園可

2. 使用後的水,包括馬桶污水以及廚房浴室排 連結更多結構複雜的自力建築以及另類的河岸社 水收集至迪化、內湖及八里污水處理廠,接著再 區,如溪州部落和寶藏巖。當河川水質恢復到能 將處理完成之淨水重新排放回河川或台灣海峽

↑ 藍色公路和市民間高聳著 12 米高的水泥防洪堤,隔離 彼此本應親密的關係

再 度 從 事 各 種 划 船、 游 泳 等 河 上 活 動 的 水 準 之 時,捕魚抓蝦各式水產亦會相依復育甦醒

請注意據「官方統計」台北市 63% 的污水已接

管連接到污水處理廠,僅有 37% 直接被排放至

集體所有權讓市民成為河流的股東,人人都有

河川。非官方的污水量則更高,迪化污水處理廠 責任一起加入河川復育的過程。對河流的集體認 工作人員的說法是,許多無從計數藏在山區小工 同感十分重要,這可重新修補都市以及河川之間 廠會在晚間排放廢水至河川裡。

的關係。假若,市民仍無法自覺未來和河流復育 息 息 相 關, 無 法 認 股, 切 身 體 驗 利 害 權 宜, 那

台北都市中的河川自然復育,需要同時擁有社 麼,都市僅會躲在堤防後消極發展,高牆彼岸外 會-生態( socio-ecological)跨學科的知識建構 端的河川,則會像能開車隨行晃眼即逝的遊樂園 與決策能力。台北市政府中至少就有河川局、水 一般沒啥差別。 利局、環保局、都發局 ... 等和治理河川的相關單 位。 各 門 單 位 間 雖 知 復 育 河 川 是 越 顯 重 要 的 議

環保科技會提供都市河流學種種關於永續能

題,並意望河川與都市能再次與自然共生,卻得 源、汙染控管與治理防洪的進程步驟和各式解決 承認他們之間缺乏跨界的合作關係,進而完全忽 方案。 略跨黨派跨領域參與式規劃的可能性。他們曾試 圖離開自己的小角落,留給其他單位更多討論空

河道中可進行各式永續能源解決方案測試。比

間,他們想要合作。但不幸應驗了句俗諺:「每 如,小規模的風力發電,可以作為自發菜園和另 個 角 落 都 有 一 個 國 王 」 ( Every corner has a 類河岸社區電力設備的替代性能源;從河口直到 king),各單位的國王們無法忍受任何改變, 視 竹圍關渡區域的潮汐高低差,可作為發電替代方

每項自發行動為威脅,一再確保公部門的領土不 案;生長快速的生質能作物( bio-mass)能種植

被其他單位和團體侵犯。為此,制定種種磬竹難 於河川氾濫區,以小船採收,送進生質能源電廠

↑不管用任何隔離的手法或政策,大自然皆隨天性利用各 種手段入侵人為都市。兩造間的衝突越深,自然反撲的危 害越大。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

9

River can get out of control - at least out of human 2.After the consumption dirty water including sewage control. It is almost as if it supposed not to be and grey waters are collected to the Dihua, Neihu controlled by human. Industrial city is an ultimate and Bali sewage treatment plants from where the manifest of human control, a machinery to regulate clean water is again released either to the rivers or human life. This machine and the hydraulics of into the Taiwan Strait. nature seem to be in some sort of conflict trying to fit together in the same Taipei Basin.

Officially 63 % of the Taipei Basin is connected to

the sewage treatment system. The rest 37 % is still

The river is flooding, which is something that the released straight into the rivers and these are “official

city doesn't want and the city is polluting which is numbers”. The un-official real volume of river

something that the river doesn't want. An easy, pollution is higher. According to the Dihua sewage

almost fast-food solution was to build a wall between treatment plant “there is a lot of small factories in

the city and the river. The flood and the rest of the the mountains who release their pollution to the rivers water is supposed to stay on the other, “organic” at nights.”

side of the city-river coexistence and the wall also

keeps the stinky and polluted water out of sight. Out T h e n a t u r a l r i v e r r e s t o r a t i o n i n Ta i p e i ' s u r b a n

of sight, out of mind.

conditions requires knew kind of socio-ecological knowledge building and decision making. The

T h e w a l l h a s b e e n u p a l r e a d y a c o u p l e o f d i ff e r e n t r i v e r r e l a t e d d e p a r t m e n t s o f t h e c i t y generations. For the young Taipei citizens the river g o v e r n m e n t ( r i v e r, h y d r a u l i c , e n v i r o n m e n t a l hardly exists, nature has become a fiction. Now the p r o t e c t i o n , u r b a n d e v e l o p m en t , u r b a n d e s i g n ,

↑ The Dictator's Wall: 12 meters high concrete wall separating the modern Taipei from its roots.

city government has admitted that building the wall public works etc.) admit that they are lacking cross-

and polluting the river has been kind of an “official disciplinary co-operation and that they don't see

mistake” and tries to find strategies to make this up any participatory planning around the urban river

for the citizens. They build bicycle ways to the river restoration issue, but that they want this. They want banks and paint official graffiti on the wall. Riverside to get out from their corners and also give space for

parks are being created and citizens are encouraged the other department to come to their territories. They

to cherish the “blue highway”. Same time citizens want to co-operate, but the problem is: every corner

are not allowed to create spontaneous community has a king. farms along the rivers and the wall has not moved

anywhere. River is allowed to exist only under the These kings lay down the disciplines and official

official control as the citizens are only allowed to be power hierarchies that cannot tolerate any changes

with the river under the same official control.

and that feel every spontaneous move as a threat.

These kings make sure their officials protect their

Taiwanese nature, as any nature is against any territories against the other department. “No, you

kind of control. The only rule of nature is existence cannot plant here anything: the river banks belong

maximum, to produce maximal life in the given to the river department.” And to make things even

conditions. This goes for the jungle and this goes for more complicated around the river is not only all the

the communities in the Taipei Basin. Organic human Taipei City departments but also the Taipei County settlements can find a way how to coexist with the and the Central Government fighting for their rights to

rest of the nature. This has been the reality also in control. Meanwhile: nothing happens.

Taipei before the hyper-industrialism.

In the middle of the Danshui River should be set up

With the industrial-economic growth the co-existence a boat. A new Noah's Ark where the representatives ↑ The blue highway cut off from people by a 12 meters high reinforced concrete wall.

with nature has been forgotten and the people and of the shareholders of the river would gather for

communities living along the environment are seen as participatory planning. Besides the different city, garbage. Now that the environmental consciousness c o u n t y a n d c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t o ff i c i a l s t h e r e

has become an “international trend” also Taipei w o u l d b e s c h o l a r s , s c i e n t i s t s , N G O ' s a n d t h e

has become to realize, that it is actually a river city.

Now the big question with this urban ecological

representatives of the Local Knowledge. Missis Chen

would be there, the Jiantai fishermen and the Amis.

awakening is whether urban nature (river, mountains, This participatory planning would lead into decision

jungle, wetlands…) is continued to be seen as an making concerning the river restoration and the almost virtual ecological amusement park, or can relationship between the city and the river. Maybe

the official Taipei accept nature to be real? Can the the participatory planning would be chaired by United

river be real and are the citizens allowed to do real Nations? The UN-HABITAT is looking for an urban

things with real nature? Is a grandmother allowed to river case that could be used as an example for establish a vegetable garden along the river and take other similar kind of cases around the world. Taipei

clean water from the stream?

PARTICIPATORY PLANNING A lot of water needs to go through a city in order to

keep it alive. In Taipei it goes like this:

1.Fresh water from the mountains is collected to the

could lead the way. Cleaning the river and creating sustainable River Urbanism is not a technological

question, it is a question of communication and participatory planning.

FIVE ELEMENTS

sweet-water reservoirs of Wulai and Taoyuen from The Taipei River Urbanism will be cooked up with five

↑ Nature is pushing into the city no matter how hard we want to block it away. The harder the barrier between the city and the nature becomes, the harder will be the nature's push.

where it is directed to the purification plants in a elements: Local Knowledge, Collective Ownership,

couple of points around the city. From these water Environmental Technology, Natural River Restoration

centers the drinking water is the directed to the and Architecture. households and other water consumer units.

L o c a l K n o w l e d g e a n c h o r s t h e f u t u r e Ta i p e i


10 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

( bio-energy plants),產生周邊特定區域社群內所需的能源。台北 亞熱帶氣候加上氾洪區豐饒肥沃的土壤,將是種植生質能作物最佳所 在。生質能和潮汐發電必須與自由氾流區域整合。為防止太快的腳 步,恐怕會提高洪水的水位,所以計劃初期仍不拆除防洪堤防。太陽 能光電板也可以裝設在浮動裝置上。 利用環保科技提高現有汙水處理廠的處理成效,並協助淨化剩餘的 汙染源。在汙水處理系統範圍之外的區域,則使用區域性的淨化裝置 及乾式馬桶。 自然河川復育將現存河川復育知識,實行於都市環境之中。讓河川 在不受限的自由泛流( Free Flooding)的基礎上,復育河川的自然 生態,當台北市社區規模尺度的洪患控制基礎設施已完成,最後才移 除防洪堤防。 清除沉積在河底的汙染物質,重新整理復育河川氾濫區,土壤中汙 染物也會逐步清理並改種生質能源植物,濕地地區原生植物也一道整 合河川氾洪區的作物。最終希望,復育河川增加生物多樣性,讓河流 從發源的山區叢林為始,整條河川水道河岸成為城市生態綠廊。

↑ < 繭 > (Bug Dome)系 Marco Casagrande、謝英俊、阮慶岳組成弱(WEAK!)建築團隊, 為 2009 深圳建築雙年展和當地農民工建立聚會中心建築裝置作品。

或 許 最 具 挑 戰 性 的 部 分 是 如 何 使 河 川 能 自 由 氾 流( free

flooding),也許傚法東京地下巨型防颱儲水設備,在台北盆地中發 生水患的地區,分散式建造社區規模的小型地下儲水設施。如此一 來,將可完全拆除堤防,讓城市跟河川得以共生重聚。 建築連結有機發展以及密切觀照���資源的流動,將重新定義台北都 市河流學的人居介面環境。在地知識, 提供有機建築及營造社區的集 體意識各式解決方案。

自由氾流的河水,會是現行住宅及各式建築的新挑戰,為讓大自然 能在此間來去進出,當今墨守成規的靜態、工業化的建築必須有所放 棄。此後都市環境條件,將不會是固定或受規範控制的,而是靈活且 具開放的自由形態( open form) 。台北和台灣的土地上,遍佈居民 們高水準超手法的違法自建物, 自發性文化與自力開墾的菜園,需要 多加支持及鼓勵。都市河流學,給予居民更多空間自力建築, 地產開 發商與官方請各退一步。從小尺度的社區菜園開始,讓新種 DIY 的建 築能在河水氾流區邁開步伐,使現存河堤成為都市和大自然間的中介 質,重新串接河岸有機面。

↑《關渡河流城市》是芬蘭阿爾托大學全球可持續性能源科技研究中心以關渡作為研究標的設 計足供十五萬人口居住的生態開發計劃。小區中設置人工河,作為潔淨基隆河的淨水系統

.TAIWANESE SOLUTION 在地台客解決之方 台北市和中央政府都心懷共業,相信復育自然河川讓都市與河流再 度相遇共生,並非虛幻的神話。雖然,相關環生科技與技術已日趨完 備,但一般老百姓多少感到無所適從,對他們來說,都市與河流間的 發展和關係總是遙不可及。小市民從來就不是決策過程的參與者,也 很難發展與官方與既得利社群對抗或協商的武器。 參與式的規劃能把 這塊至極重要,有著在地知識人民的參與拼圖缺角兜回來。讓小民們 投身決策過程,一起參與台北都市河流學的知識建構。 不要盲從東京或複製歐洲經驗,用台灣式台客的解決方案,使台北 盆地都市地景的生態復育成真。也許與東京相較總有些亂糟糟,但台 北蘊涵著萬物生靈的綠叢林,讓台北生態河流之都,是原生特有而在 地的經驗。大型生態復育進程,必須切割成由下而上相連繫的小網絡 和在地社區小型尺度的解決方案,比如地下儲水防洪系統。 從芬蘭到歐洲與日本,都能輕易找到為台北生態之都提供環保生態 科技和參與式都市規劃的各種方案與合作團隊。攜手與聯合國人居署 ( UN-HABITAT)合作,也值得斟酌參考。將來成功的案例經驗,可 藉由聯合國網路,推介到全球和有著復育都市河川之需的城市,讓台 北成為復育生態先驅之都。

↑在《關》案中,流經關渡的河水能自由泛流,小區裡的市容規劃、建築、公共設施、道路聯 外交通皆循有機因應的設計手法,順天應時而行。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

11

sustainable development to the real memories and

site-specific knowledge of living together with the river nature.

Probably the most challenging part of the natural

river restoration will be the element of free flooding.

Urban farming and community gardens have always Community scale underground storm water reservoirs

existed together with the river. This Taiwanese will be built in the flood areas of the Taipei Basin

phenomenon should be encouraged as a vital part of rendering the Tokyo underground typhoon reservoir

the River Urbanism. The gardens can be connected mega-structures but as a de-centralized system. After

t o m o r e c o m p l e x s y s t e m s o f c i t i z e n i n i t i a t e d the underground storm water capacity is in function

constructions and even alternative communities along the flood-walls will be removed; city and the river will

the rivers following the examples of the Amis and the be reunited.

Treasure Hill.

Architecture will still define the human built

F i s h i n g , c r a b b i n g a n d a q u a c u l t u r e w i l l r e s t a r t environment of the Taipei River Urbanism, but in

automatically after the water quality reaches an closer connection with the organic growth and acceptable level as will boating, swimming and other the water movement. The Local Knowledge will

physical activities with the rivers.

Collective Ownership binds the citizens to the

give solutions into more organic construction and

community sense.

r e s t o r a t i o n p r o c e s s b y t a k i n g t h e m i n t o t h e The free flooding will present new challenges for ↑ Bug Dome in Shenzhen, an un-official social club for illegal workers built by WEAK! (Casagrande-Hsieh-Roan) in 2009.

development as shareholders. The ownership sense housing and infrastructure where also the static and

is critical to the reunion of the city and the river. In industrially built architecture has to give up in order

case the citizens do not feel as the shareholders of to let nature to step in. The urban environmental the future river nature the city will remain behind the c o n d i t i o n s w i l l n o t b e a i m e d t o b e f i x e d a n d

wall and the river as drive-in amusement park.

controlled, but flexible and Open Form.

Environmental Technology will provide solutions Taipei and Taiwan has a high standard of illegal for various sectors of the River Urbanism with citizen built architecture. This spontaneous culture sustainable energy production, pollution control and or gardening buildings should be encouraged and

treatment and flood management.

supported. The River Urbanism will step back from

the developer or official initiated construction and

D i ff e r e n t s u s t a i n a b l e e n e r g y s o l u t i o n s w i l l b e make more room for citizen architecture. The DIY

examined in the river corridors. Small scale wind architecture can start in small scale on the river e n e r g y c a n p o w e r l o c a l i n s t a l l a t i o n s s u c h a s banks as part of the community gardens and it can

community gardens and alternative communities. also start building mediating areas over the flood wall Tidal energy can be an alternative in the river mouth connecting the city to the organic side.

area where the tidal pulse effects the river all the way

to Zhuwei-Guandu. Fast growing bio-mass can be TAIWANESE SOLUTION grown on the river banks and harvested from boats

to fuel bio-energy plants in selected locations. The The natural river restoration and taking the city back

Taipei climate and the fertile river banks are optimal to the river is not a mystery. This is in the minds

for bio-mass cultivation. The biomass and tidal of the Taipei City Government and in the Central ↑ Guandu River City, a case study by the Aalto University (Finland) Sustainable Global Technologies centre for experimental river urbanism of 150.000 people along a manmade river that biologically purifies the polluted water from the Keelong River for the community use.

energy must be tuned together with the free flooding Government. There is the will and the technology

plan. Too fast steps may increase the flood level exists. Normal people feel a bit lost though. For them while the flood-walls still exist. Solar energy can be how the city goes and what has happened to the

produced also on floating installations.

rivers seems to be out touch. They have not been

part of this process before and they find it hard to

E n v i r o n m e n t a l t e c h n o l o g y w i l l i n c r e a s e t h e develop tools to negotiate with the official side of the effectiveness of the existing sewage treatment plants community. Participatory planning will offer the tool and help to take care of the remaining sources of for the Local Knowledge to be part of the decision

pollution. Local purification installations and dry toilet making and the Knowledge Building of the Taipei

systems can be offered to the areas still out of the River Urbanism.

sewage grid.

The ecological restoration of the urbanized Taipei

Natural River Restoration will apply the existing Basin must be a Taiwanese solution, not a copy from

knowledge of river restoration but in urban conditions. Tokyo or Europe. The river city Taipei must keep The River Restoration is based on free flooding which looking unique and local. Probably the urban solution

will eventually mean the removal of the flood walls will be a bit messier than Tokyo, but so is the jungle. after the community scale flood control infrastructure The big ecological restoration process will be broken is completed in Taipei.

The sedimentation pollution will be removed from

up into networks of local community scale solutions, such as the underground storm water tanks.

the river bottoms and treated. The river bank soil P a r t n e r s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l t e c h n o l o g y a n d

will be either removed and treated or the pollutants participatory planning are easy to be found from

will be tied into vegetation as for example part of the Finland or elsewhere in Europe, maybe Japan

biomass production. Wetland areas will be introduced can play a role too. Working with UN-HABITAT is

together with riverbank vegetation and eventually something certainly worth thinking and through UN ↑ High-water scenario. The Guandu River City is based on free flooding. Urban design, architecture, infrastructure, traffic and organic solutions will root from the natural pulses of the river nature.

connected to the mountain jungles as green corridors the solution and knowledge that are developed with

in order to increase bio diversity and to treat the the case of Taipei can be more effectively used for

water and soil.

similar city + river cases around the world. Taipei

could lead the way.


12 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

關於廢墟建築學院 之起始 文|忠泰建築文化藝術基金會執行秘書 林宜珍 攝| AdDa 蔡明輝

為 進 行UrbanCore 城 中 藝 術 街 區 施,藉此「升級」成為套房,但廁所的牆

的 關 係 我 和 同 事 們 在 這 一 年 半 內 壁僅高約 200 公分,未連貫至天花板,整

陸續進入到中華路這個街塊中許多廢棄 體像是衣櫃一般尺寸,內部進去只有一個 已久的房舍裡勘查,幾乎所有這裡已經 轉 身 空 間, 與 洗 手 台 共 用 水 龍 頭 出 水 淋 取得產權的房子,我們都一層一層實地 浴,可想見使用時濕氣蔓延房內的情況。 看過,以便評估如何媒合需要空間的團 有 幾 間 房 裡 的 牆 壁 貼 滿 與 廁 所 相 同 的 磁 隊。UrbanCore 計畫地點就在東吳城區 磚,簡直是就住在廁所裡了。不知道當初 部與文大推廣部前面,偏偏週遭又是環 的住戶躺在這只放得下床與一張書桌的貧 保署與國立圖書館分館,學生們的住宿 瘠 空 間 裡, 瞪 著 天 花 板 上 的 慘 白 日 光 燈 與用餐問題,多半隻能靠這個街區來解 管,是否有對」居住」這件事情做些甚麼 決,因此這裡沿街四面所有的連棟透天 樣的想像與期待?這讓我聯想起多年前看 屋,幾乎都將一樓做小吃,二樓以上隔 過一位漫畫家的連載,描繪每個公廁隔間 間成雅房出租。

內,使用者都有個痛苦的姿勢,而這裡每 個房間框限住的不只是尊嚴盡失的生活品

總公司目前沒有資產管理的部門,因此 質,更是斷絕了人與空間、自然的感應。 為了避免管理麻煩以及不想負擔額外開 銷,也因為是打算等到開發時刻一次全數

UrbanCore 進駐團隊 C-Lab 的主持人芬

打掉清除,取得所有權後對於內部的屋況 蘭籍建築師 Marco Casagrande,對我們提 與物件完全不做任何處理,照原樣降下鐵 出進行「廢墟建築學院」的想法,適時地 捲門申請斷水斷電。

與上述感嘆有了呼應,他長期奮戰於探索 都市及自然間的距離,以實體勞動驗證生

我們屢次是拉鐵鍊升起鐵捲門,穿長褲 命與空間的存在,見著了這批老房子幾乎 長袖持手電筒逐層探看,忍受悶熱以及陳 被附加物給滿溢噎住的姿態,決心替他們 年灰塵,偶有遇到先前被流浪漢侵入過的 清洗淨空,將建築削減回歸到最純粹的狀 空間,現場極度髒亂,必須要戴口罩及噴 況, 讓 原 有 空 間 以 及 自 然 綠 意 重 為 主 防蚊液進入,甚至持雨傘打探地面雜物的 宰,預言未來自然之大舉反撲都市時,我 狀態。

們勢必要走向人、自然與建築平衡共存的 「第三代城市」 。

已經是細長狀的街屋,為了隔出最多的 房間提高出租報酬率,每層樓都僅留一條

在八月中帶領著首批志工學員探查「廢

蜿蜒的狹窄走道,隔絕掉原有窗戶,不難 墟建築學院」的實驗基地時,一二樓已經 想像以前學生們開門上樓後經過一盞幽微 被雇工拆除掉所有隔間、窗戶與雜物而顯 黃燈的引導,走進自己蝸居小室的景象。

得寬敞舒適,先前勘查時迎面的悶臭濕熱

而小房間裡也不見甚麼好風景,約莫 3 米 也都完全不見了。Marco 興奮地揮著雙臂 平方的大小,沒有對外窗,即使有窗子看 說道:光線進來了,風也進來了,接著我 出去卻是防火巷,陽台擴建的房間窗沿明 們 要 把 大 自 然 也 帶 回 這 個 空 間 的 縫 隙 顯 經 常 滲 漏 水, 頂 樓 加 建 的 既 低 矮 又 炎 中,你能看到這個空間的品質,感覺到這 熱。房間裡廉價的基本家具都還在,數年 房子的快樂,彷彿它重新復活了一樣! 間放著任其敗壞,居住者亦好像總是搬離 得 匆 忙, 經 常 可 見 為 數 不 少 的 個 人 物

在遙遠的芬蘭,自然從來就不是與人不

品、衣物,仔細查看的話就能對前住戶的 相干的事情,即使在都會中也承受著四季 生活瞭解上幾分。房子後側公共浴室裡仍 劇烈的氣候變化,台灣其實也是一樣,然 有著臉盆、沐浴乳、毛巾等,時空就這麼 而 我 們 越 是 想 要 隔 絕、 悖 離 自 然 的 主 停止在他們撤退的那一天,真讓人有侵入 宰,惡劣地對待環境,便會受到更暴虐極 別人住所的錯覺。 每次勘查其實在我心裡都留下不小的震

端的對待。 C- Lab 團 隊、 我 辛 苦 但 雀 躍 的 同 事

撼,看見的儘是一個個空間如何被痛苦地 們,以及從各方來參與的園丁志工們在這 扭曲與切割,而願意窩在這裡的人又是如 棟 逐 漸 被「 廢 墟 化 」 的 空 間 裡, 逐 項 設 何將自己對於生活空間的需求降低至此等 計、加建、改造各個角落,做出與菜圃共 地步。印象中最讓人震驚的一戶,是屋主 享的客廳、盛裝一群探出窗外的竹子的工 在已經極度狹小的雅房中,加建了衛浴設 作桌、可稍微遮風蔽雨的木造大床,在地


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

13

The dawn of the Ruin Academy

Text | Lea Yi-chen Lin, Executive secretary, JUT Foundation for Arts and Architecture Photo | AdDa Translation | Nicholas Coulson

D

u e t o t h e U r b a n C o r e p r o j e c t , the faint yellow lights down the walkway years ago, describing how the occupants over the last year and a half, my and finally crawling into their miniscule, of each toilet cubicle were sitting cramped

colleagues and I explored many long- claustrophobic dwellings about three in excruciating positions. Similarly here, abandoned buildings on this block of metres squared. There certainly weren't each compartment reduce its occupant to

Taipei's Zhonghua Road. Our objective any beautiful views either, the few rooms shadows of their former selves, repressing

was to evaluate which buildings that we with windows to outside light looked out their dignity and severing their human

had acquired property rights for best onto fire escape routes. The extra rooms senses from space and nature. matched the specific artist groups in need fitted onto the balcony clearly leaked

of the space. The UrbanCore Arts Block is regularly and the attic rooms with dwarf C-Lab, one of the teams now stationed in situated in front of Soochow University's height ceilings were hot and stuffy. city campus and the Chinese Culture

UrbanCore, is headed by Finnish architect

Marco Casagrande. The 'Ruin Academy'

University's education department. The All the cheap rudimentary furniture had idea that Marco suggested to us, echoed surrounding area is entrapped by the remained obsolete in the rooms for the sighs we had when exploring this Environmental Protection Administration years. It seemed like many of the former space. Marco has long strived to explore

and a branch of the National Central occupants had left in a hurry, as we saw the distance between nature and the city,

Library; therefore, the students rely purely a large number of discarded personal verifying the intertwining existence of on this block for all their nutritional and items and clothing; perusing carefully one life and space through personal hands-

sleeping requirements. This has given could deduce some understanding of the on participation in physical labour. On

rise to a situation where on all four sides previous residents' lives. In the public encountering these old buildings whose

of the block, the terraced and detached bathroom at the rear of the building there style had become determined by their

houses sell snack food on the first floor was still a basin, shower gel, towels etc; adornments, he vigorously cleared the

and provide small compartment rooms time and space had been frozen since the rooms out, shaving the architecture down

for rental above that. Our head office very moment the students had left, giving to its purest state of being, returning space

did not yet have an asset management the illusion that we were unwelcome and nature to its original status as master. d e p a r tm e n t s o we w anted to a voi d trespassers in someone else's living All the while Marco was prophesizing unnecessary additional management space.

and costs; we also wanted to wait until

nature's leviathan counteroffensive on the

urban city and the inevitable path towards

the moment the land was ready to be In fact, nothing we found failed to shock the 'Third Generation City' in which man,

developed before taking down the whole me; the agonizing way in which a room nature and architecture would coexist in a

block all at once. Thus we decided to had been twisted and deformed and balanced way. leave the buildings and everything in them the bare minimum levels to which those

completely untouched from the day we dwelling here had managed to reduce When I led the first group of trainee

acquired them. We simply pulled down their living requirements. The room that volunteers to explore the Ruin Academy

the iron shutters on the doors and applied shocked me the most however, for the experimental base, the first and second

for suspension of electricity and water sheer audacity of it, was one in which floors had already been cleared of all utilities.

the landlords had managed to add the debris, the windows removed and the

most basic of sanitary facilities to this partitions demolished. The space now felt

Time and time again we raised the already tiny compartment in order to comfortable and spacious and the putrid

iron shutters, dressed in long sleeves 'upgrade' it to a suite. The toilet wall was smell and damp humidity had dispersed

and trousers and armed with torches. only 200cm high, and didn't even connect from the building. Waving both hands We gradually explored all the floors, to the ceiling. The dimensions were a excitedly, Marco exclaimed: “the light enduring sweltering heat and vintage similar size to a wardrobe, inside there has come in, the wind has come in, and

dust. Occasionally we came across was barely enough space to turn around; through the cracks and crevices we will

filthy spaces previously squatted in by furthermore, the sink and shower shared bring nature back into this building. You

homeless people; on entering these one faucet; one can just imagine the can see again the quality and feel the joy places we often decided to wear surgical dampness permeating through the room. of this room; it's as if the space has been

masks and spray mosquito repellent There were even a few rooms in which the resurrected.” In distant Finland, where

even poking our umbrellas around on the walls were plastered with the same tiles eve urban areas receive the full impact

grubby floor to probe for dangerous or as the toilet – those unfortunate enough of four seasons of extreme weather revolting surprises.

