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TECHNISCHE UNIVERSITÄT DARMSTADT UNIVERSITAT INTERNACIONAL DE CATALUNYA

ERASMUS MUNDUS MASTER PROGRAM IN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT

Barcelona 2011


Approach towards sustainable management of watershed areas in dry climatic conditions

Rossana Poblet Alegre

Barcelona 2011


Approach towards sustainable management of watershed areas in dry climatic conditions Master thesis presented to the School of Architecture of Universitat Internacional de Catalunya for obtaining the

master’s

double

degree

on

“International

Cooperation and Urban Development” by Technishe Universität

Darmstadt

and

on

”International

Cooperation in Sustainable Emergency Architecture” by Universitat Internacional de Catalunya.

Supervisor: Prof. Carmen Mendoza

Barcelona 2011


Acknowledgements First of all, I would like to thank the Mundus Urbano Master Program and the European Commission Education Program who granted me with a scholarship for the period 2009-2011 between Technischen Universität Darmstadt in Germany and Universitat Internacional de Catalunya in Barcelona. Thanks to the Professor Kosta Mathey who created this master, to all the professors and scholars who shared their knowledge and experience with us and to the direction, coordination and administration support in both sites. In Perú, thanks to my friends, colleagues and professors from Ricardo Palma University, where I graduated from the Architecture and Urbanism school, and from Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, where I did study in the Urban Renewal Master Program. I was honored to learn from excellent professionals from Peru and abroad. Despite the distance, you are always in my thoughts! In Barcelona, my eternal gratitude to my thesis supervisor Ms. Dr. Carmen Mendoza, Associate Professor, School of Architecture, International University of Catalunya. Her generous guidance, attention, and particularly encouragement made possible this thesis. Many thanks to Mr. Dr. Pere Valls, Professor at UIC University who challenged me with the thesis theme. I still have the feeling I missed the opportunity to evaluate land administration, sustainable development and social housing policies in the places where I did work but it is a pending task for the future. In Germany, my eternal thanks to the two organisations where I did internship: Misereor in Aachen and the Institute of Landscape Planning and Ecology (Institut für Landschaftsplanung und Ökologie - ILPÖ) in Stuttgart University. Thanks to Misereor I could work again in urban development, land administration and social housing in Africa and Latin America. I was integrated to the organization as professional and I could enjoy the time with excellent colleagues. My thoughts go to the African department and to the Latin American department and especially to Klaus and Rene, my dearest friends. Six months later I was accepted by other German institution, this time in Stuttgart and I must say that this thesis is inspired in the visit I did to my city with ILPÖ


as part of the Lima Water Project (LiWa). That couldn’t happen without the support of the LiWa Coordinator Mr. Dr. Manfred Schuetze who accepted my internship request and introduced me with the German landscape approach. Thanks to that experience I got in contact with excellent professionals and could enter in a new urban field of research. In this respect, I would like to thank to Professor Antje Stockman, ILPÖ’s director, who shared with me theoretical and professional experience regarding sustainable water and stormwater management including interventions in rivers and other landscapes. It took us a while to understand our different contexts but now we are full of energy and ideas. Many thanks to all the ILPÖs’ colleagues, especially to Eva Nemcova and Bernd Eisenberg, friends and future team work. Thanks to Christian Leon, LiWa’s coordinator in Perú who also shared important material of research. In different countries, I would like to thank to all the friends and colleagues who shared classes with me. My special thoughts to Regina, Chau, Kari, HuiLing, Luana, Tara, Fazlur, Ana, Lorena and to all the others for their friendship and commitment. Special thanks to the best family in Barcelona: Nicolás, José, Alma, Greta, Rajesh, Elkin, Janae and Maarten. Their invaluable inputs and support kept me walking. I would like to give special gratitude to my dear flatmates and hosts in all the places I have stayed during the last two years: Darmstadt, Aachen, Stuttgart, Lima and Barcelona (Agnes, Max, Adrian, Regina, Björn, Klaus, Vicmar, Cesar, Christl, Dieter, José, Ola and Carlita). Thank you for sharing with me more than a flat! Ola’s support and Carlita´s company made me feel so warm during the thesis period. Last but not least, my eternal gratitude to my family for giving me life, love, care, and opportunities to stand by myself and follow my dreams in this small world.

…… now I only can say I still have many questions in my brain but I want to break all the social constructions and explore answers not losing the passion for discovering, sharing and learning and always opening new windows….


TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Nº

INTRODUCTION | LOOKING FOR A HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT

1

Global Perspectives

2

Goal of Research

3

Specific Objectives

3

Research Hypothesis

3

Research Questions

4

Research Importance

4

Research Methodology

4

Research Limitations

5

Chapter One | WATERSHEDS: AN INTEGRAL LANDSCAPE VISION

1.1

Context

7

1.1.1. Neglecting watersheds' development

10

1.1.2. The importance of watershed based spatial

14

planning for sustainable urban development 1.2.

Sustainable development

1.2.1. Sustainable spatial planning Vs Urban

15 16

Development in developing context 1.2.2. Sustainable spatial planning - New Approaches

18

1.3.

20

Relationship between urban development and water management along the Rimac River watershed

1.4.

Along Rimac’s River history

24

1.5.

Lack of urban planning and risk situations

26

along the Rimac River 1.6.

Conclusion

28


Chapter

Two

|

STRATEGIES

TOWARDS

SUSTAINABLE

URBAN

ENVIRONMENTAL REGENERATION PROGRAMS

2.1.

Giving the back to the River

30

2.1.1. From “Rimaq” (talkative river) to eternal silence?

31

2.2.

35

Integral Urban-Environmental regeneration approaches – Main strategies to recover river watershed

2.2.1 Integrated Watershed Management approach

35

2.2.2. Cultural Landscape approach

37

2.2.3. Water sensitive urban design approach

41

2.2.4 Ecohydrology approach

46

2.3.

At Technical level-Multidisciplinary approach

49

2.4.

At Political/Management level - Supramunicipal approach

50

2.5.

Lima’s current condition

50

2.6.

Conclusions

53

Chapter Three | TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF RIMAC RIVER WATERSHED 3.1.

Looking towards sustainable management of

56

Rimac River Watershed 3.1.1. Building an Watershed based Spatial Planning concept

57

3.1.2. Building an Urban Environmental Spatial Planning -

59

Rimac River Watershed 3.2.

Some strategies at watershed level

61

3.3.

Some urban/spatial planning strategies at watershed level

64

3.3.1. Rimac River as connector element for the Rimac

64

Watershed Integration 3.3.2. Rimac River as part of an Ecological Network

66

Blue-Green-Brown (BGB) Network in the urban watershed to reduce fragmentation 3.3.3. Rimac River Potential as cultural Landscape

68

3.3.4. Rimac River possibilities for an Environmental recovery

69


3.3.5. Rimac River as a source and not as a threat

71

3.4.

72

Towards an urban water planning and design new approach

3.4.1. Creating Water Alliances between neighbors

73

3.4.2. Identifying possible solutions to implement sustainable

75

principles at Planning and urban design level – WSUD and ESD as part of the strategy 3.4

Conclusions

78

GENERAL CONCLUSION

79

BIBLIOGRAPHY

82


International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

Introduction | LOOKING FOR A HOLISTIC DEVELOPMENT

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Cities growing along the desert have always faced different challenges regarding water. Through the centuries those cities have survived thanks to the existence of rivers that could irrigate their valleys and provide freshwater for different uses existing a correlation and interdependency between urban planning, watershed and water management. However in the last decades, global pressures and the pursuit for economical development have postponed the integration of fundamental components of the regional and urban planning in developing countries creating as consequence rapid urbanization processes, intense and unplanned use of land, massive informal construction, social exclusion, landscape degradation and over use of natural resources. Through the time the previous fertile valleys have almost disappeared, the rivers have been transformed into waste and wastewater channels and the poverty has increased along those neglected areas. Moreover conventional ad hoc solutions for water management and energy production using rivers as a source, have not contributed to the preservation of the nature and the huge infrastructures built have created direct irreversible impact in the environment. If we add to this scenario the increase concern due to the possible climate change effects over different regions then the future for desert cities is more uncertain. In this context has grown Lima, capital of Peru and world’s second largest city over a desert after Cairo. It is located in the South American Pacific desert coast, has very little precipitation, and is therefore dependent on surface water delivered from the Andes by rivers. This water is seasonally variable and is already being affected by climate change effects. The most important river in Lima is Rimac River, source of freshwater and at same time one of the most exploited, polluted and depredated rivers at national level. Additionally only 10% of the city’s wastewater is treated before to be discharge into rivers and oceans. Therefore domestic, commercial and industrial wastes and wastewaters get combined along the river creating an alarming vulnerable condition. Considering that, there is a need to face these problems and review the current options APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

looking towards new sustainable approaches in order to reorient unsustainable urban development, reclaiming rivers and upgrading landscapes and nature. GOAL OF RESEARCH Evaluate

possibilities

to

reclaim

river’s

watersheds

considering

sustainable urban planning tools in order to define strategies for cities in dry climatic conditions, identifying possibilities and limitations for its applicability and formulating recommendations towards sustainable watershed management which will support a sustainable urban development process. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES The objectives of this research are: •

To understand the relationship between watersheds based spatial planning

and sustainable urban development. •

To identify sustainable urban planning tools and principles through existing

integrated landscape regeneration projects. •

To identify possibilities towards urban water paradigm shifts for Rimac’s

River reclamation and preservation. RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS In order to reverse unsustainable urban development processes in cities in dry climatic conditions and rapid urban growth, urban water paradigm shifts are needed. My research contends that there is a need to introduce sustainable urban-environmental planning tools and reevaluate concepts like water sensitive urban design creating possibilities for dry cities. My thesis evaluates existing urban development processes in Lima and along

Rimac

River’s

watershed

in

order

to

define

and

formulate

recommendations that will contribute for a shift of existing urban water paradigms toward more sustainable ones. In order to formulate future recommendations, my research analyzes different approaches that have incorporated water sensitive principles. APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

RESEARCH QUESTIONS What is the relationship between watersheds and urban planning and sustainable urban development? How to promote a sustainable urban development in fast growing cities with dry climatic conditions? How to integrate a fragmented territory through the watershed holistic approach? RESEARCH IMPORTANCE In times of water scarcity at global level there is a need to understand the relationship between urban planning, watershed management and water management in order to create more efficient solutions for cities development. Additionally ways to reverse river’s degradation process due to overexploitation and massive urbanisation should be found in order to preserve one of the few natural elements that exist in the city and give identity and memory about the city’s development. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The research intends to have two approaches: at macro scale, with an integral watershed development approach and at micro scale, with the identification of urban-environmental principles to reclaim rivers’ watersheds and landscapes. The methodology includes: o

Literature review through books, e-books and magazines and some

interviews; o

Critic analysis about sustainable urban strategies and water sustainability

analyzing its application in real case studies; o

The primary sources are books including information about case studies

like Llobregat in Spain and IBA Emscher Park in Germany; additionally material APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

regarding water sensitive urban design concept and urban sustainable principles described in UN-Habitat and UNEP and academic research; o

Diagnosis of segments of River Rimac in Lima to understand the

complexity of the spatial and urban development of a river in an arid region; o

Internship experience with the Institute of Landscape Planning and

Ecology (Institut für Landschaftsplanung und Ökologie-ILPÖ) in Stuttgart University as part of Lima Water project (LiWa) RESEARCH LIMITATIONS The main research limitation has been the short time frame to write the thesis been obliged to reduce the scope of analysis to fulfill the dateline. Most of the information about the Rimac River is from climatic or hydrological studies. Physical risk conditions were identified through Civil Defense studies in the middle watershed part but there was limited detailed information about the lower urban part. Some aerial views were taken from google earth. It was not possible to study more in detail the history of the city through a river/water perspective due to lack of material. Also it was not possible to access to previous urban plans to recover Rimac River due to the distance. However the major limitation was to try to identify practical cases studies in similar desert conditions like Lima, reason why the research focus mainly in concepts, methodologies and principles from other experiences that could be adapted (sometimes) to the Lima’s context.

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

Chapter 1 | WATERSHEDS: AN INTEGRAL LANDSCAPE VISION

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

In this chapter I will describe the area of study, Lima, Peru including geographical, historical, socio-economic, and environmental aspects and I will try to identify the relationship between that context and watersheds. I will also give a brief introduction to the basic concepts and discussions regarding watersheds based spatial planning, urban development, urban planning and sustainable development to understand the connection with economic, social and environmental aspects. Additionally I will try to reflect whether is possible for a city in a developing context to generate a balance between economic, social and environmental aspects without detriment of any of them. 1.1.

