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UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

15th Biennial Challenger Conference for Marine Sciences 2012

15th Biennial Challenger Conference for Marine Sciences

3–6 SEPTEMBER 2012 CL2012 cover [B3] v5v02.indd 1

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The Challenger Society for Marine Science

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“OCEAN CHALLENGES IN THE 21ST CENTURY” The 15th Biennial Challenger Conference for Marine Sciences University of East Anglia, Norwich 3-6 September 2012

Front cover image: Wells-Next-The-Sea © Ashley Sampson, 2011 Design: Ben Cracknell | benstudios.co.uk Print and bound: Micropress Digital, Reydon Business Park, Reydon, Suffolk IP18 6DH


Contents 4 Welcome from the President

of the Challenger Society

5 Foreword from the Chair of

the Conference Organising Committees

6 Local and national organising

committees

7 The Challenger Society for

Marine Science

8 Conference information Registration Oral presentations Poster presentations WiFi Prizes Excursions Conference dinner

11 UEA information Accommodation Access and facilities

12 Travel to and from Norwich

16 Conference sponsors 19 Plan of exhibition space 20 Scientific programme 26 Challenger Society AGM 27 Public lecture 28 Panel debate 29 Keynote talks 34 Oral abstracts 63 List of posters 70 Poster abstracts 112 Notes 119 Author index 125 Challenger Society membership application form

127 Restaurant map 128 Travel map 129 Campus map (inside back cover)

city centre

13 Meals and refreshments Conference refreshments UEA restaurants and cafĂŠs Campus facilities Norwich restaurants

Note: Blank pages and Notes pages which appear in the printed version have been removed from this PDF.


4

Welcome

Welcome to the 15th Biennial Challenger Conference for Marine Science

Delegate Info

This year our 15th biennial conference ‘Challenger 2012; Ocean Challenges in the 21st century’ is hosted by the University of East Anglia. A huge effort has gone into the planning and preparation for what promises to be an exciting few days of talks, posters and social events. For this we are very grateful to Carol Robinson and her local and national organising committees. Thanks are also due to the twelve confirmed sponsors of the conference.

Sponsors Programme

The conference is also the event during which we award the Challenger Medal to ‘a distinguished UK marine scientist who has made a single major contribution or a sustained contribution, to the development of marine science’. The 2012 Challenger Medallist is Professor Harry Elderfield from the University of Cambridge. We will also award four Challenger Fellowships to early career scientists, one in each of the disciplines of marine physics, chemistry, biology and geology. The recipients of these Fellowships are kept secret until the presentations at the conference dinner on Thursday evening. Other prizes include the Cath Allen prize for the best poster presentation, the Norman Heaps prize for the best oral presentation by an early career marine scientist, and the President’s photographic prize which this year is for the best photograph within the theme “marine science in stormy weather”.

Abstracts | Oral

The Challenger Society AGM will be held in Lecture Theatre 1 on Tuesday 4 September at 17:00. If you are a Challenger Society member, please attend the AGM to hear reports on what we have been doing during the past year, participate in the election of new Council members, and most importantly to voice your opinions on what the Society is doing well and what it could do better. That evening there will be a reception and public lecture presented by Dr. Elizabeth White, Director/ Producer of the BBC series Frozen Planet. I’m sure we will all have a great week of science and social activities in Norwich. Thank you for coming.

Harry L. Bryden

Abstracts | Poster

President of the Challenger Society for Marine Science (2010–12)

Notes | Index


5

An event such as this requires a co-ordinated team of organisers and supporters. I’d like to thank all members of the Conference Local and National Organising Committees, especially Rosie Cullington, Sarah Clarke and Terry Sloane who have done the bulk of the work. We are very grateful to the conference headline sponsor RS AQUA, the exhibitors CTG, Edgetech, Gardline, Geomatrix, Nortek UK, OSIL, Planet Ocean, RBR and Valeport and the Emerging Technologies session cosponsors IMarEst and SUT. Thanks to Rural Broadband for free WiFi during the conference. We also appreciate the financial support from SCOR for international travel funds, and the scientific endorsement of IMBER and GEOTRACES.

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

The Challenger Society Biennial Conference has a considerable reputation as a vibrant networking event for early career marine scientists, showcasing the state-ofthe-art marine science and technology research currently being undertaken in the UK and abroad. There is always a particular emphasis on postgraduate and postdoctoral research, and this conference is no exception. Fifty of the 102 oral presentations will be given by PhD students and postdocs. Although the 287 conference delegates (at time of going to press) are predominantly from the UK, as an indication of the growing internationalisation of the conference, delegates and keynote speakers have also registered from Bermuda, Brazil, Canada, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Oman, Malaysia, South Africa, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine and the USA. As usual, the scientific programme covers a wide range of marine disciplines, from ocean dynamics to biodiversity, biogeochemical cycles, resource management and marine technology. This year there is also a special session on marine geochemistry, dedicated to Professor Dennis Burton, University of Southampton. Dennis was a strong supporter of the Challenger Society and the ethos of mentoring and enthusing young marine scientists.

Abstracts | Oral

As Chair of the Conference National and Local Organising Committees, I would like to take this opportunity to welcome you all to the 15th Biennial Challenger Conference for Marine Science, which this year is hosted by the School of Environmental Sciences at the University of East Anglia and an East of England alliance including British Antarctic Survey, University of Essex, CEFAS and Gardline Environmental.

Welcome

Foreword

Chair of the Conference Organising Committees University of East Anglia

Notes | Index

Carol Robinson

Abstracts | Poster

I hope you all have a memorable time in Norwich.


6

Welcome

LOCAL AND NATIONAL ORGANISING COMMITTEES Welcome

Local Organising Committee

Delegate Info Sponsors

Carol Robinson, University of East Anglia

Chair

Rosie Cullington, University of East Anglia

Website and logistics

Sarah Clarke, University of East Anglia

Abstract booklet

Alex Baker, University of East Anglia

AV for speakers

Dorothee Bakker, University of East Anglia

Restaurant information

Gill Malin, University of East Anglia

Information on local accommodation

Thomas Mock, University of East Anglia

Excursions

Parv Suntharalingam, University of East Anglia

Poster session

Trevor Tolhurst, University of East Anglia

WiFi

Naomi Vaughan, University of East Anglia

Debate

Stephen Dye, Cefas

Publicity

Terry Sloane, Planet Ocean

Exhibition and sponsorship

Michael Steinke, University of Essex

Poster session

Gary Thirkettle, Gardline Environmental Hugh Venables, British Antarctic Survey

Prizes

Programme

National Organising Committee Carol Robinson, University of East Anglia

Chair

Boris Kelly-Gerryn, Australian Bureau of Meteorology

Abstracts | Oral

Terry Sloane, Planet Ocean

Exhibition and sponsorship

Hugh Venables, British Antarctic Survey

Session chair: Ocean dynamics and climate

Michael Steinke, University of Essex

Poster session

Thomas Mock, University of East Anglia

Session chair: Biodiversity

Jennifer Brown, National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool

Session chair: Coastal physical processes

Abigail McQuatters-Gollop, Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science

Session chair: Managing marine resources

Abstracts | Poster

Martin Solan, University of Southampton Daniela Schmidt, University of Bristol

Session chair: Geochemistry

Peter Statham, University of Southampton

Session chair: Geochemistry

Stephanie Henson, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

Session chair: Biophysical interactions

Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

Session chair: Emerging technologies

Corinne Le QuĂŠrĂŠ, University of East Anglia

Session chair: Biogeochemical cycles

Notes | Index


Welcome

7

Marine Optics SIG

This group is a focus for the science and technology behind optical marine measurements collected both in situ and remotely, and their application to marine biogeochemistry. Contact: Stephanie Henson, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (S.Henson@noc.soton.ac.uk).

Ocean Modelling Group

This group is concerned with modelling of the oceans at a range of scales. The group will next meet on Friday 7 September 2012 at UEA (09:00 Lecture Theatre 4). Contact: Helen Johnson, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Oxford (Helen.Johnson@earth.ox.ac.uk)

Delegate Info

This group holds an annual meeting to present recent results on all aspects of sea ice research, from climate modelling to observations, paleoreconstructions and impact studies. They will meet on Friday 7 September 2012 at UEA (09:00 Committee Room 2, The Council House). Contact: Jeff Ridley, Met Office (jeff. ridley@metoffice.com).

Sponsors

Sea Ice SIG

The objective of this group is to provide a forum for discussions on research relating marine biota to their environment. Contact: Geraint Tarling, British Antarctic Survey (gant@bas.ac.uk)

Marine Technologies SIG

This group focuses on bringing together the community developing sensing technologies for marine applications. Contact: Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (M.Tsaloglou@soton.ac.uk).

Ocean Wind Waves SIG

This group aims to bring together scientists, engineers and modellers, interested in observing, modelling and forecasting waves on the ocean surface generated by winds. They last met in March 2012. Contact: Christine Gommenginger, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (cg1@noc.ac.uk).

History of Marine Science SIG

This group aims to document activities in the history of marine science with emphasis on the Challenger Expedition and its legacies. Contact: Harry Bryden (H.Bryden@noc.soton. ac.uk)

For further information on the activities of the Challenger Society, why not attend the annual general meeting on Tuesday 4 September 2012 at 17:00.

Programme

Biophysical interactions SIG

Abstracts | Oral

The Society currently supports nine special interest groups (SIGs). The sea level SIG is in transition due to the recent NERC restructuring exercise, and the others are detailed below.

This group addresses all aspects of marine biogeochemistry, and holds bi-annual AMBIO (Advances in Marine Biogeochemistry) meetings. They will next meet in September 2013 Contact: Gary Fones, University of Portsmouth (gary.fones@port.ac.uk)

Abstracts | Poster

The Society today is also a registered charity, and is run by an elected Council who meet at quarterly intervals to progress the aim of the Society: to promote UK marine science. The Society holds regular scientific meetings, including a biennial conference, supports a range of special interest groups, publishes a monthly newsletter Challenger Wave and a biannual magazine Ocean Challenge, builds links with other societies, groups of marine scientists and marine industries throughout the world, and endeavours to inform marine policy.

Marine Biogeochemistry Forum

Notes | Index

The Challenger Society for Marine Science became a company limited by guarantee in 1988, taking over the assets and liabilities of the unincorporated Society which was constituted in 1903 to continue the discussion of the scientific results of the HMS Challenger expedition 1873–1876. These reports were published between 1885 and 1895, and scientists involved with collecting and publishing the data were awarded with a specially minted medal, the original Challenger Medal.

Welcome

THE CHALLENGER SOCIETY FOR MARINE SCIENCE


8

Delegate Info

CONFERENCE INFORMATION Welcome

Registration Desk

Delegate Info

The registration desk for collection of your conference pack is based in the LCR (17 on the campus map) and will be open at the following times: Sunday 2 September – 1700–1930 Monday 3 September – 0800 onwards Tuesday 4 September – 0830 onwards Wednesday 5 September – 0830 onwards Thursday 6 September – 0830 onwards The desk will be open at all refreshment and lunch breaks for any queries you may have.

Sponsors

Using Wifi

Programme

Rural Broadband, a Norfolk company, is pleased to be providing the broadband for the Challenger Conference. WiFi is being provided by the innovative WiBE 3G unit, which has been developed in the UK. To connect during the event: Search for a wireless network starting with ‘WiBE’ and use the word ‘internet’ (all lower case) for the WPA key

Abstracts | Oral

FREE WiFi locations at UEA: (locations also highlighted on the campus map on the inside back cover of this book) Lecture Theatre foyers on Floors 0 and 0.1 LCR/The Hive Nelson Court Common Room Broadview Reception area

Abstracts | Poster

UEA broadband will be switched off in the conference locations, but is available as usual outside these areas. For enquiries before or after the event contact Richard Dix Rural Broadband, Unit 1, Marea Farm, Heacham, Kings Lynn, Norfolk,. PE31 7DH.

Notes | Index

01485 572253 www.ruralbroadband.co.uk richard@ruralbroadband.co.uk

Information for speakers including IT: Instructions for Oral Presentations Lecture rooms are equipped with PCs running Windows 7 and Office 2007. Separate VGA cables are also available for presenters who wish to use their own computers (Apple Mac users should bring their own video adapters). Oral presentations should be brought to the room in which the presentation will be taking place, on a USB data stick, before the start of each session.

Information for poster presenters All posters will be displayed for the duration of the meeting in the LCR in Union House where we will have our tea/coffee and lunch breaks. Posters will be exhibited all week and there will be a dedicated poster session on Tuesday 4 September from 14:00-17:00. You must put up your poster on the allocated poster boards before lunchtime (13:00) on Tuesday. Poster boards are size A0 (85cm by 115cm – portrait style only please) and posters will have to be fixed using the Velcro hooks supplied. Please also bring a one-slide summary of your poster if you’d like it included in a rotating display on screens in the poster hall.


Excursions

The Challenger Society Biennial Conference recognises early career scientists  through awards and prizes presented at the Conference Dinner. There are prizes for the best poster, best oral presentation and the President’s Photographic Prize.

There will be several optional excursions and activities on the Wednesday afternoon. Depending upon minimum numbers, we hope to be able to offer some of the following:

© UEA Sportspark

Sponsors

The Cath Allen Prize The Best Poster Prize was first awarded in 1988 and was renamed in the honour of Cath Allen, a research scientist at POL in 1991.

Programme

The President’s Photographic Competition The President’s Prize for the best Photograph on a designated theme was introduced in 1994 (President Dr Brian McCartney). This year’s theme will be “Marine Science in Stormy Weather” To enter the photographic competition, e-mail your photo to challenger2012@uea.ac.uk. Photos will be displayed in the poster hall. All entries should be received by Tuesday morning, 4 September. The photograph judged by the President to best convey ‘Marine Science in Stormy Weather’ will be awarded the prize at the conference dinner. Entry to the competition gives agreement for the Challenger Society to use the photos (with attribution) in publicity material but they will not otherwise be distributed. A short description of the photo, including vessel name if relevant and month and year would be appreciated but is not a requirement and will not be displayed with the photo at the conference (photos are judged anonymously). All entries must be taken by the person submitting the photo and must not be overly post-processed (e.g. colours should be natural and objects should not be added or removed). Black and white images are acceptable.

Notes | Index

Abstracts | Poster

© UEA Sportspark

Abstracts | Oral

The Norman Heaps Prize The Norman Heaps prize was first awarded in 1988, and is awarded for the best oral presentation by an early-career stage nonestablished scientist.

• An evening ghost walk around Norwich • A boat trip through Norwich along the River Yare and out to Surlingham Broad • A session on the climbing wall at the UEA Sportspark • A fun five-a-side football mini-tournament • A tour of the BBSRC Genome Analysis Centre (TGAC) in Norwich • An evening pub crawl

Welcome

Prizes

9

Delegate Info

Delegate Info

© Adam & Eve


10

Delegate Info

Conference Dinner Welcome Delegate Info

The Conference Dinner will take place on Thursday 6 September at the ‘Top of the Terrace’ at Norwich City Football Club starting with a drink on arrival at 7.30 pm and dinner at 8.00 pm. Catering will be provided by Delia Smith’s Canary Catering. The cost of the dinner includes the welcome drink (sparkling wine or non-alcoholic punch) and drinks during dinner (1 bottle each of red and white wine per table of 10). There will also be a cash bar. Buses (#25 and #35, approx. 30 minutes travel time) go direct from UEA campus to Norwich Rail Station and the venue is a 5 minute walk from there. Bus routes, timetables and a Norwich map are included in this booklet.