The rooms were already as long and thin,

to occupy these 'rooms' previously, had changes, nature is never something

literally been living in the toilet.

detached from humanity. In reality, Taiwan is the same; however, the more we try

yet in order to maximise the returns on the I wondered how the imagination and to isolate ourselves and deviate from

rent, the previous landlords had carved out expectations of 'living' could change for nature's dominance and the more we treat even more space, leaving but one narrow those who had been lying down, staring the environment with disdain, the greater winding walkway through the whole floor. up at the pale white tube lights on the the wrath with which nature will greet us.

Cut off from access the original windows, ceiling of this barren space that could

it was easy to imagine the students fit no more than a bed and a desk? It

stumbling up the murky stairs, following reminded me of a cartoonist's work I saw The C-Lab team - my overworked but


14 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

板 上 一 個 個 挖 下 通 透 的 圓 洞, 好 讓 光 和 雨 水 滲 呈 現, 正 以 超 乎 我 們 以 為 的 速 度 改 變 著, 對 於 入,未來還會出現可以簡單烹煮的廚房,甚至是 「未來」,我們不該輕忽,也不該停止想像,它 利用舊頂樓加蓋改造的桑拿浴室( 當然這或許來 與「現在」是同等重要。 自於 Marco 本人的生活文化偏好,但蒸氣浴卻也 正好是讓人裸身面對自然的一種狀態) 。每天上

每位建築師或多或少對未來的城市樣貌都有自

工都很可能有新手加入,彼此原本都不認識的這 己一套見解跟想像,我們很榮幸能認識一些保有 批人,在少了舊房舍隔間遮蔽躲藏的狀況下,都 冒險精神,又擁有超強意志力的少數,願意把時 非常自然地開始交談、合作、溝通。

間與精力託付給我們,一起來進行這樣有趣的實 驗計畫。而每次我們也極度期待這些參與其中的

一點一滴,他們在這裡實驗除了與自然對抗之 各方學子、年輕人,得以從制式課程與生活中短 外,還有沒有其他方式能獲得良好品質的生活方 暫解放自己的腦力,享受讓想像力和邏輯碰撞的 式,我們試著降低需求,給大自然進入、生存的 樂趣,進而對自己的思考態度有所影響跟改變。 空間,或能得到彼此善待共存的結局? 猶記得首次向園丁志工做說明會的那天,騎樓外 城 市 裡 的「 終 極 廢 墟 」、 大 自 然 點 狀 進 駐 的 下著滂沱大雨,Marco 大約是感受到有些人對於自 「 都 市 針 灸 術 」, 以 及 三 方 共 存 的「 第 三 代 城 己一身功夫卻要來搬磚鋸木,而對別人看他們可能 市」,這些名詞聽起來既科幻又遙遠,許多人便 的眼光感到猶豫,他做了一個很有意思的鼓勵。他 好 奇 我 工 作 的 基 金 會 為 何 要 支 持 這 樣 的 怪 奇 計 說,你們要認真、尊重地對待自己的工作,即使它 畫,與母公司開發商的身份看來毫不相干。

是這麼簡單,旁邊的鄰居或其他人可能無法理解你 在做甚麼,但他感受到你的慎重,就會尊敬你在做

事實上,像 UrbanCore 這樣的計畫,是善用母 的事情;若你的態度輕浮猶豫,那麼別人更會認定 公司閒置的資源,給予目前藝文環境中有需要的 你是漫無目的。 團體一些助力。而「廢墟建築學院」,以及我們 兩年前就已經持續進行,目前因內容龐雜而尚待

從事基金會工作以來,可以感受到各界的反應

突破性發展的 MVRDV「垂直村落」計畫,卻是 不一,即便我們認定自己是努力的,但某些時候 要假設時光往前推移數十年,甚至更久,來實驗 仍不免會遭遇誤解。Marco 這席話倒是很激勵了 那 時 候 的 城 市 以 及 人 們 生 活 狀 態 的 某 些 可 能 我們,只要夠堅持、夠真誠,陸續有人就會被我 性, 做 為 將 來 發 展 也 做 為 現 在 修 正 的 一 種 參 考 們的意志所打動,而願意理解我們推動這些事情 值。

的本意,因此在允許的範圍內,我們會一直努力 下去。希望這裡敘述的情節能讓各位進一步瞭解

回首台灣住宅發展史,從平房、街屋、公寓到 我們推行這項計畫的起始意念,非常感念各界的 現在所謂的超高層豪宅,對於空間使用的需求跟 支持鼓勵。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

15

overjoyed colleagues - alongside the volunteer be in no way related to the parent company's aims and imagination. We hope that their participation in gardeners from places far and wide joined forces to as residential land developers. design, reconstruct and transform every corner of

this space which had gradually become 'ruined'. A In reality, projects like UrbanCore put to good use

some way influenced and enriched their cognitive approaches and contemplations.

vegetable garden was built in the living room; a set the parent companies idol resources to provide I still remember the first volunteer gardeners'

of bamboo work desks fitted whose bamboo poles some support to art and culture groups greatly in explanation session, which played to the sound of

poked out through the windows; big wooden beds need of resources. Another project which we have heavy rains from off the balcony. Marco was able to

which could partly fend off the wind and rain were been working on over the past two years, is the sense that on a personal level some volunteers were installed; and the team also drilled drilled 6-inch Vertical Village which due to its complexity we are prepared to expend their own expert knowledge

cylindrical holes into the ground of each floor, easily still awaiting groundbreaking developments. In doing basic manual labour but were more hesitant penetrable by the light and raindrops. In the future, reality Ruin Academy and the Vertical Village are when it came to how others may perceive them. To their would eventually be a simple cooking area projects that require us to assume that it will be tens remedy these doubts Marco offered an insightful

and the old roof would be converted to a sauna of years into the future, and perhaps even longer encouragement: you should treat your work with room (perhaps this idea comes from Marco's life before we can test if these experimental ways seriousness and respect and undertake it with

preferences and Finnish background, but revealing of urban living could be realistic solutions to the dignity, no matter how simple the task. Even if your

ones full nakedness is also the purest state in which maladies and alienations of our industrial cities. humans can face nature). Different novices arrived

neighbours cannot comprehend what you are doing,

if they see you working diligently, they will respect

to assist the academy almost daily, people who Looking back through the history of residential what you are doing. If your attitude is frivolous or

had perhaps never met before, but as they were no development in Taiwan; from bungalows to terraces, hesitant your neighbour will think you are aimless.

longer able to hide behind the separations which apartments and now towering high-rise complexes, Since undertaking the JUT foundation project, there

initially divided the rooms, they all very naturally the changes in the needs and forms of residential have been mixed reactions from the different parties began communicating and cooperating.

development moves at speeds faster than the involved and while we could see that everyone is

human mind can keep up with. We can not neglect hardworking, it was nonetheless unavoidable that

Progressively, the team are experimenting with other the future, nor can we stop imagining a different we encountered misunderstandings. Marco's words

ways to achieve a higher quality of life that are not future, it is as important as the present. in confrontation with nature. We are trying to reduce

were encouraging – as long as we were persistent and sincere, more and more people would be moved

demand, to let nature back in by allowing it living Each architect to a greater or lesser degree has their by our motivation and willing to try to understand and breathing space and to facilitate an outcome own ideas or imaginations for the future appearance the intentions behind this project. With that in mind where humanity has a harmonious, harmless of the city. We are proud to know some of a minority we will continue to endeavour to the extent that coexistence with nature. Too many the Ultra Ruin of who are not only adventurous spirits, but also prevailing circumstances allow us. the city, Urban Acupuncture where nature identifies have strong willpower and are willing to entrust

and occupies spots in the city for healing and the their time and energy to us to put these fascinating I hope the description provided here has enriched Third Generation City as the ruin of the industrial city experiments into action together. We also hope that the readers understanding of the intentions

are concepts which may sound like science fiction, the academics and youth who participate in the and initial stages of the Ruin Academy project.

far detached from reality. Many people were more project are able to liberate their minds from their Gratitude goes out to everyone for their support and interested in why the foundation I work for would standard curriculum and daily life, experiencing encouragement. support this rather strange project, which seems to the joy that sparks from the clash between logic


16 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

台北有機 活氣針灸

文攝|馬可.卡薩格蘭 Marco Casagrande 翻譯|林宜珍 Lea Yi-Chen Lin Acupuncture 針灸是將針插入身體上不同穴位,藉此紓緩疼痛或達到療效的一種程

角落處總有細縫使風起 李維史托( Lévi-Strauss)相信人類之美來自於成為自然的一部分,霍克海默 ( Max Horkheimer)與阿多諾( Theodor Adorno) 則 對 工 業 化 發 展 完 全 失 去 希

序。

望,並認為這完全違反啟蒙運動時代為始開啟的思想解放, 並且使人性腐朽。塔可

Urban Planning

夫斯基的電影《潛行者》(Mosfilm 出品 , 1979 年 ) 帶領著人們進入一種境地,在那

都市計劃結合土地利用以及交通規劃,增進改善建築、經濟與社會環

裏他們最深層的希求得以實現,對比著周遭工業化的現實環境,這境是個有機的廢

境的品質。

墟, 對 俄 國 科 幻 小 說 家 史 楚 加 茨 基 兄 弟( Strugatsky brothers) 阿 爾 卡 地 ( Arkady)及包里斯( Boris) 來說,這個境地則幻化為其小說作品《路邊野餐》

Urban Design

( Roadside Picnic) 。

都市設計的關注於城鎮的各種公共基礎設施的安排、外觀與機能,特 別是都市公共空間的形塑。

台北的社區花園簡直就是《路邊野餐》的翻版,老阿嬤們就如同電影裡那位 「潛行者」一般,帶領我們到達那使美夢都能成真的 Zone,崇高的李維史托可以

Environmental art

在此展開新的人類學研究,探討這類都市堆肥菜園文化與周遭城市之間的並行關

環境藝術則是指與生態議題相關,探索存在於政治、歷史及社會脈絡

係 - 這可說是種反轉的現代化,並且聚焦於一種在地智慧。霍克海默與阿多諾的

���各種可能性的藝術。

墳墓應該要被移到這其中一個台北都市針灸穴裡來,即使如他們般思考的人,也 能 在 這 無 價 值 的 現 代 化 與 冷 硬 的 工 業 主 義 環 繞 中 找 到 一 絲 希 望。 哈 寧 安 提 拉

Sociology

( Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila) 教授曾說 :「現今社會中無用無價值的項目,將被某

社會學是門理解人類社會關係行為之科學。

種體制之外行為準則塞滿 : 就如同牆角處難免有隙縫,使角落處總是能有空氣灌進 原本窒息的空間之中。」於是藉由尋找出台北城市各處的都市農場及社區菜園,台

Anarchy

北有了自己的角落。

無政府 ( 安那其 ) 是毋須等待指揮指示與任何正式允許即產生行動,無 政府主義是根源自一股自己來做的衝動:其他所有一切都來源於此。

在角落裡,是甚麼樣的行為準則,推動隱身的秩序進入到城市之中 ? 或許可被 稱為「在地智慧」,是因地制宜針對現代人類及自然之間所建立起來的溝通橋 樑。台北這些如針灸穴位的點狀菜園,正滲透過都市的工業化表面,進入最初始

北市裡的社區菜園以及都市農園令人驚艷,它們如野菇般地在

的層面,自發性的社區菜園就是能穿刺台北都市的灸針。 「在地智慧」與第一代

都市中衰敗、被忽略或沉睡中的角落,可喻為城市的養料。這

城市連結著,當現有建立的人文環境依賴自然,並受自然控制,這些無政府園丁

些區域位於官方都市規範或正常經濟機制介入的範圍,它們是卡在社

們也正同時控制著工業城市。

區活動節點之間的城市縫隙,並且透過菜園的施作表達呈現無政府平 台。

佔領無人之域

無政府菜園形成的網絡呈現出一種正面的社會失序,增進了台北都

社區菜園佔領著廢棄的工地以及荒廢的住宅區域、為了等到合宜時機開發而騰

市的活力,是樂觀的恐怖主義。它們將工業城市轉向有機,轉向不可

空的空地街廓、河岸邊泛洪區,甚至荒老的墓園,其中許多是發生在土地產權不

預期,並且逐漸毀滅現代的都市主義。它們是點狀的有機革命,以及

明確的地點。有時候花園只會存在幾年,如那些位在待開發土地上的案例,而有

「第三代城市」的種子,工業城市的有機廢墟。

些卻是世代延續下來,例如位在忠孝橋及中興橋之間河岸或小島上的田地。花園 越小就越容易佔領都市中的閒置角落,靈活積極地佔領無人之境。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

17

Taipei Organic Acupuncture

Text.Photo | Marco Casagrande

Acupuncture is the procedure of inserting and manipulating needles into

Corners are windy

various points on the body to relieve pain or for therapeutic purposes.

Urban planning integrates land use planning and transportation planning to improve the built, economic and social environments of communities.

Urban design concerns the arrangement, appearance and functionality

Claude Lévi-Strauss believes in the beauty of the human nature as part of nature. Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno lost all the hope for the industrial development and said it has failed the promise of the Enlightment - it had corrupted humanity. Andrei Tarkovsky's Stalke (Mosfilm, 1979) is taking sophisticated people into the Zone, where their deepest wishes may

of towns and cities, and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public

come true. The Zone which is the organic ruin mirroring the surrounding

space.

mechanical reality. For the Strugatsky brothers (Arkady & Boris) the Zone

Environmental art is art dealing with ecological issues and possibly in political, historical or social context.

was a Roadside Picnic. The community gardens of Taipei are Roadside Picnic. Grandmothers can take us there, like Stalker. The honorable Lévi-Strauss could be happy

Sociology is a science of human social activity.

Anarchy is acting without waiting for instructions or official permission.

to start new ethnographical research between the parallel realities of the cultures of the urban compost gardens and the surrounding city – the reversed modernization and focusing in Local Knowledge. Horkheimers &

The root of anarchism is the single impulse to do it yourself: everything else

Adorno's graves should be moved in one of these urban acupuncture spots

follows from this.

of Taipei. Here even they would find hope, surrounded by the valueless

T

modernity and hard industrialism. Prof. Jaakko Hämeen-Anttila has said: “The

he community gardens and urban farms of Taipei are astonishing. They

valueless void of the society of today will be filled with ethics: the corners

pop up like mushrooms on the degenerated, neglected or sleeping areas

are windy.” With the recognition of the urban farms and community gardens

of the city, which could be referred to as urban composts.

Taipei has found its corners.

These areas are operating outside the official urban control or the economic

What is the ethics then pushing through these corners into the city? It could

standard mechanisms. They are voids in the urban structure that suck

be called Local Knowledge, site-specific reactions building a bridge between

in ad-hoc community actions and present a platform for anarchy through

the modern man and nature. The gardens of Taipei, these acupuncture

gardening.

points, are penetrating through the industrial surface of the city and reaching the original ground. The self organized community gardens are the urban

For the vitality of Taipei, the networks of the anarchist gardens seem to

acupuncture needles of Taipei. Local Knowledge is in connection with the

provide a positive social disorder; positive terrorism. They are tuning the

first generation city, when the built human environment was dependent on

industrial city towards the organic, towards accident and in this sense they

nature and regulated by nature. Now the anarchist gardeners are regulating

are ruining the modern urbanism. They are punctual organic revolutions and

the industrial city.

the seeds of the Third Generation City, the organic ruin of the industrial city.


18 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

在台北的都市農業社群之中,最著名的是寶藏巖社區,最早是個由跟隨國民黨

在這個粗暴的編輯過程中,無政府園丁們卻如一個微型編輯者般運作,像是依

撤退來台的老兵所組成的非法違建社區。在設法使其合法化的過程中,寶藏巖隨

附著大型開發周遭的小型生活圈,他們佔領了城市中不怎麼美觀的地區,切入沉

著名氣高漲,最後竟導致原生社群被市政府逐出,而房舍卻轉交給藝術家以及藝

寂的開發閒置區域。例如 - 開發商欲從眾多地主手中購買下一整個街廓,而因為

術相關組織,過程中所有的農地皆毀於一旦。似乎是都市對戰著都市針灸術。在

必須經過冗長的溝通,整個過程是非常緩慢的,當進度拖延時,這些都市園丁們

它是非法身分的時候,寶藏巖本身具自給自足的強大力量,社區居民自力建造房

就會趁隙而入開始耕耘這些區域。開發商因為不希望節外生枝而默許這樣的情形

舍以及所屬農場,並且訂下安定社群的種種協調規範。官方城市意圖排擠掉這個

發生,畢竟取得整個街廓的使用權可能必須耗時 3-5 年的時間,在這段期間這些

極具競爭力的非正式有機對手,一些非政府組織則發現了這個地方的魅力,開始

點就成為了社區的共有花園,而當開發案開始時,園丁們可能已經尋找到另一個

介入想保住這個地區,最後這些非政府組織及藝術家接管了這個如今已成名的社

閒置的地點重新佔領。

區,但也與政府掛勾在一起。那些都會農夫們因不再能融入這新的改變中,而必 須離開。現在在寶藏巖原本種菜的地方,矗著黃色塑膠充氣大帳棚,裡頭有 DJ 播 放嘻哈, 「在地智慧」在此地已壽終就寢。

第三代城市 第一代城市的概念是人類直接與自然連結相依,豐饒的台北盆地提供了這類居

但寶藏巖不孤單,都會農事在各種社會階層以及城市各個角落中都發生著,那 些勇於挑戰社會規則的市民們隨時準備好佔領土地,前仆後繼地開墾社區菜園。

所完美的環境,河流中充滿著魚,也利於當作運輸要道,而周遭的山嶺保護著中 央的耕作平原不受颱風直接肆虐。

某些針灸點發生了作用,並且豐富著周遭環境逐漸消逝中的都市紋理,城市的工 業化表面會經常出現斷裂,這些香草與蔬菜就栽植在這樣的縫隙當中。人們正在 毀壞這個工業城市,而當這些人造物回歸自然之中時就成為廢墟。

第二代城市是工業化城市,宣告著人類從自然中獨立 - 一個機械體制環境可以 提供人類一切所需,自然被視為不需要的東西甚至是具有敵意的 - 自然被阻隔在 工業現實之外。

城市編輯者

第三代城市是工業化城市的有機廢墟,台北城市中的社區花園是第三代城市主 義中的碎片,與周遭的工業環境共存。 「在地智慧」有機會在都市中呈現,這也

與西方城市相較,台北所扮演的角色十分特別,整座城市的美感被一個巨大的

是廢墟建築學院探索的焦點。城市園丁之中有許多擁有台北在地智慧的教授,當

共同機器所控制著,都市機能頻繁地被編修著,如同一部不時更換晶片以達最強

一座城市認同自己的在地智慧並且讓自己成為自然的一部分時,第三代城市得以

功能的超級電腦,城市中的資料即是居民,也是這部機器需要處理的對象。大多

實踐。

是時候他可以運轉順利,但也有人感染了病毒 - 他們聚在一起產生一些自發性的 舉動,例如一起打太極改善都市中的角落,臨時占用街道或一些角落發起特別的 市集,他們也創造農場 – 他們將有機的素材擠進這個大機器中,彷彿是個爬蟲類 誤闖乾淨的冷氣室。他們為何要這樣做 ? 為什麼自然想要侵入這座機器 ? 地產開發商才是真正的城市編輯者,他們與都市官方及政治力量連線,並且真 正編輯著城市的面貌。建築師則位在第二線 - 有點像是跟在剛狩獵成功的獅子後 頭等吃的土狼,金錢是開發商在進行編輯都市紋理時的動力與參考值,這並不像 是都市針灸而是類似西方的醫學手術 - 在身體上開刀,切除、更換或維護一些器 官 – 或甚至是整形手術 ( 喔 ! 上海的胸部比台北的大 )。身體並不被視為是一個完 整的有機體。


安那其建築園丁 Dominate the no-man's land

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

19

– operations on the body removing, changing or maintaining parts – or

The community gardens are taking over abandoned construction sites and

even plastic surgery. (Oh, Shanghai has bigger tits than Taipei.) The body

ruined housing areas, empty city-blocks waiting for development, flood

is not necessarily seen as one big organism.

banks of the rivers and even grave-yards out of fashion. In many cases the gardens are flourishing on spots of land where the land-owner issues

In this rough editing process the anarchist gardeners seem to act as

are unsettle or complicated. Sometimes the garden will stay in the spot

micro-editors, parasites benefiting of the slow circles of the big-scale

for only a couple of years, as in the cases of soon to be developed areas

development. They occupy the not so sexy areas of the city and they jump

and sometimes the urban farming has decades long traditions as with the

in the more sleepy parts of the development cycle. For example – the

river flood plains or on the island in-between Zhongxiao and Zhongshing

developer buys a whole city block with originally many land-owners. The

bridges. The smaller urban farms are flexible and eager to overtake the

process is slow because he has to negotiate with all of them. While the

empty spots of the city, eager to dominate the no-man's land.

process is dragging behind the urban farmers step in and start farming the area. The developer doesn't want to cause any more fuss and let it

One of the more famous urban farming communities of Taipei was the

happen. It takes 3-5 years before the developer has got all the area to his

Treasure Hill settlement, originally an illegal community of KMT veterans.

possession and those same years the site acts as the community garden.

During its legitimating process Treasure Hill became so famous that

When the actual construction starts the gardeners have already occupied

eventually the original community was kicked away by the city government

a next vacant spot in the city.

and the houses were taken over by artists and art related organizations. All the farms were destroyed on the process. Sounds like urban warfare against urban acupuncture. Treasure Hill was powerful and self-sustained

Third Generation City

when it was illegal. The community built its own houses and its own

First generation city was the human settlement in straight connection

farms and it made its own rules. The official city wanted to eliminate this

with nature and dependent on nature. The fertile and rich Taipei basing

unofficial organic rival. NGOs found the issue sexy and stepped in to

provided a fruitful environment for such a settlement. The rivers were full

protect and legitimize the settlement. In the end the NGOs and artists took

of fish and good for transportation and the mountains protected the farmed

over the now-famous community and hooked up with the city government.

plains from the straightest hits of the frequent typhoons.

The original urban farmers didn't fit the picture anymore and had to leave. Now you can listen gansta-rap in a yellow plastic tent where the gardens

The second generation city is the industrial city. Industrialism claimed

used to be. Local knowledge died.

the citizens independence from nature – a mechanical environment could provide human everything needed. Nature was seen as something

But Treasure Hill is not alone. Urban farming happens through different

un-necessary or as something hostile – it was walled away from the

social classes and through out the city. The socially disordered citizens are

mechanical reality.

ready to occupy land and start the community farms over and over again. Some acupuncture spots get hot and benefit the surrounding urban tissue

Third Generation City is the organic ruin of the industrial city. The

while others fade away. The industrial surface of the city keeps constantly

community gardens of Taipei are fragments of the third generation

being broken up and herbs and vegetables are planted into the cracks.

urbanism when they exist together with the industrial surroundings.

People are ruining the industrial city. Ruin is when man-made has become

Local Knowledge is present in the city and this is where Ruin Academy

part of nature.

focuses its research. Among the urban gardeners are the local knowledge

Urban Editors

professors of Taipei. Third Generation City is true when the city recognizes its local knowledge and allows itself to be part of nature.

Compared to Western cities Taipei plays in quite different rules. The aesthetics of the city is dominated by the functionality of a big collective machine and the urban mechanism is constantly being edited and rendered as with changing the micro-chips or other parts of a supercomputer into more powerful ones. The urban data is people and this is what the machine needs to process. Mostly it goes smoothly, but also people get viruses – they get together to spontaneous demonstrations, they do tai-chi in improvised city-corners, they launch ad-hoc night markets or under-bridge sales on temporarily occupied streets or city corners. And they do farms – they are squeezing organic material into the machine like a creeper crawling into an air-conditioning box. Why they do this? Why does the nature want to break the machine? Developers are the true urban editors. They are linked with the city authorities and necessary political powers and they make the urban editing. Architects are in a secondary role – something like the hyenas after the lions have made the kill. Money is a good consultant and the generating force of the developer run urban editing process. This is not urban acupuncture though; it is more like a western style medical practice

Urban garden near Taipei 101 Photo by 余宜家·王榆鈞


20 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

文·攝|康寧馨

2

005 年末的日本兵庫縣相生市,適合關東煮的季節,尋常瀝青路面中異軍 突起一株白蘿蔔,蒸蒸日上,綠葉華美,強韌生命力使人們封這株特異的 植物為「勇氣蘿蔔」, 暱稱「大大」,大大一夕成名,生長處成了熱門 景點,掙破柏油路面生長的蘿蔔吸引了全日本的目光。好景不常,不久大大被人 惡意折斷隨手丟棄,柏油路面下的根部也慘遭掘出。人們拾起殘株,想方設法維 繫大大生命,舉國關注下,電視台特意轉播市公所人員復育過程,初初略見起 色,稍後急轉直下,最後,大大已近彌留,命懸一線時,透過細胞複製技術,人 們留存了基因,打算複製繁殖這株蘿蔔商品化。原生長地不但設立紀念石碑,其 上雕刻蘿蔔圖案,相生市也出現周邊商品、食 品,祝福考試合格的蘿蔔圖騰祈 願餅乾、鑰匙圈、吊飾、卡片等等,勇氣蘿蔔的故事還以繪本流傳。兩年後,克 隆蘿蔔繁盛,身型四十到六十公分大小的白蘿蔔,農 民迫不及待把大大的子孫 切塊,做成關東煮,嚐嚐勇氣白蘿蔔的滋味,希望藉此讓大大的勇氣代代傳承。 這則人造物叢林裡的日式神話,不禁使人好奇,何以一株白蘿蔔的身世,能 引發現代社會裡人類的強烈驚嘆?而從唯一獨有的勇氣蘿蔔,到不分彼此的勇氣 養動物體內生理情況,與該種健康生物相當不同。而如此集約化飼養方式,亦無 蘿蔔們;從想方設法助其保小命,到迫不及待切塊燉關東煮,人們又展現了怎樣 助於全球糧食均衡分布,不符合節能減碳原則。昔日的狩獵行為隨工業化發展已 的復古風情? 轉型商業狩獵,動機已非因為食物缺乏,而是歸屬於饕餮放横,愛食野味的獵奇 心理,造成了人類與動物間病毒突變傳播的最佳途徑,觸發大規模流病 危機。 暫且回到台灣。2008 - 2009 年台北雙年展中,有支旗幟鮮明的「綠色游擊隊 哲學家費爾巴哈有言:「吃甚麼,就是甚麼樣的人。 (Der Mensch ist, was er 伍」--由本土藝術家吳瑪悧與「專業者都市改革組織」 (OURs)所合作的 isst)」,於是乎你成為你自己所不知道的一種動物,帶著生命的悲涼殘酷,外 藝術計畫:《台北明天還是 一個湖》,子計畫《台北好好吃》與《台北綠一點》 加大把藥劑、致病蛋白、抗生素,還有病毒。 關注「都市農耕」議題,從糧食危機、減碳生活、食物里程與都市綠化切入,提 倡「可食地景」的概念,強調有機栽培,並鼓勵合適的市民團體及鄰里單位,將 現代都市有意無意替人們濾除的不只工廠化飼養,與商業化狩獵的真相。推 周遭閒置的社區空地、城市角落、陽台頂樓等,改造為一畝畝的景觀菜園。其中 土機、瀝青、水泥、鋼筋,人造物封印了沃土肥田,身 處於人造都市,這等康 農園城市小組發動「吃掉 CO2 -再現台北的土地生產力」為名綠色藝術行 斯 勒(James Howard Kunstler) 所 謂 的「 無 以 名 狀 之 地 」 (geography of 動,於台北市街頭發送菜苗,以隨地擺攤的方式宣導「吃掉 CO2」的主張。 nowhere)中,人們越來越難從日常所見意識到生活運作與自然的關連,食物生 勇氣白蘿蔔軼事,或者雙年展藝術計畫《台北明天還是一個湖》,皆與 「吃」息息相關。歷史學家菲利普 . 費南得茲 - 阿梅斯托曾於《食物的歷史》 書中如此分析: 「食物不僅可以維持生命,也能增進生命力,有時則會侵蝕生 命。它可以讓吃的人好轉或變壞,它能帶來精神上、形體上、道德上的影響,並 有變質的效果。不過說 來也怪,最能凸顯這項發現的最佳範本竟然是食人 族 ....。」 過去對於若干南美與斐濟食人部落的研究顯示,許多時候食人行為不 僅僅為了獲取營養,大多數例 子牽涉其他目的,如書中所舉「自我轉化、挪用 權力、食人者與被食者之間關係的儀式化」,食人族享用本族死者,以保存珍貴 的生命液體;食人族認為敵人就是「他們的獵物」,食人是為了「捕捉靈魂」,以 補償失去的戰士。不約而同地,人們欲透過食用,獲得蘿蔔的勇氣毅力,帶有完 善自我的意涵;人們想透過都市農耕,象徵地吃掉敵人 CO2, 藉以支配地球上 的二氧化碳總量,再現台北的土地生產力。食人族與現代社會人們皆為食物賦予 了超越物質性的意義,飲食即文化的轉化行為。菲利普 . 費南得茲 - 阿梅斯托 言:「加諸於食物的含意,就像一切事物的含意,都是約定俗成,最終是自由心 證。」於是,飲食可表喜怒哀樂、婚喪喜慶,也可表認同、明心志,可分我族與 他者,可以顯示仇恨或愛,可以是一種宗教,也可以是苦痛焦慮乃至於幸福的展 現。 人類歷史中的畜牧隨工業化發展,成了集約養殖經濟動物,與生產現場、輸 送過程漸行漸遠下,人們若不費心留意,難以得知真相絕不如大眾傳播媒介上的 牧場綠油油、動物和樂齊歌唱。被工廠化飼養做為人類肉食的動物,遭遇比野外 生長或者畜牧空間較大而開放的動物,來得更為悲慘,自出生開始,完全被人類 剝奪了生命的 樂趣。存活到生命的最後一刻,也只是為了活著被宰殺為人類食 物。也因此,工廠化飼養不僅殘虐動物身心,也因需要急速生長,動物平均壽命 不長之故,飼養中添 加許多有害人體健康的物質(只求存活至被宰殺的瞬 間,動物體健康與否,消費者很難接觸或判斷),或因長期精神受虐,工廠化飼