Context Peru is located in the Western side of South America, bordering the

South Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Chile. It has a population that reaches around 29 million inhabitants 1 and most of its population is located along the Coast. It is formed by 24 departments and one constitutional province, 200 provinces and 1800 districts. It has an area of 1.285.216 sq km. The climate varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west and temperate to frigid in the Andes. Despite to be an equatorial country, it has a diverse range of weathers due to the influence of the cold water from Humboldt Current and the Andes mountains. The terrain in the western Coast is mainly plain, in the center is characterized by high and rugged Andes and by lowland in the jungle of Amazon basin. Additionally Peru has eight ecological regions, from 0 masl until 6800 masl, with very specific nature, geographical and climatic characteristics and a high biodiversity being a country with a valuable contrast. However despite the potential and opportunities than this diversity creates, it has being also a major obstacle at the time to plan and organize the territory and try to connect it. Even more, some regions’ developments have been limited due to the little consideration to the geographical reality. Unfortunately, most of the departments, provinces and districts of the country have been created without thinking in the geographical references (PNUD, 2011). The current political-administrative division of the country is the

1

All quantitative data about population is extracted from the National Institution of Statistics and

Informative (http://www.inei.gob.pe/)

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

result of centuries of inefficient territorial partition done mainly due to politicaladministrative-economic

interests

without

considering

natural

systems.

Consequently, we have produced dependent regions and cities that are not able to sustain themselves. That partition has made even more difficult to distribute social welfare equally between all the inhabitants. Hence, despite reduction of extreme poverty levels in Peru from 23 percent in 2002 to 11,5 percent in 2009, inequalities are still prevalent particularly with regards to infrastructure, gender and ethnicity as we can see in the following prepared by UNDP. Graphic 1.1. The burden of inequality on the Human development index (HDI). HDI losses attributable to inequality by country in Latin America and the Caribbean

PERU

PERU

Source: HDR Team calculations based on CEDLAS (2010) and SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank, 2010) data

According to the UN’s 2010 Regional Report on Human Development for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNDP, 2010), access to water in Peru is the APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

most unequal in the region and access to electricity is the third most unequal in the region too (see Graphic 1.2). Other large gaps between genders, ethnicities, education, places of residence, etc. are also significant. Graphic 1.2. Indicators of access to basic services in Latin America and the Caribbean Access to Water in LAC (%)

Access to Electricity in LAC (%)

Source: Gasparini et al. (2009), based on SEDLAC (CEDLAS and World Bank, 2010) presented in the Regional Human Development Report for Latin America and the Caribbean 2010

Taking into consideration Peru’s complex geographical setting and its political organization, a number of questions arise. For example, how a country that according to international agencies had one of the best-performing economies in Latin America in 2009, with a GDP growth of 9.8% (higher even than that of China with 9%) 2 can face those levels of inequality? How the economic growth benefits, driven mainly by high global minerals prices and expanded output from natural-resources, is not reflected in the development of common inhabitants from the mountains, jungle or desert coast? How economic development has been driven without considering social, physical and environmental aspects? Even more, sometimes economic development has brought as consequence the detriment of one or the other two, producing uncontrolled

migration,

informal

urbanisation,

landscape

degradation,

occupation of risk areas, overexploitation of natural resources and unequal distribution which at the end reinforced inequalities in urban and rural areas and among them. In this context this research intends to respond how to reorient the future towards a more sustainable urban-environmental development. 2

Article published in The Economist magazine (March, 2009) Recession proof, Despite a global

bust and slowing domestic growth, Peru's economy remains in good shape

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

1.1.1. Neglecting Watersheds' development According to the Human development´s Inform Peru 2009 (Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo-PNUD, 2010) 3 there are two main factors that slow down the development of the country; (1) the gaps in the territory and the density of the State in relation with social welfare distribution and (2) the lack of consideration of watersheds as potential spatial areas for a sustainable human development. The chapter “A vision from the watersheds” (“Una vision desde las cuencas”) analyses the current conditions of the watersheds in Peru, emphasize the importance of the watersheds from a political-administrative, socio-economic, environmental and physical point of view as part of a natural system and furthermore propose ways to integrate future spatial planning and land use with watersheds as organic and systemic territorial units, organized around the hydrological cycle with the aim to look for a sustainable human development (PNUD, 2010). But how to implement that approach if through history, humanity has been characterized by different predatory practices without considering nature or ecosystems? And how to suddenly look for development focusing in the hydrological cycle in a country that always neglected that aspect during the spatial planning of the territory? In the case of Peru according to PNUD occupation modes in the last century has been characterized by the “littoralization of the country” resulting in the Coast hegemony, the loss of importance of the mountains and the predatory colonial occupation in the jungle” (HDI 2009, 2010, 23). Such occupation practice extended until the end of the XX century and has had decisive consequences in the occupation –mainly reckless and informal- of the remaining urban areas and in the overuse of natural resources. Therefore the population from the Coast has increased from 1,8 million in 1940 to almost 15 million in 2007, passing from 28% to 55% staying the majority of that population

3

The PNUD is the Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo Humano, in English is

UNDP, but I will use the Spanish acronym because most of the information that I will use in this section is extracted from the Human Development report 2009 published in 2009 in Spanish. The HDI contents two main bodies being the second one related to watershed’s development.

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

located in the metropolitan areas of Lima and Callao 4 due to the strong centralisation that characterised the country. However was that desert coastal land able to satisfied basic demands of the new residents as access to water? Was the hydrological reality taken into account at the time was decided the urbanization of the Coastal desert? How is that reality and how can impact the future rural-urban development? As it is shown in the Graphic 1.3 hydrologically Peru is divided into three basins: •

the Pacific basin covers 21,7% of the territory, born in the western side of the Andean mountain and flows East-West direction crossing the narrow mainly deserted Coast. It is formed by 53 irregular rivers that drain into the Pacific Ocean mainly from December to March and are characterized by being short, narrow, fast flowing, high pending and non-navigable5. Twenty five of them gets dry or with minimum volume during the drought season from April to September6;

the Amazon basin (also known as Atlantic because end there) represents 74,5% of the territory, born in the Eastern side of the Andean mountains, flows West-East direction and drain into the Amazon river and later to the Atlantic Ocean. It is characterized by slow rivers and regular flow;

finally the Lake Titicaca basin covers 3,9% of the territory and is located in the SE of the country. Additionally the average annual mass of surface water that produce the 3

basins is 780.000 MMC, but 90% of the water goes to the Atlantic via the Amazon River, and another 10% has restricted use due to the seasonal regime of the waterways (PNUD, 2010).

4

According to INEI Lima’s Department density reach 237 hab/sq Km

5

Except Tumbes river in the North which is mostly navigable

6

GEO Peru report 2005

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture Graphic 1.3. Hydrographic watershed regions in Peru

Source: Peru’s Ministry of Energy and Mines (MINEM, 2010)

Therefore there are strong reasons to take into consideration the hydrological reality in urban planning contexts. One of the reasons is that despite the fact that Peru possesses 4,6% of the superficial water of the planet7, most of the Peruvians live in the Coast, especially in the capital Lima, former valley part of a desert, area highly urbanized and dependent regarding water resources from the Amazon basin (PNUD, 2011). Thus the real challenges are related with an integral spatial planning, watershed and water management approach more than only with the availability of the water resource. According to PNUD less than 2% of the water of the country located in the Pacific basin, covers the needs of more than 60% of the population (see Graphic 1.4). Meanwhile non-efficient practices in different uses waste large amounts of fresh water. Therefore it is urgent to redefine new strategies to integrate spatial planning considering a water management (PNUD, 2010, 12). 7

PNUD Peru Human development Inform 2009

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture Graphic 1.4. Water volume and population distribution – Availability of water in Peru

Source: PNUD, Peru Human development Inform 2009

Furthermore strong concern rise due to the possible effects of climate change throughout the country. According to the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Peru is the third-most sensitive country when it comes to impacts of climate change on precipitation and water availability (Rosenberger, 2006)8. In this respect the Andean countries would be seriously affected due to the melt of glaciers, meaning loss of important quantities of water through river basins. But what would be the future for the Peruvian desert coast and specially Lima, one day without that natural reserve?

8

Information taken from Lima Water Project – LIWA (http://www.lima-water.de)

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

1.1.2. The

importance

of

Watershed

based

spatial

planning

for

sustainable urban development Nowadays there is a clear understanding that urban spatial planning developments influence the natural system dynamics and that the ecosystems influence the urban structures too (Folch, 2003). So from a spatial planning point of view, a new approach towards a more sustainable development can be seeing if we accept the territory function as a system where socio-economic, cultural, geographical, environmental factors can develop in a holistic way. In this context, watersheds are the most appropriate sceneries for a sustainable development. According to the Human development´s Inform Peru (HDIP) published by the PNUD in 2009, the Watersheds “are territorial units of geographical division, defined by the nature around the water cycle” (PNUD, 2010: 7). Its coherence allows considering them as an option for social, economic, cultural and physical integration. If the territory is organized around the water cycles “its collection, distribution and diverse applications are a source of life for people” (PNUD, 2010:7). In general we can think in watersheds as leaves of trees where each vein is a river that extend all over a drainage basin up to their divides. In fact watersheds are natural systems with a major geographical influence which allow life and sustainability. Human beings and human settlements are part of it and thereby they have to understand the scope, its functions, possibilities, limitations, natural boundaries and influence over the territory and in the future spatial planning9. In spatial terms watershed is a topographically defined area of land where the water within flows to a common point. Within a watershed, surface and groundwater are generally connected as water flows across the landscape through waterways or vertically through the various layers of soil and substrate. This movement of water across and through the landscape connects an area hydrologically (IWPM, 2004). That understanding will help to have a sustainable watershed based spatial planning approach adapting and organizing the space with the less possible impact over the natural system to 9

A more detailed definition is explored by the Integrated Watershed Management -

Ecohydrology & Phytotechnology – Manual- published by United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) which describes all functions and components of watersheds.

APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

guarantee a holistic development and longer life over the watersheds and its ecosystem. According to PNUD (2011) watersheds fulfill four main functions: hydrological, ecosystem, environmental and socio economic. Hydrological because is a natural water manager catching, storing and running off the water; ecosystemic because sustain all the species that conforms it; environmental because maintain the soil, regulate the water´s cycle and preserve the biodiversity helping also to absorb the CO2; and socioeconomic because provides it water needed for life and for producing energy, production and economic activities (PNUD, 2010) 10. 1.2.

Sustainable development A

basic

definition

says

that

sustainable

means

“capable

of

being sustained 11 ” but why is important to go beyond that meaning? During many decades the international community has been passive observer of the levels of degradation of the planet in pursuit of “development”. The international policies that “supported” cities development in developing countries in detriment of rural areas had as result, apart from economic or technological development sometimes, degradation of environments, exhaustion of resources and increase of urban poverty. In that context United Nations decided to evaluate the consequences of that development and its future consequences. Thus in 1983 the

Brundtland

Commission

12

defined

sustainable

development

as

“development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs”. In this respect this definition implies the direct relation between human, economic and environmental development. But despite the efforts to conciliate all the dimensions, direct conflicts between themselves make difficult to reach that goal, especially in “developing” countries where global pressures, in order to reach “development”, have contributed to increase inequalities.

10

PNUD (2010, 12) Cartilla II: Agua para beber, agua para vivir

11

Merriam Webster, http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sustainable

12

Formally the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED), known by the

name of its Chair Gro Harlem Brundtland, was convened by the United Nations in 1983.

