LESSON 11 THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN CREATING BATIK STRUCTURE 11.0
THE PROCESS INVOLVED IN MAKING BATIK 11.2.1 11.2.2 11.2.3 11.2.4 11.2.5 11.2.6
PREPARING THE CLOTH AND TRACING THE DESIGN PREPARATION OF WAX APPLYING WAX WITH BRUSH PREPARATION OF COLOUR SOLUTION DYEING PROCEDURE RANGE OF COLOURS AVAILABLE
ASSIGNMENTS 11.3.1 11.3.2
CLASS ASSIGNMENTS HOME ASSIGNMENTS
POSSIBLE ANSWERS TO SELF - CHECK QUESTIONS
REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED FURTHER READING
11. THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN CREATING BATIK In the previous lesson, after defining batik and giving a brief historical background, the steps involved in making batik were discussed along with the materials and tools needed for this purpose. Some comments had also been made on the selection of fabric and the dyes and wax used. In this lesson we will learn in some more detail about the processes involved in creating batik.
11.0 Objectives After going through this lesson you will be able to â€˘
Understand how to prepare the cloth and apply wax on the cloth to make batik.
Understand the dyeing process of batik.
11.1 Introduction In Lesson 10 we were introduced to the art of batik and learnt about the different tools and materials used. We were also told about the different processes involved in making batik. In this Lesson, we will describe these in some detail.
11.2 The Processes Involved in Creating a Batik The various processes of creation of batik were listed in subsection 10.3 of the previous Lesson. These will now be described step by step. 11.2.1 Preparing the cloth and tracing the design The fabric should be selected and given preparatory treatment as per guidelines given in Lesson 10. It is advisable to select a white fabric as it can be given the desired colour. In case the base fabric is silk, a creamy colour may be selected. If there is a coating of starch on the fabric, it should be removed. The fabric should be washed (Fig. 11.1), dried and pressed. For subsequent process, it is preferable to keep the fabric in a stretched position. For this some old newspapers may be spread on a table and fabric can then be held in a stretched position with the help of drawing pins. The design can then be either drawn on the fabric (Fig. 11.2) or the desired design can be transferred with the help of a tracing paper and carbon paper. Some batikers like to stretch the fabric (or T-shirt) on
an adjustable wooden frame (Fig. 11.3). Others prefer to place on top of newspaper topped with a piece of wax paper.
Fig. 11.1 Washing of the fabric
Fig. 11.2 Drawing a design on the fabric
Fig. 11.3 A wooden frame to keep fabric stretched
11.2.2 Preparation of wax A mixture of 50-50 paraffin and beeswax is often used. However, different proportions, say 2:1 may also be used, as in the example. Take two parts of paraffin wax and one part of beeswax in a pot for heating. When the wax has melted and becomes liquid, some resin (1/5 of the wax) may be added – it acts as binder for the wax. Stir the wax with wooden rod. On heating if the wax looks transparent on the fabric it is ready to apply. If it looks opaque it is not hot enough. A temperature of Fig. 11.4 Preparation of wax 50° to 60°C is the most appropriate as below 50°C, wax may not penetrate into the fabric easily and above 60°C, it is likely to start smoking. It is also worth mentioning that paraffin wax is relatively more hard and brittle and results in more cracks.
Self-check Questions Fill in the blanks 1. It is advisable to select a _______ fabric as it can be given the desired _______. In case the base fabric is silk, a creamy colour may be selected. If there is a coating of ________ on the fabric, it should be removed. The fabric should be _________, _______ and _________. 2. A mixture of 50-50 _________ wax and ________ wax is often used.
11.2.3 Applying wax with brush
Fig. 11.5 Applying wax on the fabric
Use a good quality brush to apply wax on areas that are not to be coloured (Fig. 11.5). Use an appropriate size of brush according to the design. For example for delicate design, use number 2 or 4 brush and for bold design use number 6 or 12 brush. Apply wax on the same areas on both the sides of the cloth as ultimately only the design part has to be dyed on both sides of the fabric. 11.2.4 Preparation of colour solution
As stated in Lesson 10, Azoic colours are most suitable for cold dyeing and are used for Batik. They have two components, viz., Naphthol (or Brenthol) and diazo salt. It is necessary to convert water insoluble naphthol to the soluble form and this is achieved by using caustic soda. The diazo salts are readily soluble in water. The quantities of these two components required for making the solutions are: 1 part of Brenthol to 2 to 3 parts of the salt. The water must be soft and for 10 grams of Brenthol powder, 1 liter of water should be used. The corresponding composition of the diazo salt solution will be 20 to 30 gms. of salt in a liter of water. A) Preparation of base solution (First dip) i)
Naphthol or Brenthol dye is not directly soluble in water. The powder is first mixed with Turkey red oil which acts as a wetting agent and results in a thick paste. T.R. Oil is same amount of naphthol or 1 Â˝ to 2 times of naphthol.
Add Â˝ a cup of hot water to the paste and mix properly. Now add some quantity of caustic soda till the suspension becomes clear. If it does not, then boil it for some time and keep adding caustic soda and stirring till the suspension becomes clear.