產過程、水、電力、廢棄物、污水處理系統漸趨隱蔽,人們不能直觀地了解 自 己生活所需要、所製造、所排放的物質對大自然的影響,慢慢地所謂的「自 然」在人們的認識論中成為抽象的符號,也從道德判斷中消失。而人造都市裡常 見的設計, 總是涇渭分明的邊緣,缺乏大自然中更為常見的生物型態、地理形 狀(如碎形),缺乏自然曲折而自我相似的線條,提醒人們大自然具各種尺度 的連結,因而人們習於只由單向度思考、解決問題,無能連結不同尺度的需 求。人們日漸耽溺於自身所創造的物品構築的「超現實」中:電腦、網際網 路、手機、虛擬遊戲 ...... 自肉身所處的環境中抽離,也逐漸失去了本有的生物 秩序,忘了天地玄黃,宇宙洪荒。 以此作為切入視角,綜觀近年興起一波種植有機蔬果的綠色風潮,鼓勵人們 利用周邊閒置土地生產蔬果,自家露台頂樓也可變成迷你蔬菜園,除了欲效法古 巴哈瓦那 「都市農耕」經驗,為因應能源危機、石油短缺,繼而可能造成運輸 困難、貿易鏈中斷早做準備,強調在地生產、在地消費,或全球氣候劇變使人類 不得不關注的環 境議題之外,各地天災頻仍,自上世紀末延續的末日說,工業 化生產食品導致大規模有毒食物透過商業傳輸迅速流通,諸現象導致的緊迫 感,更使人們想要自行決定食物的成分內容,更欲控制整副糧食生產過程。現代 人對所處環境的不安全感與日俱增。由此,進一步提倡自耕自食、區域性消 費,間接強化了人們種植蔬果糧食的 風氣。歐美已行之有年的「農夫市集」 (farmers market),晚近在台灣各地漸次興起,類似傳統市場集散地,主題卻 更明確,固定日期或假日時,由小農聚集設攤,販售新鮮有機蔬果,與果醬、釀 造醋等 加工品,透過與農人及生產者面對面接觸,消費者可直接求教於攤位園 丁,瞭解作物種植與衍生商品製作過程,得知其生產理念和動機,增進對土地生 產的認識。農夫市集也意味著自主與多樣選擇,小農種植喜愛的作物,並且自行 販售,避開盤商層層剝削,消費者亦有機會尋獲不同於大賣場制式化的農作 物,買賣行為往來之間 有著更多人際情感互動。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

21

EATING Text | Ning-Hsing Isis Kang Translation | C.J. Anderson-Wu live in the wild or grow up in ranches, those raised in

Back to Taiwan, in the 2008-2009 Taipei Biennial a industrial animal farms have a miserable destiny since

Green Guerrilla led by Taiwanese artist Wu Mali and they are born. They enjoy no joy throughout their

Organization of Urban Reforms(Ours) presented an life, and in the end they are slaughtered to be our

art project titled “Taipei is Still a Lake Tomorrow”. food. An in order to speed up meat supply, their feed “Lake” consisted of two sub-projects “Edible is mixed with additives that make them grow faster.

Landscape Taipei” and “Virescent Taipei”. They Many of these additives are harmful but consumers

brought out the possibilities of urban agriculture and have no means to know whether these animals are investigated issues regarding food shortage and free from drugs when slaughtered. Since the factory

food's carbon footprints. They advocated organic farmed animals suffer physically and mentally, they farming in cities and encouraged civil groups and no longer provide the same meats as animals grow in communities to make use of empty lands in every healthy environment. Although much faster, industrial

corner of the city, or to transform unoccupied rooftops animal farming doesn't help solve the problems of

into farmlands. And the Farming City Group activated global food shortage or uneven distribution, nor it

a green art action “Eat up CO2- Soil Regeneration reduces carbon emission. The commercialization of and Productivity Restoration in Taipei”, they set food hunting is to satisfy people's curiosity about rare up stands here and there and gave out vegetable resources, it has nothing to do with eating any more. sprouts in the streets to promoted their ideas.

D

The consequences are diseases passing on between

human beings and animals. Our eating behaviors

Both the “Daikon of Courage” and the “Taipei today have triggered fast virus mutation and large

uring the end of 2005, in Aioi Shi, Hyōgo-ken, is Still a Lake Tomorrow”

were about eating. scale outburst of contagious diseases. Philosopher

Japan- a perfect season and place for cooking Historian Felipe Fernandez-Armesto pointed out in Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach put it: “You are what you

and eating oden- on the road a daikon unusually his book Food: A History: “Food sustains lives and eat.”(Der Mensch ist, was er ißt.) Thus you become

stood out from blacktop. It grew taller and taller, strengthens vigor, but it also might erode lives. Food something you don't know, you only know you have

its leaves radiated brilliant green. The amazing life makes its eaters better or worse, it influences one's digested miserable lives overdosed with antibiotics

was admired by people, they called it “Daikon of mental, physical and moral status, it even changes among other drugs, together with other pathogens, Courage”, and gave it a nickname “Da Da”(Big one's nature. Strangely enough, the best example to such as disease-associated proteins. Big). Da Da became famous over night, and its demonstrate the effects of eating was cannibals...”

birthplace became a hot tourist attraction. A daikon Studies of anthropophagy in South America and Fiji Modern cities have helped us filter out the truth of struggling its way out from under the blacktop have concluded that eating human flesh was not only industrial animal farming and the commercialization

became a national hero in Japan. Unfortunately, Da for the nutrition. Fernandez-Armesto wrote: “...self- of eating. Pastures and fields are blocked up from us

Da was broken down by someone maliciously and transformation or power appropriation, it could be by bulldozers, blacktop, concrete and steel rebars,

thrown away, even its roots under the blacktop were the ritualization of the relationship between the living in a city we are actually in the “Geography dug out. The tragedy concerned the entire society, eaters and those being eaten.” Cannibals eat their of Nowhere” pointed out by author James Howard

people picked up this poor plant and tried everything own tribe people after they die in order to preserve Kunstler. It's more and more impossible for us to

to save its life, and a TV News covered the ratooning the precious body fluid, but they catch the souls know how our life is related to nature because the

work conducted by the staff of the city government of the enemies and eat them as their prey to pay truths of the supplies of food, water and power, as

and one time it seemed hopeful but suddenly it was back for their own fighters killed in the battles. With well as the management of waste and trash have

dying again. When Da Da was close to its death, its similar concepts, eating the courageous daikons been concealed from us. We have very little idea

genes were extracted, thanks to genetic engineering. one expects to gain courage and to complete self- about what impacts we have caused to nature

People decided to clone Da Da and commercialize fulfilment. Or, through urban farming, people wish by what we have produced and consumed daily.

its clones. At the same time, where Da Da grew was they could swallow up their enemy- CO2, so the Gradually “nature” becomes an abstract symbol

erected a memorial stone carved with a daikon, and lost productivity of Taipei would be restored. In the to us, it plays no role in our morality. In the man-

products about Da Da such as praying cookies for primitive cannibalistic tribes or in modern world, made environment, everything has a clear boundary,

passing exams, key rings, pendants and greeting people tend to give food meanings beyond their natural phenomena or fractal geography free from

cards were sold everywhere. Illustrated books about nature, which is a common culture throughout the any human intervention no longer exist in our life.

Da Da also published and widely circulated. Two history. Fernandez-Armesto has analysed: “Like Nothing in the artificial surroundings inspire us to years later, cloned Da Da- 40cm to 60cm daikons- everything else, the meanings given to food come associate nature, even our own natural features are

proliferated, the growers couldn't wait to cut these Da from social conventions, but they are decided by ignored because we are used to one-dimensional

Das for oden soup, they wanted to taste the “Daikon one's inner conviction after all.” Thus food is applied thinking and unable to integrate things from different

of Courage” and hoped the courage would be to express our feelings of happiness or sorrow in levels. We indulge ourselves in the surreal world

passed on by digesting them.

occasions like weddings or funerals. It is about our we created by computer, we live in the virtual reality self-identity, our mentality, our beliefs, our love or of the Internet, mobile phones and online games...

One would be curious how such a plant was made hatred, even our satisfaction or agony.

a Japanese styled myth by people in the man-made

our flesh is independent from our mind, we forgot the biological orders of our needs and we left the

urban jungle. Why people in a modern society could Speaking of food production, the change of meats universe behind... be amazed so much by a small daikon? And from the supply is a good example. Pasturage has been

unique “Daikon of Courage” to so many identical modified into factory farming during industrialization, The trend of eating organic vegetables and fruits

courageous daikons, from the dying Da Da which the public w on't know that the producti on and over the past years drove people to grow food on the

people had tried to save to chopped Da Das in oden transportation of meats are not at all the images unused lands around their communities or balconies

soup, what kind of feelings of nostalgia people have presented by mass media in which animals happily eat and roofs of their buildings. It is not unlike the urban experienced?

and walk on green pastures. Compared to animals farming Havana had applied during the energy crisis


22 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

生活於封印之上的人們,除了充滿規訓意味的公園、行道樹、河堤綠地、校園、擺設般的植生牆 面,唯剩無意中偶遇的都市菜園,趁著建設營造業江河日下,土地閒置或產權爭議之時,在安全的偏 離中佔領基地,召喚從生活中消失的自然,豐饒假借人類之手復甦,卻也似進入了或短暫或漫長的告 別儀式,直到再度被人造物捫蓋封印。勇氣蘿蔔之吸引人,不僅在於突破了瀝青封印,更因為其存在 突然地揭開了人們對周遭環境的習焉不察,瞬時觸動了一些遺忘已久的失落困乏。

← 俯瞰全台最昂貴的蔬菜園隔鄰,為四四南村舊址。 眷村拆遷後,現為台北市信義區公民會館。鋼架上,架 空的貼皮綠地,人們於地面高度親臨現場時,時常對於 設計上奇怪的起伏不知所以。唯有從信義區高級住宅 高樓往下望,或人造衛星拍攝,才能略略領會設計奧

人們就是他們所攝入之物,可視為人是他們由外界所吸納、轉化的總和,意即人類與周遭其他生 物、環境互動後留存的沈積。人攝入的除了物質性食物粒子,還有超越 物質並與自身依存的外在環 境。故此,反思工業化影響後,生態設計建築主張導入自然,希望人們雖身處人造結構物中,卻能感 受外界光影變化、時節遞嬗、氣候溫差等,刺激或喚醒人類已近遲鈍的知覺感官,體驗氣味、顏 色、聲音、形狀,並強調親生物性(biophila),崇尚生命的複雜與多樣,設計時連貫各尺度思考、處 理問題,以達永續。生態設計可視為企圖與星球同步的其一嘗試,藉由於設計裡重新擁抱自然,人們 可望攝入一些時脈,一些規律,一些順序與一些韻律,調整破碎、零散的工業化習性,潛移默化使自 身生活更為平衡與連續。

義----模仿眷村拆遷後重新修補過的建築頂部。雖看似

「樸門農藝」 (permaculture)和「園藝療法」 (horticulture therapy)皆為上述概念的實作範 例。樸門農藝(permaculture)是「permanent」 (永恆的)、 「agriculture」 (農業)和「culture」 (文化)的縮寫,亦即永續栽培,1970 年代由澳洲的比爾 . 莫理森(Bill Mollison)和大衛 . 霍姆 格倫(David Holmgren)所提出,觀察大自然如何運作以維持多樣複雜的生態系統,研究某些古老的 傳統耕作方法,以大自然為師,模仿大自然的運作模式設計庭園與運作生活,主張回返自然,是一種 簡樸的農耕作法,一類設計方法,一項大原則,也是面對生活的基本態度與哲學,強調省力維護、節 省灌溉資源、有機、自足共享, 也有人稱之為「懶人農法」 。園藝療法(horticulture therapy)為一 種非傳統醫療領域的輔助療法,藉由接觸植物、庭園環境來接近自然,透過知覺(觸覺、味覺、聽 覺、視覺、嗅覺)來心領神會,或自培育照 顧植物過程平衡身心,此類藉特殊設計以抒解現代人身心 困擾的療癒庭園,因與現代身心流病發展趨勢若合符節,亦被稱為未來庭園。

坪,據傳市值台幣150億元,民眾自發佔領種植,成

在這艘看似新穎、企望和諧共存的方舟上某處,現代洛哈思主義(LOHAS)與食人族無與倫比地 相似(only anthropophagy unites us?),摩登復古大行其道,人們巍顫顫地眺望未來,重新經歷前人 崇拜大地豐饒與生產力的讚嘆時刻,感動近乎宗教修行。也許,凝視佛塔花椰菜、羽衣甘藍與過溝菜 蕨那些精細、無窮回歸式的碎形構造而出神時,人們更易感於自身與宇宙間的聯繫,益發明白現今許 多問題起於人類自身,不假外求, 「你必須在方向不明的大海裡冒險,而這個沒有方向的大海就是 你自己」 。

深具紀念或悼念意義,綠地平整劃一,分佈在場域空間 裡,實則不符合人的尺度(human-scale),裝飾性遠 勝實際互動功能,依然是失落之地。

↑ 台北市信義區世貿一館對面,也是台北101 大樓 斜對街,有塊橫跨一整個街廓的閒置地,佔地2554 為阡陌縱橫的蔬果園。置身其中,耳聽蟲鳴鳥兒歡 唱,使人難以想像身處信義區。與菜園相鄰的信義區 著名豪宅〈新世界〉裡的某住戶,則認為此地耕種的 菜農地主才是「真正的有錢人」,可以閒置地利(當 然,指的是開發利潤的「利」),浪漫地在市中 心無 水電之地享受耕作,並歡欣表示「他們賣菜很便宜 唷,十元好大一把」。相片攝於2009 年底,本路段正 興建捷運,作業人員居住在施工線旁的臨時屋裡,受 環境感召,也開始一享田園樂。 其實,這塊土地最大的地主就是多年前因財務危機而消 聲匿跡的前僑泰建設董事長陳居德,原本打算開發名 下擁有的1300坪成為頂級豪宅,後又因與銀行產權糾 紛,土地閒置。引述提及此事的報導文句:「未來這位 最大地主和富邦銀行將簽署合作計畫,要同心協力把不 起眼的菜園,變成身價上百億的高級樂園。」弔詭的 是,或許這片菜園才是周遭唯一使人感覺生機之處,而 頂級豪宅不過是失樂園。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

23

which resulted in difficulties in transporting food so the changes of light, seasons and temperature

or even the breaking down of trade chains. Urban will be felt by out gradually dumping-down senses.

farming emphasizes local production and local The “biophilia”- the instinct bond between human consumption. Disasters resulted from global weather beings and other living systems- might be restored

changes have concerned us about the rumors of by our experience about smells, colors, shapes and

Armageddon since the end of the last century, the sophisticated and diversified forms of lives. Eco-

issues regarding environment and the transmission architecture considers all kinds of issues in order to

of diseases through the poisons passed on in food sustain, it attempts to create buildings that pulse in

process and transportation finally exposed. All these harmony with the earth. Through design, we embrace problems urge us to decide what we eat, therefore to nature and take in natural elements, such as natural

decide how we produce our food.

tempos and natural laws. Thus our destroyed rhyme

of life in the industrial age will be gradually made up

Uncertainty in our environment increases, thus the by a more balanced style.

ideas of self-farming and local consumption quickly

inspire people to grow their own food. The “farmers' Permaculture and Horticulture Therapy provide city

market” popular in Europe and North America people opportunities to return to nature. The word

has been copied in Taiwan. Farmers' markets are “permaculture” comes from “permanent” and similar to the old-style markets in Taiwan, only “agriculture”, a project proposed by Bill Mollison

← Looking down the most expensive garden, next to it is the former Four-four community for military families and now the Civil Center for the Hsinyi District. There is a lawn spreading over the steel scaffolding, when looking up from the ground level, people get confused by the undulating surface in the air. One can only understand what it is from the high-end condominiums surrounding it or from aerial pictures from satellites- it is the roof of a new building duplicating the old military community. Though it is a memorial building, the park with squarely cut edges has fallen out from humanscale in the spatial context; an ornament rather than a practically functioning place still is a lost place. ↑ In fact, the property owner is Chen Ju-Deh, former chairman of Chiaotai Construction Inc., who disappeared when his business was hit by financial problem many years ago. The site of 1300 pins had been planned to build high-end apartments but the developer and banks had disputes over the ownership, that's why the land never gets developed. According to a report: “The land owner plans to transform this plain farmland into a highclass paradise with the Fubon Bank.” Paradoxically, the farmland is the only space in this area bringing rigor, and high-end apartments are nothing but the paradise lost.

they have particular targets. They often gather on and David Holmgren from Australia in the 1970s.

certain days, such as in holidays, individual farmers Based on their observation of the subtle operations of

set up their stands to sell organic vegetables and living systems in nature and their research of ancient

fruits, or independent food manufacturers promote farming methods, they created gardens that imitated

their fruit jams or vinegar, among other products. natural system as much as possible. Permaculture

Food suppliers and consumers are face to face, is not only a way of farming or a new design, but

information about the production and process will be also a new attitude toward life and a new philosophy

brought up easily, farmers' principles and motivation about nature. Permaculture is organic farming, it is of food production can be discussed and knowledge labor-saving and resource-saving farming so it is also

about soils can be exchanged. Farmers' markets called a lazy man's farming. Horticulture Therapy

also provide more spontaneous choices for individual is an alternative treatment whose prescription is to

farmers, they grow their own crops and sell them encourage patients to work on gardening, through

without being exploited by wholesalers or retailers, taking care of plants, their senses of touch, smell,

and consumers are able to find food from places hearing and vision are strengthened and the balance

other then chained supermarkets. Additionally, the might be restored as the stress is released. Such a direct transactions often bring touching interactions trend of healing ailment due to the pressure in today's between food producers and consumers.

society is more and more recognized by epidemic

disease treatment, so it is also called “Future

Living in a concealed city, we see nothing but Gardening”.

the disciplinary spaces of parks, greeneries by

waterfronts, campuses and streets planted with As we are looking for an ark of new hope and new

trees or walls covered with artificial vegetation. The harmony, the popular LOHAS seems to associate us

only things surprise us are the urban farms we run with cannibals and tell us that the primitive lifestyle into unexpectedly on the idled properties due to is the way we have pursued. We look back the

A whole unused block in front of the World Trade Center, diagonally facing Taipei 101. The area of this block is 2,554 pins, it is said its value is about 15 billion NTD. People occupy it by farming and transform the site into a well-planned orchard. Being in the garden one can enjoy the chirping of birds and bugs and forget it is in the Hsinyi District. One person living in the high-end community “New World” next to the orchard once said the owner of this site is so rich that he can afford his property not to be developed for the huge profit he might make. Farming on this land becomes a very romantic thing, and food growers sell their vegetables in low prices: “Ten bucks you can get a whole bunch of greens.” This picture was taken in the end of 2009 when the construction of subway was undergoing in this area, workers are living in the temporary structures by the construction site. Attracted by the orchard, they joined the farming for fun.

ownership disputes or the decline of development. history with great caution and repeat ancient people's

The reoccupation of farmlands summons back the worship to the amazingly rich earth, we are so moved lost nature in cities, harvest by hands instead of by like being in the religious practice. A cauliflower looks

machines is revitalized. However It' s like a farewell like a Buddhist tower, a collard green remind us

ceremony to our past life, they will be concealed angels with stretching wings, we are so spellbound

again eventually. The “Daikon of Courage” was by the endlessly developing fractals of natural forms, admirable because it had broken up the concealing and we become sensitive to our connection to the

blacktop and revealed the truth that people have world. We realize that all the problems we are facing

become so ignorant to the surroundings. It evoked now are in fact caused by ourselves, we should raise

the long lost past.

our questions to no one but ourselves. “You have

to take adventure in this directionless ocean, for you

The existence of human being includes what they are the ocean without direction.” take, or what they have absorbed and transformed.

In other words, human being exists as the traces left from their interactions with other beings and the

environment. The post-industrial eco-architecture advocates introducing natural elements into buildings


24 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy 路 Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

1st floor

2nd Floor Student Dormitory


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

4th Floor Lounge

5th Floor Sauna

4th Floor Lounge

3rd Floor Professors Deck

2nd Floor Student Dormitory

5th Floor Sauna

25


26 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

Lea Lin 林宜珍 Calvin Lin 林宗品 Wang Yu-Lou 王禹婁

Hsu Wen-Ching 許紋菁

Wayne Gretton 韋恩 AdDa 蔡明輝 Chang Hsiao-Wen 張曉雯

Wu Yi-Lun 吳宜倫

Chan Bo-Yu 詹博喻

Shuai Wen Hao 帥文浩

Tseng Wei-Chen 曾偉真

Chao Wen-Kai 趙文愷

Wang Hsiao-Wei 王曉瑋

Wang Chun-Ping 王淳平

Chang Yu-Shan 張玉姍 Frank Chen 陳右昇


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

27

Marco Casagrande Teng Yu- Chang 鄧煜璋

Nikita Wu 巫祈麟 Huang Chih-Jen 黃致仁

Lin Yu-Chin 林郁芩

Hsieh An-Pang 謝安邦

Chen Sho-Shi陳昭志

Jan Tyrpekl Chiu Yu-Chen 邱郁晨 Vicki Hsiao 蕭芳珣

Hung Yi-Ling 洪宜玲

Chang Ting-Ting 張婷婷

Liu Che-Wei 劉哲瑋

Li Li-Cheng 李立丞 She Ming-Hong 佘明鴻 Gia Liang梁雅婷 She Chien-Hsun 佘建勳

Lin Chien-Ju 林倩如

Chen Mei-Ju 陳玫儒


28 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

是誰揮灑基進詩意 -小談芬蘭建築師馬可·卡薩格蘭之建築操作

文|巫祈麟 圖|C 實驗室 Casagrande Laboratory 原刊於《城市環境設計》雜誌社 2010 八月號

《逃脫的地景》 Land(e)scape

可.卡薩格蘭(Marco Casagrande)是當 為自然人文環境擊鼓戰鬥 ���非常受人稱道的芬蘭建築師,對於實踐

空間美學有著獨到基進(radical)概念。馬可在

馬可短暫都市生活,令他反思當時芬蘭現代都

世界各地建築作品獲獎無數,亦是建築和藝術展 市和農村間的問題,原本住在農村人們愛往都市 經常參展人。曾於 2000 年至 2006 年間連續三屆 移居生活掙錢,都市光鮮真是現代人居住的唯一 受威尼斯建築雙年展主辦方、丹麥館和台灣館之 選項?他體認若芬蘭人都擠到城市去,那麼這樣 邀參展。建築操作一出手,往往被集成專業教課 的 芬 蘭, 便 不 再 是 他 熟 悉 模 樣 的 故 鄉。 以 此 為 書裡的經典教材。作品定有迷人的故事,絮說著 題,1999 年 他 們 在 芬 蘭 東 部 薩 翁 林 納 人與大地和都市之間的情節。媒體造神建築大師 ( Savonlinna),回收改裝三座廢棄穀倉, 高架 身影總一身黑,他也穿,倒不是想攀附虛名,比 在十公尺長的木樁上,完成作品《逃脫的地景》 較拘謹正式場合長袖黑衣遮掉刺青,他的右臂纏 ( Land(e)scape) 。 放 眼 望 去 荒 蕪 農 田, 穀 倉 紋著一條龍和八仙過海。

似 靈 氣 上 身, 遙 遙 呼 喚 著 早 把 它 們 遺 忘 的 農 民, 意 境 盎 然。 馬 可 想, 踩 高 蹺 的 穀 倉 美 則 美

1971 年出生圖爾庫( Turku),小時成長於芬 矣,隨時間季節轉換,穀倉會腐會爛,與注定被 蘭 最 臨 北 極 圈 的 小 村 落, 過 了 僅 一 條 大 街 的 村 遺 忘 的 命 運 重 疊。 為 要 讓 作 品 說 出 的 話 更 加 響 子,便是地凍天寒的凍原。和北歐薩米族獵人為 亮,他在報紙登小幅廣告,明載秋季傳統舉行慶 鄰,是他兒童時期的大玩伴,帶著小鬼混跡遊走 豐年殺牲節當日,於作品展出基地,舉行節慶派 森林湖泊。肇始馬可尊崇自然為一生導師。天生 對,免費供應烤香腸佐伏特加,歡迎公眾參加。 反骨,確是個安靜的小孩,從三歲就與紙筆和樂 可能是美酒和小食太過吸引人,舉行活動當日居 高 積 木 為 伴, 揭 續 命 定 建 築 師 生 涯。 又 好 動, 然有六千人從各處趕來湊熱鬧擠滿會場。席間邀 十五歲當上全芬蘭最年輕的柔道教練。都市,對 現代舞者著瑞尤克拉( Reijo Kela),舉著火炬 他來說很陌生。直到南下首都鳳毛麟角地考上赫 即興起舞,火苗隨舞漸燃穀倉此刻天地若太初甦 爾 辛 基 科 技 大 學 建 築 系, 這 才 見 識 城 裡 熱 鬧 喧 醒,長著腳的穀倉似發出熾焰怒吼,還會動,正 囂。