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture

For instance some authors consider human development as the core of sustainable development, others the economic dimension and some the environmental one, but we would need to ask, which kind of development would have impact in a degraded land without vital resources? Considering that there is a need to understand the importance looking for development without a negative impact in the environment. In this context how to introduce the sustainable principles into the spatial planning concept in a developing context? 1.2.1. Sustainable Spatial Planning Vs Urban Development in developing context According to the Ministers responsible for Regional Planning in Europe, “Regional/spatial planning gives geographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. It is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organization of space according to an overall strategy" (CEMAT, 1983)13. For the United Nations spatial planning should be understood like the planning process that takes as framework principles and goals to reach human development. Additionally PNUD also take that approach and gives a step further proposing, for the Peruvian case, a watershed based spatial planning approach, considering “watershed as natural ecosystems that can allows a more sustainable human development including socio-cultural-economic aspects”. Furthermore it consider watershed as an option for social and territorial integration taking as core a sustainable water management (PNUD, 2010: 7). In this connection sustainable spatial planning has a double objective, look for a balanced spatial development to reduce economic and social gaps and promote sustainable management of land use to reduce environmental disorders. 13

European Conference of Ministers responsible for Regional/Spatial Planning – CEMAT

known as Torremolinos Charter adopted in 1983

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However are there real possibilities to apply a sustainable spatial planning approach based on watershed in future megacities like Lima? The main objective of spatial planning of cities and regions is the distribution of land-uses in an often limited space with the concept of sustainability addressing the maintenance of natural resources (as water) in combination with spatial patterns of land-use that are ecologically, socially and economically beneficial (Leitao, Ahern 2002)14. However in fast growing cities like Lima this objective is very difficult to achieve. In this respect it is important to mention that Peru has faced different spatial planning15 processes based mainly in economic and political aspects, but without consideration of physical-geographical, natural resources and sociocultural variables, important structural elements of the political-administrative space. Thus despite the fact that since the 40’s different important planning institutions 16 were created to guide the growth of the cities through urban planning instruments, lack of political will and legal support to implement those instruments, populist measures and fast changing urban reality made them fail. Currently the called “non planning era” characterizes the spatial planning. Urban speculation, neoliberal market and private property programs, which 14

Institute for Landscape Planning and Ecology-ILPOE (2011). Urban Management Strategies

and Tools-WP9 Project Proposal as part of the project “Sustainable water and wastewater management in urban growth centres coping with climate change” 15

According to GRADE there were previously three main periods: Border demarcation, starts

with the Republic and last until 1st half of XIX century. After Peru´s independence in 1821, the new republic was in the need to define its territory so through the years were formed districts, provinces and departments but without order or coherence; Territorial Organisation, from the 2nd half of the XIX century until the 2nd half of XX century. It is mainly related to general principles of planning and urban development process; Territorial Formalisation, 2

nd

half of XX

century, it implied the legal-physical formalization of property and the creation of the cadastral and property registration; 16

In 1940 was created the Urbanism Institute of Lima; in 1947 the National Council and the

National Office of Planning and Urbanism in charge to develop Regulatory Plans for the main cities of the country; in 1949 was organized the Urban Studies Section as part of the Ministry of Promotion; at the beginning of the 60’s was created the Planning Institute of Lima and the National Institute of Planning; in the 80’s was created the National Institute of Urban development (INADUR) and in 1991 the Metropolitan Institute of Lima.

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include formalization of informal settlements 17 over state land across the country, have replaced well sustainable spatial planning processes and programs. Thus hundreds of informal settlements in the periphery of Lima and other cities have been legalise influenced by economic principles described by Hernando de Soto’s in his famous book the other Path which main idea consists in the inclusion of the informal market into the formal economy. However despite the legal benefits regarding recognition of property rights, at physical level this program has contributed to the consolidation of the fragmentation of the city -where same streets are registered with different names by neighbor towns or where open spaces reserved for open/green areas or public facilities has been occupied by new residents looking for a title deed and depriving future generations from minimum services areas-. Thus in the Peruvian context the spatial/urban planning have been replaced by the massive formalization of state land in a never ending process of informal occupation looking for a title deed. 1.2.2. Sustainable Spatial Planning - New Approaches In this respect different planning methods can be distinguished according to their resource or goal orientation. Ahern (1995) has developed the abiotic18– biotic 19 –cultural (ABC) model that is useful to describe the specific goals addressed in planning and the level of integration between these goals. As described in Graphic 1.5, abiotic goals in this model are related to water resources, soil and air quality. Biotic goals are focusing on issues concerning biodiversity, including habitat protection and ecological restoration. Cultural goals are defined from the human perspective of issues like transportation, urban planning/architecture, historic preservation and recreation. Often these different goals follow conflicting aims, e.g. the aim of the provision of green areas for recreation is in conflict with water-resources planning; urban planning is often closely related to transportation planning but not corresponding to 17

Previous informal settlements located in the pheriphery of Lima are also known as

Asentamientos Humanos and Pueblos Jovenes 18

Abiotic components are non-living chemical and physical factors in the environment (air, water,

sunlight, temperatures, etc) 19

Biotic components are living organisms

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watershed planning and management approaches. Despite that, several strategies have been proposed in order to reconcile the different planning objectives being Green Way planning one of them. But how in a desert land greenways planning can succeed by itself without considering watershed planning and management? Therefore there should be a correlation between ecological landscape planning and watershed planning and management. Graphic 1.5. The abiotic, biotic and cultural resource-planning continuum

Source: Leitao, Ahern (2002)

Another important concept emerge in the 90’s is the one related to green infrastructure.

It

means

to

integrate

networks/systems

of

built

and

protected/managed urban ecosystems that provide multiple, complementary ecosystem and landscape functions in support of urban sustainability (Ahern, 2007). However how to apply these strategies in a city that grew without a plan due to the massive urban sprawl? How to create green infrastructure networks in a city that is located in the desert and lack of an open space system balancing the massive urbanization process? Therefore the consideration of sustainable urban development concepts integrating the ABC-goals or Green Infrastructure concept are becoming increasingly difficult under the growing development pressure of fast-growing cities like Lima. In this context the speed of development makes long term planning a difficult task.

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1.3.

Relationship between urban development and water management along the Rimac River watershed From the beginning of civilization there was a strong relation between

location of human settlements and the landscape surrounding. A major factor for deciding about the location of cities was the water proximity thus rivers became the main factor for funding settlements. In this respect city of Lima is not the exception. Metropolitan Lima20 is located over the Pacific hydrological system. Few decades ago it mainly covered the Rimac watershed but nowadays it also cover Chillon watershed at the North and Lurin watershed at the South. The three watersheds have different potentials and physical characteristics as can be observed in the following table. Graphic 1.6. Rimac, Chillon and Lurin Watersheds Chillon Watershed

Rimac Watershed

Lurin watershed

Watershed area (sq Km)

Characteristics

2.444

2.253

1.719

Agricultural land Area

18.500

15.500

6.000

(1935) Ha Agricultural land (2000) Ha

5.000

1.500

5.000

416.409

8.108.584(*)

117.867

Agriculture

Mining

Agriculture

Industry

Energy production

Tourism

livestock production and

Industry

livestock production

Tourism

Cement production

Agriculture

Other industries

Total population 2001

Main economical activities

fish farms Ecotourism

Fish farms Checta

Pedreros

Pachacamac

Cantamarca

Canto grande

Huaycan

El Paraiso

Mango Marca

Tambo Inca

Main archeological sites

Potrero Tenorio

Qhapacq Ă‘an

Huacapune

Pampa Flores

Chaupimarca Tambo Masac

Source: National Authority of water - 2009

From the three the Rimac river watershed is the more important. It is located between the provinces of Lima and Huarochiri and originates in the western side of the Andes Mountains over 5100 masl (Graphic 1.7). It gets 20

Including Callao Province

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water through the rainfall of the highlands and runoff from melting glaciers and ends in the Pacific Ocean in Callao province in the Pacific Ocean. Lima, the capital, depends on its water for human consumption, agricultural irrigation and hydroenergy production21. Graphic 1.7. River Rimac watershed

Source: National Authority of water - 2009

21

The hydroenergy plants are located along the Rimac River watershed in the medium

watershed and are Moyopampa, Chaclacayo, Huampani, Barbablanca, Matucana

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Graphic 1.8. Physical characteristics of River Rimac River

Physical characteristics Lenght (Km)

Watershed

Average

Average

Average

Annual Flow

Annual

pending (%)

3

(m /sec)

area (sq Km)

Volume (mcm*)

Rimac

147,44

26,6

838,78

3,83

3503,94

Source: National Authority of water - 2009 (*) Million cubic meters

According to the Environmental Report Lima and Callao 2010, Rimac River is considered one of the most polluted rivers of the country22. According to official monitoring done by the Ministry of Environment, along the river exist 62 pipes that discharge 3.188 lt/sec of untreated wastewater. Additionally 22 dumpsites throw 22 TN of garbage per day. Furthermore the mining activity and other industries discharge toxic materials creating the most dramatic conditions for a river. In this context the Rimac River tries to survive to the uncontrolled urban development. In this respect the divorce between the urban growth and watershed management has meant the uncontrolled exploitation of its main natural resources: water and land mainly apt for farming uses. That lost meant for the urban population to be deprived of food, special microclimates, recreation spaces and natural landscapes for relaxation. According to PNUD in Lima from 40.000 Ha of available agricultural land in 1935, only remained in that use 11.500 in 2001 and in Rimac watershed from 15.500 to 1.500 Ha being Lima converted in a full built area with minimum open spaces. In its long way from the highlands to the ocean there are different physical characteristics. As it is shown in the graphic 1.9, Rimac river watershed is divided in three sides, the upper part mainly wet or catchment area; the middle part that receive seasonal rainfall and the lower part which is mainly dry.

22

Environmental Report El Comercio newspaper

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Graphic 1.9. River Rimac watershed division Rimac’s watershed division

Altitude

Physical

Activities

Characteristics Upper watershed (wet)

(From 2000-5500

Catchment area:

Mining camps and

masl)

Major concentration of

villages

water

Extraction and Production

Glaciers and high

activities

mountains

Middle watershed (medium wet)

(From 800-2000

Mountain area.

Presence of small cities

masl)

Reservoir-runoff in

Water is used for

rivers and streams

agriculture, human consumption of neighboring towns and to generate electricity through the hydropower plants

Lower watershed (dry)

(0-800 masl)

Dry hills and broad

Existence of urban

coastal plain.

conglomerate of

Runoff-end in the

Metropolitan Lima (Lima

Pacific Ocean

and Callao).

Source: National Authority of water - 2009

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1.4.

Along Rimac’s River History Human presence exist since pre-hispanic times in Lima being the river

and the valley the main reasons for the location of human settlements. At the time of the arrival of the Spaniards, Lima was a green valley with 150 000 inhabitants and 400 Huacas or ceremonial centres. Graphic 1.10. Article “La Lima de Taulichusco”

Source: Article El Comercio News (Luna - Ramirez, 14.01.2007)

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Later in 1537 was founded Lima by the Spaniards being during the colony a wall protected city having the river an important role for the new residents. Graphic 1.11. “Geographical map of Meridional America”, (1775) Colonial Lima and Rimac River

Source Biblioteca Digital Hispánica. Cartógrafo Juan de la Cruz Cano y Olmedilla

Centuries after some industries started to be allocated along the river. After the second half of the XIX century the central train was built along the river’s as a way to connect the capital with the central part of the country characterized by the mining industry. After the first migration processes in the 40’s most of the wealthiest families that used to live in Lima downtown move to the new southern districts leaving the center to the new rural migrants. The new residents were the workforce needed to move the economy of the country in times of the local industrial boom. The occupation processes after the second half of the XX century had different stages and characteristics. We can summarise them as follow: •

Construction of new factories along the river and occupation of

areas next to working places; •

First rural migration processes resulted in occupation of abandon

buildings in Lima’s center later converted in slums; •

Occupation of open land and formation of “informal settlements”

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Urbanisation and change of land use in formal and informal way.

Continuation of the urban sprawl along the river connecting districts and neighborhoods. •

Occupation of risk areas along river banks.

That uncontrolled urban development process caused a negative impact along the river being also affected by the new industry that developed in the city. Factories were built along the river, the available land, mainly agricultural, was urbanized and the occupation continued in a never ending process. Most of this occupation processes were done in informal way, without any urban planning process causing a continuous degradation of the river. Thus the informal occupation increased during the following years and generated the over saturated areas that we have now. The city center was abandon and the lack of identification of the new residents with the location provoked a continuous degradation. 1.5.

Lack of Urban planning and risk situations along the Rimac River Urban planning has become increasingly important since more than 50%

of the global population is considered to be living now in urban areas. Urban planning has a direct impact on risk reduction because well-planned cities provide a better foundation for sustainable development than do unplanned cities. However in the context of Lima as it was explained before, the lack of spatial planning processes which could respond to the needs of fast growing cities’ originated a vacuum which result in the formation of risk situations. According to the Civil Defense National Institute (Defensa Civil),

23

in

2009 were identified 57 critic risk occupation patterns along the Rimac River. Lack of ways to implement spatial planning and respect to land use, urban speculation due to high demand of land and informal occupation between others, has put under risk a major number of people living along the river 23

Agency in charge to deal with disaster, risk situations and mitigation programs. It was created

in the 70’s after the most destructive earthquake that happened in Lima and the central part of Peru. That natural disaster later produced the fall of the pick of a glacier covering Yungay town which is now a cemetery.

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(Graphics 1.12-1.13). The risk to disaster increase during the rainy season therefore there is an urgent need to mechanisms to reverse unsustainable urban development processes in order to reduce risk situations. Graphic 1.12. Risk occupation over urban cliff in metropolitan Lima

Source: Civil Defense National Institute Graphic 1.13. Occupation of floodplain by precarious constructions in semi-rural areas

Source: Civil Defense National Institute

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1.6

Conclusion In this chapter I was trying to identify the relationship between watershed

based spatial planning and sustainable urban development. As it was described the lack of identification with the geographical conditions has led to the unsustainable situation that a city like Lima, and the rest of the cities in the Pacific desert coast, face now. PNUD studies states that in a context like Peru, with so many gaps and unsustainable processes, there is a need to identify the importance of watersheds and the strong interrelation that exist between urban planning, watershed management and water management. In this respect the watershed approach could be an option for a water dependent city like Lima which always gave back to the river. Moreover there is a need to look watersheds as geographical territorial units that can support a sustainable environmental, economic, urban and mainly human development. Having a watershed approach, the distribution of resources along the watershed can be more equal. However how the watershed approach can be implemented in a context like Lima? I will try to respond to that question in the next chapter.