Sponsors

For those who want to take their own cars, ample free parking is available on site. The address is ‘Top of the Terrace’, Barclay Stand, Norwich City Football Club, Carrow Road, Norwich, NR1 1JE.

Programme

The venue is on the 2nd floor and unfortunately there is no dedicated lift. If you have problems

Meat Option

negotiating stairs, please contact us via the conference registration desk or email challenger2012@uea.ac.uk and arrangements will be made for you to use a nearby lift. For your entertainment, music before and during dinner will be provided by The Malt House String Quartet who are a group of classically trained orchestral and chamber musicians based in Norfolk (http://www. malthousestringquartet.com). After dinner, a disco will provide music for those who wish to work off a few pounds. The evening ends at 01:00 but for those who wish to carry on dancing, there are numerous clubs open at the nearby Riverside development and on Prince of Wales Road. If anyone wants to stay overnight, there is a Holiday Inn at the football ground and discounted rates are available for those attending an event on site. Holiday Inn Norwich City, Carrow Road, Norwich, NR1 1HU. Phone: 0870 890 1000 www.holidayinn-norwichcity.co.uk

Menu

Potted Cromer Crab with Buttered Wholemeal Bread

Abstracts | Oral

Traditional Roast Chicken with Apple, Sage and Onion Stuffing, Suffolk Smoked Bacon, Cranberry and Sage Sauce and Chicken-Giblet Gravy Buttered New Potatoes Carrots with Herbs Warm Norfolk Blueberry and Cinnamon Muffin Cake with Struesel Topping and Vanilla Bean Ice-Cream

Vegetarian Option Char-Grilled Aubergine and Roasted Tomato Salad with Feta Cheese Mashed Black-Eyed Beancakes with Ginger Onion Marmalade

Warm Norfolk Blueberry and Cinnamon Muffin Cake with Struesel Topping and Vanilla Bean Ice-Cream Coffee and Something Sweet

Coffee and Something Sweet

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index © Norwich City Football Club


Delegate Info

11

Your key can be collected as follows:

For those delegates staying on campus, rooms are available after 1400 to allow time for cleaning and must be vacated by 1000 the day you are leaving. Unfortunately failure to check out on time will probably result in you being charged for an extra day by our Conference Services. Please remember also to leave your key either at the Registration Desk or the UEA Conference Office otherwise you could be charged for a replacement.

Sunday 2 September 1700–1930 – Conference Registration Desk in the Lower Common Room, Union House 1930–2100 – Broadview Lodge Reception. After 2100 – UEA Security Lodge Monday 3 to Thursday 6 September Conference Registration Desk in the Lower Common Room, Union House

© University of East Anglia

Sponsors

Delegate Info

Accommodation

Welcome

UEA INFORMATION

Access and facilities Programme

The University of East Anglia is delighted to be working with DisabledGo. We warmly welcome disabled people to UEA, whether for study, work or for occasional events and work consistently and continually to improve access to our facilities and services.

The Union Pub and Blue Bar

The Hive

Union Food Outlet

Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts

Lecture Theatre Building

Broadview Lodge

Nelson Court

Sportspark

✔ ✔

✔ ✔

Notes | Index

The Lower Common Room (LCR)

Abstracts | Poster

Abstracts | Oral

See the facilities for each area in the table below:


12

Delegate Info

TRAVEL TO AND FROM NORWICH CITY CENTRE Welcome

See Norwich map on p. 128 By Bus: use 25/35 bus routes

By Taxi

25: University to the Rail Station Via Unthank Road & City Centre

ABC Taxis – 01603 666333

Delegate Info

35: University to the Rail Station Via Earlham Road and City Centre The 25 and 35 buses run regularly from Norwich railway station, via Norwich city centre (Castle Meadow and St Stephens Street) and then to the University campus. At peak times they run every 8 mins.

Sponsors

Once on the University campus, alight at the first stop (opposite the main car park). A oneway ticket costs £2.40 and a return (called a ‘two trip ticket’) costs £4.00 Bus timetables for buses 25 and 35 can be viewed here:

Programme

http://tiny.cc/zr3sew (or use QR code below) Bus and coach enquiries (traveline): 0871 200 2233.

Abstracts | Oral weblink for timetables

Five Star Taxis – 01603 455555 A2B Taxis – 01603 613613 Nortax Taxi – 01603 503333 Goldstar – 01603 700700

Handy tips for travelling in Norwich during the conference: Conference dinner – Alight at Morrisons supermarket and cross the road to Norwich City Football Club Norwich restaurants – Alight at Castle Meadow or St. Stephens

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index


Delegate Info

13

On the first floor at walkway level in the main catering building in The Square, The Blend is a relaxed coffee and snack bar. They offer a comfortable and spacious seating area where you can enjoy hot breakfast items, sandwiches, baked items and soup for lunch. A wide selection of coffees, teas and cold drinks are also on offer. Sandwiches are freshly made every day by their dedicated production team. Open 0830-1700 Monday to Friday.

UEA Restaurants and Cafés

18 on the campus map

There are a variety of restaurants/cafes on campus.

Modern Life Café at the Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts 7 on the campus map http://www.scva.org.uk/planyourvisit/ modernlifecafe/

Café Direct Visit the Fairtrade coffee shop, Café Direct, located at the centre of the University campus on The Street. With its stylish interior design and outside seating area, Café Direct is the perfect place to meet friends and enjoy a wide range of Fairtrade coffees, cakes, freshly prepared baguettes and home-made soup. Open 0800-1800 Monday to Friday and 09001500 Saturday to Sunday.

The café is open from 0900–2000 every day and is situated at the west end of the Gallery offering a wonderful outlook through Norman Foster’s giant window onto the Modern Sculpture Garden.

Restaurant

Sportscafé at The Sportspark

Campus Facilities

33 on the campus map

The campus at UEA has several shops including a newsagent, Post Office, supermarket, Waterstones bookshop, Student Union travel plus Barclays and Nat West banks together with several cash points. There is also a health/dental centre and two launderettes.

The café is open from 0800–2200 Monday to Thursday; 0800–2100 Friday to Saturday and 0800–2130 Sunday. You can get anything from just a cup of coffee to a 3 course bistro style meal.

Zest

INTO on the Campus map. Open for lunch and dinner Monday to Friday and lunch only at weekends.

Delegate Info

• Monday ice-breaker (hot fork buffet, together with wine and soft drinks plus live music) • Tuesday poster session and public lecture (selection of snacks, together with wine and soft drinks) • Teas/coffees on Monday am, Monday pm, Tuesday am, Tuesday pm, Wednesday am and Thursday am • Finger buffet lunches on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday

Sponsors

16 on the campus map

Programme

Your registration fee includes:

Abstracts | Oral

The Blend

Abstracts | Poster

Conference Refreshments

Welcome

MEALS AND REFRESHMENTS

Zest is a bright and modern self service restaurant. Located in the main catering building in The Square, it offers a fast and convenient way to eat a hot meal. Open 0730-1500 and 1700-2000 Monday to Friday and 1030-1630 Saturday and Sunday

Notes | Index

16 on the campus map


14

Delegate Info

Welcome

NORWICH INFORMATION Norwich Bar and Restaurant Offers

Delegate Info

website

The Bicycle Shop We do wine, beer, food, tea, coffee, cake, music, poetry . . .we don’t do bikes. Sponsors

Open 10am until midnight most days Mains: from £7.50 to £9.50. Tapas served from 6pm, average cost of dish £4.00 Offer: Bottle of house wine reduced from £16 to £10 with any two main courses.

Programme

17, St. Benedicts Street, NR2 4PE. Tel: 01603 625777 www.thebicycleshopcafe.com

offer

Loch Fyne, A popular venue for fresh seafood. Offer: 20% off (with QR code) 30-32 St Giles Street, NR2 1LL Tel: 01603 723450 www.lochfyne-restaurants.com Opening hours: Mon to Fri: 12pm – 9.30pm Sat: 10.30am – 10:30pm Sun:10.30am –9.30pm Offer valid between 2nd and 7th September 2012 with this QR code. Available every day except Saturday after 5pm. Discount applies to food from the à la carte menu and daily specials only and excludes all other promotions and discounts, set menus and special events. Offer excludes lunch and Fyne dine set menu. Discount available for a maximum of six diners per table.

Abstracts | Oral

The Waffle House Offer: 10% discount.

website

Mains around £5–£10 with sweet and savoury options.

Abstracts | Poster

39, St. Giles Street NR2 1JN Tel: 01603 612790

Oasis Indian Restaurant

www.wafflehouse.co.uk

Offer: 10% discount.

website

with good value for good food, Open Sunday evening and seats 200. Mains including drinks, around £11-£20.

Café Rouge Notes | Index

131–-139, Queens Road, NR1 3PN Tel: 01603 305030

French chain restaurant Offer: 20% discount. 29, Exchange Street, NR2 1DP Tel: 01603624230 www.caferouge.co.uk

website

www.oasisindianrestaurant.co.uk

PLEASE TAKE THIS BOOKLET TO RESTAURANT/CAFÉ TO RECEIVE DISCOUNT


Norwich Restaurants 16 Take 5 

City Centre

2 Baby Buddha Teahouse 

139, Ber Street, NR1 3EY | 01603 490889 | www.babybuddha-teahouse.co.uk | Cantonese

17 Torero 

19, Fye Bridge Street, NR3 1LJ | 01603 621825 | Spanish

18 The Vine Thai Restaurant 

3 The Bicycle Shop  Discount on wine with food  17, St. Benedicts Street, NR2 4PE | 01603 625777 | www.thebicycleshopcafe.com | Café bar and food (inc. Tapas) | Discount on wine with food

4 Café Rouge 

20% discount 29, Exchange Street, NR2 1DP | 01603 624230 | www.caferouge.co.uk | French

5 Clipper 

7, Dove Street, NR2 1DE | 01603 627362 | www.vinethai.co.uk | Thai food & English ales

19 Thai on the River 

Riverside, NR1 1EE | 01603 767800 | www.thaiontheriver.com | Thai food

20 Three Ways 

4a, Brigg Street, NR2 1QN | 01603 622814 | www.threewaysrestaurant.com | Lebanese

21 Trattoria Rustica 

38-40, St. Benedicts Street, NR2 4AQ | 01603 613444 | www.theclipper.org | Indian

20, Princess Street, NR3 1AE | 01603 621043 | www.trattoriarustica.com | Italian

6 Farmer Browns 

22 Waffle House 

7 Frank’s Bar 

23 Sugar Hut 

4, Opie Street, NR1 3DN | 01603 766755 | www.leelathaicuisine.co.uk/thesugarhut | Thai

52, St. Giles Street, NR2 1LW | 01603 617199 | www.italianostra.co.uk | Italian

Outside the City Centre

9 Loch Fyne 

20% discount 30-32, St Giles Street, NR2 1LL | 01603 723450 | www.lochfyne-restaurants.com/restaurants/norwich | Seafood

10 Oasis 

10% discount 131-139 Queens Road, NR1 3PN | 01603 305030 | www.oasisindianrestaurant.co.uk | Indian |

11 Pinocchio’s 

11, St. Benedicts Street, NR2 4PE | 01603 613318 | www.pinocchiosrestaurant.net | Italian

12 Pizza Express – St Benedicts 

15, St. Benedicts Street, NR2 4PE | 01603 622157 | www.pizzaexpress.com | Pizza and pasta

15 Shiki 

50, Earlham Road, NR2 3DE | 01603 624682 | www.theblackhorsenorwich.co.uk | Pub and food

25 The Cellar House 

2, Eaton Street, Eaton, NR4 7AB | 01603 454511 | www.thecellarhouse.com | Pub and food

26 Garden House 

1, Pembroke Road, NR2 3HD | 01603 628059 | www.gardenhousepub.co.uk | Pub and food

27 The Mulberry 

111, Unthank Road, NR2 2PE | 01603 630930 | www.mymulberry.co.uk | Pub and food

28 Rose Tavern 

88 Rupert Street, NR2 2AT | 01603 612110 | www.rosetavern.co.uk | Pub and food

13 Pizza Express – Forum 

The Old Fire Station Stables, Guildhall Hill, NR2 1JD | 01603 765562 | www.pulsecafebar.co.uk | Vegetarian

24 The Black Horse 

V

Abstracts | Oral

8 Italia Nostra 

29 The Unthank Arms 

149, Newmarket Street, NR2 2DR | 01603 631557 | www.theunthankarms.com | Pub and food

30 The Workshop 

Abstracts | Poster

19, Bedford Street, NR2 1AR | 01603 618902 | www.franksbar.co.uk | Café bar and food

Programme

10% discount 39, St. Giles Street, NR2 1JN | 01603 612790 | www.wafflehouse.co.uk | Belgian waffles

22, Tombland, NR3 1RF | 01603 628542 | www. farmerbrowns.co.uk | Norfolk food / fine dining

14 The Pulse Café Bar  

Sponsors

Unit 3c Wherry Road, Riverside, NR1 1WX | 01603 666165 | www.artorios.com | Greek/Mediterranean

Delegate Info

17, Tombland, NR3 1HF | 01603 614210 | Café, bar & gallery

1 Artorio’s Mediterranean Taverna 

The Forum, NR2 1TF | 01603 662234 | www. pizzaexpress.com | Pizza and pasta

15

Welcome

Delegate Info

53, Earlham Road, NR2 3AD | 01603 615853 | Café bar and food Notes | Index

6, Tombland ,NR3 1HE | 01603 619262 | www.shikirestaurant.co.uk | Japanese

SEE MAP ON PAGE 127


16

Sponsors

CONFERENCE EXHIBITORS AND SPONSORS Welcome

The following companies are supporting the conference by exhibiting at the mini-expo or by sponsoring proceedings:

Delegate Info

RS Aqua RS Aqua are the headline sponsors of Challenger 2012.

Sponsors

Suppliers of oceanographic instrumentation, sensors and accessories to the research and academic markets. Product range includes Current Meters, ADCPs, Wave Radars, Wave Buoys, Fluorometers, Methane Detectors, CO2 Monitors, Drifters, Profilers, CTDs, Buoyancy, Housings, Mooring Markers, Location Beacons and much more.

Programme

Representing: Aanderaa, Contros, Datawell, Fiomarine, MetOcean, Nautilus Marine, SAIV, Rosemount, Rowe Technologies, Turner Designs.

Valeport

Abstracts | Oral

Valeport are the UK’s leading manufacturer of Oceano­graphic and Hydrographic instrumentation which include the world’s most accurate Sound Velocity Probes / Sensors, our new Altimeter range, new Radar Level Sensor, Current Meters, Tide Gauges, Wave Recorders, CTD’s, Multi-Parameter CTD’s and GPS Echo Sounders. Engineered solutions to your monitoring challenge.

Abstracts | Poster

Planet Ocean Located in central southern England, Planet Ocean Ltd specialises in the provision of high quality, marine scientific instruments for research, survey and operations support.

Notes | Index

Planet Ocean represents some of the world’s foremost manufacturers of oceanographic, hydrographic & meteorological equipment covering a wide spectrum of disciplines including; acoustic data modems, wave height and direction buoys, seabed tide and wave recorders, turbidity systems, echo

sounders, data buoys for meteorology, and oceanography, flow cytometers, plankton and ice keel samplers, precision thermometry and multi parameter systems, nitrate sensors, phosphate sensors, radiometers, irradiance sensors, fluorometers, ocean observatories, oil spill surface tracking buoys, asset trackers and locators. Representing: ASL Environmental Sciences. Analite, AXYS Technologies, Elkins Oceanic Services, DSPComm, Instrument Concepts, Fluid Imaging Technology, ROMOR, Satlantic, SiS, Star-Oddi, Surrey Satellite Technology, Wet Labs, XEOS. Plant Ocean is also engaged in the design and manufacture of bespoke systems particularly Met Mast, GPS, and buoy based systems using radio, satellite or GPRS telemetry.