搖 搖 晃 晃 地 往 南 方 城 市 走 去。 觀 眾 先 是 以 為 意 外,但隨即被這等充滿儀式性的景象感染,看到

芬蘭建築師最少十年專業建築養成教育顯得漫 發 火 穀 倉 頭 和 身 驅 變 成 火 球 漸 次 墜 落 化 為 灰 長,他等不及畢業就和同學薩米·林塔拉合組建築 燼,觀眾發出驚嘆也有淚水盈眶,此時跨越現實 事務所接案,借錢買傳真機和接電話,設計小案 邊境與意識流電光碰觸,神聖空間猶然建立。穀 接踵而來頗為興隆。馬可回憶這時期,他真實面 倉 建 築 裝 置 系 列 照 片, 隔 日 成 芬 蘭 報 紙 頭 版 新 對市場的現實性,設計往往需要做出大幅妥協讓 聞,不久,影像廣傳國際媒體。本來打算就此收 步, 成 品 早 離 初 始 設 計 觀 點 十 萬 八 千 變 為 四 不 山 的 年 輕 建 築 師, 隨 即 吸 引 世 界 建 築 圈 的 眼 像。這點令他煩擾,一度想轉行當建築工人。 照 球,同年獲得最具權威老牌建築評論雜誌( The

芬蘭政府高所得高稅收的社會福利主義政策,建 Architectural Review)與英國皇家建築協會評選 築師和建築工完稅後的收入,算來可能差不多。

獎( AR Awards for Emerging

當建築工少有裝腔作勢的樣態,圖耳根清靜,倒 Architecture ) 。直到十年後的今天,有人遇到 好。準備把事務所結束,操作一件極度「純粹」

馬可還是打趣酸他,建築師以設計蓋房聞名,你

的建築裝置,這個案子裡,沒有業主與合約的牽 倒放火燒房登台亮相。 絆利誘,亦無任何商業市場考量。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

29

Constructing Radical Poetry An introduction to the modus operandi and works of Finnish architect Marco Casagrande

Text | Nikita Wu Translation | Nicholas Coulson Images | Casagrande Laboratory

M

arco Casagrande is an esteemed architect highly classmate Sami Rindala he started his own architectural

praised for his unique and radical concepts in firm. They borrowed money for a fax machine and

the practice of spatial aesthetics. Marco's architectural telephone and began taking on small design cases,

works have earned countless prizes and he is a regular which arrived in their masses. Marco recalls this period participant in arts and architecture festivals across the when he had to face up to the realities of the market,

globe. Between 2000 and 2006 Marco took part in three having to give way to customers, making significant

consecutive Venice Architecture Biennales; invited first compromises with his designs. The finished products by the festival organizers, followed by the Danish and were often a million miles away from the original design

Taiwanese pavilions. As soon as a work of Marco's is concept. This frustrated Marco, and there was a time completed it gets included in professional architecture when he considered becoming a construction worker

textbooks and these works which are always sure to instead. With Finland's high taxes on high incomes have fascinating plots about the relationship between social welfare policies, there is not so much difference in

man, nature and the city rapidly become classic the post-tax earnings of an architect and a construction teaching material. The media deify Marco as a demigod worker; furthermore as a construction worker there is

of the architectural world, always casting him in a full little need to maintain pretentious airs and it's even more suit of black; indeed he does wear black, but it is not to preferable if one is just searching for peace of mind. cling to fame, rather the long-sleeved suit is to hide his Eventually, as Marco and Sami were preparing to close

tattoos for formal occasions - he has a dragon pattern down their architectural firm they decided to create

and the Eight Immortals encircling his right arm.

one final 'pure' architectural installation. In this case there were no clients to bow down to, no contracts and

Marco was born in Truku, but grew up in the Finnish interests to tie them down and no commercial market village closest to the Arctic Circle. Not more than a short considerations whatsoever.

walk beyond the village and one arrives at the desolate

frozen grounds of the tundra. Neighbours to the village S t r i k i n g t h e d r u m s f o r a n a t u r a l h u m a n are the Nordic Sami hunters of the Laplands; they were environment

also Marco's childhood playmates who would take him

roaming with them around the lakes and forests. This Marco's time spent in the city, led him to start thinking

background provided the context for Marco's reverence about the problems between the modern city and of nature as his lifelong mentor. Though inherently the countryside. Those who had always lived in the

rebellious, Marco was also truly a very quiet child. From countryside were ever thirstier to migrate to the city and

three years old, his best friends were his pencils and earn a higher standard of living. Was the glamour of the

Lego blocks, leading naturally to his destined career city really the only option for the modern resident? Marco

path as an architect. Marco was also a master of realised that if all Finns squeezed into the cities, then movement, as demonstrated when he became Finland's the Finnish countryside that he knew would never be the youngest Judo coach at 15 years old. The city had same again. This revelation formed the topic for his 1999

always been a stranger to Marco. It wasn't until he was work, Land(e)scape, where he recycled three derelict

accepted to study architecture at the prestigious Helsinki barns, rebuilding them on top of wooden stilts ten

University of Technology that he went south to the metres tall. Looking towards the barns on the desolate

capital where he first experienced the noise and vivacity landscape of Savonlinna, was a visual pathetic fallacy,

clamour of the urban environment.

the buildings imbued with a sense of humanity, as if they were searching out the farmers that had abandoned

The ten years of professional architectural training them. Marco found the stilted barns beautiful, their

required for Finnish architects seemed interminable. being left to rot with the changing seasons, overlapped

Marco couldn't wait until graduation, so with his with their cruel fate of being forgotten. To spread the


30 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

隔 年, 威 尼 斯 建 築 雙 年 展 策 展 人 福 克 薩 斯 圖,從不輕易信任電腦檔案,3D 模型圖對他來說 ( Massimiliano Fuksas)邀請他們切適 配合 當屆 是 單 薄 的 廣 告, 寧 自 作 大 小 模 型 閱 讀 真 實 空 間 光 雙年展主題「城市:少一點美學, 多一點倫理」

影。他咸認建築應該擁有手作獨一無二的質感,流

( Città: less aesthetics, more ethics)於義大利拉 汗者總會有自個兒的體悟。 古娜區丘吉亞,預定租一艘五十公尺大型廢用之貨 櫃駁船作內裝,稍微轉化廢船定成廢鐵的不歸路成

2008 年位於台北建築作品《三芝陳宅》 ( Chen

為公園。當時馬可想,若僅是把空間的使用功能暫 House)則是手感建築的最佳案例。這棟花費不到

時代換,立意雖好,還得加些料,讓作品力道更完 台北一般普通公寓基本室內裝修造價的農舍,以柳 整。於是他扮偵探,查出威尼斯城裡每戶人家沖馬 安 紅 木 和 水 泥 地 基 為 材 料, 以 馬 可 提 出「 終 極 廢 桶,人為的有機廢料入下水溝渠後,旅程終點是城 墟」為設計策略和與屋主一起施工,連續抱走世界 外廢水處理廠,經過幾道環保衛生程序,城中人有 建築社群獎、世界建築獎最佳單體房舍提名和建築 機排放物,部分會處理堆肥成壤土。馬可覺得這事 評 論 雜 誌( The Architectural Review) 主 辦 2010

有趣,小作算術算出威尼斯城人裡一個小時排到處 ARHouse 建築獎特別推薦。建築評論雜誌一般視 理廠裡廢棄物量,向廠方商借同等份壤土。披進在 台灣為建築沙漠,幾乎沒有任何建築作品獲得任何 船板底層,植上二十二株橡樹後在鋪上碎白石,花 版面書文,當年台北 101 大樓完工終能短暫榮任世 七 星 期 製 作《 六 十 分 鐘 人 》 (60 Minute 界第一高樓時,雜誌還揶揄了一番,小傷台灣建築

Man),雙年展開幕,浩浩蕩蕩駛進威尼斯軍械庫 信 心, 《 三 芝 陳 宅 》 難 得 受 青 睞, 資 深 編 輯

海灣,展期間成為一座供公眾使用之綠化公園。對 Catherine Slessor 為此富含詩意美學之作,為文說

《六十分鐘人》 60 Minute Man

於馬可來說,作品意義在於,把森林的意象和資源 道:「 這 棟 木 造 小 屋, 具 適 應 各 式 天 候 條 件 的 能 再利用接合成異質地景空間,所有應用到的材料都 力。在馬可強調輕盈的設計手法下,呈現如船一般 是暫時借來的,展期結束繼續分解循環利用,而非 既幽然又優美之意境形體。」 製造垃圾,產生人類危害自然最惡的罪狀。馬可回

陳宅完工約一年後,筆者有幸再度受邀小宅和屋

憶,正式揭幕酒會那天, 來訪多是建築藝評、策展 主歡聚。陳宅和剛完工時所照土地略顯貧瘠的相片 人和媒體記者,不少出入世界建築盛會腳蹬高跟鞋 比 起, 徹 底 換 了 模 樣。 陳 夫 婦 兩 人 熱 愛 鄉 村 生 女士,晃完公園走到最後一處角落,看到有塊白色 活,在每寸土地植上滿溢的果樹時蔬花草,又挖一 大理石刻著「您現正踩在威尼斯人 60 分鐘所產生 池水塘,養數隻看門吃草的凶鵝,過著舒眉悠閒的 的有機廢料之上」後,立即花容失色尷尬不知如何 退休生活。 走回上岸。本件作品得到策展人力薦推舉得建築雙 年 展 金 獅 獎, 評 審 團 以 這 兩 位 建 築 師 尚 出 道 太

屋主對馬可設計讚譽有加。建築完成以後,屋主

嫩,終局投反對票, 把獅子給了讓·努維爾( Jean 曾對建築結構能否遮擋每年都來台灣報到的颱風季 Nouvel) 。紐約時報著名建築評論家赫伯特穆象 有些存疑。 「馬可長期在基地上工作,果然將基地

( Herbert Muschamp)則在專文力贊《六十分鐘 條件學習透徹。主屋和偏房有條中空的小走廊,當

人》:「 2000 威尼斯建築雙年展最佳實踐作品!」 颱風來襲,狂風吹,風順著走廊快速越過,主屋反 扳回一城。

而 感 受 不 到 風 的 強 力。 夏 天 中 午 農 園 燠 熱 無 法 下 田,走廊和牆面上間隔有致的空隙,能攔截風與溪

森林密佈湖光山色的自然景色一直是芬蘭引以為 水和田地互通涼氣,主屋的睡床確是涼快,剛好睡 傲的國家代表風光,尋常人家熱愛倘佯其間採莓拔 午 覺。 果 然, 是 棟 和 自 然 共 生 的 好 宅!」 陳 夫 婦 菇,商人愛作開發搾取得利。馬可某日看報,在克 說。 利自然公園 ( Koli Nature Park)有人把整片山谷買 下,官方當局發核可執照,砍樹準備投資滑雪場。

未來城市的廢墟學

《千百旗》1000 White Flages

此舉引來居民強烈不滿,在芬蘭砍樹是件違反道德 的事,而滑雪場砍的剛好又是原住民傳統認定祖靈

2004 年為始馬可成立個人建築事務所 C 實驗室

居住的所在。居民既惱又氣,用盡所有抗議手段阻 ( Casagrande Laboratory, C-Lab ),按專案所需 止砍伐,甚至把身子綁在樹上,若電鋸落下便和樹 集結建築、都市規劃、藝術、社會學和科學等各領 生 死 與 共。 馬 可 看 完 新 聞, 決 定 站 在 雞 蛋 的 一 域專家共謀合作。他在幾年間陸續提出「第三代城 方,買一千條床單,到一家精神療養院把新床單免 市」、 「終極廢墟」、 「都市針灸術」等建築思 費換院民使用過的舊床單。每條舊床單綁在一根細 想,以尊重「在地知識」 ( Local knowledge )為 鐵柱上,到案發現場,在每棵樹倒下的地方,插上 本,寓言建築未來。近期他將和台灣「忠泰建築藝 一 根 旗。 作 品 題 名《 千 白 旗 》 (1000 White 術 文 化 基 金 會 」 合 作, 在 台 北 即 將 拆 除 老 舊 街 區

Flags),照片透過媒體變成新聞輿論紛紛,此時商 裡,構築獨立於僵化教育體制之外的廢墟建築學院

家忽然表示抽手開發案,願意道歉把砍下的樹再種 ( Ruin Academy) 。 最 後 回 收 拆 除 後 的 建 築 廢 回去。徐志摩說:「數大便是美」 《千白旗》極簡 料,師法昆蟲建築的方法蓋「蟲洞」作為臨時性展 直 接 不 囉 唆, 挽 回 一 片 森 林。 馬 可 的 建 築 裝 置 作 演 空 間。 若 問 馬 可 最 想 設 計 的 建 築 為 何? 他 總 笑 品,精準達到定能構著美學高度,毫無畏懼的實現 答,目前尚還未有任何甲方有勇氣, 讓他設計購物

建築語彙昇華底藴精神。

商場或摩天大樓。若有此機會,他也早在腦裡構築 建築藍圖「廢墟,一座經設計過後與大自然共生的

喜歡自己流汗的建築

廢 墟!」 馬 可 說。 香 港 詩 人 陳 滅( 陳 智 德 ) 有 篇 《詩幻留形·詩與公眾世界》 文中評論文學的公共

曾和馬可多次合作的建築師謝英俊曾說最欣賞他 意義,試將他的嘉言用「建築」代換「文藝」為關 是 個 動 手 之 人。 動 嘴 賣 弄 風 尚 的 建 築 師 如 過 江 之 鍵字,得句「以建築的美來抗衡時代主潮的暴虐和 鯽,會下崗和夥伴一道勞動則是奇談。設計建築自 醜陋,以建築的真去揭露潮流的偽假和遮蔽性」謹 己蓋,事必躬親對馬可來說是實踐設計理念的一部 以此作為馬可在建築思想操作上的小注。 份, 過 程 包 含 無 數 創 造 性 的 思 考。 他 大 量 手 繪 草

《三芝陳宅》Chen House


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

31

work's message further they took out small adverts in borrowed temporarily and following the Biennial would

newspapers, inviting people onsite to attend a party be recycled rather than creating more rubbish – one of

on the day of a traditional sacrificial festival celebrating mankind's deadly sins against nature. Marco recalls that the autumn fall. They invited everyone to come and eat on the day of the official opening reception, the visitors

barbecued sausages and vodka for free. Perhaps it was were mostly architectural art critics, curators and media due to the liquor and flesh, but that day a whole 6000 correspondents; there were also the usual uptown

people filled the fields to witness modern dancer Reijo ladies sporting high-heels who seem to have access to

Kela perform an improvised flaming torch dance, during all the international architectural events, who strolled

which he gradually set alight the barns, leaving the happily through the park until they reached the last audience in awe at the roaring flames. If the world was corner and found a white marble stone inscribed with experiencing a primordial awakening, then the barns the words “This park has been planted on 60 minutes appeared to be exuding a blazing roar, they even looked worth of human waste produced by the city of Venice.” as if they were walking, taking flight south towards the Their faces turned turn pale in shock as they frantically

city.

searched for the path back to safety on shore. Curator

Massimilliano Fuksas propositioned that 60 Minute

A t f i r s t t h e a u d i e n c e t h o u g h t t h e b u r n i n g w a s Man should receive the Golden Lion of the Biennale. an accident, but they were soon infected by the The jury however felt that it was too soft a debut from

magnificence of the three barns imploding into fireballs two architects and voted against the work, awarding it before slowly falling to ashes. The audience gasped in instead to Jean Nouvel. However, Herbert Muschamp,

awe and their eyes watered; the surreality of the work a reputed architectural critic for the New York Times

which appeared to transcend the borders of reality met gave the work some consolation, publishing a feature

with the audience's stream of consciousness creating throwing praise on 60 Minute Man as his personal a sacred space full of ceremonial feeling. The following favourite of the Venice Biennale of Architecture 2000. day the images of the flaming barns made front page

of the national newspapers and by the end of the week Forests, lakes and mountains form the picturesque

the video footage had spread to the international media. landscapes for which Finland is so proud to be

The young architects who had been on the point of known. While most people are content to roam these shutting up shop had now attracted the attention of the beautiful lands picking mushrooms and strawberries,

international media and that year they won a prestigious entrepreneurs love to develop and squeeze the land for “AR Award for Emerging Architecture” judged by the profits. One day Marco awoke to read in the newspaper

most established and authoritative journalistic voice that someone had bought a whole valley in the Koli

in the architectural world - the Architectural Review Nature Park. Official approval had been given and a

and the Royal Institute of British Architects. Today, license issued. The owners were investing in ski resorts some ten years later, people still tease Marco saying: and intended to cut down hundreds of trees for this

most architects make a name for themselves by purpose. The proposal had greatly incited the anger of

designing and constructing a cutting-edge building, your the locals. breakthrough came from burning them down.

In Finland the felling of trees is considered to be a moral

The following year, the Venice Architecture Biennale violation, furthermore this piece of land happened to be

curator Massimiliano Fuksas invited Marco and Sami to occupied by the ancestral spirits of the local indigenous

realise an architechtonic installation commenting on the population. The enraged locals were prepared to

theme of that year's exhibition: Città: less aesthetics, adopt all measures to prevent the felling of the trees,

more ethics. They inherited an abandoned 50-metre to the extent that some had tied themselves to the

waste barge, named “Topoggia” from Chioggia, trees, prepared to die with them when the electric

50km from Venice to function as the skeleton frame of chainsaws came roaring down. When Marco saw the

their work, in which they would resurrect the dead ship news he came down on the side of the underdog and

of scrap metal as an oak garden. Marco thought that subsequently he bought a thousand brand new, plain

though the idea of temporarily changing the barges white sheets which he gave free to a mental hospital

function was valuable in itself, but he thought that a in exchange for the old used sheets. At the site of the

je ne sais quoi, a little extra something was needed incident Marco's team affixed each sheet to an iron to make it a more complete work. Thus, Marco set pole, staking each 'flag' into the ground at the exact

out to research the daily journey of self-improvement site of where a tree was chopped down. The images of taken by Venice's man-made organic (digested) waste, the artwork entitled 1000 White Flags artwork emerged

flushed from each resident's toilet before passing all over the media, rifling public opinion and it was at

through several environmental health processes in a this time when the entrepreneur himself interrupted the sewage treatment plant outside the city. Furthermore, development project, apologized for the felled trees and

a portion of this biologically purified waste would be promised to grow new ones to replace them. 1000 White

used as compost soil. Marco found the waste cycle Flags was a case of beauty in great numbers, while it

particularly interesting, so he calculated how much was minimalist and direct it succeeded in bringing part

purified waste made its way from the people of Venice of a forest back to life. Marco takes great precision with

to the treatment facility every 60 minutes and borrowed his architectural creations to achieve a high aesthetic

that exact amount of purified waste from the treatment and fearlessly realizes a poetic architectural vocabulary

facility to use in their boat-laden park. It took a full seven to sublimate the underlying spiritual connotations. weeks to fill the boat up from the bottom layer before

replanting 22 oak trees and topping it off with a layer of

white gravel. For the opening ceremony of the Biennale the forest ship sailed forth proudly and mightily into

Doing is believing: The sweet taste of one's own sweat and tears

Venice's Arsenal where it set up ship and acted as a The Taiwanese architect Hsieh Ying-chun ( 謝英俊 ) who

public park for the duration of the Biennale. For Marco, has collaborated several times with Marco, once said

the works' significance was in creating a heterogeneous that what he most appreciates about the man is his landscape space by synthesizing the forest imagery hands-on approach. Fashionable architects with wily with renewable resources. All of the materials used were mouths are ten-a-penny, but those who can step down


32 Anarchist Gardener

Public art work by Miina Äkkijyrkkä

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

from their pedestal to work alongside the labourers notion of the house as a lightweight vessel, capable

are extremely rare. For Marco, it is a crucial part of the of weathering difficult conditions with ease and

33

Ruinology of the future city

design ideal that you also take part in the construction, elegance.”

because during the process there is unlimited About a year after the Chen House was completed, In 2004, Marco established the C-lab (Casagrande

opportunity for creative reflection. Marco has a strong I had the honour of being invited back to the house Laboratory) his own architect office bringing together

preference for hand drawn diagrams, and doesn't trust for a gathering with the owners. The property had a experts from the disciplines of architecture, urban computers much. He sees 3D computer models as completely different appearance from the initial photos planning, art, sociology, science and others depending

nothing more than flimsy advertisements, and much in which the wooden hut was an isolated structure on the requirements of the commission. Over a few prefers to make different sized scale models to test for surrounded by barren land. The retired Chen couple years Marco successively conceptualised the Third

lighting and shadow. Each architectural construction adore the idyllic rural lifestyle and now every inch Generation City, Ultra Ruin and Urban Acupuncture,

should have a unique rustic quality, as one's sweat of the land is overflowing with plant life, fruits and prophesizing a future for architecture based on

vegetables, with everything from cherry trees, to sugar profound respect for local knowledge. In recent times,

flows so will the personal revelations.

cane. There is now also a pond and some fearsome he has been collaborating with the JUT Foundation

Marco's 2008 bioclimatic architectural work Chen geese guarding the gates to the property while they for Arts and Architecture to create the Ruin Academy,

House in Sanzhi, New Taipei City, was a supreme graze on the grass. The Chen couple have nothing an interdisciplinary 'academy' independent of the display of handcraftsmanship oozing with rustic but praise for Marco's design which allows them to rigid college academic system, on an old Taipei street

feeling. The farmhouse cost less than the basic interior make the most of their leisurely life of retirement. block soon to be demolished. At the end of the project

decorations of an average Taipei apartment, and was The owners initially held some doubts about whether he will use insect architecture, recycling the leftovers

constructed almost entirely using Meranti, the reddish the structure could really stand up against the terrific of the demolished UrbanCore block to construct 'Bug

tropical hardwood and concrete for the foundations. typhoons which return to the island year on year. Marco proposed 'Ultra Ruin' as the design strategy

Domes' which will function as temporary exhibition spaces. And what if you were to ask Marco what

for the house which he constructed with Taiwanese The Chen couple told us: “Marco spent a long time architectural work he would like to design most of all?

architect Frank Chen, son of the current owner's working on the site and as a result had thoroughly He would smile and reply that he not yet encountered

of the house. Chen House successively won a understood all the conditions of the land. There is a a group with the guts to give him a shopping mall or 20+10+X World Architecture Community Award and short walkway in between the main and side rooms, skyscraper project. He has long before constructed

was nominated for the best single house award at and when a typhoon strikes, the blustering winds a blueprint in his mind were such an opportunity to

the World Architecture Awards. Previously Taiwan blow rapidly through the open ends of the walkway, come along one day: “A ruin, a ruin that has been

had been regarded as an architectural desert by while the main room does not suffer the brunt of the designed to coexist with nature”. Hong Kong poet

the Architectural Review (AR) magazine; practically strong winds. During the sweltering summer heat, the Chan Chi Tak ( 陳智德 / 陳滅 ) wrote an article in which

no Taiwanese work had ever earned a space in the intentional gaps all over the walls and walkway allow he explored the social significance of literature. If we

publication. Even when Taiwan could finally bask the cool air to ventilate the building whilst nonetheless borrow the poet's exquisite wording, but substitute

in the glory of having completed the construction of being protected from the fierce winds and river floods; the word 'art' with 'architecture' one could summarise Taipei 101, at the time the tallest building in the world, so at midday, when it is too hot to tend to the fields, the architectural philosophy and modus operandi

the magazine simply ridiculed the construction, further the main room remains cool. Perfect for an afternoon with which Marco fans the flames of radical poetry:

bruising the confidence of Taiwanese architecture. nap! Therefore it is a great little house that can coexist “With the beauty of architecture counterbalance the Chen House was a rare case to receive the plaudits with nature and his unpredictable temper.”

ugliness and oppression by the mainstream; with the

Slessor, heaped praise on the poetry contained in the

fashions of our times”.

of the critics, and an AR senior editor Catherine

work: “The timber also underscores Casagrande's

TOP 10

truth of architecture expose the fake and surreptitious

TOP 10

RUI N HITS

R UI N ACC E P TA B L E M AC H I N E S 1.Do They Owe Us A Living 2.Silver Machine 3.Der Mussolini 4.Das Model 5.Steel Diamond Part IV 6.After Forever 7.Macbeth 8.Putte-possun nimipäivät 9.Big Balls 10.Too Drunk to Fuck

/Crass / 1978

1.Land Rover Devender 110

/ Hawkwind / 1972

2.Lockheed C-130 Hercules

/ D.A.F. / 1981

3.KTM 300 EXC 2-stroke

/ Kraftwerk / 1978

4.Antonov An-2

/ Night Satan / 2011

5.IMZ-Ural 650

/ Black Sabbath / 1971 / Laibach / 1990 / Kipparikvartetti / 1953 / AC/DC/ 1981 / Dead Kennedys / 1981

6.Volkswagen Type 1 7.Boeing CH-47 Chinook 8.Kamaz 6-wheel drive 9.Ford 4000 10.6 inch concrete drill


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

35


36 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

觀望對角交叉 引火線 忠泰建築文化藝術基金會 執行長李彥良 X 馬可.卡 薩格蘭對話錄

提問|巫祈麟.吳牧青 記錄|Nikita Wu ·Frank Chen 人對談的時間是暴雨後的夏日下午,離廢

李:我第一次碰到 Marco 是去朋友家,我與

M:通常經營地產開發較與人的敏感性相對。

兩墟建築學院開幕日僅剩兩天。園丁們還在

另一友人開車,半路就碰到阮慶岳跟 Marco

上下來回的在五樓各層間進行改裝工程,芬蘭

拿著啤酒走在路上。我跟那時候同行的友人也

成而已,他仍然保有對人事物可貴而直接敏

三溫暖才用紅磚疊好了基礎。Marco 火力全開的

在車上喝著啤酒,正同往相同朋友家。那時就

感度。我很難知道這樣特出的特質,會不會

勞 動 全 身 髒 臭, 李 彥 良 亦 是 在 忙 碌 的 公 務

覺得 Marco 這個人是可以當朋友的,大家都

因為長期在商場打滾後而漸失。他成立基金

間,單身抽空前來探訪學院。兩人皆有些疲

愛邊走路邊喝啤酒嘛(笑),不知道他還記不

會,好像就是想維繫著某種敏感的厚度,我

憊,坐定剛剛釘好可在房間各處自由滑動的木

記得?到那位共同朋友家後,我們就還是聊天

覺得這很有意思。基金會可能不像本體事業

床,對談前���視而笑,先開瓶台啤再說!兩位

喝酒,便聊到 Marco 的作品。

一樣會賺錢,有點像繁葉茂盛的粗枝上附生 依存的藤蔓一般,兩者間和諧共生互補有無。

皆生於 1971 年各成長於東西兩洲,似乎都在作 與自己既定的建築專業角色上跨界與跨領域的 事,用更人性的角度貼緊世界,反轉建築界裡

但我感覺,彥良他不是守舊的墨守成規坐享其

第一個作品便是《大地的逃脫》 ( Land(e)

scape),三個穀倉往城市的方向走之後被燒

的常規和因襲。正都向著未來跨出自己的路

掉的東西。我有很深的感受,我覺得 Marco

數,窮盡氣力往下一代的建築走去。

的 東 西 都 很 簡 單 清 楚。 在 他 的 感 情 思 惟 也 好,力量也好,都很大。即使我第一次接觸

基金會也許不是賺錢機器,但輪轉運作間卻 照料人的潛意識和敏感性。我想,在他眼底 看來,我是一株菟絲。 李: 其 實 透 過 像 跟 Marco 這 樣 的 有 才 華 和

■來自不同文化背景和國家你們兩位怎麼

他或第一次了解他做 Land(e)scape 的原因跟

看待彼此?最深刻的印象是什麼?