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Chapter Two | STRATEGIES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL REGENERATION PROGRAMS

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In this chapter I will try to identify sustainable urban-environmental principles and strategies to try to recover watersheds and river areas as result of the study of different experiences mainly in Europe. It is not possible to consider technical solutions from other realities without taking into account Lima’s reality therefore in order to understand that context I will start with a brief analysis of the current situation along Rimac River area of influence. Additionally I will try to analyse the international experiences to recover rivers considering two levels: the urban-landscape regeneration through the creation of cultural landscapes, and the ecological-environmental reclamation through the intervention over the natural landscape including water sensitive proposals. Finally I will analyse the possibilities and limitations for those strategies in a context like Lima considering that any possible approach should pursuit social, economic and environmental development for a sustainable Rimac river reclamation process. That overall understanding will help to build future recommendations for the Rimac river reclamation. 2.1.

GIVING THE BACK TO THE RIVER From the beginning of civilization there was a strong relation between

human settlements locations and the landscape surrounding. A major factor for deciding about the location of cities was the water proximity thus the rivers presence became the main factor for funding settlements. Different studies have demonstrated the almost natural relation between water and human settlements but furthermore it is important to emphasize the fundamental relationship between water management and spatial planning in order to understand the important roles of watersheds and their influence in the territory. As it was mentioned before from the cities’ origen the rivers location were needed for urban existence and provision of services. There was a basic understanding that without water there isn’t life and water was needed to generate energy and many other activities related to the settlers and cities development. Thus rivers, as natural watercourses, became essential elements for life and cities’ development. Traditionally natural water systems, water infrastructure and the structure of settlements were intimately connected with each other. The basic principle of their spatial correlation was to make use of natural resources and potentials. APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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However in times of modernism this spatial correlation has been lost with the effect of high energy-costs consumption, exhaustion of resources and landscape degradation. This is not a new topic. As Craine (1961) argues in the American engineering society, there was from those times serious concerns regarding the relation between urban growth and water provision. Furthermore in the case of Lima, during the last century it has been recognize that the city grew up giving back to the river”, losing its cultural landscape, open spaces, its relation with the water and neglecting it. Moreover conventional ad hoc solutions for water and waste water management haven’t implement friendly solutions to support river’s life. Despite the aim of efficient sanitation to avoid epidemics, these ad hoc solutions developed in the last century are in serious review for being no longer sustainable. Therefore new solutions needs to be addressed and adapted according to the context and reality in order to reverse unsustainable practices, widespread accepted, which are affecting dramatically future’s sustainable developments. In summary despite been rivers “source of life” at the beginning of its life, when they cross human settlements (urban/rural) they transform into “source of death” due to established practices of discharging all kind of wastes and wastewaters to rivers. Then the only water along the riverbed is mainly untreated wastewater in a painful journey to the end where all discharges would be finally polluting open waters sources (for instance oceans, seas, etc). Consequently in a river’s reclamation process, to recover the water quality and quantity if possible should be the aim. That will contribute to an integral recovery of the landscape, ecology, and environment but also will generate socio-economic-cultural benefits to the entire watershed.

2.1.1. FROM RIMAQ (TALKATIVE RIVER) to ETERNAL SILENCE? According to the World Wild Foundation International (WWF, 2010) in their World’s top ten rivers at risk report, water extraction is just one of the challenges Rivers need to face on its ways to the end. There are many other natural events or human interventions that affect the natural flow of rivers. For instance, mega-infrastructure works like: APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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“Dams and channelization are other threats because destroy habitats, cut rivers off from their floodplains, and alter the natural flow on which a river’s plants and animals depend”. (WWF, 2011) In this connection the current municipal administration in Lima has announced at the beginning of the year the “Green River project” with the aim to reclaim the river through reforestation, creation of a touristic corridor and rehabilitation of historic buildings located in the world heritage site (Graphic 2.1). The main strategy for the river’s reclamation and park construction would be to gain area to the river, channelizing and reducing the river’s section, in order to build river walks in both sides of the riverbanks. Graphic 2.1 Lima’s major presenting the Green River proposal

Source El Comercio Newspaper

In this respect, despite the good efforts to recover the riverbanks, without multidisciplinary criteria, the solution can bring additional problems to the city in the future. According to Kuroiwa Zevallos, et al., (SENAMHI, 2011) the idea of channelizing the river and reduce its section occupying floodplain areas would bring negative consequences due to the fact that previous similar interventions have contributed to risk formations and instabilities along the river. For instance the construction of Puente del Ejercito (Ejercito’s Bridge) in Lima’s center meant the reduction of the river’s section and is the main cause for the formation of the Rimac river urban canyon waters below (see picture 2.2). The erosion produced by that road infrastructure work, has caused the formation of a risk area which was later occupied by precarious dwellers without to consider the vulnerability of that formation (see picture 2.3).

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture Graphic 2.2 Puente del Ejercito (2010)

Graphic 2.3 Rimac River Urban Canyon

Source: PPP Formation of Lima’s Urban Canyon, partial engineering solutions, J. Kuroiwa et al (2011)

Another serious problem that rivers face is the pollution levels which create threats to human health and to the environment. In the case of Lima this is a very serious concern because the Rímac River is source for drinking water and also irrigates agricultural land, coming sometimes this water directly from the river to the crops, without any previous treatment. The Graphic 2.4 shows the pollutant agents all along the Rimac river. These agents are represented mainly by the mining industry in the upper parts (active and passive mining wastes) and other industries, dumpsites, domestic sewage and other informal ones in the lower part. Graphic 2.4. Pollutant agencies along Rimac River

Source: Infografía Rio Rímac-Del cielo al Infierno, Recorrido por el rio Rímac, El Comercio Newspaper

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Additionally according to different tests along the river, the levels of heavy metal infiltration in the river are far up normal levels. As it is shown in the Graphic 2.5, in a tests done at Ticticocha Lake -at the beginning of the riverthere are not major polluted components in the river, however the water that receives the water treatment plant, La Atarjea -in the urban area- shows far up normal levels of Arsenic, Aluminium and fecal coliforms, being all these elements extremely toxic for human health and for the own river’s ecosystem (Graphic 2.6). Graphic 2.5. Water test in Ticticocha Lake

Graphic 2.6. Water test in La Atarjea

Source: Infografía Rio Rímac-Del cielo al Infierno, Recorrido por el rio Rímac, El Comercio Newspaper

Finally, in addition to these facts, climate change threatens to alter all the rules that rivers have lived by for thousands of years. As it was mentioned before the climate change effects are uncertain but in the case of the Andean mountains, there are already proves that are melting down due to global warming. This situation alters the hydrological cycle and the climate in different regions and will contribute to water scarcity to minimum levels in the coastal areas. At same time, sporadic heavy rains are already happening in Lima producing landslides along former river ways over the dry mountains occupied mainly by poor dwellers. That phenomenon is causing destruction of precarious shelters not used to resist heavy rainfall. Therefore there is a need to prevent and mitigate these effects including future water stress and internal migrations due to water scarcity.

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2.2.

INTEGRAL URBAN-ENVIRONMENTAL REGENERATION APPROACHES - Main strategies to recover river watershed In order to define integral strategies that could help to recover Rímac

River it is important to identify what are the main approaches adopted to reclaim rivers but first there is a need to consider the original causes for river’s alteration/degradation. Thus we can have: • due to natural phenomena: weather conditions, climate change, climatic sporadic phenomena (El Niño, La Niña), etc.; • due to human action: pollution, alteration of river’s natural flow, engineering infrastructure construction, etc. Additionally we can also consider that rivers alterate/degrade when doesn’t exist a coherent water management and spatial planning regulatory frameworks that can protect them, like in the case of Lima, neither exist an urban planning instrument that can protect the entire river watershed, nor a water management plan considering an integral cities development and urban growth. Thus we can have that rivers also degrade when doesn’t exist a water sensitive urban planning and design approach and when there is not existence of urban-environmental planning instruments that can protect them and organize the territory along them. Considering these facts, it is possible to identify some of the main strategies adopted by other experiences in order to recover rivers. The approaches identified respond to different geographical and climatic conditions however are important strategies to consider looking for possible integral river’s reclamation. 2.2.1. INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANAGEMENT approach As argued by PNUD the integrated watershed management approach bring possibilities for a sustainable socio-economic and environmental development. In this respect maybe the most famous experience about watershed reclamation has been the International Building Exhibition (IBA) Emscher Park in the Emscher region (catchment area), Ruhr area (Graphic 2.7). Located in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany the Emscher was in APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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the 80’s a region passing a transitional process from an economy based on coal mining and heavy industry to a modern service-oriented economy. The site consisted of abandoned coal-mining and steel manufacturing sites, with a population of and around 2.4 million inhabitants and a density of 2.775 persons/sq Km - being Europe’s most densely populated area- divided by 17 cities (Bergkamen, Bochum, Bottrop, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund, Duisburg, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Gladbeck, Herne, Herten, Kamen, Lünen, Mulheim an der Ruhr, Oberhausen, Recklinghausen, Waltrop), and further fragmented by railway bodies and other infrastructural elements. Thus IBA had the overall goal to promote urban development, with social, cultural and ecological measures as the basis for economic change in an old industrial region (Shaw, 2002). Graphic 2.7. Emscher-Lippe Region and Emscher watershed

Source: Informationen über die Emscher-Lippe-Region

In this context a new approach to understand the river and the landscape was needed in order to revitalize the highly urbanized area formerly called “the sewage of the Ruhr” (Salian and Anton, 2011). Hence, with the closure of the mining activities in the 80’s started the opportunity for a regional transformation including the chance for a sustainable long-term restoration in the Emscher catchment area through the IBA Emscher Park. It focused mainly in an Integrated Regional Development (IRD) and the aim was the regeneration of the Emscher River in order to improve the ecology and the environment of the region showing possibilities to return lost habitats to nature rebuild ecological APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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and scenic qualities through the Emscher landscape park and link the territory previously fragmented. Nowadays the Emscher Park is still following its initial plan and adapting to new updated planning instruments. Considering it we can see that this approach see watersheds as geographical units where entire watershed area can be part of an overall reclamation process through the water element. As it was described in the Peruvian context there is no understanding of the watersheds as potential geographical units. At same time well planned and articulated programs can have very positive results for upgrading areas, replacing former economies but preserving the urban memory. Additionally it implies a long term process and therefore need to have well defined strategies for short, medium and long term but also strong political, technological and planning approach. In this respect, the success of the program depends on the continuation of the strategy therefore it should be respected over the time and the policies should continue although governments and politicians change in order to make it sustainable. In the Lima context that would be difficult to achieve considering the improvisation at political level and the lack of spatial planning at regional level. At same time we should consider that while in the Emscher watershed the mining activity was closing, in the Rimac River watershed the mining activity is very alive and productive and core of the Peruvian economy therefore it is important to consider the different historical context. 2.2.2. CULTURAL LANDSCAPE approach After the 60’s governments and planners, mainly in Europe and United States, had a strong concern about the post-industrial sites left behind and converted in brownfields24. These areas were mainly represented by abandon industries and wide spread wastelands which occupied vast areas affecting the urban life and the environment. In this context the main question to solve was how to reclaim these post-industrial areas and which kind of strategy should be taken to incorporate them into the new times repairing the urban-environmental 24

Defined by Merrian Webster dictionary as “a tract of land that has been developed for

industrial purposes, polluted, and then abandoned“

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damage? An approach that started in the 70’s was to reclaim post-industrial areas preserving their original character, recalling the history of the forces and the people that formed them by looking at the landscape as a Cultural Landscape. As it is described by Sabaté, cultural landscape can be “geographical areas associated to a historic event activity or figure, which therefore possesses aesthetic and cultural values” (Sabaté, et al., 2001). According to Jusuck Koh 25, the landscape approach in the domain of urbanism, as opposed to the architectural approach, represents “a method of integrative and regenerative design which has as scenario the city in a never ending process of energy/material cycles and recycles. Therefore in order to find ways to regenerate today’s dysfunctional, wasteful and sick cities the landscape approach can help to remedy them”. Additionally: •

“the landscape is a cultural construct, because it is both about land and

people, and the processes through which people transform the land over time”; •

“the landscape approach can provide integrated and regenerative use of

industrial and urban wastelands”; •

“the landscape approach give a long-term vision, strategic thinking, and a

large-scale open design”; •

“By looking at them as Cultural Landscapes and by applying an open-

ended model to their regeneration it can ensure a valuable re-integration into the city. This will prevent further fragmentation that is sometimes experienced when an attempt is made to fill the site with new functions, oblivious to the character of the place” (Koh & Beck, 2007). In this respect there are many examples that can be taken into consideration. IBA Emscher Park in Germany; Textile Colonies in Llobregat, Catalunya, Spain; Lodz in Poland, etc., are just few examples of areas which strategy to recover the river focused in the recovery of the constructed landscape and the memory of the place. For instance the future plan to recover the Textiles colonies in Llobregat has as aim to integrate historic bridges, mills, 25

Extract taken from the research paper written by De Cock, M (2008) about Landscape

architecture for TU Leuven, Landscape architecture course, fall 2007-2008, coordinated by Kelly Shannon, Leuven University.