OSIL OSIL are the leading suppliers of environmental measurement products and services relating to marine, freshwater and meteorological applications in the UK. We specialise in instrumentation for the collection of environmental data including Multiparameter Sondes, CTD’s, SV’s, Sediment Corers, Data Platforms & ROVs, along with laboratory instruments such as Salinometers.

IMarEST The Institute of Marine Engineering Science and Technology is the leading professional membership body for the global marine community with 50 branches worldwide. Activities include Professional Membership; Corporate Membership (Marine Partners); policy consultations, advocacy and expert forums.   The IMarEST is an established publisher of books, magazines and technical journals since 1889; organiser of technical conferences and a provider of accreditation and approval of company training and academic courses.


Gardline

In addition to the marine technology products focused on acoustic positioning and actuated releases, EdgeTech designs and develops a variety of standard and engineered-to-order underwater sonar systems including side scan sonar, sub-bottom profilers, bathymetric, combined and modular systems. These systems are available in a range of configurations for towed, deep towed, AUV, ROV, ROTV and custom platforms providing clearly superior underwater imaging.

Gardline is the world’s largest independently owned marine survey contractor specialising in geophysical, hydrographic, environmental, oceanographic and geotechnical surveys for the offshore market. Operating for over 40 years from its headquarters in Great Yarmouth, the company has offices throughout the UK and in the USA, South America, Arabian Gulf, Australia and South East Asia.

CTG Chelsea Technologies Group specialises in the production of a range of innovative multi-parameter sensors and systems for the monitoring of the physical, optical and biological oceanographic environment. Parameters include temperature, conductivity, depth, chlorophyll, turbidity, transmission, fluorescence and

EdgeTech designs, manufactures and sells highly advanced and reliable underwater marine technology products. These products include USBL acoustic tracking and positioning systems, transponder beacons, deep sea acoustic releases, shallow water and long life acoustic releases, motion reference units (MRU), underwater acoustic command and control systems and custom-engineered acoustic products.  (These products were previously branded as ORE Offshore but now carry the EdgeTech name.)

SUT The Society for Underwater Technology is a multidisciplinary learned society that brings together organisations and individuals with a common interest in underwater technology, ocean science and offshore engineering. SUT was founded in 1966 and has members from around 40 countries, including engineers, scientists, other professionals and students working in these areas.

Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors

EdgeTech

Programme

The two latest additions to the Nortek range, are the Scour Monitor and the Vectrino II. The Scour Monitor was originally designed to measure scour around offshore wind turbines, but it can also be used on Jack-up rigs, railway bridge piers and harbour walls. It works by continually measuring ranges to four points on the seabed. These data can either be transmitted in real-time or recorded internally. The other new instrument, is our laboratory Vectrino II Profiling Velocimeter . This outputs 3D velocity profile data with a resolution of 1mm over a 3cm range. Measuring frequencies up to 100 Hz are available.

Abstracts | Oral

Nortek is a Norwegian manufacturer of acoustic Doppler 3D current meters (Max. 6000m), profilers and wave monitoring instrumentation. Their sea bed mounted AWAC, combined directional wave measurement and current profiler, has proven to be a market leading instrument because it directly measures changes in the sea-surface,  providing scientists with a time series data set. It is therefore ideal for wind induced wave studies. 

bioluminescence. Products include the newly launched low cost Lux family of miniature digital fluorimeters and the high performance Fast Repetition Rate Fluorimeter systems (recently launched ‘FASTOcean’ 3 wavelength in-situ sensor) together with a full range of underwater acoustics sensors and towed vehicle systems. Chelsea is also the leading supplier of a range of in-situ sensors optimised for monitoring crude and refined oil from coastal margins to deep ocean. Originally designed for military use these highly reliable, robust, high sensitivity fluorimeters are in use around the world.

Abstracts | Poster

Nortek

17

Notes | Index

Sponsors


18

Sponsors

Welcome Delegate Info

Rural Broadband

RBR

Rural Broadband supply Hi Speed mobile broadband systems using 3G and satellite. Services suitable for marine and inland waterways as well as office locations for temporary or permanent setup.

RBR design and build rugged submersible data recording instruments for oceanography, hydrography and coastal studies; including CTDs, multi-parameters, thermistor chains and tide & wave recorders. The latest products to be introduced include the RBRvirtuoso extreme resolution bottom pressure recorder, RBRduo twin channel and RBRconcerto multi-channel instruments. As well as the usual high accuracy, all feature true USB download, extended memory and battery capacity and integral desiccant placement. For data transmission RBR offer their inductive mooring line modem for reliable communication through the water and beyond.

Their products include WiBE 3G, Tooway and Avanti satellite broadband.

Geomatrix Earth Science Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

Geomatrix Earth Science are agents for a number of geophysical and ocean science instrument manufacturers. Amongst their portfolio they are agents for Geometrics, manufacturers of magnetometers and seismographs and Falmouth Scientific, manufacturers of a range of current, wave and tide meters, the innovative high resolution Bubble Pulser seismic system and a light weight side scan sonar system. Deep Ocean Engineering completes their marine science line-up, who manufacture a diverse range of inspection ROV’s to suit every application. Systems can be supplied on a sale or rental basis and back up by their electronic engineering staff.

International Ocean Systems International Ocean Systems is a UK-based magazine with a bi-monthly circulation in excess of 10,000 worldwide. It serves the commercial oceanography market covering the fields of ocean data gathering, underwater surveying, and instrumentation. Readers are predominantly upper management, designers/ engineers and scientists.

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index


Sponsors

19

Entrance for unloading and to/from accommodation

POSTERS

Exit to ‘The Square’

1

3

11 10

4

9 8

5 6 7

Lift to ‘The Street’

1 2 3 4 5 6

TBC RBR Europe Geomatrix Chelsea Technology Group Gardline Nortek

7 8 9 10 11 12

Edgetech Valeport RS Aqua Planet Ocean OSIL Rural Computing

Notes | Index

Key to Exhibitors

Abstracts | Poster

Registration Desk

To Lecture theatre

Abstracts | Oral

POSTERS

Programme

2

12

CATERING & POSTERS

Sponsors

Delegate Info

LCR and ‘THE HIVE’

Welcome

PLAN OF EXHIBITION SPACE


20

Programme

FULL PROGRAMME Welcome

LECTURE THEATRE 1

LECTURE THEATRE 2

Monday 3 September 2012 Delegate Info

09:00–09:10 09:10–09:55

Welcome Address : Vice Chancellor, University of East Anglia Keynote : Jorge Sarmiento, Princeton University “A Biogeochemical Paradigm Shift” Ocean Dynamics and Climate Biogeochemical Cycles and Changing Seas Chair : Hugh Venables Chair : Corinne Le Quéré

10:00–10:15 Matthew Donnelly, University of Liverpool

Sponsors Programme

The Weddell Gateway: Hydrographic Variability and an Inverse Approach to Determining Volume Transport in the Lazarev Sea 10:15–10:30 Peter Brown, University of East Anglia Natural and Anthropogenic Carbon in Antarctic Bottom Water: Sequestration, Accumulation and Export From the Weddell Gyre to the Global Ocean 10:30–10:45 Yueng Djern Lenn, Bangor University Can observed Ekman Current Spirals match Ekman’s Classic Theory? 10:45–11:00 Sunke Schmidtko, University of East Anglia Temporal Evolution and Variability of the Antarctic Slope Front in Boreal Summer 2012 GENTOO project 11:00–11:15 Mike Meredith, British Antarctic Survey

Spatial and Temporal Changes in the Freshwater Inputs to the Ocean at the West Antarctic Peninsula 11:15–11:45

Simeon Hill, British Antarctic Survey Projecting Climate Effects on the Growth Habitat of Antarctic Krill Gayatri Dudeja, NOC Southampton Detection of Global Warming Using Satellite Records of Ocean Productivity Oliver Andrews, University of East Anglia Detecting an Anthropogenic Influence on Recent Trends in Oceanic Oxygen Using an Optimal Fingerprinting Method Bastien Queste, University of East Anglia Spatial Extent and Historical Context of North Sea Oxygen Depletion in August 2010

COFFEE BREAK – LOWER COMMON ROOM

Abstracts | Oral

Ocean Dynamics and Climate Chair : Hugh Venables 11:45–12:00 Emily Venables, British Antarctic Survey

Turbulence and Mixing Beneath Antarctic Ice Shelves 12:00–12:15 Jan Zika, University of Southampton

Abstracts | Poster

The Southern Ocean Overturning: Localised Control of a Global Juncture 12:15–12:30 Neill Mackay, University of East Anglia Diapycnal Diffusivity in Drake Passage 12:30–12:45 Martin Wadley, University of East Anglia Isopycnal Mixing in the Southern Ocean 12:45–13:00 Jennifer Graham, University of East Anglia

Autumn Freshening Observed on the Antarctic Continental Shelf and Slope Notes | Index

13:00–14:00

Stephanie Henson, NOC Southampton Global Warming Impact on Phytoplankton Seasonal Cycles

Biogeochemical Cycles and Changing Seas Chair : Corinne Le Quéré Jonathan Lauderdale, University of Liverpool The Role of Southern Ocean Ventilation in Partitioning of the Global Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Change Peter Landschützer, University of East Anglia Variability of the North Atlantic Ocean Carbon Dioxide Sink Noelia Fajar, IIM–CSIC, Spain Trends in Anthropogenic CO2 Along the 24.5°N Karen Edwards, Met Office A 14–Year Biogeochemical Reanalysis With Ocean Colour Data Assimilation Michael Steinke, University of Essex Effect of Elevated pCO2 on the Production of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Dimethylsulfide (DMS) in Two Species of Ulva (Chlorophyceae)

LUNCH – LOWER COMMON ROOM


21

Welcome

Programme

15:00–15:15 David Munday, University of Oxford

On the Impact of Meso–Scale Ocean Eddies on Southern Ocean Circulation 15:15–15:30 Sophie–Berenice Wilmes, Bangor University The Influence of Polar Tides on Ice Sheet Dynamics in the Past, Present and Future 15:30–15:45 Grant Bigg, University of Sheffield Recent Increases in North Atlantic Icebergs Caused by Greenland Calving 15:45–16:00 Tom Rippeth, Bangor University Shear–Driven Mixing at the Base of the Upper Ocean Mixed Layer

Mark Moore, University of Southampton Oceanic Nutrient Limitation: Patterns and Potential for Change Raffaella Nobili, University of East Anglia & SAHFOS Quantifying the Effect of Phytoplankton N:P Ratio on Mesozooplankton Physiology

The Arctic Ocean in Summer: a Quasi–Synoptic Inverse Estimate of Boundary Fluxes and Water Mass Transformation 16:45–17:00 Fred Wobus, University of Plymouth An Idealised Modelling Study of an Arctic Dense Water Cascade Piercing the Atlantic Layer 17:00–17:15 Alan Jamieson, University of Cambridge Plumes : From the laboratory to the Southern Ocean 17:15–17:30 Marie Porter, Scottish Association for Marine

Science Do Mixed Layer Temperatures in the Ocean Control the Weather on the Greenland Ice Sheet? 17:30–17:45 Edward Steele, University of Plymouth Cooling of the West Spitsbergen Current: Turbulence Measurements West of Svalbard 17:45–18:00 Barbara Berx, Marine Scotland Science

Circulation in the Faroe–Shetland Channel – a Paradigm Shift?

Dan Mayor, University of Aberdeen Carbon Cycling in Contrasting Marine Sediments: The Effects of Resource Quantity and Quality Corinne Le Quéré, Tyndall Centre Grazing Control on Southern Ocean Biomass Nick Rogan, University of Liverpool Sources and Fluxes of Iron Into the Sub–Polar North Atlantic: Using Scale Analyses and Simple Modeling Studies to Resolve Data Observations Helen Smith, University of Southampton Phytoplankton Community Composition and Carbon Export in the Arctic and Southern Ocean Moritz Heinle, University of East Anglia The Effects of Environmental Conditions on Coccolithophores: An Integrated Laboratory and Modelling Study Christian Schlosser, NOC Southampton Iron Biogeochemistry in the (Sub–) Tropical Atlantic Ocean

Abstracts | Oral

16:30–16:45 Sheldon Bacon, NOC Southampton

Biogeochemical Cycles and Changing Seas Chair : Mark Moore

Programme

COFFEE BREAK – LOWER COMMON ROOM

Ocean Dynamics and Climate Chair : Hugh Venables

18:30–22:30

Toby Tyrrell, NOC Southampton The Role of Ocean Acidification on Coccolithophore Distributions in Polar and Temperate Seas Ute Schuster, University of East Anglia Atlantic and Arctic Air–Sea CO2 Fluxes, 1990–2009

Abstracts | Poster

16:00–16:30

Biogeochemical Cycles and Changing Seas Chair : Dorothee Bakker

Delegate Info

Keynote : David Righton, CEFAS Fish Behaving Madly: How Integrating Oceanography and Behaviour Can Help us Think Like a Fish Ocean Dynamics and Climate Chair : Elaine McDonagh

ICE BREAKER – THE HIVE/LOWER COMMON ROOM

Notes | Index

14:00–14:45

LECTURE THEATRE 2

Sponsors

LECTURE THEATRE 1


22

Programme

LECTURE THEATRE 1

LECTURE THEATRE 2

Welcome

Tuesday 4 September 2012 09:00–09:05 Housekeeping : Carol Robinson 09:05–09:50 Keynote : Ken Buessler, WHOI

Delegate Info

09:50–09:55

Controls On and Variability in Particle Export and Flux Attenuation in the Ocean’s Twilight Zone Presentation of the Challenger Medal 2012 Harry Bryden: President of the Challenger Society Ocean Dynamics and Climate Chair : Bee Berx

10:00–10:15 Ian Renfrew, University of East Anglia

Sponsors

‘Missing’ Polar Lows Enhance Deep–Water Formation in the Nordic Seas 10:15–10:30 Stuart Dalziel, University of Cambridge How Efficient Can Mixing Be?