理由,除了單純了解,還能領受到作品背後

事情的感受力,我從小是一個感受力比較強

的真意。Marco 往後的其他作品也一樣,有

的人,但透過教育歷程和工作鍛鍊,我常覺

種直指人心的單純力道。

得這種感受力越見遲鈍退化。面對工作大小

( 以下馬可.卡薩格蘭簡稱 M ,李彥良簡稱李)

性格的人合作,是可以讓自己一直去保持對

空間,老是周旋於跟人接觸往來或是商業條 M: 我覺得他是個充滿正面驚奇的人。一直以

這 給 我 很 大 的 刺 激, 住 在 都 市 或 做 建

件能否賺錢這些事情上面,亦發覺我越來越

來我對地產開發商很有成見,從一個建築師

築,其實很少有如此難得的感動存在。若能

遲鈍,漸失對世界的感受性。和 Marco 在一

的角度點來看,地產開發某種程度,腐化收

把 對 於 空 間 和 建 築, 這 般 簡 單 深 遠 地 感

起,可以找回自己那種比較…我覺得與其說

買建築,使建築看來很糟。最理想的狀況是

動,傳遞到住在建築物裡的人也能同等深刻

因為認識 Marco 而去開發很多新面向,不如

每個人都能依照自己的需要蓋自己的屋舍,使

感 受。 那 麼 就 會 補 強 現 今 建 築 所 缺 少 的 元

說是時刻提點著自己保持一種赤子純真。在

建築隨人永續發展。但現況是,地產開發就是

素。我很想試著去把這些令人體味感動的分

快要被木化的境況中,保持吸收力柔軟度。

要從你身上賺錢。所以我們之間現在的合作是

子,融入都市水泥建築中。

並期許自己用這樣的一種方式,不要變成別 人眼中既定的角色。

蠻難得,好像身處另一個世界般。我知道他的 本業是地產開發,但我不覺得他僅在作地產開

因此聽完他的分享,心裡就想我一定要跟

發,或者我們之間跟房產有什麼關係。像他主

這個人合作。也許他有刺激的人生經歷,或

但這也極有可能是對於未來可能性的潛

持的忠泰建築文化藝術基金會就是一例,我覺

許多看來瘋狂想法,但他似乎都不畏困難有

望,其實世代轉變,很多東西在我們小時候

得基金會是他某種個人理想性的意志延伸。又

勇氣去追逐。我覺得這會激勵我自己,能夠

跟現在已經都不一樣。對建築或是空間的概

看到基金會的成員們如何對待工作,他們正在

在當下的環境去做更多事,還有很多未境之

念也應該跟著時代前進不斷改變,所以我想

發酵著新思惟且頗具水準,我亦見證到認識他

地等著我去發掘。我想不管用各種方式來跟

保持彈性,保持面對改變活力。以一種有信

的短短時間之中,他的轉變。

這有點狂的人合作。

心又自在從容姿態,面對新的未來。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

37

Watching the Kindling at the Diagonal Angle A Conversation between CEO of JUT Foundation Aaron Lee and Architect Marco Casagrande

Interviewers | Nikita Wu, Frank Chen Compiled | Ouch Wu Translation | C.J. Anderson-Wu

T

he talk was held in a summer afternoon after new and laudable thinking about architecture. I also M: Real estate developers usually are less sensitive,

a rainstorm, two days before the opening of have seen how much Aaron has changed during the but I noticed Aaron is never satisfied with what he

the Ruins Academy. All the gardeners were still short time since I got to know him. preoccupied by the remodeling work, they ran up and

has been given and what he has been doing, he

maintains a precious quality of sensibility, he is

down in the five-floor building. The Finnish sauna has Lee: I ran into Marco when I was heading for a straightforward and sensitive. I had wondered if

only the foundation of stacked red bricks done, Marco friend's home with another friend, we were driving such a quality would lose eventually if one stays in

needed to speed up despite he was already doing and saw Roan Ching-Yueh and Marco walk and drink the market for a long time. Then he established the

his best. He smelled sweat and dirt. Aaron squeezed beer. My friend and I were also drinking beer despite Foundation, it seems to me his effort of maintaining

some time from his tight schedule to stop by, both we were driving. Even at the first sight I felt Marco his sensibility, and I was interested. A foundation

guys were tired. They sat down on the wooden bed and I would be friends because he drank beer while can't make money like its parent company, it would

the team had just manufactured, which was designed walking(laugh). I don't know if Marco still remembers be like vine crawling over the strong trunks of thriving

to be movable in different rooms. Smiling to each how we met. We chatted and continued drinking after trees, they are complementary to one another. A

other, the two men decided they should pour down a arriving the friend's home, and Marco's work was foundation is not for profit, but it nourishes people's

bottle of Taiwan beer first.

brought up.

subconscious and sensibility. Perhaps to Aaron I

am a Chinese Dodder crawling on the trunk of his

They both were born in 1971, one in the East one The first work mentioned was “Land(e)scape”- foundation. in the North, both men have been working hard to three barns walked toward the city then got on fire-

bring architecture into different fields and reverse I was moved. Marco's projects are clear and easy to Lee: In fact, working with talented people like Marco the convention of the practice so architecture could understand, his feelings and thoughts all carry great is how I maintain sensibility. I have been a very

be a more humane approach for building. Both energy, so I could see his motivation of creating sensitive person since I was a kid, but my education

men spared no effort to bring architecture to a new “Land(e)scape” when I just knew him. Marco's and my occupation made my senses blunt since direction toward the next generation.

■ You guys are from very different cultural backgrounds, how do you think of each other? What impresses you most from each other? (Marco Casagrande is represented as M, Aaron Lee is represented as Lee in the following text.)

later projects are all straightforward, they possess I have to negotiate with business partners about simple but inspiring force.

whether we can make profit or not all the time.

Working with Marco I feel I can find... my work

I w a s i n c i t e d . L i v i n g i n c i t i e s a n d w o r k i n g o n with Marco indeed helps me discover more sides

architecture I seldom felt such a flash of insight. I about myself, but above of it, I can remind myself

wished I could pass on how I felt about it to others to maintain the innocence of a child as much as through my work of architecture. The thing I have possible. Before becoming rigid, one should struggle

to do is to make up what has missed in today's to maintain a soft and absorbing personality. I

M: Aaron is a person full of surprises. As an architect architecture. I want to mix the factors that touch expect myself not to be the character projected by

I never gave developers credit, they are corrupt, they people into the concrete for urban buildings.

buy off architects and produce terrible architecture.

stereotypic ideas.

I wish people are able to build the houses they need

so architecture sustains, but the reality is, developers After listening to Marco's talk, I was determined to It also is about our hope for the future. Many things

w a n t t o m a k e m o n e y f r o m p e o p l e . T h a t ' s w h y work with him. He might have many crazy ideas but in my childhood are gone during the generational working with Aaron is quite unusual, I feel like I was he never was afraid to take them on. It encouraged replacement, so ideas about spaces and architecture in another world. I knew real estate development is me to do more things under the current conditions should respond to the changes. I want to be flexible,

his business, but he is working on something other and there were so many things I could discover with to maintain the rigor of facing changes so we will

than development, so I don't have to be involved with him. I decided to work with this crazy guy, with any be prepared to take on the future challenges with

development. The Foundation is one example, it is means I could think of.

going to materialize Aaron's ideals. I have seen how

the staff of JUT Foundation works, they are brewing

confidence.


38 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

■你們小時候的成長經驗如何?在記憶裡 如何看待那時候的城市居住經驗?

■兩位都為人父,請問你對小朋友們面對 未來世界有何期待?

■當 Marco 提出這個廢墟建築學院的計 畫,彥良在第一時間上有什麼回應?

李:小時候的記憶 .... 我們大概都同一個世

M:首先,我要說我一點也不擔心未來的世

李:找合作對象,基本上就是對他做的事情

代,在台灣成長最重要的事情就是念書、補

界。我希望孩子是能適應各種環境的野蠻人。

完 全 信 任。 我 從 旁 考 量 比 較 務 實 的 問 題。

習、就學壓力。那我小時候比較多的記憶是不

可在蠻荒中生存,能適應芬蘭氣候環境。在森

比 如 說, 會 不 會 倒 掉 啦! 成 本 會 不 會 有 問

斷搬家,每兩到三年就會搬一次家。老是不停

林裡知曉採野菇野梅、打獵、釣魚,如何生火

題 ... 因 為, 我 覺 得 案 子 能 得 真 正 落 實, 很

的從一個地方搬到另一地。每移居一處就會對

煮食,在下雨或下雪的自然環境下露營。同

像英文字母的大寫 A 一樣,需要兩隻腳,一

那個地點的不同之處吸引,譬如曾經住在昌吉

時,也知道世界上存在很多不同的價值觀。但

個要踩在能力,一個站在感性。可能多數創

街,以前那有屠宰豬廠,每天都會聽到豬的

人們卻分享著某一種在地智慧,而這不管在芬

意者,感性的地方佔多些。那我們就在比較

哀號聲,再來就是目擊一條條掛在杆子上,被

蘭、在捷克或在台灣各處那都一樣。這是讓人

理 性 這 一 面。 重 點 是, 是 屬 於 比 較 支 持、

扒了皮的豬,那是一個印象。也住過飛機場旁

頭腦發想的基準錨點,走到哪兒都能生存。這

support 的角色,它不能跨到上面去。如果

兩、三年,所以記憶就是聽飛機起降,剛搬過

是我對孩子們的期望。

理性往上跨,那麼偏感性的理想特質,很容

去的時候很不習慣,沒法入睡也沒法念書,沒

易會被現實給壓抑。不管執行任何案子,一

辦法做任何事情。等我搬離之後,試著回想那

李:我跟 Marco 有點不太一樣,我還沒有當

旦要做,就是要讓創意發想者/執行者,盡

段過去,我不太記得有聽過任何其他的聲音。

父母之前,就是父母的兒子,對於世界並不關

情發揮。我們就在重點上作提醒,比如安全

人對環境有很強的適應力,在一個環境時間一

心,因為天塌下來還有父母可以扛。但當我有

問 題。 這 案 子 Marco 希 望 挖 洞, 好, 雖 然

長,就不覺得噪音公害是有問題。我有些同學

小孩,變為父母後,我變得很關心世界,因為

有點怕,可是結構技師說沒有問題,還是挖

住在菜市場裡面,功課很厲害都拿第一名。邊

我們做的任何事或是型塑的世界,都會跟小孩

吧!譬如說,桑拿要有火,那我就提醒,那

賣魚、賣菜但一樣讀書。我也住菜市場,那時

子將來產生緊密的關聯。我有一兒一女。傳統

就 備 幾 支 滅 火 器! 希 望 Marco 在 這 些 基 礎

感覺菜市場什麼東西都有,我買的第一個打火

觀念對於女兒跟兒子的期待,都有些不同。有

上,可以很順利把他的設計概念呈現出來。

機,抽的第一口香煙,吃的第一顆檳榔都是住

回跟 Marco 吃飯也講到這事,女兒總歸就留

不要加進去任何附加的想法,而致整個計畫

在菜市場的記憶。大概是國二之後,最後一次

在身旁就好,以後最好不要嫁了(笑),嫁誰

變的歪斜或扭曲,重點是協助整場計畫實現

搬家,直住到現在,在那個之後,就是另外一

都不對。他跟我講這種心情,後來我回去想一

出來,這是我們扮演的角色。

段成長歲月。

想,好像我也是這樣子。奇怪的是,我父親希 望我能變成他,某個程度上,我也意望著兒子

Marco:我兒時住在靠北極拉普蘭 Ylitonio 小

M:當我和彥良一起作事。是建立在互相信

能成另一個自己。不知道是受傳統影響或是何

任和賭注上,我們下海一道兒賭。知道我是

村莊,村裡僅一條大街供人聚集的地方,鄰人

種因素因果牽連?當然知道自己是一個獨立的

機遇的遇合。有時候,我提出的方案猛看缺

還有養乳牛。過了街或說村外就是遊牧民族薩

個體,有著完整生命。但冥冥中,總想著若兒

乏合理性,但我只道出真感實受。當我第一

米族人的地盤。我父親是警長,所以全家住在

子傳承我的人生,在我能提供的保護羽翼中和

次來到廢墟建築學院的現址,五層樓的空間

村裡政府為公務人員蓋唯一一棟公寓裡。小時

我活過的經驗裡,能教他趨吉避凶善辨好壞。

全被隔滿小小的學生雅房,居住的品質很像

後就發覺遊牧民族和村裡人有著不一樣的行

豬圈集中營或雞舍。簡直是地獄!所以第一

事處事態度。薩米人自成一套律法,我父親雖

還有另一點,在中國人或華人的父親,老

件要務,就是把隔層夾板全打掉連窗戶也拆

也是那地薩米人的警長。但薩米人卻視政府單

是覺得好像一代不如一代,父親對於兒子好

光,讓屋子的空氣再度流通呼吸。跟彥良和

位為無物,也不喜歡在村裡停留。薩米人一生

像 總 是 覺 得 不 夠。 我 父 親 也 可 能 覺 得 我 不

基金會首提的設計方案。他說OK ,但又想

和大地為伍,不需識字。但根據芬蘭法律,若

夠,再想我爺爺可能也覺得我父親不夠,回

了一下:「我們還是找結構技師來看一下好

要開車就要考駕照,代表你認字。發照的政府

頭再看我兒子我也覺得他需要精進些。後來

了」。技師覺得打洞沒結構上的顧慮。所以

機關正是警察。這當然也是父親職務之一,有

對於這事情有個比較釋���的想法。我認為每

,現在雨水可以在各樓層中竄流。像我們現

一兩回看到薩米族人來到辦公室,申請駕照。

個 下 一 代 所 面 對 的 環 境, 與 所 需 生 存 技

在坐的三樓,大木床上輪子,可以隨時依照

明明早會開車但總卡在認字關。他們問父親若

能,要面對解決的問題可能不太一樣。就是

需求推到房間的各處去。廢墟建築學院沒有

你是全村裡最有資格發照的人,代表很有權

說,你不一定要追著他,好像什麼東西不如

主事者支持和全然理解,我們今天就不會在

力,那就發給我們那張小紙片就好。父親總要

你一樣,反而是看著他,有些東西是你沒有

這兒把酒言歡。

勸他們不是他有權力,而是要服膺法律。但最

的。我覺得我慢慢說服自己,需要看到那個

後父親還是發照給他們。我記得那時打開門就

部份,這部份也許是下一世代最重要,最具

遇見大自然,一派天地寬廣。

精神力的特質。你沒法自己跳下來挑戰他世 界裡的事。

全家人頭一回到南方城市圖爾庫( Turku) 探望祖母。以現代都市尺度來說,根本是迷你

M:我了解這可能會是對父親與兒子間的關係

小城。我發現城裡充滿約束,父母叫我不能亂

很奇怪的回應。因為對我來說生命存在的價值

走, 因 為 路 上 車 多, 我 完 全 不 知 如 何 過 馬

就是不斷的創作。若我沒法創造,就終結了

路,他們教我看紅綠燈,小紅人停小綠人行之

任何可能性。不管我有機會蓋座五層高的建

類,我覺得頭一次瞭解村外的薩米族人為什麼

築,或基地的尺度僅是一盤沙,我都能創作。

不想進村裡,腳長在自己身上,要到哪兒都行

創作使我有意義,避免發瘋。對我來說,童年

才 對。 從 此, 我 對 城 市 總 是 抱 著 遲 疑 的 態

就是我創作力的泉源。幼時的我,如住在身體

度, 一 定 有 什 麼 事 情 出 了 錯, 所 以 不 能 自

裡的小爸爸一樣,照護著我的創作力。我珍視

由。這是我兒時記憶。

著長駐心頭兒時的記憶,那迷你的阿爸。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

39

charge of the driving license issuance, and since never was satisfied with my father, and I am never

■ What it was like in your childhood? What he is the most powerful person he should just issue satisfied with my son. Later I liberated myself from them the small paper cards. My father explained to such a legacy by thinking that the challenges every were your experiences of living in cities? them it's not about his power, and everyone should generation will have to face are different. Comparing

Lee: My childhood... we are the same age but in obey the laws. My father issued them driving license your children with you of course you'd always see Taiwan, the most important thing of a child was study, anyway you went to school then cram schools, study was

something missing, instead, you should see what

they possess and you don't. I convinced myself,

the greatest burden of a child. My memory about I remember in the small village once the house door slowly, that the strengths my children have and I don't

my childhood was my family moved all the time, we was opened we were exposed in nature, expansive might be the most crucial key for them, the mentality

moved every two or three years. Each time we moved landscape under the sky. The first time my family paid they will need in the future. You can't leap into their I'd be attracted by something in the new place, one a visit to my grandmother in a southern city Turku, battles to fight for them. time we lived in Changji Street, near a slaughter a small town compared to modern cities, I found

house. Everyday we heard the wailing of pigs. Later confined in the city. My parents asked me not to fool M: It's an unusual reflection upon the father-son

in the slaughter house I saw skinned pigs hung over around since there were cars running. I did not know relationship. To me the core of life is to create new in rows, it was quite a strong image printed in my how to go across a road so they told me the rules of works endlessly, if I stop creating, everything stops.

memory. We also had lived in a place near the airport traffic lights: “Little red man means one should stop, I can work with a five-story building or simply with a

for two or three years. It was hard in the beginning, little green man means one can go.” For the first pile of sand, nothing can stop me. My creation gives

I couldn't sleep, couldn't study or do anything at all time I thought I could relate why Sami people did not me the meanings of life, I will be insane if I stop. My with the noises. After we moved away the only sound like to be in town. As nomad, they were supposed childhood was the well of my creation and the little

I could remember during that time was the noises to be able to go anywhere they wanted. I began to me living inside me up to now is parenting me and of airplanes. People are great in adapting to the have doubt about cities, there must be something my creativity. I cherish my childhood memory. conditions of a place, living in the place for a long gone wrong so people were not free in cities.

time one might be no longer bothered by the noises.

Some of my classmates lived in the food market ■ You both are fathers, what do you expect for ■ When Marco proposed the idea of the Ruins but performed greatly in school. One of them had to your children in the future? Academy, what was Aaron's first reaction? sell fish and study at the same time, but he always

took the first place in my class. I lived next to a food M: First I want to make clear that I don't worry

Lee: You should have full trust to your partners.

market one time and thought I could find everything about the future at all. And I hope my children are I only have to think of practical issues like: Will it

from the market. My first lighter, first sip of cigarette like primitive people who can adapt to all kinds of sustain? How much it costs? The realization of an and first betel nut all came from the market. The last living conditions so they can survive in the wild, can idea must like the capital A, it needs two legs to time we moved was when I was in the second year feel comfortable with the climate in Finland. When stand firmly. One leg steps on our rationality, the

in junior high. After that my life entered into another in a forest they should know how to pick up wild other steps on our sensibility. Creators might put phase.

mushrooms, how to hunt and fish, how to set fire and more weight on sensibility, so I should take care of cook. They should be able to camp out in rain or in the side of rationality. I am supposed to play the role

M:I grew up in a small village Ylitornio in Lapland, snow.

close to the Polar Circle. There was only one street

as a supporter, had I tried to go beyond this role the

A would be overturned and the creator's sensibility

in the village. Our next door neighbors had reindeers. They also should know there are different values will be wiped out. Once a project is decided to go

Across the only street was the territory of nomad in this world but local wisdom can be shared, no on, the creator/executor must be given full freedom

Sami people. My father was the sheriff, but Sami matter you are in Finland, Czech or in Taiwan. It's the to proceed, and my work is to take care of the

people saw the authorities as nothing, and they never baseline for thinking and one needs it for survival. managerial tasks, such as safety. I was a little scared

hung on in a village for long. Sami people live in That's what I expect from my kids.

nature throughout their life, they don't need to read,

when Marco said he was going to dig holes, but

structure experts decided it was okay so I let go. And

but according to Finland's law, one wants to drive Lee: I am different to Marco. Before becoming a the sauna is heated by fire, then I have to remind must pass the exam for license. Driving licenses were parent, I did not care about the world because I knew him to prepare some extinguishers. I hope Marco

issued by the local police, so it was one of my father's even if the sky collapses my parents would hold it is able to present his ideas without compromising,

responsibilities. One time I saw two Sami people for me. But since I have children anything concerns any intervention of his ideas might twist the project. come to my father's office applying for the issuance me because everything we have done contributes to The role of me and the foundation is to assist the of driving license. They have been driving, just they the shaping of the world, everything might effect my presentation of the creator's ideas. were illiterate and unable to pass the required written children. I have one boy and one girl, traditionally

exam. They questioned my father that he must be parents have different expectation from boys and

the most powerful figure in the village so he was in girls. One time when dinning with Marco and talked M: Working with Aaron is to gamble on our mutual about his daughter, he said he would keep her with trust, we both bet. I take chance sometimes, some

him forever since no one would please him enough of my projects looked unreasonable because I only

to marry her(laugh). I thought about it and realized I talked about my feelings. When the first time I came actually have the same emotions about my daughter.

here, the site of Ruins Academy we are here now,

I saw all the five stories were partitioned into very

My father wished that I could become him, and small rooms for students, I imagined their living

to some degree I also wish my son will be me. quality was no better than the concentration camps

Is it because of tradition or because of karma? for animals. “What a hell!” I told myself and We all know every individual is independent, but decided the partitions and windows must be torn

subconsciously I imagine by son taking over my life down so air and sunlight could get in. I told Aaron

experience so I can provide him protective wings my ideas and he said okay, but after thinking for a according to what I have been through and teach him moment he suggested: “We should have structure

how to tell good from bad, near auspicious things and e x p e r t s t o m a k e a n a s s e s s m e n t . ” S t r u c t u r e

avoid evils.

engineers thought it was not a problem to dig holes

so we did it, now rain water drips in every floor. And the wheeled wooden bed we sit in now can be

Chinese fathers always feel their descendants are pushed to every room at the third floor. Without the worse and worse, the father never feels the son has full understanding of the decision maker, we can't

accomplished enough. I suppose my father never is accomplish the Ruins Academy and we wouldn't be satisfied with my work and my grandfather probably here, drinking and talking happily.


40 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

廢墟建築學院番外篇

文|忠泰建築文化藝術基金會展覽組組長 洪宜玲 攝|Nikita Wu

2

010 年 初,C 實 驗 室( Casagrande Laboratory, C-Lab ) 進 駐

房,無意瞥見一張貼在木板牆上的 97 年課表,顯示房子已經空蕩兩年多之久了。

可 . 卡薩格蘭( Marco Casagrande)和其台灣籍身兼專案經理妻

廢墟建築學院首期工作營,希望招募十五名建築設計、景觀、社會學、美術等

子巫祈麟,在一次與基金會相談甚歡的會面中,討論街區未來拆除前

背景的熱血建築園丁,協力進行基地空間整頓。當時,我們擔心這種勞動苦力的

後,可執行的有趣且具實驗性的計畫。當時,Marco 提及 2007 年建

粗活,恐怕吸引不到幾位來報名,Nikita 反而樂觀地說:即使沒有志工,我們也

蓋三芝陳宅時,在廢墟工地瞥見泥壺蜂偷運修補屋頂的水泥,混和唾

會把廢墟空間整理完成的。沒想到招募宣言經公告轉貼,不稍幾天信箱大量湧入

液和泥土築窩,啟發他以自然為師,因此,構思回收爛磚破水泥與彎

報名的信件,詢問細節的電話此起彼落,還有一名熱血父親在兒子不知情的狀況

曲鋼條,於街區合體實踐人為廢墟,其歸結為「第三代城市」的都市

下主動幫其報名,甚至在報名表上大字註記“吃苦耐操,身強體健“,後來這位

理論藍本,強調人造之物和大自然合為一體,共相生息。依此為前

建築園丁告訴我,其實父親想參加的欲望比他還積極強烈呢!最後,建築園丁因

提,基金會與 C 實驗室決定共同籌畫另類建築學院,是為「廢墟建築

報名踴躍,增額錄取到二十五名,期間雖然有不堪體力而離開者,但陸續都有再

學院」之誕生。

加入的夥伴,彼此建立開放自主的信任關係,共享上工揮汗下工啤酒的成就感。

UrbanCore 城中藝術街區,來自芬蘭的實驗室主持人建築師馬

時間回溯到 2003 年 10 月,一座長期隱匿在台北盆地境內小山頭

扮演校長兼敲鐘的Marco,總是每天最晚離開卻又最早到基地工作,甚至後來

的寶藏巖聚落,來了一位芬蘭異鄉光頭怪客,手持火炬帶領著黑衣

幾天他和妻子Nikita就乾脆睡在基地,體會廢墟與自然共生的無盡藏。我很少遇

特種部隊,從繁鬧的汀州路拐進幽暗長狹小路,以劇場式的藝術行

到一位像Marco這樣凡事身體力行的建築師,親自帶領著我們搬運板材、敲釘翻

動,自寶藏巖頹圯立面的屋舍間竄出火光,點亮台北都市計畫畫外之

土、操作機具,在建造過程中不大干預或阻斷園丁們的設計想法,而是給予一些

地的寶藏巖。那晚畫面令我震撼且深刻,並對 Marco 這位奇人的創

關鍵性的提醒回饋,雖然過程無可避免地嘗試錯誤,卻能藉由實際印證瞭悟設計

作方式深深著迷。而今,我的身分從單純觀看表演的大眾,變成推展

問題的癥結點。這也讓參與的園丁們重新翻轉對建築學習的認知,不應過度依賴

計畫共事合作夥伴,過程轉折的機緣與巧合,實有一股難掩莫名的興

圖面設計的框架,而是實地走入空間感受尺度,化繁為簡構築真正符合需求的機

奮。

能。套句工頭Marco所言:「設計是解決問題,而不是製造更多問題。」

廢墟建築學院期望藉由一系列議題性探討的工作營,展開對台北

過去,基金會也舉辦幾場建築設計工作營,有幸和國內外具學術專業地位的

市研究與觀察,以探討都市更新下的老街區未來發展的更多實驗可 建築師、相關領域學者合作,自計畫萌芽、內容溝通規劃,至對外公開報名招 能。每期工作營預計三至四周,確立工作執行後,Marco 便開始與之

募、 處 理 行 政 執 行 瑣 碎, 以 迄 進 場 協 調 張 羅, 解 決 不 時 意 外 冒 出 來 的 突 發 狀

前他曾任教過的學校或熟捻的學者朋友聯繫,告知廢墟建築學院擘畫

況,熟悉流程後似乎也累積了一套工作營教戰手冊;但是,這次和 Marco 的合

藍圖,並探詢跨領域、跨國際合作可能,而往往徵詢信件一寄出,不

作,卻有別於先前工作經驗方式,以自力營造開闢學院研究的實驗基石,不僅考

久即收到熱烈的意願回覆,有些學校甚至願意自挑腰包帶學生飛來參

驗基金會現場施工與備料時的應變能力,對平常習慣坐辦公室電腦作業的企劃人

與,這樣的訊息著實為我們打了劑強力信心針。學院基地選定在正對

來說,更是場長時間與肌耐力的拔河。

環保署的巷弄中,地址是中華路一段 85 巷 2 號,左臨防火巷,右側 是一間專做東吳大學城區部學生生意的豆花店,每回進入這棟沈寂無

回想那段密集二十一天的魔鬼工作營,彷彿重溫大學時期與同學連夜趕圖做模

人跡的基地勘查,手動拉起佈滿蜘蛛網和灰塵的鐵捲門,總被生鏽斑

型的青春時光,說真的,經過這次跟在 Marco 身邊學習的歷練,對於現場執行

落的鐵屑弄得全身狼狽,刺激眼睛分泌淚線直流。一樓空間使用機能

功力至少提升數倍,而過程中幸有母公司作為營造諮詢和資源提供的後備,讓一

歷經豆漿店和麵店,二至五樓的頂樓加蓋,則被切隔成數間三坪不到

切可以如此順遂。感謝基金會同事、Nikita,以及園丁夥伴們的協力,讓廢墟建

的小房間,遮蔽了原本可以長驅直入的陽光,愈後面的房間愈像住

築學院的成果獲得各方高度評價與實質肯定,並為我們未來生活型態開創了另一

在密閉的黑盒裡,毫無生活品質可言,散亂一地的籃球雜誌、法律

種實踐的視野。

書籍、廉價三層櫃及貼皮書桌,不難推測之前都是分租給學生的雅


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

41

Ruin Academy Side Stories Text | Yi-ling Hung, Head of Exhibitions, JUT Foundation for Arts and Architecture Translation | Nicholas Coulson