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irrigation channels, dams, factories, textiles communities, mines, mines, railroads, and funiculars (Graphics 2.8--2.9). These are just some of the elements that tell the history about the development of an area and the use of its waters (Plan Director Urbanístico de las colonias del Llobregat). Llobregat) Graphic 2.8. Colony Cal Prat, Llobregat river

Graphic 2.9. Layout Colony Cal Prat

Sources: s: Paisajes Españoles, 2000; Plan Director Urbanístico de las colonias del Llobregat.

In the case of IBA Emscher Park the main strategy in order to a Cultural Landscape strategy was re-utilizing r land to prevent additional exploitation of "greenfields", or previously undeveloped land; employing employing maintenance, modernization, and re-use use strategies for existing buildings to extend the life of buildings; incorporating ncorporating ecologically-sound ecologically sound construction practices for both new n buildings and adaptive reuse and transforming transforming the region's production structure towards environmentally friendly production methods. The projects themselves include residential developments, cultural and educational facilities, art projects and open-space open ce systems. During the interventions designers aimed at keeping and re-using re using most of the existing structures. By reprogramming the functions of these various industrial elements as promenades and footbridges, they succeeded in integrating them within a new type of park. This ensures the preservation of the industrial character of the site, and the past of the local residents, while providing a new range of public activities. In between these existing structures, new elements were inserted. Such as a water park, ark, fields of vegetation and a large multifunctional plaza used for events. This basic structure, formed over decades of industrial activities, allows for a flexible and open-ended open ended park. Within it, the activities and vegetation APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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can evolve. The park has become popular with local residents for hiking, biking, exploring the park, or taking part in large-scale cultural events giving an impulse to urban revitalisation as well (Von Petz, 2006). In the case of Rimac River’s, as it was mentioned in the previous chapter, its history is extremely connected to the history of the city. Lima’s downtown is world heritage site and its river recovery would have a special impact in the economic recovery of the area provoking, by first time in the last centuries, give the front to the river. Along its way factories and other important buildings were built and it could be important to identify the character of those areas as in the case of Llobregat Textiles Colonies. However it is very important to consider that Lima is in another stage of development with respect to the European context therefore while Europe has a service oriented economy, in Peru some industries, as the mining in the uppers areas of the river, are still alive and producing, unfortunately affecting the river as it has been shown in the levels of pollution described previously. Although the Cultural landscape approach can be a way to recycle historic buildings into new uses, it is also important to mention that strong economic investment would be needed to rehabilitate those buildings and in that case an association with the industries (mining, etc) to recover those areas would be needed. An important transport infrastructure to recover in regular basis would be the Central Train which has a potential as tourist attractions and communication system. Nowadays the railroad is used mainly to transport minerals and the public one is restricted to special dates. Recovering that infrastructure in a regular way would mean to connect the watershed and its towns along the river.

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2.2.3. WATER SENSITIVE URBAN DESIGN (WSUD) approach Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) embraces the concept of integrated land and water management in a particular integrated urban water cycle management. The concept was developed as an Australian approach to water management, urban planning and urban design and was first referred to in various publications in the early 1990's (as summarised in Lloyd 2001) in the need to explore concepts and possible structural and non-structural practices in relation to urban water resource management. This has been paralleled by a wider international movement towards the concept of integrated land and water planning and management (Feyen et. al. 2009) however the concept is mainly focusing on urban areas in temperate climates and related to sustainable stormwater management. Therefore the concept as it is now for wet cities can’t be applied in dry cities like Lima although it is important to understand WSUD’s philosophy because it looks for an integration of different disciplines for a sustainable urban development but also consider that all urban water stream have a use and instead to see them as nuisance it should be seen as a resource. According to the City of Melbourne WSUD Guidelines “all water streams in the urban water cycle are a resource, not just drinking water”. This includes rainwater, stormwater, potable mains drinking water, greywater (water from the bathroom sinks, shower, and laundry), blackwater (toilet and kitchen), water mining (sewer)26. Considering that is possible to: o Reduce potable water consumption o Maximise water reuse o Reduce wastewater discharge o Minimise stormwater pollution before it is discharged to the aquatic environment o Maximise groundwater protection.

26

Water mining or sewer mining is the process of extracting sewage from a sewerage system

and treating it to produce recycled water for a specific end use.

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As mentioned before Lima is highly dependent on water and water trucks or fog catchers are some sources to obtain water in the periurban areas. Therefore to reuse water and wastewater should be a priority in order to not to waste valuable drinkable water through unsustainable practices. For that educational and social component would be needed to reorient to more sustainable practices. Graphic 2.10. Means to obtain water for population not connect to the public network in Lima’s city (left: fog catcher for washing, right: water truck bringing drinking water)

Source: El Comercio Newspaper, Lima’s

According to the principles, WSUD should: 1. Protect natural systems (creeks, rivers and wetlands) within urban catchments. 2. Protect water quality by improving the quality of stormwater runoff draining from urban developments. 3. Integrate stormwater treatment into the landscape by using stormwater treatment systems in the landscape that incorporate multiple uses providing a variety of benefits such as water quality treatment, wildlife habitat, public open space, recreational and visual amenity for the community. 4. Reduce runoff peak flows from developments by on-site temporary storage measures (with potential for reuse) and minimise impervious areas. 5. Add long-term value while minimising development costs. 6. Reduce potable water demand by using stormwater as a resource through capture and reuse for non-potable purposes.

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Based on WSUD principles, WSUD solutions should: Principle 1

…use descentralised methods to bring urban

Short Form Water sensitivity

water management closer to the natural water

Topic Water sensitivity

cycle 2

…be used to provide an aesthetic benefit where

Aesthetic benefit

possible 3

4

Aesthetic

…be adapted to the design of the surrounding

Integration in

area

surrounding areas

…should be used in an appropriate way,

Appropriate design

adapted to the local basic conditions and the intended use 5

6

…consider the corresponding maintenance

Appropriate

requirements

maintenance

…consider possibilities for adaptation to

Adaptability

Functionality

uncertain and changing basic conditions 7

…be used to create places that are usable for

Appropriate usability

Usability

recreation and/or nature conservation purposes 8

…consider demands of all stakeholders and

Public involvement

involve them in the planning process 9

…cost should be comparable to the costs of

Public perception and acceptance

Acceptance costs

conventional solutions 10

…combine functions, aesthetics and use

Integration of demands

11

…be planned in interdisciplinary co-operation of

Interdisciplinary

urban planning, urban design, architecture,

planning

landscape architecture and water management 12

…be designed in an aesthetic, well-functioning

Impacts on public

and usable way in order to improve the public

perception

Integrative Planning

perception and acceptability of WSUD Source: Hoyer et al, 2011. Water Sensitive Urban Design. Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable Stormwater Management in the City of the Future

Those principles can be better understood if we review one of the projects developed as part of the SWITCH Program-Managing Water for the City of the Future, which is trying to integrate urban watershed management plan in the city of Lodz in Poland.

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In this context the project intended to integrate urban watershed management plan recovering the Sokolowka river involving all stakeholders in the process. For that was implemented different system solutions derived from ecohydrological principles for sustainable development of the city, based on managing urban watersheds, applying descentralised stormwater management measures and integrating urban planning. The project was called the BlueGreen Network and the following were the main findings:

sensitivity

Water

Principle

Project approach

Water

Formulation of the Blue – Green Network (BGN) concept which try to bring

sensitivity

rivers back to the surface, improve water quality and promote stormwater management techniques.

Aesthetic

Tries to improve the city´s appearance through the BGN, including

benefit

revitalization of waterways to unify the city´s image. Revalue relation of waterways with history-industry-architecture-parks-garden. Explore

Aesthetic

stormwater retention solutions Integration in

The BGN intends to have a holistic approach (geography, hydrology,

surrounding

esthetic, heritage, landscape) through the intervention in 18 streams located

areas

in one watershed and develops local measures in connection to the entire watershed. The BGN also bring possibilities to the city for climate change adaptation and future sustainable development.

Appropriate

Measures for sustainable stormwater management have been developed in

design

full consideration of the surrounding area and conditions. Analysis of topography, permeability, level of water table,

Functionality

Appropriate

It will be ensured by the local government

maintenance Adaptability

The geographical watershed location of the city and the availability of water resources present major limitations to Lodz’s sustainable development coping climate change. Rainwater is the only sources of water available for the ecosystem, and it is predicted that the amount of rainwater will

Usability

decrease. Rainwater retention and purification is crucial Appropriate

Future multifunctional purposes. In addition to water management the BGN

usability

includes ideas for creating and improving public spaces, recreational areas, alternative communication pathways and retrofitting the recreational

perception

Public

infrastructure of the city Public

Exist a well-structured public media campaign to involve the inhabitants in

involvement

order to create more inputs to the project

Acceptance

Lodz has been successful fundraising money for the development of the

costs

project which allowed to start more projects for the city’s improvement.

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture Integration of

Integrating demands of the recreational and traffic infrastructures with water

demands

management purposes in the city space searching also for socio-economic socio

Integrative Planning

development and city’s appearance improvement. The BGN is the main result of Lodz´s researchers and Switch Learning alliance Interdisciplinar

Key stakeholders were working together including city government and

y planning

water services providers. There are 70 members representing 30 organisations. The researchers included biologists, ecologists, hydrologists, climatologists, sociologists, sociologists, medical scientist, and engineers

Impacts on

Different opportunities to create discussion about the development of the

public

project

perception Source: Hoyer et al, 2011. Water Sensitive Urban Design. Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable le Stormwater Management in the City of the Future Graphic 2.11.. Interventions within and resulted from the SWITCH Learning Alliance in Lodz, constructed, ucted, under development and in design process, in the Sokolowka River valley

Source: Hoyer et al, 2011. Water Sensitive Urban Design. Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable Stormwater Management in the City of the Future (Wagner/Zalewski 2009) 2009

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2.2.4. ECOHYDROLOGY approach Ecohydrology gives possibilities to understand the relationship between abiotic-biotic interactions. It has been identified as a sub-discipline of hydrology and according to Zalewski (2006) quantifies and explains relationships between hydrological processes (abiotic) and biotic dynamics at a catchment area considering the hydrological cycle. These processes happen in aquatic systems (rivers, lakes, underground water) and also on the soil and vegetation. Therefore there is a need to understand the relation between: •

water – plant – soil (athmospheric/terrestrial phase of ecohydrology) “for the use of landscape management in the regulation of the water cycle"; and

development of aquatic phase “to attempt to regulate naturallyestablished processes of water, nutrient circulation and energy flow in aquatic ecosystems in order to reverse their degradation and enhance the absorbing capacity” (Zalewski et all, 2010)27. But what are the possibilities to apply Ecohydrology in urban areas? In this

respect the key challenge for the Ecohydrology concept is to convert potential threats into opportunities such as energy sources as it can be seen in the following graphic.

27

Krauze Kinga, Zawilski Mark, Zalewski Wagner (2010), Ecohydrological restoration of aquatic

habitats in urban areas: aims, constrains and techniques.

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Graphic 2.12. Incorporation of socio-economic aspects into constructed wetland planning

Source: Zalewski 2002, see Guidelines: Chapter 10

Therefore the new challenge of sustainable development can be achieved by combining water purification systems with the production of biomass28 in constructed wetlands29, which can be utilize as bioenergy for local communities and provide them with economic profit�30.