10:30–10:45 Adrian Matthews, University of East Anglia

Programme

Diurnal and Intraseasonal Variability in the Equatorial Indian Ocean: Observations From Seaglider and the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign 10:45–11:00 Emma Boland, University of Cambridge The Formation of Non–Zonal Jets over Sloped Topography 11:00–11:15 David Marshall, University of Oxford Rossby Rip Currents

Abstracts | Oral

11:15–11:45 11:45–13:00

Emerging Technologies (Co–sponsored by IMarEst and SUT) Chair : Maria–Nefeli Tsaloglou Alexander Beaton, NOC Southampton Lab–on–a–Chip Analyser for In Situ Nitrate and Nitrite Determination in Natural Waters William Giraud, Geophysical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Toulouse Electrochemical Microsensors for in Situ Measurements of Dissolved Silicate in Marine Systems Hoi Ga Chan, CTG Ltd., University of Southampton A Description of How Recent Technological Advances Have Enhanced and Extended the Applications for Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometry James Bishop, University of California, Berkeley Autonomous Exploration of Sedimentation Dynamics in the California Current System Ettore Pedretti, Scottish Marine Institute Autonomous Platforms for High Latitude Marine Research: Sensors, Power and Comms

COFFEE BREAK – LOWER COMMON ROOM

Debate : Perspectives on Offshore Wind Power Chair : Naomi Vaughan Speakers : Carly McLachlan, Sian Limpenny, Rowena Langston, Paul Reynolds

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index


Programme

LECTURE THEATRE 1 13:00–14:00

LECTURE THEATRE 2

LECTURE THEATRE 1 17:00–18:00 18:00–19:00 19:00–20:00

Challenger Society Annual General Meeting DRINKS AND CANAPES – LOWER COMMON ROOM

Chair: Carol Robinson Public lecture : Elizabeth White, BBC Natural History Unit

Delegate Info

15:30–17:00

Poster session A Chair : Michael Steinke Poster session B Chair : Parv Suntharalingam

Welcome

LUNCH – LOWER COMMON ROOM

LOWER COMMON ROOM / THE HIVE Poster session to include refreshments mid–afternoon 14:00–15:30

23

LECTURE THEATRE 2

09:00–09:05 Housekeeping : Carol Robinson 09:05–09:50 Keynote : Phyllis Lam, MPI

10:15–10:30 Lesley Allison, University of Reading

Mechanisms and Impacts of Decadal-Scale Fluctuation Events in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation 10:30–10:45 Xiaoming Zhai, University of East Anglia On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation 10:45–11:00 Clare Johnson, SAMS

Wyville Thomson Ridge Overflow Water: A Persistent Water Mass in the Rockall Trough 11:00–11:15 Kate Stansfield, University of Southampton

Recent Warming in the Cayman Trough – New Observations of the Deep-Water Hydrography and Circulation 11:15–11:45

Michael Cunliffe, Marine Biological Association Bacterial Genomes Reveal New Insights into the Importance of Mixotrophy in the Marine Carbon Cycle Rob Green, University of East Anglia Mechanisms and Regulation of Iron and Manganese Uptake by Marine Bacteria – Genes, Genomes and Metagenomes Nichola Lacey, University of Aberdeen Supergiants in the Hadal Zone: First Record of Alicella gigantea (Amphipoda: Alicellidae) From Trench Depths in the Southern Hemisphere Amy Kirkham, University of East Anglia RNA Interference Gene Silencing to Understand Genes Involved in Diatom Nanopatterned Silica Shell Construction Jenny Pratscher, University of Warwick Making and Breaking of DMSP and DMS in Salt Marsh Sediments

COFFEE BREAK – LOWER COMMON ROOM

Coastal Physical Processes Chair : Jennifer Brown 11:45–12:00 Benjamin Maurer, University of Cambridge

Buoyancy-Driven Currents in Layered and Continuous Stratifications 12:00–12:15 Matthew Toberman, SAMS Horizontal Evolution of Tidally Modulated Buoyant Pumes as Observed With an AUV Based Microstructure Profiler

Biodiversity Chair : Thomas Mock Elizabeth Sargent, University of Southampton Novel Molecular Insights Into the Fate of N2 Fixed by Diazotrophic Plankton Joe Snow, NOC Southampton Nutrient Limitation on the Diazotrophic Growth of Trichodesmium: Linking Quantitative Proteomics to Intracellular Stoichiometry and Environmental Forcing

Programme

Time-Series of Freshwater Flux at 26N in the Atlantic Ocean

Abstracts | Oral

10:00–10:15 Elaine McDonagh, NOC Southampton

Biodiversity Chair : Thomas Mock

Abstracts | Poster

Microbial Nitrogen Cycling in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones Ocean Dynamics and Climate Chair : Hugh Venables

Notes | Index

LECTURE THEATRE 1

Sponsors

Wednesday 5 September 2012


24

Programme

LECTURE THEATRE 1 Welcome

12:15–12:30 Juliane Wihsgott, NOC Liverpool

Strain-Induced Shear Instability in Liverpool Bay

12:30–12:45 Matthew Palmer, NOC Liverpool

Delegate Info

Understanding Freshwater Pathways in Coastal Systems Using Ocean Gliders 12:45–13:00 Jo Hopkins, NOC Liverpool On-Shelf Transport of Slope Water Lenses Within the Celtic Sea Seasonal Pycnocline 13:00–14:00 14:00–17:00

LECTURE THEATRE 2 Andrew Toseland, University of East Anglia Comparative Metatranscriptome Analysis of Eukaryotic Phytoplankton Communities From Distinct Latitudinal Temperature Zones Alex Poulton, NOC Southampton The Influence of Coccolithophore Diversity on Pelagic Calcite Production and Export Barbara Lyon, University of East Anglia Unravelling DMSP Pathway Genes

LUNCH – LOWER COMMON ROOM

Activities / excursions Possibilities include :

Sponsors

• An evening ghost walk around Norwich • A boat trip through Norwich along the River Yare and out to Surlingham Broad • A session on the climbing wall at the UEA Sportspark • A fun five-a-side football mini–tournament • A tour of the BBSRC Genome Analysis Centre (TGAC) in Norwich • An evening pub crawl

Thursday 6 September 2012 LECTURE THEATRE 1

LECTURE THEATRE 2

09:00–09:05 Housekeeping : Carol Robinson 09:05–09:50 Keynote : Katrin Rehdanz, Kiel Institute

Programme

Valuing the Ocean in the Context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive Challenges and Tools for Managing Marine and Coastal Resources Chair : Abigail McQuatters–Gollop

10:00–10:15 Gordon Watson, University of Portsmouth

Abstracts | Oral

Does Marine Conservation Work? Evaluating Management Stratagies for Bait Collection. 10:15–10:30 Tim O’Higgins, SAMS

Eutrophication and the Ecosystem Approach

10:30–10:45 Suzanne Painting, Cefas

Abstracts | Poster

Development of Indicators of Ecosystem Functioning for a Temperate Shelf Sea 10:45–11:00 Jacqueline Tweddle, NAFC Marine Centre

Using Marine Spatial Planning as a Tool to Manage Non–Native Species in the Shetland Islands 11:00–11:15 Julie Bremner, Cefas How to Incorporate Trophic Propagation Into Predictions of Marine Ecological Impacts

Coastal Physical Processes Chair : Rory O’Hara Murray Martyn Roberts, Bangor University Springs–Neaps Patterns in Seabed Irradiance: An Important Control on the Depth Distribution Veerabhadrasarma Yellepeddi, Sultan Qaboos University Long–Term Changes in Sea Surface Temperature and Response of the Local Weather and Marine Environment Around Oman Suzanna Jackson, Bangor University Interactions Between Turbulence and Suspended Particulate Matter in the River Estuary Transition Zone of a Macrotidal Estuary David Todd, NOC Liverpool Analysis and Modelling of Turbulence–Controlled Flocculation in a Macro–Tidal Estuary Laurent Amoudry, NOC Liverpool What is the Veracity of Suspended Sediments Measured with Instrumented Frames and Can Modelling Help?

Notes | Index


Programme

11:45–12:00 Eric Achterberg, University of Southampton

Natural Iron Fertilisation by the EyjafjallajöKull Volcanic Eruption 12:00–12:15 Rosie Chance, University of East Anglia Carcass Island: First Results of Time Series Aerosol Sampling in the Southern Atlantic 12:15–12:30 Walter Geibert, University of Edinburgh Sediment–Water Fluxes and Quantification of Ocean Mixing With Radium Isotopes: Applications During GEOTRACES and Beyond 12:30–12:45 Victoire Rerolle, University of Southampton Carbonate Chemistry Dynamics in Surface Sea Water of Nothwestern European Shelf Seas. 12:45–13:00 Chris Measures, University of Hawaii

Global Trace Element Distributions, How they Shape our View of Oceanic Processes

Welcome

Chris Walker–Brown, University of East Anglia Investigating the Upwelling and Bloom Dynamics of the Galician North Atlantic Shelf using Seagliders Fiona Preston–Whyte, University of Cape Town How Does Phytoplankton Respond to Iron Fertilization in Different Areas of the Southern Ocean?

Keynote : Helen Johnson, University of Oxford The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: The Importance of the Western Boundary UK SCOR Karen Heywood, University of East Anglia Marine Geochemistry: A Tribute to Professor Dennis Burton Chair : Dani Schmidt

15:15–15:30 Stathys Papadimitriou, Bangor University

Carbonate Minerals in Polar Oceans: The Case of Ikaite in Sea Ice

15:30–15:45 Robyn Tuerena, University of Edinburgh

UK GEOTRACES: Coupled Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes Trace Nitrate Movement Within South Atlantic Water Masses (40°S) 15:45–16:00 Stan van den Berg, Liverpool University Competition Between Metals for Complexing Ligands in Seawater 16:00–16:15 Peter Williams, Bangor University An Ocean Carbon Budget Without Expletives! 16:15–16:30 Neil Wyatt, Plymouth University

The Distribution of Dissolved Zinc in the South Atlantic as Part of the UK GEOTRACES Programme 16:30–16:45 Myriam Lambelet, Imperial College London

Neodymium Isotopic Composition and Concentration in Equatorial to North Atlantic Seawater 19:30–01:00 Conference Dinner

Programme

LUNCH – LOWER COMMON ROOM

Biophysical Interactions Chair : Geraint Tarling Maria Huete–Ortega, University of Essex The Size Abundance Distribution of Phytoplankton in the Oligotrophic Atlantic Ocean is Ultimately Determined by the Rate of Nutrient Supply and its Use by Phytoplankton Sam Lew, NOC Southampton Modelling the Photoheterotrophy of the Bacterioplankton That Dominate Oceanic Oligotrophic Ecosystems Jack Phelps, NOC Liverpool Modelling Larval Migration in the Irish Sea Damien Guihen, British Antarctic Survey Developing Glider Techniques for Estimating Krill Biomass Stuart Daines, University of Exeter Environmental Selection for Phytoplankton Traits and Stoichiometry in an Ecosystem Model With Sub–Cellular Resource Allocation Jonathan Sharples, University of Liverpool The Turbulent Foundations of Shelf Sea Primary Production

Abstracts | Oral

14:45–15:00

Peter Miller, Plymouth Marine Laboratory Oceanic Front Maps Combine Thermal and Colour Features to Explore Biophysical Interactions John Taylor, University of Cambridge Turbulence, Submesoscales, and Phytoplankton Blooms Jaimie Cross, Plymouth University Dispersal of Phytoplankton Populations in Response to Enhanced Turbulent Mixing in Shelf Seas

Abstracts | Poster

13:00–14:00 14:00–14:45

Biophysical Interactions Chair : Stephanie Henson

Delegate Info

COFFEE BREAK – LOWER COMMON ROOM

Marine Geochemistry: A Tribute to Professor Dennis Burton Chair : Peter Statham

Notes | Index

11:15–11:45

LECTURE THEATRE 2

Sponsors

LECTURE THEATRE 1

25


26

Programme

CHALLENGER SOCIETY AGM Welcome

The Annual General Meeting of the Challenger Society for Marine Science will be held at 17:00 on Tuesday 4 September in Lecture Theatre 1. All members are encouraged to attend to hear the activities members of Council have organised in 2011, in order to achieve the Society’s objectives to :

Delegate Info

• advance the study and application of marine science through research and education • encourage two way collaboration between the marine science research base and industry/commerce • contribute to public debate on the development of marine science • hold, at regular intervals, scientific meetings for the discussion of all aspects of marine science

Sponsors

• set up specialist groups as required in different disciplines to provide a forum for deeper technical discussions • disseminate knowledge of marine science to the public with a view to encouraging a wider interest in the study of the seas and an awareness of the need for their proper management

Programme

• publish, among other things, news of the activities of the Society and of the world of marine science; material intended to present new activities and developments in a way to bring them to public attention; such other papers as may from time to time be deemed appropriate to provide or arrange, in suitable cases, financial assistance to students in marine science

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index


Programme

27

Welcome

PUBLIC LECTURE The public lecture will be given by Dr Elizabeth White in Lecture Theatre 1 at 1900 on Tuesday 4 September.

Š Doctor Elizabeth White

Sponsors

A keen photographer and SCUBA diver, Elizabeth has worked all over the world, including producing a number of films for television. In 2010 she won the Best Short Film award for her film, The Coral Gardener, at the Wildscreen Wildlife Film Festival.

Delegate Info

Elizabeth White is a Producer/Director at the BBC Natural History Unit in Bristol. She began her career as a zoologist, graduating with a BSc and PhD in animal behaviour from the University of Bristol in 2003. While writing her thesis she worked part-time on the series Blue Planet and joined the BBC in 2004.

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster

In this presentation she will take us behind the scenes to describe how and why the series was made, the training the team had to undergo before being deployed to the furthest corners of the planet, the challenges they faced, and how they captured the iconic character of this last great wilderness.

Notes | Index

Elizabeth worked on many of the ice whale and marine shoots as well as documenting the lives of polar people, such as the Canadian Inuit. One of her favourite moments was visiting a real igloo. In filming the series, she travelled twice to the Antarctic Peninsula by yacht and spent 5 months working across the Arctic, from Barrow in the Northern tip of Alaska, to the White Sea in Russia. A lot of this time was spent working on the frozen sea ice - and sometimes diving beneath it.

Programme

From 2007-2011 she worked as a Director on the BBC TV series, Frozen Planet. This sevenpart series, narrated by Sir David Attenborough, is a portrait of our polar regions and the last chance to explore them before they change forever.


28

Programme

Welcome

PANEL DEBATE: Perspectives on offshore wind power

Delegate Info

How many wind turbines are already in operation in the waters around Norfolk? How many more are planned? What are the effects on benthic marine life? How are the bird populations, that visit the Norfolk coast and countryside as part of their annual migrations, affected by large wind farms? Do offshore wind farms have beneficial impacts on fish stocks? How is offshore wind perceived by the public? What motivations and beliefs underlie public attitudes to marine renewable energies? The debate will consist of an introduction followed by four speakers, with a broad range of expertise including industry, public perceptions, marine and bird life impacts. Each speaker will give a brief presentation highlighting key issues relating to offshore wind energy in East Anglia, thus providing stimulus for an interesting and engaging question and answer session.

Sponsors

Public perceptions Dr Carly McLachlan

Programme

Carly is a Lecturer in climate change and project management at the University of Manchester. She is the Associate Director of Tyndall Manchester and co-leads the national Tyndall Centre Energy Theme.

Abstracts | Oral

Marine impacts Dr Sian Limpenny Sian is the Marine Renewable Energy Programme Director at CEFAS.

Impacts on birds Dr Rowena Langston Rowena is a principal conservation scientist with the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB), and has worked in the field of conservation science for over 20 years. She is a scientific adviser, notably relating to study methods and assessment of environmental effects of renewable energy, especially offshore wind.

Industry perspective Mr Paul Reynolds

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Paul is Offshore Wind Development Manager at RenewableUK, the trade and professional body for the UK wind and marine renewables industries. He provides RenewableUK input into DECC’s Cost Reduction Taskforce and sat on Defra’s High Level Advisory Group for the Habitats and Wild Birds Directive Review.