E

arly

in

2 0 1 0 , ahead, Marco got straight to work contacting the schools As both the principal and bell ringer, Marco was always

t h e C a s a g r a n d e at which he had previously taught as well as his former the last to leave the worksite at night and the first to

Laboratory (C-lab) moved students, informing them of the Ruin Academy plans and arrive in the morning and for the last few days he simply into the UrbanCore Arts inquiring about possibilities for cross disciplinary and slept onsite with his wife Nikita to fully experience all the Block after Finnish founder international collaborations. As soon as the messages treasures of coexisting with nature in the ruin. I've rarely

Marco Casagrande and were was sent out there were enthusiastic replies and met an architect who is always setting the example

Nikita Wu, his Taiwanese some schools were even willing to foot the bill to fly and personally leading the way in moving boards,

wife and assistant, met their students over to take part in the camps. This news hammering in nails and operating machinery. During the

w i t h o u r f o u n d a t i o n t o really injected the whole team with a new confidence. construction process he rarely prevents or intervenes in

discuss possible interesting The home base for the Ruin Academy was fixed at the design ideas of the gardeners, only offering some

and experimental ways Zhonghua Rd in the alley opposite the Environmental critical reminders and feedback. While mistakes were

t o m a k e u s e o f t h e Protection Agency; to the left was a fire escape alley and inevitable, the process of trial and error was revelatory UrbanCore street block to the right was a breakfast store serving the students as it allowed the gardeners to discover and understand

space, before and after of Soochow University's city campus. Every time I went where in the design a problem lay; knowing by doing.

its eventual demolition. to explore the derelict site, pulling up the manual iron This process also overturned the participating gardener's M a r c o m e n t i o n e d t h a t shutters covered in cobwebs, my whole body would be cognitive approach to architecture, encouraging them

w h i l e h e w a s b u i l d i n g showered with rust, irritating my eyes so that tears rolled not to be over-reliant on the framework of diagrams, but

Chen House in 2007 he down my cheeks. The first floor had previously been to physically enter a space and feel its scale, simplifying

caught a glimpse of some a noodle shop and before that a breakfast shop. The the construction process for true function. Just like

Delta Pyriforme bees at the ruin worksite, raiding the second to fifth floors (including the converted roof top) the foreman Marco says: “design is about solving cement pile that the construction team were using had been compartmentalised into tiny rooms, blocking problems, not creating new ones.”

to fix the roof, and then mixing the cement with their off the light that had in the past been able to shine

bee saliva and earth to construct their own hives. This through. The further to the back of the building the room In the past JUT has held several architecture and design

inspired Marco to assume nature as his supreme master was, the more it felt like being enclosed in a black box. work camps, in which we have been fortunate enough to and prompted him to conceive a plan in cooperation There was no quality of life to speak of here: basketball cooperate with local and foreign architects and experts with UrbanCore in which they would recycle the ruin's magazines and law books were scattered across the in related fields. These exchanges were a starting point

broken bricks, fragmented concrete and twisted metal floor and there were cheap desks with plastic covers from which to discuss and refine our plans, giving us

to construct a manmade ruin. This was a manifestation and three drawers - it was clear that these rooms were experience in public recruitment, dealing with the trivial

of Marco's blueprint for a Third Generation City in which intended for students. I caught a glimpse of a 2008 administrative and executive details, and coordinating

the manmade and natural are reconciled as one entity, lesson timetable stuck on the wooden walls, indicating onsite to solve suddenly arising problems. As we have

living together harmoniously. Under this pretext the JUT to me that this room must have been uninhabited for become accustomed to the process it feels like we've Foundation and C-Lab agreed to join forces in planning more than two years. an alternative architectural school: the Ruin Academy

was born.

accumulated a teaching manual for work camps. This

cooperation with Marco, however, had something truly

For the Ruin Academy's first work camp we hoped to different from all my previous work camp experience.

gather fifteen passionate 'constructor-gardeners' to The experimental cornerstone of academic research

Backtracking to October 2003, a rather queer shaven- assist in the reorganization of the Academy's home site, through personal involvement in the building process,

headed outsider arrived at the Treasure Hill community, with a variety of backgrounds in architectural design, not only tested our adaptability to onsite construction

which had long been concealed on a small hill in the landscape, sociology, art etc. At the time we feared that and material preparation, but also as planners whose

Taipei Basin. Carrying a flaming torch, the stranger with all the menial jobs and hard labour involved, we normal work involves sitting glued to the computer

led a group fully dressed in black, from the hustle and would barely be able to attract a few recruits. However, screen all day, it was also a long tug of war with our bustle of Gongguan's Tingzhou Street, down the dark, Nikita was optimistic telling us: “even if there are no muscular endurance. long, narrow alleys, emerging at the other end to reveal volunteers, Marco and I will be able to complete the

the tattered houses of Treasure Hill, which existed ruin ourselves”. We didn't expect that within a few Looking back on those 21 hardcore days of work

outside of the boundaries of the Taipei urban planning days of sending out the recruitment bulletin, our inbox camp, they brought me back to my university days, all

sketches; illuminating the community usually hidden in was full of replies and phone calls rolled in one after those long nights I would spend with classmates trying

the shadows of Fortress Taipei. It was a dramatic and another requesting further details about the project. to finish off architectural models. In all honesty, the

peculiar piece of performance art. As a spectator I was One impassioned father took the initiative to sign his education and intuition I acquired from this time spent

deeply fascinated with Marco's unorthodox creative son up for the project without the son even knowing by Marco's side, improved my on the ground execution style and the setting that night remains vivid in my about it; on the application form he wrote “Strong and several times over. We were also fortunate enough to

memory. I struggle to conceal the strange excitement perseverant in body and mind”. Later, this constructor- have the full support of our parent company backing at the coincidence that I have transformed from a pure gardener told me that his father's desire to participate us up with the resources and architectural consultation

spectator of Marco's works to a partner in crime, pushing was even stronger than his own. In the end, due to which allowed for the whole process to advance forward experimental projects together with the C-lab.

an overwhelming response we had racked up 25 so smoothly. My deepest thanks go out to my JUT

enrolments, and while some left during the camp, unable colleagues, Nikita and the gardeners for their support

Through a series of themed work camps, the Ruin to bear the physical challenge, we were never short of which helped the Ruin Academy receive all round praise Academy aimed to stimulate new research and visions new gardeners to take their place. We built an open and acknowledgement, as well as opening new doors for Taipei City, by experimenting with alternative relationship of trust between us, sharing in the joys and by creating alternative visions for future urban lifestyles. possibilities for old buildings under a wave of urban the sense of accomplishment that comes with a working renewal. Each camp was set to last three to four weeks sweat and a relaxing beer.

and once it was confirmed that the project would go


42 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

專訪女巫烏蘇拉蝴蝶 (Ursula Liblikas)

文 | August Künnapu 翻譯 | 孔翎蓁 因為千百年來,血液中有著維京人、凱爾特人、俄羅斯人、德國人、極地居民等混種 雜居,80% 的愛沙尼亞人都是女巫或是潛意識的巫師。

何時在這世上成為轉世靈童?

當我們放棄空間三維的思考模式時,時間的概

讓我們漫步在地球上你的一些化身。

參與所謂的農業改革,並解放農奴。我曾化身為 莊園的男主人,但因為在法庭上無法提供良好帳 冊, 因 此 被 驅 逐 出 聖 彼 得 堡, 之 後 來 到 烏 拉 爾

我最早關於人類在這星球化身的記憶是來自利 (Urals) 地區外的莊園。

念就不再存在,同時也有可能從歷史事件,來確 莫尼亞 (Lemuria)。亞特蘭蒂斯 (Atlantis),利莫

定 在 時 間 中 的 自 己。 然 而, 後 者 是 難 以 確 定 里亞和羅馬的第一個城市國家,這幾乎是不可能 在這四十萬年間,是否會有許多的洪水與自然 的,除非你在地球存在以前,就知道你的靈魂是 去區分貧富差距,許多人負有重任,卻沒有相應 災害? 如何誕生的。

的權利。隨著時間的不一致性,其他銀河系的大 量代表參觀了利莫尼亞,利莫尼亞有著自己的交

地球存在以前,妳在哪裡?

通運輸方式到達其他星球。

洪水正是利莫里亞和亞特蘭蒂斯消失的原因。 假 使 人 們 再 不 改 變 態 度, 第 三 次 的 洪 水 即 將 到 來。 但 我 不 喜 歡 預 言。 當 事 情 轉 壞, 你 去 思 考

在我們曾經共同存在的領域。第一次的肉身記

現今的科學家敏銳地發現,他們使用能源—在 它, 反 而 讓 它 更 加 惡 化; 假 使 你 相 信 好 事 的 到

憶,可連結至天狼星上的生物,他們能夠發展並 真空中的特定進程中出現一種新的解放能源,而 來,你如此想著,即使它最後來臨,你也不覺得 擁有自己的精神狀態。而「化身」就發生在當靈 太陽能被大量的使用。

它有那麼好,因為這當中需要一個驚喜。占星師

魂作為自身的負載、負擔之時,假若靈魂不再能

也 說, 地 球 上 的 自 然 災 害 和 各 種 災 難 會 持 續 增

夠解決事情,人類就開始化身成另一種形體。他

思想,意志和自我集中是一個完全不同的水平 加。 人 們 吞 食 著 自 身 的 後 路, 不 在 乎 永 續 發

收集圍繞在它身變的足夠錯誤與相當的經驗,沒 上,因為集中的時間並不能大量且充滿活力的快 展,如今人口的數量已超過地 球所能負荷的三 有真正的錯誤,這些都是我們生命的經驗。

速移動。人們決定他們的思想與時間的密度和進 倍,因此,必將會有什麼事情發生來減少人口。 度。 人 們 總 說 他 們「 沒 時 間 」, 因 此 要 壓 縮 時

可否談談妳的前利穆里亞 (pre-Lemurian) 化 間,結果,不只更為匆忙,還少了能夠前往自身 宗教的本質是什麼? 思想與能量的可能。 身? 宗 教 並 不 重 要。 我 相 信 父 親 Kirss ( 牧 師

當然!我記得自己是隻動物。人們之所以為人 現在有多少人能夠做時間旅行?

Emmanuel Kirss – ed.) 所 說:「 地 球 上 沒 有 正

類,即是透過階段的發展。每個人都有自己的晶

確 的 宗 教。 他 們 都 是 教 派, 或 僅 是 大 型 的 信

體本質,植物與動物天性,然後最終在人體中的

不在少數。事實上,唯一的前提在於:你一定 仰。」信仰與宗教無關,它是在我們體內的一個

發展為人類。我記得我是隻巨大的,黑色,相當 要解放你的思想,你不能限制自己目前的生活。

狀態。這個概念也關聯著時間旅行的主題,我只

自負的母豹,當我躺在樹枝上時,突然覺得有獵 我們必須接受這一切就在我們身邊的能量,每一 想說兩句話:我相信,事情開始改變。 物接近,縱使我不餓,但一個獵人的本能隨即佔 個包括分子和原子的物質。

你覺得為什麼人們不再相互信任?

據著我,我即將跳躍。 這很大程度上取決於信心。回到利莫里亞,女

人們總是在他們覺得是對的時候才願意相 東方人害怕轉化生為動物,它是全然可能的 祭司( 烏蘇拉的工作)不是任何宗教與宗教儀式 的 中 介 者, 她 能 夠 調 解 與 不 同 頻 率 和 厚 度 的 能 信,當某個人的自我意識太過強大時,他無法理 嗎? 量,使人們所接受。目前有幾個牧師能夠將神聖 解 他 人 的 想 法。 我 們 應 該 相 信 我 們 的 精 神 力

這幾乎是不可能的。雖然有人說,嚴重的 錯誤將帶你回到早先的發展,但它不過就是 個暫停的進展。當人們無法承受人類的情感 時,他們就會回到動物的型態。巫師主張有 著過渡階段,在死亡與離開的期間,人們會 暫時地進入到寵物的身體裡,以便有更多的 時間與家人共處。我知道的一些案例,為了 警告人們去對抗某些災難,他們的靈魂進入 狗與老鼠的形體裡。

的精神帶來地球,這是一個難得的才賦,就像讀 量,並對他人的信念有信心,因為他們相信他們 心術般,是可以被開發的。

的信仰。信仰不僅涉及的心靈發展,也是我們的 日常生活應對、自我評價和信心。更深的不信任

在我於利莫里亞生活之前,我知道一定有其他 始於人們搬出洞穴,定居於房子之時。只要人們 的進展階段。在利莫里亞,可以彙集我的所有階 活在一個循環結構中( 洞穴,圓錐形小屋),充 段,不用再次通過化身。但我曾經在那兒犯下一 滿能量的信息交流就能夠正常運作。住宅帶來了 個錯誤—應該遵循朋友的話:只有四十萬年的苦 地位、財富與物質衝突;家庭的興起,也使得彼 難。 我最後的地球生活是非常遁入塵世的。大約在

此的共同感消失。 建築必須支持著人類與世俗間的物質能量。舉

1760 至 1780 左右,俄羅斯大刀闊斧的改革,我 例來說,在利莫里亞的幾何圖形曾適當的在都市


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

43

Interview with URSULA LIBLIKAS

Text | August Künnapu 80% of Estonians are witches or subconscious witches, because for thousands of years, the blood of the Vikings, Celts, Russians, Germans, Poles etc has blended in us.

W

progress. People are sometimes born back to accept that everything around us is energy.

hen did your reincarnations on into animals when they cannot bear human Each material thing consists of molecules and planet Earth start? emotions. The shamans claim there are atoms.

transition stages in the period between death

When we ab andon eart hly dim ensi ons, and departure where man briefly enters the Much depends on faith. Going back to Lemuria,

the notion'time' disappears. It is possible body of the pet so as to spend more time within the priestess (Ursula's job there) was not a

to determine yourself in time according to his family. There have been cases where the mediator of any religion or religious rite. The

historical events. The latter, however, are soul has entered a dog or a rat in order to warn priestess was able to mediate energies with difficult to determine if you remember how your people against a disaster of some sort.

soul was born when Earth did not exi

Where were you before Earth appeared?

different frequencies and thickness, and make

Let us stroll into some of your incarnations on them acceptable for people. There are few

planet Earth.

priests today who could bring divine spirit to

earth. This is a rare talent, just as reading

My earliest recollections of human incarnation other people's thoughts, which can actually be

In the common field as we almost all were. on this planet are from Lemuria. Atlantis, developed. The first physical memory is connected with Lemuria and the first Rome were city states.

creatures on planet Sirius. They had their own It was almost not possible to distinguish I know there must have been other stages

conscious mental state in which they could between the rich and the poor. Some had more before my Lemuria life. In Lemuria, I could have

develop. Incarnation occurs when the soul responsibility but they did not have more rights. assembled all my stages and not go through an takes upon itself a load, a burden. If soul is no As time had different consistency, large number incarnation again. I made a mistake there, to

longer enough to solve things, man begins to of representatives of other galaxies visited be followed in the words of a friend, 'the mere

incarnate. He gathers a sufficient amount of Lemuria. Lemurians had their own means of 400,000 years of suffering'.

errors, rather experience, around him. No error transport as well to travel to other planets. is really an error, but experience in our lives.

The last of my terrestrial lives was very

They used energy that today's scientists are terrestrial. It was around 1760–1780, drastic

Can you say something about your pre- keen to find – a new liberating energy emerges reforms in Russia. I started the so-called in vacuum in the course of certain processes. peasant reform, liberating the peasants. I was Lemurian incarnations? Yes, I remember myself as an animal. People

Sun energy was used a lot too.

(incarnated as a man) a manor lord who was

not in the good books at the court, so I was

usually go through a development. Everybody Thought, will and self-concentration were on a deported from St Petersburg to another manor

has his own crystal nature, plant and animal quite different level, because the concentration beyond the Urals. nature and then finally a human development of time was not as big and energy moved in a human body.

faster. People dictate the progress and density Have there been many floods and other

I r e m e m b e r b e i n g a h u g e , b l a c k , q u i t e of time with their thoughts. People say they are catastrophes over 400 000 years? conceited female panther, lying on a branch 'in a hurry in a hurry' and thus condense time

of a tree. And then suddenly I feel that prey is and as a result they are even in a greater hurry. Floods were the reason for the disappearance

approaching. I am not hungry but a hunter's And the less they can travel with their thought of both Lemuria and Atlantis. The third flood instinct instantly grabs me. I am about to jump.

and energy.

is probably on its way if people do not change

Oriental are afraid of being born as animals. Is it at all possible?

How many people are able to travel in time future. When there is something bad, you start pondering about it and thus make it even today?

their attitude. But I don't like to peep into

worse. When you see good to come, you think

It is almost impossible. Although it is said Not too few, in fact. The only precondition is: about that and when it finally comes, it is no

that grave errors take you back in your you must liberate your thoughts. You must not longer so good as it would have been as a

development, it is merely a pause in the limit yourself with the current life here. We have surprise. Astrologers are also saying that all


44 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

空間、廟宇、教堂、行政大樓以及住宅中出現。 讓我們來談談在那裏的生物吧! 一個利穆里亞是非常高大的 ( 約 7-8 公尺 ),也有侏儒,人們亦能隱形。我記得有種美杜莎般的生物有著電線通過它 的身體運行,沒有耳朵和頭髮的白皮膚流暢地移動產生白化現象非常有趣。神話中的生物像是人馬與獨角獸,也生活 在那裏;他們實際上仍存在,只是換成另一種能量頻率。 我們再來談談香巴拉 (Shambala) 吧! 在西藏的喜馬拉雅山,那裡有個連結不同的世界的通道,在那兒住著與地球和宇宙能量系統連結的生物。一旦你到 香巴拉,所有的問題都能找到答案。這是說,人類還沒有準備好接收某些訊息,只有極少數能與香巴拉那些存在數百 萬年的先賢建立聯繫。 什麼貢獻是在不同國家的女巫所為? 在芬蘭—烏格爾的女巫密度是最高的,特別是在愛沙尼亞與住在俄羅斯北方的人。有 80% 的愛沙尼亞人都是女巫或 是潛意識的巫師。因為千百年來,血液中有著維京人,凱爾特人,俄羅斯人,德國人,極地居民等的混合。斯堪的納 維亞半島僅有幾個巫婆,但她們相當厲害;在西藏的女巫密度則不是非常集中。好比在中國,僵化的民族傳統無法發 展的創造力和靈魂。美洲的印第安人也是如此,因為他們沒有後裔,這就是為什麼他們來到愛沙尼亞 (Naissaar 和

Pärnu 附近有著美洲印第安人的營地,並居住達六年 )。印第安人無法回到自己的地方和神聖的場所,他們至今沒有原 諒美國人。愛沙尼亞人也應找到自己神聖的樹叢和以及其他地方的能量。我們必須關懷自然,動物和整個環境。如果

持續汙染,祈禱是不會有任何幫助的。

愛沙尼亞人將如何去最佳地培養他們的精神力量? 別再森林亂丟垃圾了! 關於烏蘇拉蝴蝶 (Ursula Liblikas) 烏蘇拉蝴蝶別名 Karuliblikas,是愛沙尼亞一位德高望重的女巫和社會工作者。她出生在 Rakvere,現居 Riisipere 並在塔 林為無家可歸的兒童工作。烏蘇拉富有藝術感與優秀的洞察力,同時她也有著時間旅行的能力。

Let everything that has been planned come true. Let them believe. And let them have a laugh at their passions. Because what they call passion actually is not some emotional energy but just a friction between their souls and the outside world. And most important: let them believe in themselves. Let them be helpless like children, because: weakness is a great thing and strength is nothing. - "Stalker' Andrei Tarkovsky

讓所有計畫成真。讓他們相信與嘲笑自身的豪邁熱情。他們所謂的熱情,其實不帶 情感,而是他們靈魂和現實世界之間所產生的拉距與摩擦。除此最重要的是,讓他 們相信自己。讓他們無助如同孩子一樣,因為敏感軟弱是偉大的,徒有氣力仍是虛 無。 - 《潛行者》塔科夫斯基


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

45

kinds of natural calamities and catastrophes creatures of the light who are in contact with

on Earth will increase. Humankind is all energetic systems in the Universe and the

devouring its own tail with its attitude to Earth. Once in Shambala, all questions will life and little sustainability. Today's Earth is be answered. It is said that humankind is not

inhabited by three times more people than it yet ready for some sort of information. An

can actually feed so something must happen eye is kept on people, they are not allowed to reduce the population.

to perish now. Only very few are able to

What is the essence of religion?

who have been there in a somatic condition

Religion is not important. I rely on father

establish contact with the sages of Shambala

for millions of years.

Kirss' saying (priest Emmanuel Kirss – ed.): What is the share of witches in different

“There is no right religion on Earth as yet. nations? They are all sects, even the bigger faiths.”

Faith has nothing to do with religion, it is a The concentration of witches in Finno-

condition inside us. This also connects with Ugrian peoples is the highest, especially in the topic of time travel. Suffice it to say two Estonians and peoples in North Russia. 80%

words: I BELIEVE, and things start moving.

of Estonians are witches or subconscious

witches, because for thousands of years,

Why do you think people no longer trust the blood of the Vikings, Celts, Russians, Germans, Poles etc has blended in us. one another?

Scandinavia has few witches but they are

People are always convinced that only what powerful. In Tibet the concentration of they feel can be right. When someone's witches is not that dense. Like in China ego is too big he cannot see anything from where rigid national traditions do not develop

another person's perspective. We should creativity and soul. There is no progress for

believe in our spiritual power and have the American Indians because they have faith in other people's belief because they no descendants. This is why they come to

believe in their faith. Faith does not only Estonia (a camp of American Indians has concern mental development, but also our taken place on Naissaar and near Pärnu for daily coping, self-evaluation and confidence. 6 years – ed). American Indians have not

Deeper mistrust started when people moved forgiven the Americans as they have not

out of caves and settled in houses. As long got back their places of force and sacred

as people lived in a circular structure (cave, locations. Estonians should find their sacred conical lodges), the energetic exchange of groves and other places of energy as well.

information functioned properly. After houses We must take care of nature, animals and came positions, wealth, material conflict. the entire environment. Praying along the

Families emerged, and the common feeling vertical axis will not help if nature is being vanished.

polluted at the same time.

Architecture must support the human How could Estonians best cultivate their and earthly physical energy. Geometry in mental powers?

Lemuria, for example, was in place in urban

space, temples, churches, administrative Stop dumping rubbish in the forest! buildings and residential houses.

Let us talk about the creatures over there. A Lemurian is very tall (7-8 m) and big. There

were also midgets and people who could

become invisible. I remember a medusa-like

creature with electric wires running through

its body. The white-skinned smoothly moving

albinos without ears and hairs were very Ursula Liblikas

interesting. Mythological creatures such as

unicorn and centaur existed there as well. Ursula Liblikas alias Karuliblikas is an They in fact still exist but at another energetic outstanding Estonian witch, sage and social

frequency.

Let us talk about Shambala.

worker. She was born in Rakvere, now

lives in Riisipere and works with homeless

children in Tallinn. Ursula is characterised by

In the Tibetan Himalayas where there is an artistic sense, a strong perception and an the Gate between different worlds, live ability to travel in time as the one who sees.


46 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

離鄉雅房裡的青年人生 文|早洩兄

假日的中午,我都會睡眼惺忪站在家門口,眺望淡水河。往事歷歷在 目,八年前為了實現夢想,選擇到台北城「打拼」,那年暑假考上大 學,爸爸開車載著我離開台南;我在這物價高及收入高的城市念書、工作、 衝撞體制,現在換來一身空虛寂寞與疲累。台北不是我安身的家,我租的地 方位於鬧區頂樓加蓋。 八年前,我歡喜北上念書,沒抽到宿舍那一刻,發現找房子多麼困難。學 校附近自助餐店老闆是大地主,有時候老闆會化身為房東,舉著紅色招租看 板,熱情看著學生;學生走進招租的屋子,才發現好端端房子改建成「集合 旅館」,客廳消失了,窄窄的玄關布滿各式帆布鞋、高跟鞋、球鞋,牆上掛 滿電表。房東熱情說,我們這裡不會吵,適合「一個人」念書工作,而且很 公平,有每個房間一個電表,公共空間一個電表」,此外房間特別裝潢,地 板都換上木磚,價錢很合理,一學期只要新台幣六萬五千元 ( 不含水電費 )。 我摸一下牆壁, 「果然一間好好的家被打通,換上木板漆上白漆,三房 一廳變成六房,每個房間不時傳來音樂聲,還有電腦嗡嗡叫的聲音,原來離 鄉生活就是這樣阿」 。 為 了 節 省 開 銷, 我 拼 命 找 便 宜 又 能 身 的 地 方, 「 一 個 月 八 千 元、 七千五百元、六千八百元、五千元!」終於找到了,不過那個房東沒提供洗 衣機和廚房,於是我每周到學校宿舍洗衣服,也開始吃八年的便當,我常常 在想「來這城市到底是為了什麼?」為了廚房與洗衣機,我又搬家了,住到 士林福港街老舊社區四樓,房東是一對八十歲老夫婦,老伯伯常常跑去大 陸,阿嬤很孤獨,每晚看電視;老夫婦對於我的到來感到開心,不過無法容 忍我夜歸、晚上聽音樂、抽菸,於是我又搬家了。 我開始意識到,若要享受自己的生活,就只能住在都市邊緣地帶。輾轉好 幾年從學生變成上班族,也從四樓雅房搬到陽明山小套房、新店的小房間; 二OO七年台北房價飆漲,我再搬到板橋的頂樓加蓋屋。某天爬到鐵皮屋 頂,看著一望無際的板橋、中和、永和、土城,原來頂樓加蓋裡面住一群像 我一樣的上班族、學生。 有數十萬個跟我一樣的「新台北人」不吃不喝卅年,還買不起房子,我們 的戶籍在家鄉,卻在台北縣市當個藍領、白領勞工,大城市裡一座座鋼筋水 泥樓就像一間間小型工廠,而我們租的地方不像家,比較像是旅館的房間、 下班睡覺的地方。已經習慣不花心思裝飾房間或掩飾牆壁上的壁癌,房間擺 設非常簡單,只有書桌、衣櫃、垃圾桶、筆記型電腦、文件、黃埔包 ( 軍用 大背包,搬家是何等容易且有效率 );房間地板總是一層灰塵、空酒瓶、寶 特瓶還有幾根陰毛,桌上也只有一盒盒名片和菸灰缸。 台北不是我的家,我和所有人的目的一樣,來這裡只是為了賺錢,總有一 天會離開這裡。

TOP 10 1.Stalker / Andrei Tarkovsky / 1979 / Soviet Union

RU I N

Films

潛行者 塔可夫斯基 2.Fata Morgana / Werner Herzog / 1969 / Germany 創世紀 荷索 3.Apocalypse Now! / Francis Ford Coppola / 1979 / USA 現代啟示錄 法蘭西斯柯波拉 4.Dersu Uzala / Akira Kurozawa / 1975 / Japan - Soviet Union 蘇烏扎拉 黑澤明 5.Man Without the Past / Aki Kaurismäki / 2002 / Finland 沒有過去的男人 阿基郭利斯馬基 6.Metropolis / Fritz Lang / 1927 / Germany 大都會 佛立茲朗 7.2001: A Space Odyssey / Stanley Kubric / 1968 / USA 2001 太空漫遊 史丹利庫柏力克 8.Seventh Seal / Ingmar Bergman / 1957 / Sweden 第七封印 柏格曼 9.Little Otik / Jan Svankmajor / 2000 / Czech Republic 貪吃樹 楊 . 斯凡克梅耶 10.Deliverance / John Boorman / 1972 / USA 激流四勇士 約翰 . 保曼