28

According to the Ecohydrology manual, Biomass is the quantity of living organisms expressed

in units of volume or mass, generally related to a unit of volume or area within a water body. Also organic material, usually plant or animal waste, especially used as fuel. 29

According to the Ecohydrology manual, Wetland is a natural or constructed system,

permanently or periodically flooded, that can act as water purification systems or nutrient sinks. Purification is enhanced by the activity of vegetation and variety of microbiological and biogeochemical processes taking place within the substrate of the wetland. Wetlands are defined by the presence of hydric soils, characteristic types of vegetation and a high water table. 30

UNEP-UNESO-IHP (2004) Integrated Watershed Management - Ecohydrology &

Phytotechnology - Manual

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Considering that fact Ecohydrology bring an important consideration not much mentioned before, the socio-economic dimension very important in the context of a densely populated city as Lima. As described before the Rimac river area of influence is mainly occupied by precarious constructions inhabited by poor dwellers. Considering the river in the urban area is mainly a toxic waste and wastewater channel and an open dumpsite, the only users of the river are workers that belong to the informal recycling sector, including children, women and men. Graphic 2.13. Urban Rimac River, dumpsite and informal recycler industry

Source: Infografía Rio Rímac-Del cielo al Infierno, Recorrido por el rio Rímac, El Comercio Newspaper

Socio-economic degradation and settlements with similar characteristics exist all along the urban and rural watersheds therefore initiatives to reduce their multidimensional vulnerability should be taken integrating possible solution with socio-economic considerations for the direct benefit of the people living in the area of influence and the city and region. Additionally there is a need for a social-economic integration for permanent solutions to risk situations. For instance that is the case of the population living over the Margen Izquierda del rio Rimac (MIRR) –left side of Rimac river- which occupied land next to industrial areas and consolidated through the time. According to the Institute of Planning of Lima (IMP) 95% of its residents live in extreme poverty. Most of their economic activities are link with the industries surrounding and other are related to informal businesses. In this respect MIRR is one of the biggest recycling areas in Lima, activity done without minimum environmental standards reason why they live in constant social, economic and environmental vulnerability.

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2.3.

At technical level - Multidisciplinary approach There is a general understanding that in order to assure more

sustainable approach to natural resources, solutions to the water problems in the future will demand a closer coordination of spatial/urban planning and water development. Until now the practice has shown how each specialist has work divided to the reality: engineers have being developing usually high-tech infrastructure projects without aesthetic or harmony with the environment but that fulfill specific technical requirements; urban planners have done spatial planning without integrating watersheds and the entire ecosystem; and architects have designed without knowing important aspects of the hydrological cycle therefore there is a need to reverse that reality and present solutions to the new landscape demand (Stockman, 2010). As Hoyer et al (2011) mention, WSUD has a multidisciplinary approach that would mean an initial way to find solutions from different points of views but in a holistic way. Graphic 2.14. Multidisciplinary Water Sensitive Urban Design Approach

Source: Hoyer et al, 2011. Water Sensitive Urban Design. Principles and Inspiration for Sustainable Stormwater Management in the City of the Future

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In this respect it is important to mention that this diagram is done according to a context different to many others. However it is an approach to present WSUD as a multidisciplinary solution and not as an isolated one. Any sustainable long term solution would require enough knowledge of the new urban water paradigm shift. 2.4.

At Political/Management level - Supramunicipal Approach The case of Llobregat in Barcelona also bring an interesting approach

due to the Supramunicipal bodies involved to conciliate efforts and create a common political body dealing with the river as a common interests. In this respect supramunicipal bodies, at Spanish level, means mainly a free association or commonwealth of municipalities. A supramunicipal body is a legal personality, and can exist either for a particular period of time to achieve a concrete goal or can exist indefinitely. It constitutes a local entity within the national legal framework, to which those municipalities delegate some of their functions and powers. In this respect the political borders are not limiting to think in an integral solution. 2.5.

Lima’s current condition After reviewing the different approaches to recover rivers it is important to

mention that in the case of Lima there is currently a difficult scenario for the reclamation process. Table 1 describes the main aspects identified at different levels. Between them are the no political will mainly due to conflicts of interest at different levels. The central and local governments have different political agendas and instead to work in a joint way exist a competition at political and technical level. Besides Lima has not a city vision that can help to orient the city. Moreover it doesn’t exists a Master or Strategic plan valid currently. The last one ended in 2010 and the previous metropolitan administration didn’t prioritise the future growth through urban planning of the city, therefore now an important capital as Lima, almost megacity, has not any urban planning instrument that can guide its development in a sustainable way. Additionally there is not tradition of a multidisciplinary approach where people from different institutions and professional get along together in a practical work. In this respect the water company, Sedapal, and the Metropolitan Institute of Planning, APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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rarely meet together in order to prioritise areas for future urban development. Finally economic investment in the environmental aspect is almost minimum. Local authorities invest mainly in partial solutions against seasonal rainy events, without to consider that most of these infrastructural man-made solutions are against the natural flow of the river and can affect other communities waters below. It is important also to mention that according to the Peruvian legislation there are different planning instruments (see Table 2) that are developed according to the geographical context –from spatial planning to district plan-. In this respect the watershed areas are under the scope of the Ecological Economic zone, however at regional or urban level there is not yet inclusion of that concept. According to the legal framework the Ecological Economic Zonning, is a dynamic and flexible process for the identification of different sustainable options of a determined territory, based in the evaluation of its potentials and limitations with physical, biological, social, economic and cultural criterias. Therefore this instrument should be more taken into consideration in order to protect the watersheds but also looking for an integration of Economy and Ecology (E2).

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Regional Planning (Plan de Acondicionamiento Territorial)

Ecological Economic Zonning (Zonificación Ecológica Económica)

Spatial Planning (Plan de Ordenamiento Territorial)

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A diagram indicating the relationship between the three pillars of sustainability suggesting that both economy and society are constrained nstrained by environmental limits. Source: Scott Cato, M. (2009). Green Economics. Economics London: Earthscan, pp. 36–37

Architects, engineers, sanitary engineers and planners work isolated

NO MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH

Not enough motivated Private investment into environmental issues

LIMITED PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

52

Integrated District Development Plan (Plan Integral de Urbano Distrital)

Rural Development Plan (Plan de Desarrollo Rural)

Urban Development Plan (Plan de desarrollo Urbano)

Source: Self-elaboration, elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

National Environmenmental policy aim: Land use planning through ZEE which is a dynamic and flexible plan can be a possibility for an integral watershed management

Table 2. Land Use Planning Instruments according to Peruvian legislation

Lima has not a valid urban planning instrument (master plan, strategic plan, etc)

Fragmented vision, according to each Major

Conflicts between Central and Local Government and other agencies

Source: Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

NO MASTER / STRATEGIC PLAN

NO CITY VISION

NO POLITICAL WILL

NO WATER SENSITIVE PLANNING APPROACH

Table 1. Current conditions to recover Rimac River at Regional and Metropolitan level

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2.6.

Conclusions In this chapter we have identified some sustainable water sensitive

approaches through existing integrated landscape regeneration projects. The most important impact is the one obtained by IBA Emscher Park. According to Salian and Anton (2011)31, in the case of Emscher Park seven important factors contributed to the success: i.

Local demand for improved environmental conditions;

ii.

significant pressure from civil society;

iii.

political commitment at regional level;

iv.

readiness for major investments;

v.

socio-economic and environmental benefits of using water as the central theme for large-scale restructuring;

vi.

the introduction of the European Union Water Framework Directive;

vii.

the constitution of the Emschergenossenschaft, a regional water board, which plays a central role in driving the process. Its responsibilities include: o

maintenance and development of water courses;

o

wastewater discharge and disposal;

o

flood protection;

o

stormwater management;

o

planning and consultation services;

o

groundwater management (Salian et al. 2011);

In this respect, it is important to understand that the recovery of a river and its water is a long-term process where political will, planning instruments, financial means and other criteria are needed in order to address solutions to

31

Prit Salian and Barbara Anton, ICLEI European Secretariat (2011) SWITCH - Managing

Water for the City of the Future/WP 6.1.5/6 – Comparative analysis of enabling factors of sustainable urban water management, The Emscher Region - the opportunities of economic transition for leapfrogging urban water management- A case study investigating the background of and the drivers for, sustainable urban water management in the Emscher Region.

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different areas connected. The case of Germany implementing solutions in this area has long tradition in Europe and there are clear directives for decentralized solutions including spatial planning and water sensitive urban design approaches. At technical level most of the approaches identified are for areas with rain in urban context, therefore it would be impossible to apply some of these solutions in a dry context like the lower Rimac River watershed (urban part) which during 6 months disappear from the landscape due to the entire collection of all the water available by the water company. Thus a switch in the watershed and water management should be needed in order to reclaim and make the river part again of the urban landscape.

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Chapter Three | TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF RIMAC RIVER WATERSHED

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This chapter intends to identify possibilities for urban water paradigm shifts in Lima in order to recover Rimac River watershed applying water sensitive planning and design proposals for a sustainable urban development. This chapter doesn’t intend to give a prescription but it is an approach based on the previous analysis regarding sustainable urban-environmental principles and methodologies applied in river’s reclamation although in different urban development processes, historic contexts and climatic conditions. Therefore the different aspects that can affect the strategies are also described. 3.1 . LOOKING TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF RIMAC RIVER WATERSHED As it was refer previously Rimac River watershed is without doubt the most important river in the country and at same time the most polluted and degraded one. Lack of future vision during the last century regarding the strong interrelation between natural resources, watershed and water management and spatial planning didn’t contribute to preserve the river’s integrity and ecosystem as source of life. In addition short term policies due to political agendas, independent economic policies, populist decisions, lack of coordination between different stakeholders related to the water system (environment, agriculture, housing, sanitation, energy, health, industry, central/local government, etc.) and the nonexistence of communication between them has led to the situation described before. Besides natural disasters occurring annually during rainy season added to the high vulnerability created due to climate change effects makes imperative to include creative solutions to avoid future problems. Therefore there is a need to create strategies in order to promote a more sustainable urban development including the river as part of a territorial system and as main axis of a renewed open landscape and not as a threat element. In this respect would be needed a water sensitive urban planning and design approach towards sustainable urban and rural development processes. It is important to mention that in a complex context like metropolitan Lima, or the other urban centres along the Rimac river watershed, that new approach can generate different conflicts at all levels (political, technical, economical, etc.) APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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however there is a need to introduce an overall approach in order to generate new sustainable urban centers. 3.1.1. Building a watershed based spatial planning concept First of all in order to start with this approach, Rimac River watershed should be recognized as part of a geographical territorial unit called watershed and it should be the basis for the future spatial planning development, including water management. That will allow taking into consideration that any kind of partial intervention will have an impact over the entire watershed. Therefore the reclamation of the river and the influence area is a need and an opportunity to: reclaim Rimac River –including water quality and quality-, reverse and prevent unsustainable occupation development process and search for new urban water paradigm shifts. Along the entire watershed the introduction of a water sensitive approach would be needed including water sensitive urban planning and water sensitive urban design. It would allow: Upper watershed •

Protect ecosystems

Mitigate climate change effects over catchment areas due to fast melting of glaciers.

Prevent losing fresh water and define solutions to catch the water for future uses.

Eliminate discharges of toxic materials by mining industry over the river.

Eradicate mining tailing from river banks in order to protect the river from toxic leaks.

Promote the application of water sensitive urban design proposals used for rainy areas.

Replace inefficient traditional irrigation systems for agriculture activity towards more efficient and sustainable ones.

Improve water quantity and quality.

Medium watershed •

Protect ecosystems

Improve water quantity and quality.

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Mitigate and reduce disasters’ risks due to human beings reckless actions.

Reforestation of river banks.

Protection of open spaces (public spaces, agricultural land, etc) against uncontrolled urbanisation process in the urban settlements.

Application of water sensitive urban design proposals used for rainy areas.

Replace inefficient traditional irrigation systems for agriculture activity towards more efficient and sustainable ones.

Identify potential cultural landscapes as part of future sustainable development (including physical, environmental, social, economic, etc.).

Lower watershed •

Improve water quantity and quality recovering the urban river during entire year allowing its natural flow till the ocean giving possibilities for a change of perception from a sick river into a new “way of life”.

Recover natural heritage as part of a world heritage site.

Give the front to the river including it as part of the urban tissue.

Recognize the river as main axis of the future open/ecological system network of Metropolitan Lima sewing the urban tissue and integrating the river as connector component of the ecological system network and not as a threat element.

Gain open spaces almost inexistence in the city;

Reduce risk situations and disaster effects caused by seasonal events and human beings reckless actions.

Create buffer zones redesigning natural landscapes and ecosystems where new flora and fauna can grow bringing people to be part of it;

Create artificial wetlands (where possible) supporting new natural ecosystems;

Protect the last remaining open space areas (recreation and agricultural land) along the river from uncontrolled urbanization processes;

Identify heritage sites and buildings in order to promote urban renewal and recycling empty buildings for cultural events, housing, offices, etc.

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Introduce decentralized possibilities for water and wastewater management and promote reuse of all urban water streams (grey and black waters) and reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation of green areas.