© VISIT NORFOLK


Programme

29

Date/Time

Speaker

Title/Abstract

1

Monday 3 September, 0910

Jorge Sarmiento (Princeton University)

A biogeochemical paradigm shift

2

Monday 3 September, 1400

David Righton (CEFAS)

Fish behaving madly: how integrating oceanography and behaviour can help us think like a fish

3

Tuesday 4 September, 0905

Ken Buessler (WHOI)

Controls on and variability in particle export and flux attenuation in the ocean’s twilight zone

4

Wednesday 5 September, 0905

Phyllis Lam (MPI)

Microbial nitrogen cycling in oceanic oxygen minimum zones

5

Thursday 6 September, 0905

Katrin Rehdanz (Kiel Institute)

Valuing the Ocean in the Context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

6

Thursday 6 September, 1400

Helen Johnson (University of Oxford)

The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: The importance of the western boundary

Controls On and Variability in Particle Export and Flux Attenuation in the Ocean’s Twilight Zone

The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation: The Importance of the Western Boundary

Ken O. Buesseler WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION

Helen Johnson, David Marshall, Helen Pillar, Xiaoming Zhai, Matthew Thomas

kbuesseler@whoi.edu

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster

The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is a fundamental part of the climate system. Characterized by the northward transport of warm water in the surface Atlantic, with a compensating southward transport of colder water at depth, it carries approximately 1 PW of heat northward and keeps western Europe several degrees warmer than the average for our latitude. Coupled climate models suggest that the MOC may weaken as a result of anthropogenic global warming, yet what sets its strength is still a matter of debate. Traditionally, the MOC is viewed as a gravity current, driven by the meridional density difference. Here we show, analytically and in an idealized numerical model, that it is in fact the meridional density gradient right on the western boundary that is key to determining changes in the strength and structure of the MOC. This is consistent with what we might expect from classical ocean circulation theory; we also show in an eddypermitting coupled climate model that Sverdrup balance is a good approximation in the subtropical North Atlantic, and hence that, in the absence of significant changes in wind, changes in the MOC will be largely confined to the western boundary. We discuss implications for the design of MOC monitoring efforts. Finally, using analytical theory, simple reduced-gravity model experiments and simulations with an ocean general circulation model we explore the implications of western boundary adjustment processes for MOC-related ocean heat content and sea-level change.

Programme

Helen.Johnson@earth.ox.ac.uk

Notes | Index

Pelagic foodwebs drive a flux of >10 Gt C yr-1 that exits surface waters, mostly via sinking particles through the ocean’s “biological pump”. Most of this particle flux is remineralized in the poorly studied waters of the twilight zone, i.e. the layer underlying the euphotic zone and extending to 1000 m. Changes in the the magnitude of this pump and the length scales of remineralization will impact oceanic CO2 uptake. It has been difficult to compare the strength and efficiency of the biological pump in the twilight zone between oceanic provinces/regions due to: 1) variability in methods (traps, radionuclides, other budgets/models), 2) a lack of data (fluxes and supporting process information), especially covering seasonal/annual time-scales, and 3) the metrics used to parameterize export efficiency and flux attenuation. This presentation will review our knowledge of flux variability and attenuation in the twilight zone and expand the analyses presented in Buesseler and Boyd (L&O, 2009) to other sites and using other flux methods. What is also important to consider, are the spatial scales of net primary production and export, which likely differ and hence introduce another level of uncertainty in our ability to understand oceanic CO2 uptake and C export. At present, we have a poorly constrained estimate of carbon sequestration via the biological pump, which, along with our limited understanding of the processes that control its magnitude, hinders our ability to predict the strength of oceanic uptake of CO2 and how this will be altered by a changing climate.

Delegate Info

Keynote Talk

Sponsors

There will be 6 Keynote Talks taking place in Lecture Theatre 1 as follows:

Welcome

Keynote Talks


30

Programme

Welcome

Microbial Nitrogen Cycling in Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

Valuing the Ocean in the Context of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive

Phyllis Lam, Gaute Lavik, Marlene M. Jensen, Tim Kalvelage, Jessika Fuessel, Marcel M. M. Kuypers

Christine Bertram, Katrin Rehdanz

MAX PLANCK INSTITUTE FOR MARINE MICROBIOLOGY; TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF DENMARK

plam@mpi-bremen.de

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

Low-oxygen conditions within oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) enable the use of alternative electron acceptors by some microorganisms for respiration, or chemolithoautotrophic growths via various redox coupling. While OMZs account for ~30-50% of global marine nitrogen loss that can be attributed to anammox and denitrification, recent studies based on isotope-pairing experiments and molecular analyses indicate that nitrate reduction and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium are two major pathways of organic matter remineralization in OMZ waters. Further experiments at various oxygen levels indicate O2-tolerance by these supposedly anaerobic processes up to micromolar levels. Meanwhile, despite virtually anoxic conditions, both steps of nitrification can also co-occur within the OMZs, as indicated by multiple lines of evidence in the Namibian, Peruvian and at least part of the Arabian Sea OMZs. Sometimes, OMZ waters may turn sulphidic near coastal shelves, and such events seem to be increasing in frequency/intensity. These waters can be detoxified to some degrees by sulphide-oxidation coupled to chemolithautotrophic denitrification. Overall, organic matter seems to play a major role in controlling multiple nitrogen transformations in the OMZs, and it is the efficient coupling among these nitrogen transformations that ultimately determine the extent of nitrogen loss. Because some of these nitrogen transformations are chemolithoautotrophic while others are heterotrophic, the relative activities of these processes may have important implications to the closely related carbon cycle.

KIEL INSTITUTE FOR THE WORLD ECONOMY; CHRISTIANALBRECHTS-UNIVERSITY AT KIEL

katrin.rehdanz@ifw-kiel.de

Abstracts | Oral

Marine and coastal ecosystems are important for humans in multiple ways. They provide goods and services which are used directly and indirectly by humans. These goods and services include the provisioning of food, energetic and mineral resources but also the regulation of important ecological functions such as the climate system. Moreover, the ocean offers transport routes and recreational opportunities. However, marine and coastal ecosystems – and thus the benefits they create for humans – are subject to increasing pressures and competing usages. These pressures result e.g. from intensified fishing efforts, nutrient enrichment, increasing maritime transport, pollution, noise, sediment sealing and increasing ocean acidification caused by anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Despite their great importance, goods and services provided by marine and coastal ecosystems have received far less attention than those provided by terrestrial ecosystems – maybe due to the difference in access and direct experience. From a European policy perspective, increasing threats to marine environments resulting from human use have been recognized and several regulations exist that aim to manage the human impact on the marine environment. In 2008, the European Union (EU) adopted the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), which is to guide future maritime policy and aims at achieving or maintaining a good environmental status (GES) of Europe’s seas by 2020. The MSFD requires an assessment of how humans use the marine environment and the development of action plans and explicit measures to achieve a GES by 2020. Before implementation, these measures inter alia need to be assessed by examining their cost-effectiveness and carrying out cost-benefit analysis (CBA). In our analysis we investigate the applicability of environmental CBA in the marine context. Quantifying benefits to society, for example, seems much more challenging since marine ecosystem services are much less tangible compared to the terrestrial context. Also, we discuss how this might influence the environmental effectiveness of the MSFD to achieve a good environmental status.

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index


Programme

Historically, many of the most important advances in our understanding of ocean biogeochemistry have grown out of major observational programs such as the Geochemical Ocean Sections (GEOSECS) global survey done in the 1970s, and the Joint Ocean Global Flux Study (JGOFS) carried out in association with the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) in the 1990s. In these cases, the science that could be done was constrained by the fact that vertical profile measurements could only be made from expensive ship platforms and the studies were separated by decades. Physical oceanographers have escaped these constraints by developing temperature and salinity sensors that can be deployed remotely on autonomous “Argo” profiling floats, which now cover most of the global ocean with vertical profiles measured at 10-day intervals. More than 3500 such floats are currently deployed and the project has generated nearly 1000 refereed publications (http://wwwargo.ucsd.edu/Bibliography. html). The combination of these float measurements with global satellite measurements of sea-surface height and temperature assimilated into sophisticated state estimation models gives us for the first time the ability to observe climate-related ocean variability on seasonal to decadal time scales and beyond (Roemmich et al, 2009).  We believe that the development of a revolutionary new set of biogeochemical sensors that can be deployed on Argo profiling floats now gives us the opportunity to do the same thing for ocean biogeochemistry that has been done for climate. We propose to capitalize on this unique opportunity with an initial observational and modeling program for the Southern Ocean that we believe would drive a transformative shift in the scientific and public understanding of the role of the vast Southern Ocean in climate change and biogeochemistry and provide a seed for expanding the biogeochemistry float program to the entire world. Doing this will require a multi-institutional, international, trans-disciplinary team of observationalists, modelers, and technologists to implement an unprecedented mix of innovative and sustained observations of biogeochemistry, earth system models, and ultra-high resolution physical climate models.

Welcome Delegate Info

jls@princeton.edu

Sponsors

Tracking and observing free-living marine organisms is challenging, but there is much to be gained from knowing the ‘what, how, when and why’ of fish behaviour, including how to manage wild populations and predicting the potential effect of climate change. Telemetry, using electronic devices attached to, or implanted into, the animal offers the capability to record its movements and behaviour while simultaneously recording at least some of the environmental variables to which it is exposed. In this talk I shall review recent advances in technology that enable these measurements to be recorded in marine fish over seasonal and even multi-annual timescales. This new information can then be integrated with our understanding of their physiology to improve our capacity to predict how individuals and, ultimately, populations may respond to environmental challenges.

Programme

david.righton@cefas.co.uk

PRINCETON UNIVERSITY; MONTEREY BAY AQUARIUM RESEARCH INSTITUTE; UNIVERSITY OF WASHINGTON; UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA; SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY

Abstracts | Oral

CEFAS

Jorge L. Sarmiento, Kenneth Johnson, Stephen Riser, Joellen Russell, Lynne Talley

Abstracts | Poster

David Righton

A Biogeochemical Paradigm Shift

Notes | Index

Fish Behaving Madly: How Integrating Oceanography and Behaviour Can Help Us Think Like a Fish

31


Abstracts | Poster

Abstracts | Oral

Programme

Sponsors

Delegate Info

Oral Abstracts34 List of Posters 63 Poster Abstracts70

Notes | Index

Welcome

33


34

Abstracts 

|  Oral

Natural Iron Fertilisation by the EyjafjallajöKull Volcanic Eruption Welcome

Eric Achterberg, Mark Moore, Stephanie Henson, Sebastian Steigenberger, Andreas Stohl, Sabine Eckhardt, Michael Cassidy, Debbie Hembury, Jessica Klar, Michael Lucas, Anna Macey, Chris Marsay, Thomas Ryan-Keogh NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; NORWEGIAN INSTITUTE FOR AIR RESEARCH; UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN

eric@noc.soton.ac.uk

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

Volcanic ash emissions and subsequent aerosol deposition to the surface ocean have frequently been implicated as a source of iron, an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton. Although increased productivity in both the modern and paleo oceans has been linked to volcanism, direct observations of ash deposition and biogeochemical responses are scarce due to the intermittent and unpredictable nature of events. In this presentation we show that aerosol inputs from the 2010 eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull resulted in significant dissolved iron inputs to the Iceland Basin of the North Atlantic. Unique ship-board measurements indicated strongly enhanced dissolved iron concentrations under the ash plume. Bioassay experiments performed with ash collected at sea under the plume also demonstrated the potential for associated iron release to stimulate phytoplankton growth and nutrient drawdown. Using modelled ash deposition we estimate that the Eyjafjallajökull eruption increased dissolved iron by >0.2 nM over an area of up to 570,000 km². In addition, the ash deposition may have resulted in enhanced nitrate drawdown in the Iceland Basin. Our observations thus suggest that the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption resulted in a significant perturbation to the biogeochemistry of the Iceland Basin.

Abstracts | Oral

Mechanisms and Impacts of Decadal-Scale Fluctuation Events in the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Lesley Allison, Ed Hawkins, Tim Woollings, Laura Jackson UNIVERSITY OF READING; MET OFFICE

l.c.allison@reading.ac.uk

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Variations in the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) have the potential to influence various aspects of climate. Understanding the mechanisms behind decadal-scale AMOC variability in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) is likely to be important for making future predictions of climate variability, may also help us to understand possible mechanisms for a large abrupt weakening of the circulation, and could help explain the difference in AMOC stability between AOGCMs and lower-complexity models. As part of the RAPID-WATCH RAPIT (Risk Assessment, Probability and Impacts Team) project, we examine the largest decadal-scale natural fluctuations in AMOC strength within a variety of coupled AOGCM control simulations. We aim to identify precursors and climatic impacts associated with these AMOC fluctuation events, and assess their robustness across the events in each model, and across the different models. We then compare

the modelled AMOC event fingerprints with decadal-scale Atlantic warming and cooling events in the observational record.

What Is the Veracity of Suspended Sediments Measured With Instrumented Frames and Can Modelling Help? Laurent Amoudry, Peter Thorne, Paul Bell NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL

laou@noc.ac.uk

Mixing near the sea bed greatly affects the transport of particulate matter; good descriptions and parameterisations of mixing processes above different bed types are critical to accurately describe such transport in coastal environments. This requires high-quality data of hydrodynamics, turbulence and sediment transport to develop and validate model representations of the processes at play. However, experimental techniques in the field are intrusive and may thus significantly affect the measurements. We will first present field measurements from several experimental campaigns in coastal environments and numerical results that clearly highlight such impact on measurements of hydrodynamics, turbulence and sediment transport. We will then investigate how state-of-the-art modelling techniques can be used to mitigate such negative influence on the data. In particular, we will use an extensively validated high-resolution model, which can represent interactions between hydrodynamics, structures, and suspended sediment transport, to reproduce large-scale wave flume laboratory experiments. This model resolves intrawave dynamics and includes the potential impact of an instrumented platform on numerical results of hydrodynamics, turbulence and suspended sediment transport. It is used as numerical wave flume and modeldata comparisons highlight the different processes critical in near-bed turbulent mixing. We will show how this modelling approach enables to identify and potentially separate (i) the effect of intrusive measuring techniques and (ii) the fundamental physical processes that need to be parameterized. This will lead in turn to better representations of near-bed mixing processes.

Detecting an Anthropogenic Influence on Recent Trends in Oceanic Oxygen Using an Optimal Fingerprinting Method Oliver Andrews, Nathan Bindoff, Erik Buitenhuis, Corinne Le Quéré UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

o.andrews@uea.ac.uk

Ocean deoxygenation has been observed across nearly all ocean basins over the last 50 years making dissolved O2 a useful gauge for changes in the state of the earth system. Any long-term trends in oceanic O2 are, however, superimposed upon significant inter-annual to decadal variability relating to the dominant climate modes, which act to mask any anthropogenic signal. We test the null hypothesis that historical changes in oceanic oxygen are indistinguishable from natural internal variability


Abstracts 

tt2r07@noc.ac.uk

The first quasi-synoptic estimates of Arctic Ocean and sea ice net fluxes of volume, heat and freshwater are calculated by application of an inverse model to data around the ocean boundary. Hydrographic measurements from four gateways to the Arctic (Bering, Davis and Fram Straits, and the Barents Sea Opening) completely enclose the ocean, and were made within the same 32-day period in summer 2005. The inverse model is formulated as a set of full-depth and density-layer-specific volume and salinity transport conservation equations, with conservation constraints also applied to temperature, but only in nonoutcropping layers. The model includes representations of Fram Strait sea ice export and of interior Arctic Ocean diapycnal fluxes. The results show that in summer 2005 the transport-weighted mean properties are, for water entering the Arctic: potential temperature 4.49˚C, salinity 34.50 and potential density (σ0) 27.34 kg m-3; and for water leaving the Arctic, including sea ice: 0.25˚C, 33.81 and 27.13 kg m-3, respectively. The net effect of the Arctic in summer is to freshen and cool the inflows by 0.69 in salinity and 4.23˚C, respectively, and to decrease density by 0.21 kg m-3. The volume transport into the Arctic of waters above ~1000 m depth is 9.2 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1), and the export (similarly) is 9.3 Sv. The net oceanic and sea ice freshwater flux is 187 ± 48 mSv. The net heat flux (including sea ice) is 189 ± 37 TW, representing loss from the ocean to the atmosphere.