現在每個月有新台幣三萬元的薪水,但要扣掉一千一百四十五元的機車 燃料、五百元的電費瓦斯費用,五千八百八十元的伙食費、五千元的房租、 健保費、稅金,為了維持生活愉快,解除焦慮感,免不了三千元的香菸與酒 精。至於電磁爐、地毯、沙發、電視、櫃子、裝飾品,都是多餘的,如果沒 存到錢,在城市活著就毫無意義,因此生活中一切都要斤斤計較。開始像個 浪子,生活沒有品質,活著只是為了慾望和存錢,而存錢是為了回家鄉過好 生活。 很多人存到一百萬元,就要在城市落地生根,把一百萬元當做頭期款買 房子,但落地生根的代價是一輩子為房貸而活,住在城市牢籠裡,為公司賣 命一輩子也出賣的自由,我想如果能存夠錢回到溫暖的家鄉,做什麼都好, 「黑手都可以變頭家」,我想我也能成功。 但令我驚訝的是,為了存一百萬元,我得在台北順利工作十一年,同時付 出七十萬元到九十二萬元的房租;如果要存三百萬元,我得在城市工作廿五年 到卅年,也同時付出兩百萬元到三百萬元的租金。 於是我大膽地擬出「廿年賺三百萬元的移工生活」計畫,「每天穿著體面 襯衫上班,下班回到凌亂的房間」,週而復始,不想在這城市留下感情、建立 家,存夠錢就脫身。每天風景如一的街道只通往三個地方:公司、房間、可以 發洩壓力的地方。 台北市與台北縣共同生活圈,也是遊子上班、喘息、吃喝拉撒、建立夢想 的異鄉,這塊巨大水泥地上住滿一、兩百萬外來者。卅年前離開家鄉的人會 唱《孤女的願望》,廿年後改唱林強的《向前行》,現在的城市只有五光十色 的霓虹燈,沒有主旋律。房間裡的人非常寂寞,晚上活在各自的異想世界裡。

TOP 10

R UI N

Books

1. Roadside Picknic, 1972 Arkady & Boris Strugatsky 《路邊野餐》阿爾卡地及包里斯史加茨基兄弟 2. Heart of Darkness, 1902 Joseph Conrad 《黑暗之心》約瑟夫·康拉德 3. Tristes Tropiques , 1955 Claude Lévi-Strauss 《憂鬱的熱帶》李維史陀 4. Dialectic of Enlightment, 1944 Otto Adorno & Max Horkheimer 《啟蒙辯證法》 霍克海默、阿多諾 5. God and the State, 1871 Mikhail Bakunin 《上帝與國家》米哈伊爾·巴枯寧 6. Master and Man, 1895 Leo Tolstoy 《主與僕》托爾斯泰 7. Towards a Poor Theatre, 1968 Jerzy Grotowski 《邁向貧窮劇場 》葛羅托斯基 8. Go Rin No Sho, 1645 Miyamoto Musashi 《五輪書 》宮本武藏 9. The Organic Machine, 2005 Richard White 《有機的機器》 理查懷德 10. Anti-Oedipus, 1972 Gilles Deleuze & Félix Guattari 《反伊底帕斯》德勒茲、菲利克斯瓜塔里


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

47

The Life of a Young Man in a Tenement

Text | Bro Impotent Translation | C.J. Anderson-Wu

A

t noon in a holiday, I stood at the door with my puffy eyes, looking over the Damshui River. Lively memories flooded in my mind. Eight years ago I decided to “fight” in Taipei and I got admission from a college in Taipei, so my father drove me from my hometown Ta i n a n t o Ta i p e i . I s t u d i e d a n d w o r k e d i n this city of high price level and high average income, I challenged the system as well, but the only things I've earned were loneliness and frustration. I lived in the added-on structure at the roof of a building located in a busy area and realized that Taipei was by no means for me to settle down. Eight years ago when I just set my feet in Taipei I was full of expectation. But as I couldn't get a bed from the college dormitory I came to know how impossible to rent a place in Taipei. The owner of a cafeteria near my college was in possession of quite a few properties, he was also a landlord who collected his tenants eagerly by holding red boards written with the information about his rooms for rent. Once stepping into his places, one saw that he had remodeled his house into a “concentration inn”, no living room and hardly any shared space, and the narrow entrance was occupied by scattered shoes. Over the wall were half a dozen electricity meters. The landlord told us it's a quiet apartment, perfect for a college student to study. Each room has an electricity meter and the shared corridor and bathroom have an independent meter. He emphasized that he has upholstered each room and paved the floor with wooden panels. The rent was reasonable, sixty-five thousand for a semester, plus the water and power bills. I touched the wall and told myself it was a family house being transformed from three-bedroom and one living room into six units, the walls were repainted into white, and floor was paved with cheap wood. Music or computer's buzzing was heard from each room, “... that's the truth of living away from home.” In order to save bucks, I had to find the cheapest place, even cheaper than the place of the cafeteria owner. I looked places of monthly rents from eight thousand, to seventyfive hundred, sixty-eight hundred, then five thousand. That's it! But the landlord even did not provide washing machine and kitchen, so I brought my laundry to school's dormitory for wash every week. And over the past eight

years, I ate meal boxes everyday, couldn't cook and couldn't afford dinning in restaurants. I often asked myself: "What's the point of staying in this city?" I once moved to a place with kitchen and washing machine, it was an apartment on the fourth floor of an old community in Shihlin, the landlords are a couple in their eighties. The husband traveled to China frequently, and the lonely old lady watched TV every night. They were excited to have me as their roommate but they finally stopped tolerating my late night return, my music playing and my smoking habit, so I moved again.

fuel of my motorcycle, 500 for propane and electricity, 5,880 for meals, 5,000 for rent, plus my health insurance and tax. And in order to relieve my anxiety and enjoy the least fun of life I must spend 3,000 for cigarettes and alcohol. I don't need electrical cooker, rug, couch, TV, cabinet or any ornament. If I can't save money all my suffering for living in this city becomes meaningless. I began to be like a wanderer, my life has no quality at all. All the purposes of my life is to save money so one day I will be able to afford a good life in my hometown. Many people save up to one million bucks and decide they want to settle down here. One million can be used as the down payment of their house but the rest of their life they will have to pay off the mortgage for the urban cage they have bought, the price is their freedom, they will have to trade their life with their work for income. I also thought I could save enough money, I could take on any kind of work, even a car mechanic could become a successful businessman, I want to be successful, too.

I realized that if I wanted to enjoy the minimal living quality, I have to move to the outskirt of the city. When I began to work, I moved from a tenement at the top floor to suites in Yangming Mountain or in Hsintien. The prices of real estate in Taipei surged sky high since 2007, I had to move to the added-on structure at the roof in Banchao again. One day I climbed up to the iron roof of my place and looked at the large areas surrounding the city, Banchao, Chunghe, Yunghe and Tucheng, I found there were so many people living in the added-on structures But to my surprise, I have to work for eleven like me. years without getting fired before I can save one million, and at the same time I must pay about There are hundreds of thousands of newcomers seven hundred thousand to nine hundred and in Taipei who can't afford having their own twenty thousand for my rent. If I want to save homes in Taipei even they don't spend any three million, I have to work twenty-five to thirty money they earn. We left our hometowns and years and the rent I will have to pay easily adds became cheap laborers in Taipei no matter we up to how much I can save. belong to blue collars or white collars. Each reinforced concrete building in this city is a So I audaciously propose a project “A Migrant factory, and the places we rent are rather like Laborer's Plan of Making Three Million in cheap motel where we only crash after a long Twenty Years”, which requires one to go to day. work with decent suit, but when he goes back home, it's a massed up place. He doesn't want I have given up covering up the mildew on to relate to this city, he has no desire to build walls or decorating my place. My room is his home here, once he saves enough money, simply furnished, a desk, a closet, a dustbin, he is out of here. The only scenes he sees daily a notebook computer, some documents and are office, his tiny rented home and places he a big military canvas bag that helps me move can release his anxiety. easily. On the floor there are always a layer of dust, some empty bottles of beer or soda, and The life in Taipei City and Taipei County are someone's pubic hair. Boxes of business cards for the working, eating, shitting, resting and and an ashtray are laid on my desk. dreaming of wanderers, there are one or two million outsiders staying here. Three decades Taipei is not my home, like everyone else, I ago people leaving their hometown sang “The came here to make money and one day I will Wishes of an Orphaned Girl”, two decades ago leave. they sang “Go Forward”. But in today's Taipei where neon-sighs are everywhere, we find no I am making thirty thousand bucks a month, melody. Everyone in their cocoon home lingers and my expenditures include 1,145 for the on in their own bizarre dreams.


48 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

忠泰建築文化藝術基金會 2007 年「忠泰建築文化藝術基金會」 ( JFAA)在建 設事業的本體上成立,希望以建築、藝術與文化為切入 角度,全方位創造優質生活空間,將關懷的主體由小眾 環境,拓展到群體環境建構的理想狀態。

基 金 會 於 2007 年 起 陸 續 舉 辦「 明 日 博 物 館 (MUSEUM of TOMORROW)」 系列展覽、國際建築論 壇及大型演講;並從 2009 年開始透過動畫、電影、裝 置等不同的建築展覽型態,試圖以另一種觀察建築的角 度( Alternative Architecture), 為 台 灣 建 築 注 入 新 的 觸 媒;2010 年 起 正 式 推 動〈 都 市 果 核 計 畫 Project Urbancore〉藝術創意進駐閒置空間計畫,為都市再生

第五檔展覽│風帶來光 The Wind Brings Light/2010

投注民間的觀點與活力。

關於忠泰建設集團 本 於 母體企業忠泰建設 機構在建 築領域 的 知 識 與 資 源,基金會結合建築師、設計師、藝術家及文化工作者 等各種跨領域專業,致力於城市環境之關懷與發展,並 延伸至藝術、創意產業培力,透過展演、演講、學術論 壇、講座、出版…等方式,營造藝文創作與城市生活的 活 絡 關 係, 激 發 並 提 升 人 們 對 生 活 美 學 的 想 像 與 實 踐, 使 藝 術 與 文 化 的 發 芽 滋 長, 在 以 建 築 為 本 的 基 礎 上,獲得相互滲透與多方位推進的互動與行動平台。

明日博物館 利用母體企業在城市空間中待建的土地與 場所精神。它以不定時、非定點、不定義的

已舉辦明日博物館

建築,即將面臨轉變的過渡期中,試圖透過 方式進入城市的各個角落,創造城市中的人 這些閒置空間的介入,以不同的議題與展示 與環境、新與舊、傳統與未來、私領域與公

第一檔展覽│ theFLOWmarket/ 2007

型態,與觀眾共同思考什麼是對人、對環境 共環境之間相互自由滲透的機會。 〈明日 最理想的未來。

博物館〉創造我們在今日想像明日的各種衝 擊可能,在各種變異性之上,它的目的只在

〈明日博物館〉是基金會實踐明日美學的 為時代回歸一個最純粹的精神— 「永遠都 行動平台,是一個因應社會及時代多變性而 有更美好的明天 A Better Tomorrow」 。 產生的博物館概念,從城市出發、並以城市 為舞台,透過藝術、建築、設計等各 領域專業者不同角度的觀察與詮釋,帶領 人們重新面對基地的紋理,並延伸它獨特的

第二檔展覽│ HAPPY LIVING/ 2007 第三檔展覽│晴耕雨讀 / 2007 第四檔展覽│垂直村落展 / 2011 第五檔展覽│風帶來光 / 2010


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

49

About JFAA JUT Foundation for Arts and Architecture ( JFAA), a division of JUT Group, Taiwan, was founded in 2007, with the intention of creating a living space of sterling qualities via architecture, art and culture. Its concern, originally limited to surroundings for small groups of people, would, ideally, be expanded to the construction of surroundings for the general public.

The foundation, since 2007, has had, 'Museums of Tomorrow'--a serial exhibition--international academic discussions on architecture, and large-scale lectures. Since 2009, it has worked to galvanize Taiwan's architecture, with the help of alternative architecture, by holding different architectural exhibitions, such as animated pictures, movies and installations. In 2010, it started pushing forward Urban Core, a project that installed art works on unused land, reviving the city with grass-root perspective and energy.

About JUT Group With the knowledge and resources in the field of architecture, we have invited architects, designers, artists and cultural workers-experts from different fields--to participate in the improving and developing of city environment. We also work hard to foster the growth of art and creative industry. Furthermore, in order to create a vivacious relationship between city life, art and literature, and in order to stimulate and help people to better imagine and appreciate the beauty of life, we have had exhibitions, speeches, academic discussions, courses of lectures, publications, and so on. It is hoped that, on the basis of architecture, the development of art and culture would become intertwined and carry forward from different directions at the same time.

MUSEUM of TOMORROW “Museum of Tomorrow” is a series project of the different fields of experts, from art and architecture architecture, art and culture, combining the virtual and the JFAA, Taiwan in 2007. It stemmed from the unique to design, to help city dwellers understand different entity, the action and the static, the two-dimensional and condition that the core company, composed of unused site contexts, and furthermore, to extend the spirit of the three-dimensional. The Museum of Tomorrow creates land or buildings that lay idle, while the city says out place.

a variety of possible impulses that allow us to imagine

with the old and in with the new. What will be the most

tomorrow today. Beyond theses variations, the museum

ideal plot in the future, as we are in a transitional The 'Museum of Tomorrow' has an inherent difference aims to create the purest spirit for our time. There is period between old and new? The JFAA thinks about from traditional museums and art museums. It is a always a better tomorrow. the future.

'formless' stage that uses no fixed time, location or definition. Performance activities with different scales MUSEUM of TOMORROW

The 'Museum of Tomorrow' is a stage to practice and themes happen in every corner of the city, bringing 1 │ theFLOWmarket / 2007 ideas for future city aesthetics. The concept 'nomad about interpretation between people and environment, 2 │ HAPPY LIVING / 2007 museum' reflects the rapid-changing character of new and old, tradition and future, private and public. The 3 │ Rice for Thoughts / 2007 the city, coming from the city and using the city as its museum has various kinds of exhibitions in accordance 4 │ TheVerticalVillage / 2011 stage. Observation and interpretation are given from with nomad sites in the city, with organic performances of 5 │ The Wind Brings Light / 2010


50 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

忠泰建築學院 建築、文化與藝術三者互為一體,而「人」,則是它們的共同思想核心,從一個單純承 載生活的容器,到成為足以改變生活的質素,我們希望拉近這些元素與人群的距離。於 是,基金會透過母企業的資源整合,並積極尋求與各界的合作,不定期以課程、講座、體 驗營、演講、展演、研究計畫…等不同型態與規模的活動,希望能夠漸進式地形成一個學 校體制外的建築學院,本計畫自 2011 年 8 月起宣告推動,預計於 2014 年達到相關規劃 的整備。

系列一 大師演講 系列二 建築教育 系列三 建築的另一種型式

都市果核計畫 自 2010 年起開始推動〈都市果核計畫 於創作能量匯集與交流的平台。透過基 Project UrbanCore),整合城市中閒置 地的轉換,希望使這樣的能量跳脫有形 的舊有空間,使其成為藝文創意領域工 建物的生命期限及空間侷限,連結更多 作 者 的 培 養 皿。 以「UrbanCore」 為 參與者,持續地向前滾動蔓延,讓每個 名, 就 是 為 象 徵 這 些 原 被 遺 忘 的 城 市 城市角落,都能透過微小的種子結出風 ( Urban)角落,能夠觸發城市新一代 采各異的果實。 生命走向茁壯,如同被啃食殆盡的果核 ( Core)在新的養分澆灌下萌發生機。 計畫名稱與執行時間: 都市果核計畫 Project Urbancore 都市果核計畫是一遊移式長期藝文耕 -城中藝術街區 2009-2012 耘計畫,利用富群聚性、啟發性、輻奏 性的閒置空間,鼓勵藝術、設計、建築 都市果核計畫 Project Urbancore 及相關創意工作者進駐或合作,打造利 -中山創意基地 2011-2013

未來計畫 2007 年 基 金 會 成 立 至 今 多 年, 在 都 外,更期待能透過藝術家的介入行動與 市、 建 築、 藝 術 議 題 所 累 積 的 能 量 之 詮釋,為城市發展尋找新的提案方向。 上,未來希望更進一步打造更穩定的論

並在過往以一般民眾為對象舉辦的展

述場域,並使推廣工作能朝向基礎教育 演活動之外,更加積極推動建築教育的 的耕耘工作發展。 為打造為主題性的展示與交流空

向下紮根, 基 金 會 自 2011 年 起 針 對 兒 童 與 青 少

間, 基 金 會 計 畫 於 未 來 成 立 固 定 場 年打造長期建築教育計畫,以工作坊與 館 —— 〈 忠 泰 美 術 館 JUT Art 課程型態進行,思維軸心是對於環境及 Museum〉,除定期舉辦國內外重要前 生活的關注與參與,涵蓋建築、都市與 衛藝術大展與實驗展,並延續過去〈明 地球等不同尺度的空間與環境觀。這是 日博物館〉游移展演的型態,透過城市 為城市儲備未來轉動能量的第一階段計 三年展的策劃,使藝術力量伸展至城市 畫,讓我們的孩子們以此刻精神上的探 各 角 落, 除 打 造 國 際 藝 術 交 流 平 台 險,兌換未來城市夢想的實踐。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

51

JUT Architecture Academy If architecture, culture and art is an entity of life, while human is the core of it. JUT not only wants to provide a better container of the life, but also the content of life itself. Therefore, JUT foundation has connected all resources together from other divisions of JUT. With courses, speech, workshop, lecture, exhibition, researches, JUT architecture academy is established with the aim to be the first institution of its sort . This project has been launched since august of 2011 and expected to achieve its first stage completion by 2014.

System Ⅰ Master lecture Series Ⅱ Architecture Education Series Ⅲ Another Type of Architecture

PROJECT URBANCORE JUT Foundation for Arts and Architecture has building. Furthermore, more participants are launched〈Project UrbanCore〉since the year involved to spread out the seed of ideas over of 2010, integrating unused urban spaces to a the city to nourish various cultural harvest. breeding ground for the art and creative fields. The name of “UrbanCore” represents that these forgotten urban corners, like a consumed core, will regenerate as new energy comes in. 〈Project UrbanCore〉is a long-term indefinite art cultivating project. By the use of unused spaces along with the participation of art, design, architecture and related Project/ Execution time creative workers, we could establish a stage Project Urbancore c o m m u n i c a t i n g a n d c o l l e c t i n g c r e a t i v e -Chang Chun Arts Block 2009-2012 energies. The situation that site switching from time to time breaks away from the cognition Project Urbancore of limited lifespan and space use of a physical -Chung Shan Creative Hub (URS21) 2011-2013

Future Plans S i n c e i t s e s t a b l i s h m e n t i n 2 0 0 7 , J U T for international exchange, JUT hopes to find Foundat i on for A rt s & A rchi tec ture has a new direction for our city through introducing accumulated considerable energy on the the actions and interpretation of artists. issues of urbanism, architecture and art. In the All JUT's events are for the general public and future the Foundation is going to strengthen the it will promote architectural education more domain of discourse and extend architecture actively and broadly. Since 2011 the Foundation education at elemental level.

has launched a long-tern educational plan

A t h e m a t i c e x h i b i t i o n v e n u e i n s p i r i n g for children and youth. Through curricula and interactions will be set up- JUT Art Museum- workshops, students will cultivate a worldview and significant avant-garde art shows or and increase their awareness of architecture e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t e v e n t s w i l l b e s t a g e d and urbanism regarding environment and living here. Meanwhile, the nomadic exhibitions quality. The prior goals of JUT's architecture The Museum of Tomorrow presents will be education are to activate dynamics for the continued through JUT's Urban Triennale so future operation of our city, so young people the power of art will outreach to every corner will be able to transform their adventures and of the city. In addition to providing a platform dreams today into the reality tomorrow.


52 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

人類維生之基本原則 引自拉榭諾德隆德 (Lasse Nordlund) 之書 譯|孔翎蓁

1

. 科技的進步是一種幻覺,而消費則是 13. 我們留下的選擇開啟了為這些再次重拾 生活責任的人們的虔誠祈禱。 一種釋放自己。

2. 義大利思想家—朱塞佩喬瓦尼蘭扎迪華 斯度 (Giuseppe Giovanni Lanza di Vasto, 1901-1981) 曾說,機器使人受到制約,使 用雙手則重獲解放。 3. 用雙手耕作,不假借機械去收集柴火, 並使用最原始的方式告訴我真正的勞力投 入與產值之間的關係。當我們必須要依靠 雙手去獲得資源時,資源的使用方式也將 劇烈改變。 4. 平衡能量間的轉換。 5. 從另一方面來說,因為有著多功能性的 特點,所以人們的身體是個存在著技術感 知的效率機器。我們可以不需要特殊裝備 或是特別開闢道路才能夠爬樹。以白熾燈 的耗能功率來比喻:一般來說,我們能夠 負荷 60 瓦的功率,在這層級上,我們可以 全天候的工作並因此而保持健康。而在短 時間內,我們甚至可以勞動高達 500 瓦功 率的氣力。繁重工作大約消耗 1000 瓦功 率之後,為了保持體力,這時我們就必須 吃下含有 4000 瓦能量的食物。

14. 一個有益於社會的人,藉由放棄部分自 我決定的權利,同時他也獲得社會的保護 做為交換。 15. 在一個去中心化的社會中,沒有核心控 制階層,而是存在著微小且獨立的群體。 在這樣的社會裡,人類活動無法像我們現 有體系般如此劇烈的改變環境。 16. 或許唯有在經濟崩潰時,我們才能不再 過份地剝削地球資源。 17. 讓生活更貼近初級生產是我們必須發展 且支持的替代方案。藉由自給自足並避免 與貨幣經濟接觸,當這替代方案可行時, 傳統秩序也開始被打破。 18. 實踐自給自足意指著廣泛的知識與技 能,並非只在手中世界,當為大學與企業 所有時,仍保有著群眾的歸屬。對於大學 實踐科學的自由與人性來說,這是一個美 麗的神話。假若它已成為事實,距離那神 話,我們已經走了很長的路。

6.1940 年時,半數的芬蘭人從事著初級生 產;到 1988 年時,儘管只剩下 8% 的數量, 他們仍透過進一步的處理與機器生產,給 予半數的人口就業機會。

19. 自給自足帶來了自由:傳播有機生活的 希望、不再害怕競爭者、使我們的智慧遺 產能夠自由的溝通與投入使用、不受限於 知識產權和專利法。這樣,我們的思想才 能夠被解放,並專注在真正不可或缺的事 7. 交易唯有在人們完全無法自我生產時才 物與迫在眉睫的挑戰。 是明智的。 20. 身為一個人類,無論如何都不需購買食 8. 現行的市場機制方向並不能被改變,因 物,僅需要些許的耕地就能養活自己。假 為它奠基於競爭。經濟成長只是個多餘能 如只是採集蘑菇與漿果並簡約生活,大約 量輸入的結果,而非是因為透過我們的勞 五英畝 (500 平方米 ) 就已足夠。我一年吃 動,所產生出來的財富。我們的社會體系 掉兩百斤的蘑菇,並將大部分乾燥;摘取 獎勵著最能強而有力利用能源與自然資源 大約相同數量的漿果,並使用特殊的方式 生產的人,但生活在自然經濟下的人們, 保存—沒有密封,也沒有添加劑,更不需 是無法適應與成就現今社會所依行的生產 要糖! 過剩制度。 9. 我們的主要問題絕非在於缺乏能源,而 是無法生活在一個能夠配合資源的社會。 10. 我們的經濟體系真的是仰賴不斷增長的 能源輸入嗎?假若多餘的能量保持不變, 這一切是否會土崩瓦解?

11. 即 使 在小若 核 心家庭的 社區 中, 許多 的工作仍只需被完成一次,諸如收集柴火 或是製作紡車,因此便能為他人創造休閒 時間,而這也是相較獨居之外的好處。然 而,潛在的社會衝突仍可能腐蝕著這樣的 益處。

拉榭諾德隆德在芬蘭的北卡雷利亞 (North-Carelia, Finland) 過 著 自 給 自 足 的 生活並獨立於貨幣經濟體系之外十餘 年, 他 利 用 一 個 手 工 紡 車 縫 製 亞 麻 纖 維,從頭開始製做他的衣服。他的經驗賦 予他敏銳的洞察力,並使他能夠一針見血 12. 當最初的幾個人們決定共同生活,效率 地總結出我們現今社會與自然、能源、金 的提升就是在開端最重要的事。 錢與工作意義的關係 。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

53

Quotes from Mr. Lasse Nordlund's book:

“The Foundations of Our Life”

1

Copyleft: 2008 .Technical progress is an illusion those who most forcefully exploit contact with the money economy, these and consumerism is something you energy and natural resources for alternatives may operate even when the

can free yourself from.

production. People living in a natural conventional order starts to break down. economy cannot achieve the kind of

2.Giuseppe Giovanni Lanza di Vasto overproduction our society rests on.

18.Practicing self-sufficiency means

(1901-1981): La macchina rende sciavi, 9.Our main problem is by no means a broad knowledge and skills that do il braccio liberi. The machine enslaves, lack of energy, but our inability to live not fall in the hands, and become the hand sets free.

in a society, which can cope with its t h e p r o p e r t y o f u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d resources.

corporations, but remain with the people. It is a beautiful myth that

3.Farming by hand, collecting firewood

without machines, and the skill of using 10.Is our economic system dependent universities practice science freely and “primitive techniques” showed me precisely on a growing energy input? for the sake of humanity. We have come the actual relationship between a labor Will it fall apart if the extraneous energy a long way from that myth, if it ever has input and its product. The use of the input stays fixed?

been a reality at all.

resources changes dramatically, when one must acquire them by hand.

11.Even in communities as small as 19.Self-sufficiency brings with it the the nuclear family, there are many freedom to disseminate know-how on

4.Balanced exchange of energy.

tasks that only need to be done once, organic living as one wishes, unafraid like collecting firewood or making a of competitors, allowing our intellectual

5.Our body, on the other hand, is spinning-wheel, which creates spare legacy to be freely communicated and in a technical sense a very efficient time for others. This is a benefit when put to use, unimpeded by intellectual machine, special thanks to its versatility. compared to living alone. However, property rights and patent law. This way We do not need roads to move and possible social conflict may erode this our thoughts may be freed, and allowed we can climb a tree without special benefit.

to focus on what is essential in the face

equipment. A human can perform

of the looming challenges.

physical work equivalent to that used by 12.The increase of efficiency is greatest an incandescent lamp. We can manage at the very outset, when the first few 20.A single human being, buying no about 60 watts. At that level we can people decide to live communally.

food whatsoever, needs surprisingly

work throughout the day and stay in

little arable land to feed himself

good health. For short periods we can 13.We are left with the option to start throughout the year. Approximately 5 bring ourselves to work at a rate as high praying devoutly for the citizenry to acres (500 square meters) is sufficient as 500 watts. After a heavy day of work, begin to take responsibility of their own if one picks mushrooms and berries we will have performed about 1kWh. To lives again.

and can be thrifty. I consume about

keep performing at this level, we have

200 kilos of mushrooms a year, most

to eat food containing about 4kWh of 14.A person benefits the society by of which I dry. I pick about the same energy.

giving away a part of his right to self- amount of berries, and I preserve them determination, while he gains the using a special method that employs no

6.In 1940 half of Finland's population society's protection in exchange.

hermetic sealing and no additives – not

worked in primary production. By the

even sugar.

year 1988, their number had gone 15.In a decentralized society there is no down to eight per cent, who, despite the central controlling hierarchy: there are change, still give employment to half of small, independent blocks instead. In the population in further processing and such a society, human activity cannot machine production!

change the environment as dramatically as it can in our system.