Now add cold water and keep the solution in a bucket or tub. Addition of common salt in solution to the extent of 10 to 20 grams per litre, which acts as an electrolyte will accelerate the exhaustion of naphthols.
B) Preparation of diazo salt solution (Second dip) i)
The necessary quantity of diazo salt is dissolved in some cold water and the dilute solution with the requisite amount of water is transferred to a bucket or a tub.
In case if the diazo salt is unavailable in the market, it can also be prepared by the following method. Take same amount of diazo base; add little water i.e.1/4th cup. Mix well taking care that no lumps are formed. Add Sodium Nitrite and stir well. Add little water again. Add Alum (Aluminium sulphate) and stir well. Finally, add hydrochloric acid measuring 1/4th quantity of diazo base. When you see fumes coming from the solution, pour water immediately and stir well. Dilute this solution in a plastic tub or a bucket, by adding 2 to 3 litres of water. Same method of base preparation may be followed in this case also. This will then be used as the second solution.
Self-check Questions Fill in the blanks 2. ________ colours are most suitable for cold _________ and are used for Batik. They have two components, viz., __________ and _______ salt. 3. In batik the base solution is called _______ dip and diazo salt solution is called _________ dip. 11.2.5 Dyeing procedure Dye the first (and lightest) colour. If you are immersing the fabric, be careful to keep the fabric flat so that the wax does not crack (unless you want the hairline cracks in the design). The following is a step wise description of the dyeing process: 1.
Take the waxed cloth and dip it in plain water so that it can absorb the base solution properly and evenly.
Now dip the wet cloth in the base solution (Fig. 11.6) and stir it gently so that you get an even dye all over.
After the base bath the cloth is taken out, let the extra colour drip off then dip the cloth in the second solution (salt solution).
Fig. 11.6 Dipping the waxed fabric in the bath
After dyeing, the fabric should be rinsed in cold running water and put out for drying in the shade but not in direct sunlight.
This procedure of waxing and dyeing is repeated till the last dye has been used. Finally, the wax is removed from the fabric â€“ the procedure followed is described in the next Lesson.
Lay the fabric flat to dry. Hanging may cause the dye to run and become uneven at this stage.
When dry, the fabric may be lightly ironed.
Always remember that the fabric should be dipped in naphthol [base] solution first.
11.2.6 Range of colours available Dye manufacturers produce a wide range of azoic colours – about 40 fast colour bases and salts are produced and their literature deals with the various factors to be considered in the preparation of recipe for dyeing like methods of dissolving naphthols, absorption of naphthols, relationship between naphthols and fast colour salts, quantities of fast colour base and fast colour salts to be added for the production of pale, medium and heavy depths, methods of dissolving fast colour salts, etc. Pattern cards for the dyeing of fabric and yarns together with detailed technical literature are available. These should be carefully studied and followed. For e.g. ASG, ASTR, ASLB, ASOL, ASBO, ASGR, AS, ASBT etc. are the different naphthols. Red B, Blue B, Yellow GC, Red TR, Garnet GBC, Orange GC, Scarlet RC, Red RC, etc. bases (salts) are available in the market. A.S.G. Naphthol gives us Yellow shades only irrespective of the salt. Different naphthols give us different shades if we experiment with them. We can combine different salts with a single naphthol, and vice versa.
11.3 Assignments 11.3.1 Class assignment i) Trace a design on fabric and make it using Batik. 11.3.2 Home assignment i) Make 10 different designs, some in single and others in 2-3 colours on fabric size 6” x 6”.
11.4 Summing Up Let us now summarize what we have learnt in this Lesson. 1. Transferring a design on paper 2. Preparation of Wax 3. Applying Wax with Brush
4. Preparation of Colour Solution 5. Dyeing Procedure
11.5 Possible Answers to Self-check Questions Fill in the blanks 1. It is advisable to select a white fabric as it can be given the desired colour. In case the base fabric is silk, a creamy colour may be selected. If there is a coating of starch on the fabric, it should be removed. The fabric should be washed, dried and pressed. 2. A mixture of 50-50 paraffin wax and bees wax is often used. 3. Azoic colours are most suitable for cold dyeing and are used for Batik. They have two components, viz., Naphthol (or Brenthol) and diazo salt. 4. In batik the base solution is called first dip and diazo salt solution is called second dip.
11.6 Terminal Questions 1. What are the main considerations in preparing wax? 2. Describe the preparation of colour solutions. 3. Describe the dyeing procedure. 4. What type of information do leading manufacturers of azoic colours provide?
11.7 References and Suggested Further Reading 1. Anderson, F. 1977. Tie Dyeing and Batik. Octopus Books Ltd. London. 2. Meilach, D.Z. 1973. Contemporary Batik and Tie-Dye. Crown Publishers, Inc. New York.
11.8 Glossary 1.
Which is not see through
Binder A solution that gives strength and uniformity to its solvent
Pattern cards Shade cards accompanied with dyes
Technical literature A card or booklet accompanied with any product that contains all the instructions regarding its use and maintenance