Identify reckless occupation and mitigate future vulnerabilities.

3.1.2. Building an Urban Environmental Spatial Planning - Rimac River Watershed At technical level the first step would be to formulate the UrbanEnvironmental Spatial Planning – Rimac River Watershed to first identify the current spatial situation including occupation patters, defining and analyzing strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats and proposing future actions to reverse and prevent unsustainable urban development. As Vásquez et al. (2003) mentions in the proposal to transform the fluvial space of Llobregat River in the Baix Llobregat (metropolitan Barcelona), in order to intervene physically in this kind of context, there is a need of a complete analysis of the territorial system, understanding the current stage, works on progress and future plans and tendencies in the area of influence. In this respect, a territorial multifactor analysis would allow to analyses how the main factors that affect directly the territory can be addressed. According to this case, between these factors the main ones that need to be taken into consideration are the physical, environmental and human. The physical dimension refers to all data about the river itself. It comprises historic evolution of the river flow, average flooding in different seasons and sections, position and relation with the aquifers, affected soils and hydrographic network; The natural dimension identifies the local flora and fauna existent or damaged and applies measures to try to recover through the project; The human dimension, definitely the most complex comprise the spatial planning, the urban occupation, cultural heritage including historic roads, current communication systems (roads, railways, etc.), services network (water, sewage and drainage systems) and impact of these services and infrastructure over the river.

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In the case of Rimac River watershed the approach would be very similar however considering the different realities it would be needed to study as well the social, sociological and economic dimensions in order to identify all the patterns along the river identifying vulnerable groups too in order to involve them with possible solutions. After this analysis at territorial level it would be important to identify specific areas with potential in order to start adding cultural value to the landscape. This approach is developed in the Llobregat River recovery where textile colonies along the river forgotten during years, are part now of an integral urban renewal process having as instrument the Plan Director Urbanístico (Urban Director Plan) of the residential areas in Llobregat which belongs to a new generation of supramunicipal plans promoted by the government of the Generalitat of Catalonia during the 2003-07 term. Finally the main stakeholders should be identified as part of the process. In the case of water consumption, the main stakeholders come from government, industry, science and civil society, however most of the decision makers are from the Central government institutions therefore a new approach including local municipalities -in charge of spatial and urban planning along the river- would be needed. The following graphic shows the main bodies related to the water management, including the Water national authority, new responsible for the rivers’ preservation as source of water too. Graphic 3.1. Main stakeholders of the water sector in Lima

Source: Stakeholder analysis, Lima Water (LIWA) Project

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3.2.

SOME STRATEGIES AT WATERSHED LEVEL As it was mentioned in the previous chapter, there is a need to create

conditions at different levels in order to reclaim Rimac River watershed. Considering the different approaches studied previously, table 3.2 describes the following actions that should be taken into consideration: •

Political Will Alliances - Creation of a Supramunicipal body formed by the main political bodies influenced by the Rimac River. In this respect the three regional bodies -Lima Region, Metropolitan Lima and Callao Regionshould lead the process. They would represent all the districts influenced directly (16) and indirectly (55). . Therefore it would be needed a political body that can conciliate interests in a democratic way (see graphic 3.3);

Definition of a strong city vision that can recognize Lima as a prehispanic town and that can have in mind that in 2035 the city would be celebrating the 500 anniversary of the Spanish foundation. Then the new vision could be “LIMA ECOLOGICAL CITY”;

Elaboration of a comprehensive Master/Strategic Plan which can include different aspects like the Environmental Economic Zonning Plan, integrated development plan (urban environmental, socio-economic and institutional plan), water sensitive urban planning, cultural landscape plan, etc.;

Creating a multidisciplinary approach and building interinstitutional bridges. Formation of technical commission including experts from the National Water Authority, in charge of all water resources and rivers, Sedapal -main water utility-, Regional/Urban/Rural Planning Offices, Architecture and Engineer chambers schools, etc, should conciliate water sensitive urban planning and design approaches, protecting ecosystems and also developing socio, economic and cultural potentials;

Public-private partnership would be needed in order to get financial means for the process. Thus private industry, represented mainly by the mining, industrial and tourism activity, should be also part of the process.

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Source: Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

62

Environmental engineers, scientist, Planners, Urban and Landscape Planners, Administrative officers, Architects, Engineers, Landscape architects, Urban Designers/Architects

-Rimac River Environmental Economic Zonning Plan -Integrated Development Plan urban environmental, socioeconomic and institutional plan -Water sensitive Plan -Cultural Landscape Plan -Potential areas

2035 (500 years)

Includes municipalities, regions, water national authority, water and electric companies, private investors, industries association, etc

“LIMA ECOLOGICAL NEW CITY”

SUSTAINABLE WATER MANAGEMENT URBAN PLANNING LANDSCAPE DESIGN

STRATEGIC TECHNIC COMMISSION RIMAC RIVER (Spatial Plan Rimac River watershed)

Pre-Hispanic origen and multicultural development in an ecological NEW city

SUPRAMUNICIPAL BODY RIMAC RIVER Association of Municipalities

MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH

COMPREHENSIVE MASTER/STRAT. PLAN

STRONG CITY VISION

POLITICAL WILL - ALLIANCES

WATER SENSITIVE PLANNING APPROACH

Graphic 3.2. Future actions needed to recover Rimac River at Regional and Metropolitan level

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Central Government Local Government Mining Companies Industrial Association Tourist Association

ENHANCING PRIVATE INVESTMENT PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP

PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP


DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES Direct influence: 2 Indirect Influence: 3 Total 5

63

DIRTRICTS ALONG THE RIMAC RIVER WATERSHED

DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES Direct Influence: 8 Indirect Influence: 22 Total: 30

RIMAC RIVER

LIMA PROVINCIAL MUNICIPALITY/REGION

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Source: Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

RIMAC RIVER ECOLOGICAL INFRASTRUCTURE NETWORK

CALLAO REGIONAL GOVERNMENT

SUPRAMUNICIPAL BODY

Graphic 3.3. Supramunicipal body creation along the Rimac River Watershed

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DISTRICT MUNICIPALITIES Direct Influence: 6 Indirect Influence: 14 Total: 20

LIMA REGIONAL GOVERNMENT (HUAROCHIRI)


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3.3.

SOME URBAN/SPATIAL PLANNING STRATEGIES AT WATERSHED LEVEL The following proposals are elaborated in order to promote a more

connected territory along the watershed and in the urban watershed, exploring the Rimac River as potential physical element in the landscape which represents a memory and an identity from the inhabitants living in the entire watershed. 3.3.1. Rimac River as connector element for the Rimac watershed Integration Along Rimac River different initiatives to recover parts of the river have been implemented although there is still a need for an overall approach as starting point to later focalize identifying potential areas for urban-environmental regeneration programs. As previously explained the reclamation of the Rimac River watershed is urgent in order to reduce physical, economical and social fragmentation consolidated through years of inequalities along the entire watershed.

This fragmentation, as shown in Graphic 3.4, is represented in four directions: •

East - West: Lower levels of development in the upper and medium watersheds in contrast with the lower urban watershed next to the Coast;

Internal - External: clear fragmentation and degradation in the urban watershed’s area of influence and along the river compared with other districts. Therefore as represented in graphic 3.5, there is a need to sew the

rural/urban tissue along the Rimac River watershed.

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International Cooperation and Urban Development | Sustainable Emergency Architecture Graphic 3.4. Rimac River Watershed Fragmentation Watershed Influence Area Andean mountains E

Upper Watershed (Rural)

EXT Medium Watershed (Semi-Rural) Direct River Influence Area

Direct River Influence Area Pacific Ocean W

Fragmentation Lower Watershed (Urban) INT

EXT

Rimac River watershed

Source: Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

Therefore a new approach should be taken recognizing the river as connector element along the watershed that creates a physical link between the upper, medium and lower watersheds but also creates identity and a sense of belonging, being this element fundamental in order to preserve the landscape. Graphic 3.5. New Integrated Rimac River Watershed Management

Andean mountains E

Lower Watershed (Urban)

Medium Watershed (Semi-Rural)

Upper Watershed (Rural)

Watershed Influence Area

Pacific Ocean W

Relation

Source: Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

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3.3.2. Rimac River as part of an Ecological Network Blue-Green-Brown (BGB) Network in the urban watershed to reduce fragmentation As previously appointed, Lima is a place where reality went faster than any urban development plan. Therefore the city has grown without coherence been the result a puzzle with different morphologies that are forced to get attached. Therefore in order to reverse that process there is a need to sew the urban tissue and generate certain coherence and integration to the multiple parts. In this respect the strategy could be to create an open space network considering the scarce of open spaces32 in the urban area. The urban pressure has brought us today to an enclosed concrete island with very few open spaces for recreation, relaxation but also to use in case of disasters. According to INEI Lima has only 2,9m2 of green area per inhabitant, been 8m2 the recommendable in order to ensure certain sustainability33. The situation is even worst in the periurban areas were the areas reserved for open/green spaces has been occupied or are abandon due to desert conditions. In this connection, considering that Lima is over a desert, would be more appropriate to propose an Ecological Infrastructure network instead of a fully green, which could consider also native species from the region. Thus Green (vegetation), Brown (desert soil) and Blue (river) can regenerate and create life and a network, as it was shown in the Lodz case in Poland and the Blue – Green Network (BGN). Therefore there is a need to change the grey color of the city34 into an ecological friendly one and the Rimac River as well as the other rivers that cross the city (Chillon and Lurin) could be the connector natural elements which can provide the ecological approach needed as part of an open space network. As it is represented in the graphic 3.6, there are possibilities to create an ecological infrastructure network for Lima, the Blue-Green-Brown Ecological Network (BGBN). 32

In the Peruvian context open spaces are mainly referred as public spaces

33

Spain recommend 13% of green areas per m2/inhabitant

34

Lima is locally known as donkey’s belly due to the low clouds that cover the city from April till

November not allowing sunlight penetration, additionally is located over a former valley in the desert Coast.

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Graphic 3.6. Possible ecological infrastructure network for Lima

Sequence of Wetlands along Rimac River purifying water

Atarjea

Blue-Green-Brown Ecological Network

New ecologic parks (wetlands) Existing wetland Ecological corridor Open space connectors

Source: Google maps/Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

Constructed wetlands can be built along the Rimac River as a natural process for purifying wastewater before it goes to the Atarjea water treatment plant, thus the cost for purifying water would reduce significantly. These new wetlands in metropolitan Lima (lower watershed) would increase the percentage of green areas also needed to reduce the high air pollution in the city. Considering the rivers are seasonal treated wastewater produce by the wetland would keep alive the space. In summary ecological corridors with constructed wetlands would help first to clean the wastewater, irrigate green areas, agricultural land, provide recreation and bring the capitalinos next to natural life, almost inexistence in the urbe. Additionally the wetlands should integrate the people into their environment and not separate them through walls, levess or restrictions like “no pisar el gras” (don’t step over the grass). Through ecological corridors as part of an open spaces system can start the reclamation process of the Rimac River. APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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3.3.3. Rimac River Potential as cultural Landscape Not many rivers in the world are part of a World Heritage site. River Rimac has this condition therefore a strategy should contemplate the recovery of the river in order to preserve the identity of the city. Graphic 3.7. Colonial Lima and Rimac River

Source: Book Manuel Atanasio Fuentes (1867)

In this respect as it is described in the graphic 3.8 there are many potential Cultural Landscapes that can be identified along the Rimac River and that can create special features. Graphic 3.8. Cultural Landscape Network along Rimac River Watershed Hiking Route Clean Mining Route Hydroenergy route

Fluvial Park-Main Harbor

World Heritage

Country side/Adventure Sports Central Train Railroad Sedapal Ecological Park

Source: Google maps/Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

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Another important element to recover for the people is the Central train which currently is used mainly for the tourist industry or for transport goods. It was built in the XIX century and is the highest in America and the second highest in the world and it goes all along Rimac River, between Lima and Huancayo. During rainy season is the only infrastructure not affected by the flooding. Graphic 3.9. Andean Central Train, highest in the world

Source: Website Ferrocarril central Andino

Currently it departs from Lima’s downtown. A direct action to revalue would be to repair the lines that connect it with the main harbor, Callao. Additionally the use of the train could be more frequent and not only for the tourist industry. The Central train can be a way to connect the whole Rimac River Watershed and integrate the territory. 3.3.4. Rimac River possibilities for an Environmental recovery The Rimac River’s environmental reclamation depends from many factors, between them we can mention economical, social, political, technical, financial, etc. In this respect all stakeholders including industrial and mining industry should take part of this discussion in order to create alliances and reach a common goal considering that Peru is a mining country and its economy depend on this industry however there should implement technologies that can APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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allow a mining exploitation according to the minimum standards. Application A of environmental sciences to recover rivers like Ecohydrology or any other technic won’t have any effect if the pollutant agents continue discharging dangerous materials to the river. If the conditions are positives then Ecohydrology could be an option to recover the physical conditions of of the river but also improve the sociosocio economical situation of the residents. Additionally as shown in the graphic 3.10 the Ecohydrological approach would allow improvement of microclimates, enhancement of biodiversity and urban ecosystem resilience, reduction of pollutants

transport,

biomass

production

between

others,

in

general

improvement of human health. Graphic 3.10.. Rehabilitation of a municipal river: an example of possible multidimensional benefits