7.Trading is sensible only when it is almost impossible for a person to 16.Maybe only an economic crash produce an item by himself.

would prevent our system from overexploiting our planet's resources

8.The direction of our market system completely. cannot be changed, because it is founded on competition. Economic 17.It is imperative that we develop and growth is a result of an extraneous support alternative ways of life that energy input, it is not wealth created function close to primary production. by our own labor. The system rewards By being self-sufficient and by avoiding

Lasse Nordlund has lived a self-sustainable life in NorthC a re l i a , F i n l a n d fo r ove r a decade independent from monetary economy. He makes his clothes from scratch by sewing flax-fibers with a handmade spinning-wheel. His experiences give him keen insight and enable him to make sharp conclusions about our society's relationship towards nature, energy, money and the meaning of work.


54 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy 路 Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

55

Returning Humans to Nature and Reality

S

ince attending drinks and bbq session at the Ruin Academy, Urban Core, Taipei City in fall of 2010, I gradually became more and more familiar with Marco Casagrande's C-lab and its many offshoots (Ruin Academy, Third Generation City, Urban Acupuncture). I also became convinced that Taipei has great need for these ideas and the very soul of the city may well rest in these decaying ruins.

Text | Nick Coulson Photo from P 64 | Marco (T - Factory 2007) Originally published on erenlai.com a somewhat Victorian prudence and shyness architecture trade. For example, since the city only

that I had seemingly developed during my time in exists because of the river, the river is thus the

Taiwan. I flung away the towel, and sunk into the indicator of how healthy the city is. So in order to

steam. This was the man who had built the sauna have a complete and humanistic interaction with the

– Finnish architect and anarchist gardener Marco river, the sociologists need do the local research -

Casagrande.

collect a full picture of the history of the land, they

"We focus on local knowledge and stories. The would ask: How was the river before? When did Academy is more like a pub than a university – or the fish start dying out? Who will live there in the like a public sauna in Finland, where everyone is future? What will there attitude to the river and the

stripped naked from the President to the police."

Rolling at the Ruin Academy

with drawings, photographs and interviews. They

city be?

One question raised by the sociologists, was

Pot-naked in a sauna perhaps isn't how most of you whether or not this ideal for a Third Generation City

envision your first meeting. However, fully revealing was feasible. Marco replied "If it works in my family,

It was a Friday night, in light winter rain when I was your body, as the day you were born, is certainly then in their community, in their society, in the

told to come along to the Taiwan Contemporary a load off your mind and shoulders. Pretensions whole city - then that's enough". Marco feels that

Art Centre, Taipei for free drinks and barbeque, are dropped, nothing is hidden, and all the while the government actually needs this impulsiveness,

and the opening of the'Ruin Academy'. I knew little nothing is intentionally revealed. It wasn't until they are unable to enact under the stringent

of what to expect – except for free alcohol, all the several months later that I discovered the sauna controls of bureaucracy. In fact Marco and Ruin Roan Ching-yue (one of Taiwan's top authors) you was also a gathering place, a school and a forum Academy is just saying what the government wants

could want or deal with and rumours of a trademark for the natural revolution of human impulsion that is to say. When questioned about the rebuilding of

sauna on the top floor. It sounded like a lethal brewing here. combination…

Entering the 4-storey building I felt a strange aura,

Third Generation City

post-tsunami East Coast of Japan, Marco reflected:

"Will they just rebuild what was there before? They

have capacity for so much more."

something distinctly un-Taipei, at least as I knew it, Marco and associates have been working on a Frank Chen was working with C-lab that I first

a vomit stain on the clean, white bed sheet of the whole new architectural philosophy in Taiwan met at the Ruin Academy. In April he took me too

Taiwan urban development dream. A tree growing and a multitude of projects to put into action the visit some physical manifestations of the Third off the side of the building, its roots implanted only Third Generation City - the organic ruin of the Generation City. Frank also made a beautiful film

in drainpipes, large and potentially hazardous holes industrial city. Third Generation City follows the first of his own, documenting a full day for the Chen

drilled into the cement floor, allowing you to see generation where humans' peacefully coexisted House, from sunrise, amongst the constant calls of from the top to the bottom of the building; welcome with nature and the second generation which the insects and birds.

to the Ruin Academy.

built walls and stone structures everywhere in an

attempt to shut out nature. In the third generation Living in the ruins

As the whisky flowed, my thoughts were disturbed however, nature, which can never be truly shut out,

as Roan demanded I read his story with him. After grows back through the ruins, through the cracks in found throughout his work. Indeed, when I arrived

playing the role of mother in the story, twice over, I the walls, sucking human nature back into the wider at the site in Sanjhih nature was growing through

took advantage of a brief moment of distraction, to nature. Third Generation City concentrates on local the gaps in the walls, the doors, and the windows

make my great escape to the sauna.

knowledge and urban acupuncture. Gardens should of this former tea factory; there existed no clearly

be built in all the corners of the city. The walls defined inside and outside, instead merging into

While my housemate, locally well-known figure shutting off the city from its river and life source one seamless flow of nature; rather than trying to model Showzoo, raced to strip and leap into the should torn down.

sauna the minute the steam rolled of the imported

keep the trees and shrubbery out, he instead built

his trademark sauna amongst the trees. There

Finnish stones, I strolled in rather conservatively "The Ruin Academy sends an open call to think were still the traces of Marco's previous inhabitancy f i v e m i n u t e s l a t e r w i t h m y u n d e r s i z e d t o w e l on the urban environment - the city, the people there: a pile of clothes, a wooden mattress, a small

slightly revealing my buttocks. I had inadvertently and the nature. We want to understand the ruining stove and a couple of pans which acted as his placed myself in the gaze of Showzoo's naked processes in Taipei." glaring Cyclops on one side and two fully clothed,

shy Taiwanese youths on the other, a contrast Architecture and human structures are something

makeshift kitchen overlooking a stream with an ants

nest sitting comfortably in a tree above.

p e r h a p s c o m p a r a b l e t o t h e a w k w a r d n e s s o f I had never profoundly contemplated. To get a As the academy makes organic ruin of our industrial

much architecture in Taiwan. I looked up from clearer idea about what they were doing, I attended city, perhaps these ideas can infiltrate our minds,

this amusing but unnerving position, searching a lecture given by Marco Casagrande at the NTU permeate through our ears, eyes and noses and

the room for the validation required before I could Department of Sociology. The lecture was partly vibrate our flesh down to our toes, degenerating

throw in the towel; and there, beyond Showzoo, an admittance of the limitations of architects, who and making ruins of our defunct structures of

was a man with Viking features calmly being, he says "only chill with other architects". It was a thought. breathing and occasionally stoking the coals. call for sociologists to take part in a multitude of Historically, my home country – England - has more projects – like Taipei Organic Acupuncture and

than enough reasons to fear marauding Nords; Taipei River Urbanism - to combine their humanist yet here an essence of rapprochement with nature expertise in peoples' interactions with society &

shone through and overcame the tendencies of nature, with the design skills of the egotistical


56 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

CICADA 為台北施行都市針灸術 文 | Kelly Chan 圖 | AdDa 翻譯 | 孔翎蓁、巫祈麟

於台灣同時受到中國、日本以及西方文化交相影響,首都台北也因此逐漸形成一種獨特的混合都市型態,標誌著廣大一致街區中的方型網狀城市 規劃中,就是個隕雜涵括東西方建築的混亂綜合體。不難理解,城市正被水泥叢林包縛,但仍能隱然感受壓制在僵化都市規劃的底層能量,一個 有機城市正處處探尋著馳放張力的機會。

回應大自然環境,芬蘭建築師馬可.卡薩格蘭 (Marco Casagrade) 建造了一個繭狀空間,並直驅工業台北的心臟地帶。Cicada 是個竹狀結構,顛覆 了台北委靡不振視覺景觀。行有機形體為規,以人的尺度為台北城施行「都市針灸術」 。卡薩格蘭設計的 Cicada 有著幼蟲模樣,周邊縱橫交錯車水馬 龍的主要道路和高架橋車道,在片不尋常的城市綠洲之中,蟲型結構物建築在白卵石之上。接近這一竹編骨架,觀眾將看到眼前如幻夢般外形的稻 殼,藤蔓依附叢生,確猶如身處流離失所的有機廢墟。 接壤木棧道進入圓形出入口,內部空間全用碎水泥塊鋪面地表,空間之中有一生火鐵爐,金屬黒短凳四散環繞,這是全然超現實的後工業感官體驗。

竹編透水外體殼對於陽光的過濾有著顯著的效果,它不但提供陰涼處,同時也讓自然光能在白天時,不斷地穿透與映入。一個橢圓形的天窗,顯露了 天空的剪影,並於如煙霧般瀰漫的圍欄,再加入一個已具有強烈意識的古老儀式。在卡薩格蘭的製圖中可以看出,他設想煙霧將會透過天花板的中央孔 道,之後由生火鐵爐中溢散,發射的煙霧像是一個信號般,裊裊升起直達天際,傳遞到城外,彷彿是城市又回歸大自然懷抱的某種標記暗喻。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

57

Urban Acupuncture Text|Kelly Chan Photo|AdDa

A

s the island of Taiwan passed through the hands of Chinese, Japanese and Western influences, its capital city Taipei evolved a distinct hybrid urbanism, marked by a square grid plan of vast uniform blocks containing a chaotic mixture of Eastern and Western architectures. Much of the city is dressed in concrete, and the tension of

an organic city bursting out of its rigid plan is almost palpable.

Responding to this environment, Finnish architect Marco Casagrande has constructed a cocoon-like spatial intervention in the heart of industrial Taipei. 『Cicada' is a

bamboo structure that subverts the concrete malaise of Taipei, functioning as 「urban acupuncture」 for the city by introducing a wholly organic form built on a decidedly

human scale. In an unusual green oasis amidst Taipei's crisscrossing roads and elevated train tracks, the larval form of Casagrande's shelter rests within an oval footprint

of rocks and concrete. Approaching this skeleton of woven bamboo, visitors see a fantastic husk overgrown with clinging vines, appearing before them like a displaced

organic ruin.

However, the surreal experience truly begins in the interior of the structure. Visitors enter through a circular threshold to find a cavernous shelter paved with broken rocks

and bordered by stacks of chopped logs. Within this unusual forum is a fireplace surrounded by metal benches evoking the post-industrial landscape just beyond.

Casgrande's permeable shell of bamboo filters sunlight to a remarkable effect, providing a protective shade while allowing strips of natural light to pierce through

uninterrupted. An elliptical skylight reveals a cutout of the sky above, adding to an already strong sense of ancient ritual that pervades the enclosure. As seen in his

drawings, the architect envisions smoke from the fireplace exiting through this central opening in the ceiling. Rising ceremoniously into the sky, the smoke is emitted like a

signal, communicating to the city outside like a natural sign of life in a city programmed to subsume it.


58 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

圖爾庫成為積極恐怖主義的目標

文 |Anni Teppo 原刊於 Turun Sanomat 1.10.2011 攝 | Marco 翻譯 | 孔翎蓁

自中國和德國的藝術系學生集體努力, 卡 薩 格 蘭 表 示:「 看 著 小 市 集 廣 場 (Vähätori 現正共同拯救教堂前廣場。

Square)( 位於大教堂前的歐拉河對面 ) 改變成現在

假若你看到一個女人在 Uudenmaankatu 大街上鑽 的樣子確實是蠻成功,這次我們挑戰大教堂廣場的 洞或是一個男人在點燃圍繞在圖爾庫大教堂的樵夫 任務則更為艱鉅。」 蠟燭,不用大驚小怪地馬上就撥緊急電話!這是兩 位來自阿爾託圖大學 (Aalto University) 環境藝術 然而,究竟該如何能讓圖爾庫市允許在街上鑽洞? 系的學生所為,他們拿到一時的合法許可—至少目 前如此。

卡薩格蘭說:「警察曾在夜晚阻止沈姓學生的行為, 且好奇她到底在做什麼。沈姓學生一直在實行積極

中 國 學 生 沈 書 勤 與 德 國 學 生 羅 尼 柯 恩 (Ronny 恐怖主義,如此說來,這樣的行為在實際上是沒有 Korn) 試著要喚醒市民去認識自身城市的核心價 獲得合法允許。但從另一個角度出發,她所鑽的洞 值,特別是在教堂廣場及其周邊地區。他們表示: 可能正是一個解決方案。將道路向下開挖,用隧道 「我們想要對圖爾庫市施以城市針灸術。我們的藝 的方式穿過歐拉河便可長久地紓解都市中心的交通 術作品就好比是針灸的針,希望能治療程式的病 問題,圖爾庫值得這樣做!」 徵,引發市民正向回應。」 這些學生藉由圖爾庫市政府觀光及公園歌局處相關 他們各自用自己的方法施展針灸術,沈姓學生於深 單位的合作,實現他們的行動。卡薩格蘭說,他對 夜跑到 Uudenmaankatu 大街上鑽洞,並在洞內種 於來自城市內四面八方的積極支持感到相當意外。 植蒲公英,意義在於,她希望能藉此能讓花兒深根 圖爾庫。柯恩則於 15 日星期五時沿著教堂和教堂 圖爾庫觀光局主席—安妮馬格 ˙ 聶米 (Anne-Marget

廣場周邊,點燃樵夫木蠟燭 (Jätkänkynttilä, 芬蘭 Niemi) 立刻興奮表達本企畫表示的贊同之意:「我

傳統的自立式木蠟燭 )。柯恩微笑地說著:「我在 們曾與馬可長時間討論教堂前廣場的狀況,試著計 想,是否我能用這樣的方式再次燃燒圖爾庫?並帶 劃把所有的車流引道別處,這想法是受到熱烈歡迎 它回到之前那不受車流交通困擾的型態。」

的。」

來自圖爾庫的建築師—做為一個啟發者

樵夫蠟燭的火 , 大約在星期六向晚幾小時內就會燃 燒殆盡,而沈書勤琴的蒲公英針灸術正從一個長遠

但這兩位來自中國與德國的學生要如何結束拯救 的角度開展起來。 圖爾庫的行動呢?這場行動的指導者是阿爾託大 學的教授—馬可 ˙ 卡薩格蘭他亦是出身於圖爾庫的 感謝圖爾庫 2011 歐洲文化首祝辦單位—對於阿爾 建築師,長期關心大教堂前的狀況以及該如何解決 託圖大學環境藝術工作營的支持 Uudenmaankatu 大街的交通問題。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展���報

59

TURKU BEING A TARGET OF POSITIVE TERRORISM

A

Text | Anni Teppo from Turun Sanomat 1.10.2011 Photo|Marco Drawing

"The realization of the Vähätori Square (opposite side of the

RT STUDENTS FROM CHINA AND GERMANY Aura River form the Cathedral Square) to its present form was a PARTICIPATING IN THE COLLECTIVE EFFORT OF wonderful success. The Cathedral Square is a harder challenge SAVING THE CATHEDRAL SQUARE though."

On should not call the emergency number immediately, when

seeing a lady drilling holes into the Uudenmaankatu-street or a But how can the Turku city allow drilling holes to its streets?

man lighting uplumberjacks candles around the Turku Cathedral.

The acts as part of environmental art works by two students from "Well it can't and actually the police did stop Missis Shen during

the Aalto University (Deparment of Environmental Art), and the the night and wondered what she was doing. Shen has been students are operating with a legal permission – at least almost.

practising positive terrorism, so to say, and actually been operating

without a legal permission, but on the other hand the drilling of the

Chinese Shuchin Shen and German Ronny Korn want to wake up holes is giving a suggestion for a possible solution what could be

the citizens to realize the value of their home city's and especially done on this site in a bigger scale. Lowering the road into a tunnel

of its heart, the old Cathedral Square and its surroundings.

"We are treating Turku with urban acupuncture. Our art works

going under the Aura River would free the heart of Turku from cars for good. And Turku is worth it. " Casagrande says.

are acupuncture needles and will hopefully generate positive The sudents are realizing their action in co-operation with

reactions." Shen and Kord are explaining.

the Turku Touring and the Park Department, among others.

Casagrande says that he is surprised by the positive support that

Their individual means of acupuncture are very different. During they have been receiving from many sources form inside the city. the night Shen has been drilling holes into the Uudenmaankatu-

street and into the holes she has been planting dandelions, which Anne-Marget Niemi, the chief of Turku tourism was thrilled about

will root deep into the 「old Turku」, she hopes.

the project immediately.

Korn was burning during Friday 15 lumberjacks candles "We have been talking with Marco a longer time about the

(jätkänkynttilä, a traditional Finnish self-standing one log fire) situation of the Cathedral Square and everything exiting like this is

around the Cathedral and the Cathedral Square.

“I wonder, if I could in a way burn Turku again and return the city

welcome."

to its form before the traffic disturbances”, Korn is smiling.

The jätkänkynttilä-fires will burn off probably by Saturday, but

ARCHITECT FROM TURKU AS THE INSPIRER

working with a longer perspective.

the effects of Shuchin Shen's dandelion acupuncture might start

But how have the young students from China and Germany ended

up saving Turku? Behind the action is operating Aalto University

educator Marco Casagrande, an architect from Turku who has

been concerned a longer time of the Cathedral Square situation The Aalto University Environmental Art workshop is kindly and how the traffic problem of the Uudenmaankatu-street could be supported by Turku, European Cultural Capital 2011.

solved.


60 Anarchist Gardener

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

從台北廢墟到底特律

文 | Phyllis Richardson 翻譯 | 孔翎蓁

過長時間的沉寂,部落格回來了!在這段 為新穎且實用性高的城市景觀。

儘管所有的理想都在現實中失去了一些光

遺 忘 時 期 裡, 給 予 一 些 想 法 重 生 的 空

澤,但懷抱夢想的開始畢竟不是件壞事。引導人

間,似乎是個正確的選擇。現在我要談論這個再

同樣的故事也發生在美國的密西根州中的底特 們「重新思考」,讓社會更有溫度,而這想法也

生 的 城 市: 她 並 非 像 是 那 種 在 繁 榮 的 世 紀 晚 期 律城。這地方已成為失敗城市的代名詞,不只是 將讓 21 世紀的城市更加地人性化。 時,從日漸破敗的市區蛻變為具有雅痞象徵的城 衰退,而是破敗不堪。每日的頭版新聞總是充斥 市,而是完全地疲憊不堪,曾經的高尚構造也隨 著犯罪率、吸毒率,以致一輛新車的價格,猶勝

想要知道更多的底特律,這些是你不能錯過的

處可見那遭到遺棄,日漸衰落的模樣,至此,唯 一間崩跌近谷底的房價。正如同一位在約翰尼諾 地方: 有賦與新生,才能再次開花結果。

克斯維爾 (Johnny Knoxville) 短片中的評論者所 言,底特律的故事,已成為一部失敗的史詩。

年 輕 的 芬 蘭 建 築 師 馬 可. 卡 薩 格 蘭 (Marco

Casagrade) 僅靠著適度的建材,就建造出精巧

www.detroitfunk.com; www.dtownie.com;

然而這城市仍活躍著一些新生事物,像是改造 www.detroitblog.org;

且 高 雅 的 建 築。 他 與 那 時 的 同 事 薩 米· 林 塔 拉 老 建 築 的 新 企 畫 與 新 業 務。 無 論 如 何, 在 我 心 www.heidelberg.org

(Sami Rintal) 曾 合 力 建 造《 漂 浮 三 溫 暖 》

中,一個創新的思維,能使你更為接近於一個儘

(Floating Sauna),其中某些元素似乎精彩地滲 管 在 搖 搖 欲 墜 的 城 市 街 區 中, 仍 試 著 去 創 新 藝

透進《三芝陳宅》(Chen House),如今這些元素 術、堅持設計理念與不隨波逐流的遠見者。在這 似乎滲透了台北的黑暗地域。

麼多的城市帶與幽靈般的建築,是人們企圖去超 越那些僅靠著光鮮亮麗表面所支撐的短視近利產

獨立於台北市的核心之外,馬可.卡薩格蘭和 業。 伙伴們打造「廢墟建築學院」,融合多重風格的 建 築 研 究 中 心。 卡 薩 格 蘭 工 作 室 與 其 一 合 作 夥

廢墟的菜園不只是一個比喻,更是一個新的現 作者二三事

伴—台灣忠泰建築文化藝術基金會共同接手,一 實。因為已有這麼多的空位與毀壞地段已被近鄰 座荒棄的五層公寓樓,拿掉牆壁,並注入些卡薩 街坊或業餘愛好者所接手,這些人早已看見了這

菲莉絲理查森 (Phyllis Richardson) 當代建築與

格蘭式—帶有鄉村風味卻有著精良目的功能性的 塊尚未雕琢的不毛之地背後那豐富的可能性。

設計的建築評論家,她的書包括由全球著名出版社

木製傢俱,如長凳、棚架、特設寢室且打造於室

Thames & Hudson 發 行 XS 建 築 系 列 叢 書、XS

內種植竹子與蔬菜。為了促進農耕,他在建築物

本土的合作社與各式各樣的鄰近園藝行動共同 Green 和 XS Extreme、 新 潮 神 聖 建 築 (New

內鑽了六英吋的洞,讓室內亦能被雨水滋潤。這 發展,以至於「都市菜花園」(Urban gardening) Sacred Architecture)、House Plus、 倫 敦 與 巴 黎 樣的安排,完美表述他們的目標:重新思考一個 的概念幾乎等同於對底特律的聯想—汽車工業與 的 時 尚 城 卷 (the Style City volumes on London 處於狹隘空間的現代人與工業城市之間的關係。

衰退城市。好吧!或許沒有,但你知道的!這裡 and Paris) 以及為兒童設計的著作。她也是周末金

這 不 是 刻 意 地 高 檔 化, 不, 甚 至 沒 有 任 何 的 更 我要指出較大的農業問題,如同一些當地人的想 融 時 報 (Financial Times Weekend) 與 計 劃 雜 誌 新,而是「重新思考」,在不同的時間裡,再次 法,隨著日漸增長的潛能與爭奪,是否該讓大企 (The Plan) 在建築與設計方面的專欄作家。她的書

思 考! 由 於 世 界 上 有 著 太 多 不 太 貼 心 的 城 市 建 業的特別分部進入這塊被視為相當在地化的領域。 也曾被 TLS 以及現已黯然消失的洛杉磯時報書評 築,因此,這似乎是個不錯的進程:朝向一個更

版等處撰述過相當精彩的評論文章。


安那其建築園丁

廢墟建築學院香港 ‧ 深圳城市建築雙年展特報

61

From the ruins, Taipei to Detroit

Text | Phyllis Richardson

A

fter a long hiatus, the blog is back. It seemed less than thoughtful, this seems a pretty good step particular branch of 'big business', as some locals see

appropriate after such a period of neglect to toward a newer and better use of the cityscape.

give some space to the idea of the rebirth. Here

I'm talking about the regenerating city. This is not The same could be said of much of what is happening

it, in on what is viewed as a very localized, Detroit-

friendly initiative.

the gentrified city segment that has become such a in the American city of Detroit, Michigan. The place All ideals lose some polish in reality, but it's not a

badge of yuppiedom in the late-century boom years, that has become such a byword for urban failure, bad thing to have an ideal to start with, to guide the

but the peeling, cracking tired, but possibly once not just decay, but all-out destruction. Headlines 're-think' so that it doesn't lose its thoughtfulness,

noble structures that have seen such disuse, decline, will enumerate murder-rates, drug-addiction rates, especially when it comes to making cities more dereliction that only new life could be born in it, foreclosures, the fact that the average house price humane in the twenty-first century.

since old associations have become too haunting or might be less than, much less than, the cost of a new impossible.

car. As one commentator inJohnny Knoxville's short For more on Detroit, there are some sites that

film on the current city incarnations puts it, the story of shouldn't be missed:

The young Finnish architect Marco Casagrande, who Detroit has become 'an epic poem of failure.'

www.detroitfunk.com;

has been making small, elegant buildings from modest And yet the city is also abuzz with newness, new www.dtownie.com;

materials, from a collaboration on a floating sauna with projects in old buildings, new businesses, and to my www.detroitblog.org; fellow Finn Sami Rintala, to the wonderfully permeable mind anyway, a new sort of creative mindset that www.heidelberg.org Chen House, has gone into the less salubrious areas makes you look more closely at the crumbling city

of Taipei.

block for those new shoots of the artistic, the design-

minded, the unflappable visionary. In so many of About the Author

There he and his partners have set up something these city strips and ghostly buildings are people in

called 'The Ruin Academy'. It is 'an independent, pursuit of something beyond the shiny surface of a city cross-over architectural research centre in the bolstered by short-sighted industry.

'Urban Core' area of Taipei.' Casagrande Laboratory,

Phyllis Richardson is the author of several books on

contemporary architecture and design, such as the

working with the Taiwanese JUT Foundation for Arts The garden is a trope here too, and a new reality, XS series (including XS Green and XS Extreme),

& Architecture have taken over an abandoned 5-story since so many vacant or burned-out lots have been New Sacred Architecture, House Plus, the Style City

apartment building, taken out walls and inserted some taken over by neighbourhoods or lone amateurs who volumes on London and Paris, and Designed for Kids.

of Casagrande's rustic-sophisticated wood fixtures– see possibilities for a different kind of abundance in She contributes architecture and design features to

benches, shelving, and ad-hoc dormitories, as well un-paved patches of land. as structures for growing bamboo and vegetables

the print versions of the Financial Times Weekend

and The Plan. Her book reviews have appeared in

indoors. To facilitate the agricultural endeavors, ' H o m e - g r o w n ' c o o p e r a t i v e s , a n d v a r i o u s the TLS, the sadly defunct Los Angeles Times Book the architects drilled 6-inch holes in the building so neighbourhood gardening initiatives have evolved so Review, and elsewhere. that it could 'rain inside'. This arrangement perfectly that 'urban gardening' has become almost as close

describes their aim 'to re-think the industrial city and in associative responses to 'Detroit' as 'auto-industry'

the modern man in a box', not gentrification, no, not and 'decline' once were. Okay, maybe not, but you

even renewal, but re-thinking, as in thinking again, get the idea. It should be noted that larger agricultural

but differently this time. Since so much of urban concerns have also seen the potential and disputes Richardsome's blog

architecture around the world could be described as are already growing up over whether to let this http://www.archetcetera.blogspot.com/


62 Anarchist Gardener

TRAKTORFAN

Ruin Academy · Hong Kong & Shenzhen Bi-city Biennale of Urbanism \ Architecture

by Marco

安那其建築園丁 Anarchist Gardener HK Special Edition Translation:

Contributions: Taiwan

林宜珍 Lea Yi-Chen Lin 洪宜玲 Yi-Ling Hung

Taiwan

Kelly Chan

USA

康寧馨 Isis Kang

Taiwan

郭安家 Kuo An-Chia

Taiwan

Anni Teppo

Finland

August Künnapu

Estonia

Phyllis Richardson

USA

Lasse Nordlund

Finland

聶克 Nicholas Coulson

England

孔翎蓁 Lydia, Ling -Chin Kung      林倩如 Lara Lin

Taiwan Taiwan

陳右昇 Frank Chen

Taiwan

吳牧青 Ouch Wu

邱郁晨 Chiu Yu-Chen

丘德真 Yau Tak Chun

Taiwan Taiwan HK

巫祈麟 Nikita, Wu Chi-Ling

Taiwan

Lukas Casagrande (p39)

Finland

Shreya Nagrath and Arijit Sen (p50 )

India

Hans(p26-27)

Taiwan

Editor in Chief

Illustration: 蔡明輝 AdDa

吳介禎 C.J. Anderson-Wu

Taiwan

Find More “Ruin Academy” on Facebook Fanspage Kiitos

2012 Ruin Academy Taipei


become more competent? recover faster? support sustainable living? smile?

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OPEN HELSINKI â&#x20AC;&#x201D; E M B EDDIN G DESI G N IN LIFE

Can design make you


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Anarchist Gardener Issue Two HK special 安那其建築園丁港深建築雙城雙年展特別版