Welcome

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTON

Circulation in the Faroe-Shetland Channel – a Paradigm Shift? Barbara Berx, Bogi Hansen, Karin Margretha Larsen, Svein Østerhus, Toby Sherwin, Steffen M. Olsen

Sponsors

Microfluidics (through lab-on-a-chip technology) permits the miniaturisation of chemical analytical methods that are usually undertaken using bench top equipment in the laboratory environment. When applied to environmental monitoring, lab-on-chip systems can allow high performance chemical analysis methods to be performed in situ over distributed sensor networks or on oceanographic sensor platforms. We present a colourimetric lab-on-a-chip analyser that detects nitrate and nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.025 micromolar. This performance of the system makes it suitable for almost all natural waters (apart from the oligotrophic open ocean), and the device has been deployed in an estuarine environment (Southampton Water) to monitor tidally influenced nutrient concentrations. Laboratory characterisation and deployment data are presented, demonstrating the ability of the system to acquire data automatically with high temporal resolution. The system is designed to operate to full ocean pressure, and its small size and low power consumption make it potentially suitable for deployment on oceanographic sensing platforms.

Delegate Info

a.beaton@soton.ac.uk

Programme

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

Alexander Beaton, Christopher Cardwell, Rupert Thomas, Vincent Sieben, Francois-Eric Legiret, Peter Statham, Matthew Mowlem, Hywel Morgan

MARINE SCOTLAND SCIENCE

b.berx@marlab.ac.uk

The exchange of water, heat, and salt across the GreenlandScotland Ridge (GSR) is a two-way coupling between the Nordic Seas and the Atlantic Ocean and is important for the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and conditions in the Nordic Seas and the Arctic. Under changing climate conditions (IPCC, 2007), monitoring the characteristics and intensity of this exchange has become an even higher priority task. In order to meet this requirement, a group of European marine research institutes have implemented a monitoring system in the region. A significant portion (3.0 Sv) of Atlantic Water inflow across the GSR flows through the Faroe-Shetland Channel (FSC); with a similar amount crossing between Iceland and Faroes (3.5 Sv) and a minor contribution (0.9 Sv) occurring west of Iceland. In the FSC region, Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers have been deployed since autumn 1994 to observe velocities. Combined with time series of water mass properties, these have been used to estimate transport of Atlantic water masses through the FSC. Between May 2010 and May 2011, three additional current meter moorings were deployed, to supplement the four existing ones. This extended array has enhanced our understanding of the circulation in the FSC. Together with observations from altimetry and meteorology, these data

Abstracts | Oral

Takamasa Tsubouchi, Sheldon Bacon, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Seymour Laxon

Lab-on-a-Chip Analyser for In Situ Nitrate and Nitrite Determination in Natural Waters

Abstracts | Poster

The Arctic Ocean in Summer: a Quasi-Synoptic Inverse Estimate of Boundary Fluxes and Water Mass Transformation

35

Notes | Index

using a formal detection and attribution analysis with available CMIP5 ocean biogeochemistry models and a collation of global WOCE O2 data (~1992) compared to earlier oxygen profiles (~1970). This technique regresses model simulated patterns of dissolved O2 change for external forcings, including rising greenhouse gases and tropospheric aerosols, against corresponding observed patterns using a Total Least Squares (TLS) method. A single fingerprint analysis where zonal mean O2 changes from models and observations are provided as signal vectors in the TLS regression demonstrates that significant declines in observed oceanic O2 between ~1970 and ~1992 are detectable in response to external forcing from historical CMIP5 experiments and are inconsistent with simulated natural internal variability. However, CMIP5 models consistently underestimate the amplitude of historical deoxygenation (by a factor of ~3) suggesting that model projections for future O2 decreases are too conservative.

|  Oral


36

Abstracts 

|  Oral

Welcome

allow us to present more accurate estimates of the mean transport and its variations and to assess the quality of the long-term monitoring system.

Recent Increases in North Atlantic Icebergs Caused by Greenland Calving Grant Bigg, Hualiang Wei, David Wilton, Steve Billings, Edward Hanna, Visakan Kadirkamanathan

200 km offshore from 36ºN 124ºW in a phytoplankton rich cold squirt of upwelled water in the California Current. Both CFEs observed temporal coherence and hundred-fold variations of sedimentation at 250 m as they tracked the aging waters. We present a comprehensive synthesis of results cast in contemporaneously observed hydrographic and remote sensing frameworks. CFEs are scheduled for long term (seasons to year) operations in 2012.

UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD

Delegate Info

grant.bigg@sheffield.ac.uk

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

The International Ice Patrol have been compiling monthly iceberg numbers passing the east coast of Newfoundland, at 48ºN, for over one hundred years. This record exhibits strong interannual variability, but with a significant increase in amplitude over recent decades. The variability results from a mixture of variation in: 1) the originating Greenland iceberg discharge, and 2) ocean-atmosphere induced melting during iceberg travel. Here we show, through a comparison of non-linear system identification and ocean-iceberg modelling, that historical iceberg numbers in the NW Atlantic were dominantly, and nonlinearly, controlled by the Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance. There is a first-order lag of two accumulation seasons between changes in Greenland Surface Mass Balance and iceberg numbers, meaning that the latter are inherently predictable. However, since around 1990, oceanic and atmospheric changes due to global warming have begun to play a larger, if still secondary, role in controlling iceberg numbers. The implication of the main findings is that iceberg calving from Greenland has increased significantly over the last few decades, possibly even before recent run-off increases. This suggests that the calving component of the total mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet may be larger than suspected, with consequences for estimates of Greenland’s contribution to global sea level change.

Autonomous Exploration of Sedimentation Dynamics in the California Current System James Bishop, Todd Wood UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA, BERKELEY

jkbishop@berkeley.edu

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

The export of organic carbon below 100 m is ~10 Pg C per year. Despite the need to understand the biological drivers for export and the depth dependence of carbon remineralisation for carbon cycle prediction, there are scant observations of sedimentation dynamics in the upper 1000 m. The Carbon Flux Explorer (CFE) is designed to sustain high-frequency observations of particulate organic and inorganic carbon sedimentation to kilometer depths, absent of ships, in all sea conditions, be reprogrammable and adaptive once deployed, and relay data to shore in near real time via Iridium satellite links for seasons to years. We have demonstrated reliable performance of CFE systems and telemetry in 50kt winds and 6 m seas. Between Aug 5 and Sept 14 2011, two Carbon Flux Explorers, each gained 41 day records of the hourly variation of sedimentation at 250 m as they were advected

The Formation of Non-Zonal Jets Over Sloped Topography Emma Boland, Andrew Thompson, Emily Shuckburgh, Peter Haynes UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE; BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY; CALIFORNIA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

ejdt2@cam.ac.uk

We present the results of an investigation into the effect of a spatially uniform slope in bottom topography in a quasigeostrophic, doubly periodic, two-layer model. A slope in the meridional direction results in the enhancement of the ‘beta’ effect, producing zonal jets, familiar from many previous studies. The novel aspect of this investigation is that the bottom slope has arbitrary orientation. Jets continue to form but they are non-zonal and tilted relative to layer-wise potential vorticity gradients. We show that these non-zonal jets follow the barotropic potential vorticity gradient, and we find that eddy energies are larger when the barotropic potential vorticity gradient is aligned with the direction of the shear in the system. The tilted jets are also demonstrated to be weaker barriers to transport than their zonal counterparts using an effective diffusivity diagnostic. These results are shown to be independent of the ratio of layer depths and to carry over to more complicated topographies containing slopes. We also interpret these results in the light of linear Rossby wave theory, showing the extent to which the jet orientation can be explained by the alteration of the linear dispersion relation by the presence of sloped topography, and the extent to which a Rhines scale can explain the separation of such jets. This work is of relevance to the many regions of the oceans where strong non-zonal jets are present, and is a significant step towards understanding the influence of topography on the dynamical properties of jets.

How to Incorporate Trophic Propagation Into Predictions of Marine Ecological Impacts Julie Bremner CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT, FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE SCIENCE

julie.bremner@cefas.co.uk

Applications to conduct activities in the marine environment require predictions of potential ecological impacts, with future management being dependant on the success of these predictions. Some impacts are a direct result of the activity, while others occur indirectly through connections between ecological components. For food webs, these indirect impacts are difficult to predict quantitatively as they require knowledge of the strength


Abstracts 

p.j.brown@uea.ac.uk

In the Southern Ocean, the Weddell Gyre is regarded as the primary location for the formation of deep and bottom waters and is potentially a significant area for the sequestration of carbon, nutrients and atmospheric gases. Major quantities of dense, cold waters generated near and on the Antarctic continental shelf spill down the slopes entraining surrounding water masses as they descend. Circulating northwards the waters are subsequently exported into the mid-latitude Southern Ocean, spreading globally at depth as an integral component of the southern closure of the meridional overturning circulation. Measurements of CFCs, SF6 and the inorganic carbon system from two cruises – extending from the Antarctic Peninsula, along the South Scotia Ridge and the edge of the Weddell Basin to 30°E – conducted as part of the UK ANDREX (Antarctic Deep water Rates of EXport) project in 2009-2010 are used to investigate this process. Estimates of anthropogenic carbon in Antarctic Bottom Water are combined with velocity field outputs from an inverse model to derive quantitative information on the production within and export from the gyre, and to understand the key processes involved. Historical comparisons with GLODAPbased estimates enable the assessment of changing carbon inventories, fluxes and water mass formation rates within the region. Initial results confirm the slow accumulation of anthropogenic carbon occurring in the deepest waters of the Weddell Gyre. Increases in northward export through the South Scotia Ridge over the last twenty years highlight

Welcome

Hoi Ga Chan, C Mark Moore, Kevin Oxborough CHELSEA TECHNOLOGY GROUP; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

Carcass Island: First Results of Time Series Aerosol Sampling in the Southern Atlantic

Sponsors

The recent development of new algorithms for analysis of FRRf data allows for direct estimation of gross photosynthesis, defined as electron flux through photosystem II (PSII) on a unit volume basis (JVPSII), and derivation of a PSII light harvesting coefficient, with units of m-1 (aLHII). Although these developments greatly increase the value of FRRf for direct estimation of GPP by phytoplankton, the single excitation wavelength provided by most commercial FRR fluorometers can impose a significant limitation on the accuracy of such estimates. Within this presentation, we report on development of an in situ FRR fluorometer with three excitation wavelengths, centred at 450, 530 and 624 nm. Despite the addition of two extra wavelengths, this fluorometer is more compact than its predecessors, has a significantly lower power requirement and provides both a greater dynamic range and lower signal detection limit. In addition, autonomous system control and data storage have been greatly enhanced, to allow for the running of complex protocols and more sophisticated data processing. Although this new fluorometer was primarily designed for in situ and in vivo estimation of GPP, the three excitation wavelengths and high level of programmability increase the potential of FRRf for the detection of blooms and the deliberate or accidental contamination of domestic water supplies. We describe how established methods of FRR data analysis can be used to generate a simple red, amber, green (RAG) system for use within this context.

Delegate Info

vchan@chelsea.co.uk

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

A Description of How Recent Technological Advances Have Enhanced and Extended the Applications for Fast Repetition Rate Fluorometry

Abstracts | Oral

Peter Brown, Marie-Jose Messias, Dorothee Bakker, Andy Watson, Mario Hoppema, Mike Meredith, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Loic Jullion

the role of the region in injecting human-derived carbon into the global abyss.

Rosie Chance, Alex Baker, Tim Jickells UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

r.chance@uea.ac.uk

A new time-series station for monitoring atmospheric aerosol in the south Atlantic has been established on Carcass Island (51º15’ S, 60º35’ W), western Falklands, in an effort to capture episodes of Patagonian dust deposition. Patagonian dust arises in the arid parts of southern South America, and is thought to be a significant source of micronutrients to the south Atlantic. Ice core records indicate large fluctuations in dust supply over glacial-interglacial timescales, yet very little is known about modern day fluxes. Here we report the first results from Carcass Island, and compare them to aerosol collected during the UK Geotraces 40ºS Atlantic transect. High volume aerosol samples were collected weekly, September 2010 to April 2011 and October 2011 to April 2012. Five visits to Carcass Island were made,

Abstracts | Poster

Natural and Anthropogenic Carbon in Antarctic Bottom Water: Sequestration, Accumulation and Export From the Weddell Gyre to the Global Ocean

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of the links between individual food-web components. Gaining such knowledge can be challenging, particularly when determination of dietary components is difficult. Here, we describe a framework for predicting how disturbance to lower trophic levels propagates through the food-web, using a combination of survey, molecular and modelling approaches. Our model system is an estuarine mudflat and our stressor the cooling-water discharge from a proposed power station. We focus on the implications of changes in the lower levels of the web (microphytobenthos and macro-infauna) for their predators, estuarine birds. Survey techniques characterise the microphytobenthos, birds and infauna, while molecular tools are used to ascertain the birds’ diets. An individual-based model then combines this information to predict the effects of changes in the prey species on the behaviour of individual birds and, by extension, the status of the population. This allows us to make predictions of the indirect, trophic-driven impacts of cooling-waters on the bird populations. This framework is applicable to more complex coastal and offshore webs and, as our application to the effects of thermal stressors illustrates, it can also be used for predicting the food-web impacts of climate change.

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Welcome Delegate Info

between which sampling was conducted by the local landowner. Sampling was automatically controlled such that only air from a ‘clean marine’ sector was sampled. During the second year of operation an ozone monitor and total deposition collector were added to the station. Determination of major ions, nutrients, trace metals and nitrogen isotopes is currently underway; median values of 0.9, 5.98 and 6.25 nmol m-3 for non-sea salt magnesium, calcium and potassium respectively are reported for the first year. During the 2011/2012 sampling period, volcanic ash from Puyehue-Cordon Caulle eruption in Chile fell on the Falklands. The composition and nutrient flux arising from this will be discussed. The challenges of working on a remote island inhabited by mischievous wildlife will also be mentioned.

Dispersal of Phytoplankton Populations in Response to Enhanced Turbulent Mixing in Shelf Seas Sponsors

Jaimie Cross, Alex Nimmo-Smith, Philip Hosegood, Ricardo Torres PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY

jaimie.cross@plymouth.ac.uk

Programme Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster

Shelf seas are regarded as important regions that mediate the cycling of particulates and other seawater properties on a global scale. These regions occupy a relatively small area when compared to the expanse of the open ocean, though it is here that the majority of energy associated with tidal activity is dissipated. Turbulence, be it generated close to the seabed, at the surface or by internal processes, may have a controlling influence on the movement and distribution of plankton, acting to keep non-motile phytoplankton in suspension. Turbulence also acts against stratification to mix nutrients across density gradients, so turbulent patches within the seasonal thermocline may also be sites of enhanced primary productivity. Presented here are intensive in situ observations carried out at station L4, a site maintained by Plymouth Marine Laboratory as part of the Western Channel Observatory, during a single tidal cycle in September 2010. Using a free-fall Microstructure Sensor, parameters of turbulence were measured and identified, along with simultaneous measurements of the number and distribution of phytoplankton throughout the water column using an in-line holographic imaging system. Increased surface mixing in the form of enhanced wind stress results in the destruction of the weak thermocline at the mid-point of the survey. The elevated level of turbulence progresses vertically down through the water column, dispersing the phytoplankton population from its previous maximum concentration within the thermocline. With the data from holographic imaging, it is now possible to directly evaluate the impact of short-term vigorous mixing on suspended biological particles.