Effect of catchment rehabilitation on reduction reducti of hydropeaking and efficiency of storm water treatment in sewage treatment

Improvement of Human health and quality of life

Microclimate improvement

Enhancement of evotransporation Enhancement of Biodiversity Energetic plantation

Sewage treatment plant

Bioenergy

Reduction of Pollutants Transport Bypass channels Constructed wetlands water purification

Reservoirs Increase of infiltration

Channel for selfself purification enhancement

Storm water flow by main channel

Low flow constructed wetlands

Source: Zalewski, Wagner, 2008

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3.3.5. Rimac River as a Source and not as a threat Considering Rimac river is a seasonal river there are months during the year considered as highly risk regarding people’s security along the river. From December to March the rainy season starts, reason why the maxim alert along the watershed is activated. However most of these risk situations, as we saw before, are originated mainly due to human negligence -due to occupation of riverbanks or floodplains, bad constructions that goes again the natural flow, etc-. These situations produce every year flooding, landslides, etc. therefore in order to reduce emergency situations it is important to create strategic alliance with the National Institute of Civil Defense in order to evaluate possibilities to implement water sensitive urban planning and design projects in the 57 critic points

identified

(graphic

3.11)

considering

the

physical-environmental

conditions but also the socio-economic dimensions. During the year this institution is in charge to evaluate and recommend to the political bodies which kind of actions to take therefore it would be important to create possible water sensitive urban design solutions along the river. Graphic 3.11. Risk situations along Rimac River

Source: Defensa Civil, 2009

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3.4.

TOWARDS AN URBAN WATER PLANNING AND DESIGN NEW APPROACH Considering the adverse conditions regarding water due to Lima’s desert

location, and taking into account that Rimac River waters is in extreme dangerous conditions, there is a need to look for new solutions in order to reorient unsustainable practices. In this connection during the last years different local and international projects have tried to propose new solutions regarding reuse of water: for irrigation of agricultural land, green areas, plants nursery, etc. These projects have tried to introduce a sustainable and integrated urban water management approach. One of the most recent projects was SWITCH-Managing Water for the City of the Future35, which have tried to shift from urban water management ad hoc solutions to more sustainable ones. This program was present in twelve cities with different problems related to water. Lima was included as case study and the focus was in the reuse of treated wastewater for urban greening and urban agriculture considering the water stress and dependency (Graphic 3.12). From all the experiences taken into account, Lima is one of the few cities facing different challenges: dry due to desert location, minimum rainfall, low levels of wastewater reuse (only 10%), and climate change effects over the Andean mountains reason why a water sensitive approach in the case of Lima could encourage the need to reuse water and waste water in the city through decentralised methods. If an efficient waste mechanism takes places then the Rimac river would only receive treated wastewater and not the alarming amount of pollutant elements that are register currently. Therefore moving toward a sustainable water management with an integral urban water management included into an urban watershed management overall approach would led us to a more efficient way to deal with the water issues. 35

http://www.switchurbanwater.eu/

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Graphic 3.12. Selected cities to develop urban water paradigm shifts as part of the SWITCH Program

Impact of climate change on Andean water sources; low levels of wastewater treatment; water supply for greening and productive activities in a context of extreme scarcity and risk of reducing untreated wastewater

Source: Switch Program Cities – Case study

3.4.1. Creating Water Alliances between neighbors As it was explained before, Peru as the rest of Latin-American face serious gaps within the country. Despite reduction of poverty at national level, at Lima and Callao level the poverty has increased from 31.8% to 36.6%. That means that the urban poverty and inequalities are consolidated despite the macroeconomic growth. Therefore there is a need to reduce those inequalities been provision of basic services –water, energy distribution- one of the initial ways to deal with it. In Lima the poor consume less water and pay more while the rich neighborhoods consume more water and pay less, more than a million haven’t water connection, additionally doesn’t exist clear mechanisms to treat wastewater or reuse the treated one. In that respect the Supramunicipal body should create alliances between “good neighbors” in order to create new mechanisms to better use the water, reuse wastewater and share the infrastructure with those ones that need it. For APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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that I will exemplified a physical-socio-economical reality and a possible and maybe temerarious solution in a complicated reality like Lima. The graphic 3.13 shows a typical desert and dry landscape in Lima. Two different realities, from one side over use of water in greening and swimming pools, from the other side a dry and brown reality and almost no green/open space areas. Graphic 3.13. Physical reality and Urban segregation in Surco and San Juan de Miraflores districts a

Low density Connected to water and wastewater Over use of water for greening and swimming pool Pay same amount than any resident

High density over the urban sprawl No water and sewerage connection No green areas Pay expensive water truck tariff for water

Source: Google Earth/Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

Therefore in order to reduce that inequality there should be mechanism to share infrastructure and benefits instead to confront the two realities to ignore themselves. Creating neighbor alliances would allow more sustainable practices

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improving living conditions. For instance reusing water would allow minimizing the use of drinkable water for green irrigation, etc. Graphic 3.14. Creating urban rivers o

o o

o

o o

Control use of water from A and promote reduction of water consume; Promote waste water treatment plants; Reuse water from A into B if possible for greening of public spaces; Use water infrastructure from A to analyses possible water connections for B Promote cultural, social, etc events to break the social gaps Promote urban agriculture in both sides

A

B

Source: Google Earth/Self-elaboration, Poblet, Rossana, 2011

3.4.2. Identifying possible solutions to implement sustainable principles at Planning and urban design level - WSUD and ESD as part of the strategy WSUD concept can be applied in any context where urban water paradigms shift are needed for a more sustainable and holistic approach. According to Wong (2007) the concept has evolved from its early association with sustainable storm water management to a broader framework for integrating the holistic management of all urban water streams with the urban planning and urban design framework for a more sustainable management of urban water. Thus the concept can still be applied in any context but for that is needed to develop special principles for cities with other climate conditions. The following table shows how some of the water sensitive urban design principles can’t be applied in dry cities like Lima because it mainly focuses in sustainable storm water management or decentralised methods. However there could be possibilities to adapt the urban design principles to dry conditions. Despite that more important is the WSUD philosophy of implementing decentralised methods and been sensible to water, especially in urban areas, considering that fresh water is not unlimited and its production cost a lot to the river life. Additionally as mentioned before more than a million people, mainly poor dwellers are not connected to the water supply and sanitation network, the APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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need to introduce alternative methods to use and reuse water can be an option. Additionally in Lima, treated waste water can be used for urban agriculture and farming nursery in order to assure food security, WSUD Principles

Description

General Idea

Urban Areas without Rain

Current Possibilities Y

N

Protection of natural water systems

There is a need to protect natural waterways considering most of floodplains in dry cities are partially occupied by poor dwellers due to informal occupation processes creating risk conditions during rainy season or sporadic rain events due to climate change.

Through filtration and retention, water draining from urban developments can be treated to remove pollutants close to their source. This approach reduces the effect that polluted water can have upon the environment and protects the natural waterways.

Improve the quality of water draining from urban developments into receiving environment (creeks, rivers and bay environments).

This principle refers mainly to rainwater. There is not rain and additionally the sealed surface is very high make difficult any infiltration methods for purification

Integrate stormwater treatment into the landscape

Use stormwater in the landscape by incorporating multiple use corridors that maximise the visual and recreational amenity of developments.

The natural stormwater drainage system can be utilised for its aesthetic qualities within parklands and walking paths, making use of natural topography such as creek lines and ponding areas.

Reduce runoff and peak flows

Reduce peak flows from urban development by local detention measures and minimising impervious areas events.

Effective draining systems

Not applicable

x

Add value while minimising development costs

The reduction of downstream drainage infrastructure due to reduced peak flows and runoff minimises the development costs for drainage, whilst enhancing natural features such as rivers and lakes that add value to the properties of the area.

Add value reducing costs

Need adaptation

x

Use stormwater as a resource through capture and reuse for nonpotable purposes (e.g. toilet flushing, garden irrigation, laundry).

Find new water sources

No possibilities to use stormwater however it can be possible to reuse wastewater or to catch fog during winter

x

Protect natural systems

Protect water quality

Reduce potable water demand

Promoting and protecting natural waterways as assets allows them to function more effectively and supports the ecosystems that rely on them.

x

There are not possibilities to use stormwater treatment into the landscape but there are possibilities to integrate wastewater treatment plants, constructed wetlands or other purifiers as part of the landscapes.

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x

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In this respect WSUD complements with new concepts about environmental sustainability developed due to the wide spread degradation of the environment and ecosystems. Considering that appears in Australia a concept called “Ecologically Sustainable development” (ESD) which goes beyond the protection’s declaration of the environment and takes measures to implement actions for protecting and preserving natural resources. As it is shown in the Graphic 3.15, ESD is the environmental component of sustainable development that maintains and protects ecological processes as lakes and rivers. In that respect WSUD sits under ESD as an application of its themes into the urban design area. WSUD is considered in the area of urban design and built form, integrating and protecting all aspects of the urban water cycle (Wong, 2007). In summary Water Sensitive Urban Design’ (WSUD) is linked with ‘Ecologically Sustainable Development (ESD)’ and ‘Water Cycle Management’ (WCM) and that can be also taken into consideration in a reality like Lima. Graphic 3.15. Interactions between ESD, WSUD and UWC

Source: Ecology Engineering, 2003, Australian Runoff Quality, Engineers Australia, 2006

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That approach is very holistic and implementing that to protect Rimac River could be a possibility for an integral recovery and development. However would be needed a designed implementation process considering socioeconomic and cultural aspect. 3.5.

Conclusions In this respect what are the possibilities to implement urban water shifts

in a context like metropolitan Lima? As we have identified there are already different experiences showing possibilities for a change. Lima Region and metropolitan Lima has potential to adopt different strategies but needs to be in a participative way with all stakeholders involved. The BGBN represents a possibility to create a territorial ecological system, considering the local reality, in order to reverse and prevent future unsustainable urban development.

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GENERAL CONCLUSION

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The Rimac River full reclamation depends from many factors that are difficult to control (political, technical, financial, etc) however the reality of the river tell us that in order to generate an integral possibility new creative solutions should be taken into account. Likewise decentralised solutions for wastewater should be a priority as part of a new approach focusing in “reusing”. In this respect all stakeholders including industrial and mining industry should take part of this discussion in order to reach a common goal. The application of Ecohydrology or any other technic won’t have any effect if the pollutant agents continue discharging dangerous materials to the river. During the research we could identify the strong relationship between watersheds based spatial planning and sustainable urban development, especially in a context like Lima and Peru, it was also shown that the application of sustainable urban planning tools and principles through existing integrated landscape regeneration projects, needs to consider also politic and socioeconomic dimensions in a context like Lima where the urban poverty has increased. Additionally the specific features of the current urban development process, history and other external events should also be taken into account. However despite these factors, it was identified already existing possibilities towards an urban water paradigm shifts in the Lima context, that would be the starting point to contribute to maintain Rimac River and would allow moving slowly toward a sustainable urban water management with an integral urban watershed perspective. Additionally water sensitive urban design concept and principles can be applied fully in the medium and upper parts of the watershed, in order to reduce risk situations during rainy season, however it can’t be applied in dry conditions like metropolitan Lima. Therefore water sensitive planning and design principles should be created for dry conditions. The political strategy to start this process should be through a political alliance of political bodies and stakeholders from the lower, medium and upper watershed. That will result in the formation of Supramunicipal bodies including

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main stakeholders (majors, authorities, civil society, National Authority of Water and Water Company-SEDAPAL. The planning strategy should conciliate efforts from the urban planning, watershed management and water management considering the specific vulnerable

situation

regarding

climate

change

and

desert

conditions.

Considering that it can be understood that there is a regional urgency in order to change ad hoc solutions into more sustainable and water sensitive ones. An initial Plan for the entire watershed would be the starting point and later specific projects should be identified in alliance with private investors and mining companies in order to involve them into the transformation towards a sustainable urban water paradigm shift in order to reclaim Rimac River.

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Author’s contact: rpoblet09@googlemail.com APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF WATERSHED AREAS IN DRY CLIMATIC ONDITIONS

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Approach towards sustainable management of watershed areas in dry climatic conditions  

Master Thesis Erasmus Mundus Urban Development and International Cooperation

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