Bacterial Genomes Reveal New Insights Into the Importance of Mixotrophy in the Marine Carbon Cycle Michael Cunliffe MARINE BIOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION OF THE UNITED KINGDOM

micnli@mba.ac.uk

Our understanding of the diversity of bacterioplankton has been enhanced through the application of genomics, indicating that many are capable of utilising supplementary energy sources. Bacterioplankton that use supplementary energy sources could grow faster and more efficiently. Analysis of sulfur oxidation genes in several marine Roseobacter genomes has revealed that genes are present for the utilisation of thiosulfate as an energy source. Thiosulfate is used as an energy source by the model bacterium Ruegeria pomeroyi. R. pomeroyi , a marine Roseobacter, grows faster, increases respiration and biomass when grown mixotrophically using glucose and thiosulfate than when grown heterotrophically. NMRbased metabolomics has also revealed that R. pomeroyi growing mixotrophically is metabolically distinct from heterotrophically grown cells. Proteorhodopsins are lightdriven transmembrane proton pumps. Xanthorhodopsins are a new type of rhodopsin that have been recently discovered and shown to be prevalent in marine bacteria genomes. Octadecabacter arcticus is a marine Roseobacter isolated from Arctic sea-ice. The genome of O. arcticus contains a putative xanthorhodopsin gene and accessory genes required for an operational rhodopsin, indicating that it may be able to supplement heterotrophic growth with light energy, and incur subsequent ecological advantages. We have recently confirmed that O. arcticus 238 growth is enhanced in the presence of light. Experiments such as these with model organisms are the first step in linking the genes discovered in genomes and metagenomes with ecosystem function. Mixotrophy is one mechanism through which the bacterioplankton can impact the marine carbon cycle and is therefore of wider biogeochemical significance.

Environmental Selection for Phytoplankton Traits and Stoichiometry in an Ecosystem Model With SubCellular Resource Allocation Stuart Daines, James Clark, Tim Lenton UNIVERSITY OF EXETER

s.daines@exeter.ac.uk

Notes | Index

Hypotheses for the origin of variable phytoplankton stoichiometry include the effect of growth rate on optimal allocation to phosphate rich biosynthesis machinery, variable internal nutrient storage pools, and clade specific differences in composition. We test these hypotheses using an individual based evolutionary ecosystem model (EVE) that includes a physiologically consistent cell model with traits for resource allocation to sub-cellular components, and variable stoichiometry. The EVE model is nested within the global and 1D MITgcm. Trait trade-offs and cellular stoichiometry are linked as both follow from sub-cellular resource allocation to nutrient storage pools, light harvesting components, biosynthesis, phosphate rich ribosomes, and cell size. Variable high latitude


g.dudeja@noc.soton.ac.uk

The concept of ‘mixing efficiency’ is widely known amongst physical oceanographers. It quantifies the fraction of the energy input that leads to an irreversible increase in the height of the centre of mass of a fluid. The mixing efficiency will clearly vary from location to location within the ocean, although a ‘typical’ value of around 0.2 is often used in models, slightly below the widely assumed upper bound of around 0.25. This paper addresses the question of whether an efficiency of 0.25 is really the upper bound and reports on configurations, based on combinations of statically stable and Rayleigh-Taylor unstable stratifications, that admit the possibility of mixing efficiencies over the entire range from zero to one. Exploring these configurations with a series of laboratory experiments reveals a surprisingly simple form for the final stratification along with mixing efficiencies substantially greater than 0.5.

Detecting the climate change signal in satellite records of productivity would imply that ocean primary production has been affected by anthropogenic influences. An approach using optimal fingerprints to detect anthropogenic climate change in ocean colour measurements is demonstrated. The methodology has been applied to detect and attribute greenhouse gas induced climate change in sea-surface temperature records, ocean heat content, atmospheric air temperature etc., but this is the first attempt to apply it to ocean productivity records. Monthly Chlorophyll (Chl) values from Control (1959-2059) and Historical (1959-2005) forced runs of the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model Version 2 (HadGEM2) from CMIP5 were used to derive the pattern of the warming signal. Chl data (1997-2006) from NASA’s Ocean Biogeochemical Model were projected onto the warming signal. Here, we test the hypothesis that the observed trends are due to anthropogenic climate change. Our results indicate that the global warming signal is not yet detectable. However, introducing adaptations to the methodology, may allow the fingerprint of global warming to be detected in the satellite record.

The Weddell Gateway: Hydrographic Variability and an Inverse Approach to Determining Volume Transport in the Lazarev Sea Matthew Donnelly, Harry Leach, Volker Strass UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL; ALFRED-WEGENER-INSTITUT

m.s.donnelly@liverpool.ac.uk

The Lazarev Sea is the deep water gateway to the Weddell Sea, with the topographic constraints of Maud Rise and Astrid Ridge having a noticeable impact upon the distribution of the hydrographic properties of the Warm Deep Water. The Lazarev Sea Krill Experiment (LAKRIS) cruises conducted by the RV Polarstern between 2004 and 2008 provide a suitable density of CTD sections to detect the variable hydrographic properties of the region. These patterns highlight key circulation features including a jet on the northern flank of Maud Rise, the Taylor column above the rise, and the apparent pooling of Warm Deep Water to the south-west of the rise. With additional observations in the region from other cruises, we also assess the variability of the hydrographic conditions over a longer time period than allowed for by the LAKRIS cruises alone. The LAKRIS dataset is also put to use within a newly developed adaptable-domain inverse box-model for inferring the circulation of a given region based upon grids of CTD data. The model is based upon the multiple linear regression of mass conservation and Dunhem–Margules equations for the entire grid, where each set of four neighbouring CTD profiles within the grid constitutes a ‘box’. The model also

A 14-Year Biogeochemical Reanalysis With Ocean Colour Data Assimilation Karen Edwards, David Ford, Rosa Barciela MET OFFICE HADLEY CENTRE

Delegate Info

s.dalziel@damtp.cam.ac.uk

Sponsors

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTON, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

Gayatri Dudeja, Stephanie Henson, Peter Challenor, Claudie Beaulieu

Abstracts | Oral

Stuart Dalziel

Detection of Global Warming Using Satellite Records of Ocean Productivity

karen.edwards@metoffice.gov.uk

A continuous global time-series of remotely sensed ocean colour observations is available from 1997 to the present day. However coverage is incomplete, and limited to the sea surface. Models are therefore required to provide full spatial coverage, and to investigate the relationships between biological variables and the carbon cycle. Data assimilation can then be used to constrain models to fit the observations, thereby combining the advantages of both sources of information. As part of the ESA Climate Change Initiative, we assimilate ocean colour observations into a coupled physical-biogeochemical model, using these to update all biological and carbon cycle state variables within the model. Global daily reanalyses have been produced, with and without data assimilation, for the period 19972011. The assimilation has been shown to significantly improve the model’s representation of chlorophyll concentration, at the surface and at depth. Furthermore,

Abstracts | Poster

How Efficient Can Mixing Be?

includes observed current referencing (such as from ADCP data) to calibrate the geostrophic flow. We aim to evaluate the robustness of our approach in determining the general and localised transport of regional scale ocean areas such as the Lazarev Sea.

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environments select for combinations of high growth rate and nutrient storage strategies, and permanently stratified, nutrient limited low latitude environments for low growth rate and high N:P ratios. We thereby test the extent to which variations in stoichiometry can be explained by optimal allocation in different physical environments given fundamental species-independent ecophysiological and biophysical constraints.

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Welcome

Abstracts 


40

Abstracts 

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Welcome

there is evidence of improvement to the representation of pCO2, nutrients and zooplankton concentration compared to in situ observations. We use the results to quantify recent seasonal and inter-annual variability in variables including chlorophyll concentration, air-sea CO2 flux and alkalinity, and discuss how assimilative models can be used to better understand and describe the current state of the marine carbon cycle.

Delegate Info

Trends in Anthropogenic CO2 Along 24.5ºN Noelia Fajar, Elisa Guallart, Ollie Legge, Carles Pelejero, Ute Schuster, Eva Calvo, Andy Watson, Aida Rios, Fiz Perez INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIÓNS MARIÑAS, CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES CIENTÍFICAS; INSTITUT DE CIÈNCIES DEL MAR, CONSEJO SUPERIOR DE INVESTIGACIONES CIENTÍFICAS; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; INSTITUCIÓ CATALANA DE RECERCA I ESTUDIS AVANÇATS

nfajar@iim.csic.es

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster

The 24.5ºN oceanographic section is of particular importance, amongst other reasons, because it is where the greater northward transport of heat and inorganic carbon takes place in the whole Atlantic Ocean. Owing to these features, this 24.5ºN section has been repeated five times over the last two decades, i.e., in 1992 by F. Millero /A. Ríos et al. (expocode 29HE06_1-3), in 1998 by R. Wanninkhof/ F. Millero et al. (33RO19980123), in 2004 and 2010 by U. Schuster et al. (74DI20040404 and 74DI20100106, respectively) and in 2011 by E. F. Guallart et al. (29SGMALASPINA_8 AR01). The carbon system in the water masses of the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean has been affected over those decades by the rise of anthropogenic CO2 (Cant). In order to estimate the storage of Cant, pH, total inorganic carbon and total alkalinity were measured during these 24.5ºN repeated sections. The provisional storages of Cant were estimated using two different back-calculation techniques, ϕCT0 and TrOCA, and for six layers dependant on water masses of the region and for four regions to differentiate eastern and western patterns. The Cant storages for year 2011 were ~76 and ~82 molC∙m-2 for ϕCT0 and TrOCA methods, respectively, with related Cant storage rates of 0.64 and 0.39 molC∙m-2∙y-1 using the same methods, respectively. Both methods show a higher storage rate in the western compared with the eastern side of the section. A weakening of the storage rate is also observed at the beginning of the century.

Sediment-Water Fluxes and Quantification of Ocean Mixing With Radium Isotopes: Applications During GEOTRACES and Beyond Walter Geibert, Yu-Te Hsieh, Raja Ganeshram, Gideon Mark Henderson UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH; UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

walter.geibert@ed.ac.uk

Notes | Index

Radium isotopes have long been recognized as powerful tracers in the marine environment. Four naturally occurring isotopes of Ra, all of which are released from sediments, cover half-lives from 3.4 days to 1600 years. Therefore, Ra can be used to follow sediment-water fluxes in the water column in the short and long term, and even

to quantify their input and subsequent transport. This capability is now of even greater importance as the role of trace metals as micronutrients in the ocean has been recognized, and because climate change adds pressure to quantify the integrated response of large shelf systems. Analytical progress over the last two decades now allows the routine analysis of short-lived Ra isotopes (by delayed coincidence decay counting), particularly useful in nearshore studies, and the analysis of long-lived isotopes (by mass spectrometry), with unprecedented precision. This achievement now opens new fields of investigations, and UK GEOTRACES has been a first step towards realizing this new potential in the UK. Here, we present data from two UK GEOTRACES cruises in the South Atlantic and from a related pilot study in Loch Etive. We will show how the various Ra isotopes and the related element actinium can be used to infer vertical mixing rates, both near the sea floor and near the surface, as well as horizontal mixing rates, applied to nutrient budgets, and we show how the combination of isotopes allows disentangling overlapping signals.

Electrochemical Microsensors for in Situ Measurements of Dissolved Silicate in Marine Systems William Giraud, Carole Barus, Danièle Thouron, Maurice Comtat, Véronique Garçon LABORATOIRE D’ETUDES EN GÉOPHYSIQUE ET OCÉANOGRAPHIE SPATIALES; LABORATOIRE DE GÉNIE CHIMIQUE

william.giraud@legos.obs-mip.fr

Long term monitoring and real time transmission of collected key-parameters of marine environments such as the silicate, phosphate, nitrate macronutrients will allow to progress our understanding of the ocean's role in climate evolution and in its interactions with the terrestrial biosphere and anthropogenic activities. In order to achieve in situ miniaturized autonomous sensors, electrochemistry has been chosen for the detection and quantification of silicate in sea water. Because silicate is a non-electroactive species, a silicomolybdic complex is formed in situ after oxidation of molybdenum metal, forming both molybdates and protons. To reach the required acidic pH, a membrane is used to separate the counter-electrode and avoid the reduction of protons. The complex is then detected on a gold electrode by cyclic voltammetry or chronoamperometry. The detection limit is 1 µM. On one hand, main evolutions from the first prototype to the actual one will be presented along with results obtained with the last prototype. Among the different evolutions, we went from a one single chamber sensor to a two chambers sensor, one for the homogeneous formation of reagents and a second for a suitable detection of the silicomolybdic complex. On the other hand, we are currently working on the quantification of silicate without addition of liquid reagent or any calibration, using 2 working electrodes with different sizes. By solving second Fick’s law under pure diffusion mass transport in semi-infinite linear conditions, concentration and diffusion coefficient can be determined simultaneously. Preliminary results will be discussed.


Mechanisms and Regulation of Iron and Manganese Uptake by Marine Bacteria – Genes, Genomes and Metagenomes Rob Green, Jonathan Todd, Andy Johnston UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

rob.green@bbsrc.ac.uk

Iron and manganese are essential for life, but their bioavailability in the oceans may limit bioproduction, as seen in the boost to planktonic growth in IronEx fertilisation experiments. However, we know little of how marine bacteria acquire and respond to these metals. Using comparative genomics, microarrays and genetics, we study the Roseobacter clade, which are abundant bacteria in surface waters, worldwide, and found: Manganese. (a) The ABC-type transporter SitABCD is important for Mn uptake in many Roseobacters. (b) Some Roseobacters lack known Mn uptake system but have a novel membrane-bound transporter, MntX. (c) MntX is abundant in metagenomic data sets and occurs in strains of the hugely abundant SAR11 bacterium Pelagibacter and in some SAR116-type bacteria. (d) Mn uptake systems are regulated by Mn availability, using transcriptional regulators MntR in some bacteria and Mur in others. Iron (a) Different strains vary in mechanism(s) of Fe uptake, deduced by the presence/ absence of genes known to encode polypeptides involved in making and/or importing different siderophores (low Mr iron-chelating agents). (b) Some Roseobacters lack any previously known Fe uptake mechanism. (c) Fe-responsive regulation differs from the canonical, Fur-based system of E. coli and other bacteria. (d) The transcriptional regulators

Developing Glider Techniques for Estimating Krill Biomass Damien Guihen, Sophie Fielding, Gwyn Griffiths, Elizabeth Creed, Eugene Murphy, Karen Heywood BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

damaoi@bas.ac.uk

The Weddell Sea is a potentially important area of spawning of Antarctic krill, contributing to the population of the significant fishing grounds of the Scotia Sea. Understanding the distribution of Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) in the Weddell Sea is problematic, however, due to the difficulty and expense of accessing this remote and often ice-covered region and the limited seasonal window of Antarctic operations. In an effort to gain further insight into the distribution and transport of krill out of the Weddell Sea and north into the Scotia Sea, an ocean glider (an iRobot Seaglider) with an integrated echo sounder was deployed on the continental shelf, east of the Antarctic Peninsula. Along with CTD and acoustic transects, net sampling and drifter deployment the GENTOO project (Gliders: Excellent New Tool for Observing the Ocean) deployed three Seagliders in the north-western Weddell Sea in late January and early February, 2012. One carried a bespoke Imagenex 120 kHz echo sounder designed to measure mean volume backscatter of Antarctic krill. We discuss the calibration of the echo sounder using known targets and the validation of the krill swarm identification by mounting the echo sounder on a sampling net. The analysis of the acoustic data collected during the glider deployment is presented and we consider the potential and challenges of using Seagliders as platforms for estimating krill biomass and advective flux in Antarctic waters.

The Effects of Environmental Conditions on Coccolithophores: An Integrated Laboratory and Modelling Study Moritz Heinle, Erik Buitenhuis, Gill Malin University of East Anglia m.heinle@uea.ac.uk

Coccolithophores are among the major contributors to oceanic primary production and play a major role in the global carbon cycle as one of the most important producers of calcium carbonate in the ocean. Therefore, they are being explicitly represented in the PlankTOM10 global coean biogeochemical model. However, this representation is almost entirely based on just one species, Emiliania huxleyi, and in this project, effects of light intensity, temperature and nutrient concentration on 6 coccolithophores are studied to broaden that base. Results show that, at low light, Gephyrocapsa oceanica

Welcome Delegate Info

An array of five moorings was deployed from February 2009 to February 2010 across the Antarctic continental shelf and slope in the southeastern Weddell Sea (~18°W), as part of the UK contribution to the multi-national Synoptic Antarctic Shelf-Slope Interactions (SASSI) study. Two moorings were deployed on the shelf and three on the continental slope, spanning a cross-shore distance of 50 km. This region is particularly interesting as it encompasses the Antarctic Slope Front upstream of Antarctic Bottom Water formation regions. Analysis of the moored temperature and current data reveals a variety of different regimes during the year associated with differing sea ice and wind-forcing conditions. In the upper 500 m, the seasonal cycle in salinity shows a decrease in Autumn, with the strongest decline seen for the shallowest mooring (~270m), which is found furthest on-shore. During this time, the sea ice concentration over the array exceeds 90%, contributing a positive salt flux into the ocean. The freshening begins during a period of strong along-shore winds, in the latter half of April 2009. This suggests that variations in Ekman advection of offshore surface waters play a key role in determining the salinity of shelf waters around Antarctica.

Sponsors

j.graham@uea.ac.uk

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Abstracts | Oral

Jennifer Graham, Karen Heywood, Cédric Chavanne

in the Roseobacters have similarities and differences, compared to other a-Proteobacteria (e.g. Rhizobia). In addition, the expression of many Roseobacter genes with no previously known link to Mn or Fe biology was affected (either up or down) by Mn and/or Fe availability. Some of these genes are likely to have significant environmental effects.

41

Abstracts | Poster

Autumn Freshening Observed on the Antarctic Continental Shelf and Slope

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Notes | Index

Abstracts 


42

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Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster

grows faster than any of the other species. But G. oceanica is inhibited at high light intensity whereas E. huxleyi doesn’t show inhibition even at the highest light intensity tested (900 micromol photon m-2 s-1). In the temperature experiments, E. huxleyi had the highest growth rates and a very wide range of tolerance (4 – 29ºC). G. oceanica had a similar range of tolerance (6.5-29 ºC) but grew more slowly than E. huxleyi below 25 ºC. Calcidiscus leptoporus had a much smaller temperature range (14 to 29 ºC) and generally growth rates lower than E. huxleyi. However, G.oceanica and C. leptoporus both grew faster than E. huxleyi above 25 ºC. The model parameters derived from these results predict faster growth at all temperatures and lower growth at low and high light than previously. We will show how this changes model simulations with PlankTOM10 and compare it to a new global database of coccolithophore biomass.

summer growth habitat model, based on temperature and chlorophyll, to Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 sea surface temperature projections for the 0° to 90°W sector of the Southern Ocean, where 70% of the Antarctic krill stock occurs. The models projected a diverse range of conditions at the end of the 21st century. In the northern part of the sector all CMIP5 scenarios projected a reduction in suitable habitat. This affected the availability of suitable krill habitat within the foraging ranges of most land-based predators (penguins, seals, albatrosses) at South Georgia. A uniform doubling or halving of chlorophyll overrode temperature when warming was slight and in the South West of the sector. Discrepancies between models were greater for the middle latitudes of the Southern Ocean where representation of current day sea ice cover varies greatly. Our results indicate the potential for dramatic changes.

Global Warming Impact on Phytoplankton Seasonal Cycles

On-Shelf Transport of Slope Water Lenses Within the Celtic Sea Seasonal Pycnocline

Stephanie Henson, Harriet Cole

Jo Hopkins, Jonathan Sharples, John Huthnance

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, LIVERPOOL

s.henson@noc.ac.uk

j.hopkins@noc.ac.uk

Climate change is expected to alter seasonality in primary production by changing both the timing and amplitude of the seasonal cycle. This could potentially have knockon effects for higher trophic levels and carbon cycling. Here, we use output from multiple models in the CMIP5 project run from 2006-2090 to investigate how rapidly the characteristics of the phytoplankton seasonal cycle may change in the future. We find that expanding oligotrophic gyres lead to dramatic decreases in the amplitude (maximum – minimum) of primary production of 2-3 % per year, and the timing of peak productivity shifts from spring to autumn. In the Arctic and parts of the Southern Ocean however, the amplitude of primary production increases by 1-2% per year and the peak occurs earlier by 2-3 months. We also examine whether global warming trends in seasonal characteristics might be detectable sooner than trends in the magnitude of primary production itself.

The exchange of water between the deep ocean and continental shelf plays an important role in the cycling of carbon and nutrients, contributes to open ocean diapycnal mixing and buoyancy and plays a role in the flushing of fresh water and sediments from the shelf. Here we present observations of a new shelf edge exchange process in the form of lenses of anomalously high-salinity slope water, trapped within the seasonal pycnocline, being transferred 100 km or more onto the Celtic Sea continental shelf. We propose that the lenses are created by increased diapycnal mixing at the shelf edge associated with breaking highfrequency internal wave packets that form in the trough of the internal tide. Hydrographic sections from a towed CTD package show the lenses to be 3-5 km wide and consistent with being in near-geostrophic balance. Their temporal persistence is confirmed by moored instrumentation and a series of CTD casts. We estimate the advection speed of these features by calculating the approximate rate of salt loss from a lens assumed to be propagating on-shelf. These estimates of a few centimetres a second are consistent with the observed residual currents of 0.01-0.06 m s-1. Based on an analysis of the theoretical and empirical baroclinic modes of current variability, we propose that the on-shelf flux of water within the pycnocline is principally driven by non-linear mode two internal wave generated currents.

Projecting Climate Effects on the Growth Habitat of Antarctic Krill Simeon Hill, Tony Phillips, Angus Atkinson BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY; PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

sih@bas.ac.uk

Notes | Index

The Southern Ocean has experienced rapid regional warming over recent decades and climate models project more widespread warming by 2100. Water temperature is one of the major defining characteristics of the habitats of Southern Ocean species including Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, one of the most abundant wild animals on Earth. The abundance of Antarctic krill exhibits strong climaterelated variability in the Northern parts of its habitat where temperatures fluctuate between suitable and stressful. A recent larger-scale decline in krill abundance might also be climate related. We examined the response of a krill

The Size Abundance Distribution of Phytoplankton in the oligotrophic Atlantic Ocean Is Ultimately Determined by the Rate of Nutrient Supply and Its Use by Phytoplankton María Huete-Ortega, Pedro Cermeño, Emilio Marañón UNIVERSITY OF VIGO; UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX

mhuete@essex.ac.uk

The relationship between phytoplankton cell size and abundance is widely known in aquatic ecosystems and it


|  Oral

is formalized by a power function, N = aVb, where N is the cell density, V is the cell size and a is the Y-intercept of the linear regression. The size-scaling exponent, b, is a synthetic descriptor of the community size structure and generally varies between -1.3 and -0.6 depending on the productivity of the ecosystem. However, the origin of these regular patterns remains elusive. Size abundance distribution of organisms within an ecosystem can be explained as a function of the requirements for limiting resources by the individuals. Here we consider the carbon fixation rate as a proxy for metabolic rate and resource use in phytoplankton. We hypothesize that in a nutrient-limited marine ecosystem the size-scaling of carbon fixation rate determines the size structure of phytoplankton communities, resulting in a reciprocal relationship between the size-scalings of phytoplankton metabolic rate and abundance. To test this hypothesis, we determined simultaneously phytoplankton carbon fixation rates and abundance across a cell volume range of six orders of magnitude in the Atlantic oligotrophic ocean. Our prediction was confirmed by the slopes of the obtained size-scaling relationships of phytoplankton abundance and carbon fixation rate (mean values -1.15 and 1.16 respectively). Therefore, we conclude that phytoplankton size abundance distribution largely results from the sizescaling of metabolic rate in oligotrophic, near steady-state marine ecosystems. Our results also imply that total energy processed by phytoplankton carbon fixation is constant along the size spectrum.

and TKE production and thus the fate of the transfer of terrestrially derived organic matter to the coastal ocean.

Interactions between Turbulence and Suspended Particulate Matter in the River Estuary Transition Zone of a Macrotidal Estuary

Wyville Thomson Ridge Overflow Water: A Persistent Water Mass in the Rockall Trough

The majority of terrestrially derived suspended particulate matter (SPM) is transported to the open ocean by rivers; therefore the river estuary transition zone (RETZ) represents a globally significant boundary separating the riverine and coastal regimes. The RETZ plays a significant role in the formation and evolution of flocs whose properties vary on short temporal and spatial scales. Quantifying floc properties and floc dynamics in relation to the physical forcings are key in determining the transfer flux of SPM and associated biogeochemical components from the catchment to the coastal ocean. Observations of floc development require high resolution; therefore in situ optical instruments are deployed. Turbulence parameters are determined via acoustic methods. Results suggest that hydrodynamic characteristics such as turbulent kinetic energy production (TKE) are directly correlated to median particle size (D50) and suspended sediment concentration (SSC), displaying modulations on tidal and lunar time scales. Preliminary results indicate there is a phase lag between variations in TKE production and the reaction of D50, which varies spatially within the estuary. Data also suggests a seasonal modulation with increased biological activity enhancing the yield strength of flocculated particles, complicating the relationship between D50

Sponsors Programme

One of the many places where plumes appear in nature is the ocean. In the Weddell sea, for instance, plumes are part of the process by which the Antarctic bottom water is formed. Antarctic bottom waters represent 60% of the global oceanic bottom waters. While there has been a significant body of research devoted to modelling plume dynamics, very little has involved an interaction with a non-horizontal boundary. This situation is surprising given that when a plume impinges on a boundary in nature the boundary is not always horizontal, for example in the ocean when coming into contact with the continental shelf. This paper presents experiments involving plumes and the interaction of a slope in the laboratory, both in rotating and non-rotating cases. Acting as a simple representation of processes occurring in the ocean, the experiments aim to give a better understanding of the characteristics of a plume when in contact with a boundary. The results presented will provide the basis to setting up a simple model to understanding details of the transportation of dense water in the ocean.

Delegate Info

aj395@cam.ac.uk

Clare Johnson, Toby Sherwin, Tracy Shimmield, Denise SmytheWright SCOTTISH ASSOCIATION FOR MARINE SCIENCE; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

clare.johnson@sams.ac.uk

Historical evidence for Wyville Thomson Ridge Overflow Water (WTOW) in the Rockall Trough has often been contradictory and confusing. In this work, however, we show that the overflow water is found both as an intermediate (600-1200 m) and deep (> 1200 m) water mass throughout the northern and central trough. Analysis of the Ellett Line timeseries, occupied from 1975 to the present day, reveals that WTOW is present during ~75 % of the record and is particularly prevalent in the late 1990s and 2000s. The influence of intermediate WTOW is weak or absent in the mid 1980s and early 1990s although the signature of deep WTOW remains strong during these periods. We propose that the temporal variability of intermediate WTOW in the trough, whilst partly explained by changes in the flux over the Wyville Thomson Ridge, is related to expansion and contraction of the Subpolar Gyre. As the gyre strengthens and expands eastwards, intermediate waters in the Rockall Trough become dominated by water masses entering the basin from the west weakening the intermediate WTOW signature. As the gyre weakens and contracts westwards, intermediate waters in the trough are predominantly influenced by WTOW and northward flowing Mediterranean Waters.

Abstracts | Oral

osp835@bangor.ac.uk

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

Abstracts | Poster

BANGOR UNIVERSITY; SCOTTISH MARINE INSTITUTE

Alan Jamieson, Stuart Dalziel

Notes | Index

Suzanna Jackson, Colin Jago, Chris Old

Plumes: From the Laboratory to the Southern Ocean

43

Welcome

Abstracts 


44

Abstracts 

|  Oral

Welcome

RNA Interference Gene Silencing to Understand Genes Involved in Diatom Nanopatterned Silica Shell Construction

Neodymium Isotopic Composition and Concentration in Equatorial to North Atlantic Seawater

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

Amy Kirkham, Rachael Gibson, Angela Falciatore, Thomas Mock

Myriam Lambelet, Tina van de Flierdt, Kirsty Crocket, Mark Rehkämper, Katharina Kreissig, Barry Coles, Micha J.A. Rijkenberg, Loess Gerringa, Hein J.W. de Baar

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; LABORATOIRE DE GÉNOMIQUE DES MICROORGANISMES UMR

IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; ROYAL NETHERLANDS INSTITUTE FOR SEA RESEARCH

amy.kirkham@uea.ac.uk

m.lambelet-salazar-serrudo09@imperial.ac.uk

Diatoms are one of the most successful phytoplankton groups, their fossils date back to the early Jurassic and present day diatoms contribute <45% of marine primary production. Diatoms are unique in their ability to construct highly ordered, nanopatterned silica cell walls. It is thought that these cell walls link to the success of the group, perhaps by buffering pH to enable conversion of bicarbonate to CO2 for photosynthesis, mechanical protection from predators, positioning in the water column and/or altering the light reaching the cell. Only six groups of components for silica wall formation have been discovered (silaffins, silicon transporters, S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylaese, longchain polyamines, silacidins and cingulins). However, tiling arrays have unveiled 100 genes that respond to silica availability and may have roles in silica wall formation. RNA-interference (RNAi) is a valuable tool to elucidate the function of genes in many biological systems. We have established RNAi to knock down expression of both foreign and endogenous genes within the silicified diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana, for the first time, and reduced the expression of a novel silica responsive gene to convey a slow-growing phenotype. We have also targeted silacidins, known to aid the assembly of long chain polyamines as well as being highly effective in silca precipitation, even in silica-deplete conditions.

The Nd isotopic composition (Nd IC) of seawater is widely used as a tracer for ocean circulation, as each individual water mass is tagged with a characteristic Nd isotope fingerprint. The reconstruction of past water mass configurations and ocean circulation are useful to understand the role of the ocean in past climate change and hence comprehend the future evolution of climate. Even though the Nd isotopic composition is often assumed to be an ideal ocean circulation tracer, our understanding of the modern cycle of Nd in the ocean is still poor. Indeed, while the major source of Nd to the ocean is assumed to be the continents, it is not clear yet how exactly water masses acquire their Nd isotopic composition. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether Nd isotopes in seawater behave conservatively along the flow path of North Atlantic Deep Water. The samples measured in order to address this question have been collected on the Pelagia during the first two legs of the Dutch GEOTRACES meridional Atlantic Ocean transect in 2010 (Iceland to Brazil). Twelve seawater profiles have been analysed for their Nd IC and Nd concentrations. Each profile consists of 10 to 12 depths, providing a better depth resolution than in previous studies and covering some areas that have never been investigated for Nd IC or Nd concentration. We will discuss our new data in the context of previously published Nd data, physical oceanography constraints, and other proxy data collected on the same samples.

Abstracts | Oral

Supergiants in the Hadal Zone: First Record of Alicella gigantea (Amphipoda: Alicellidae) From Trench Depths in the Southern Hemisphere Nichola Lacey, Ashley Rowden, Anne-Nina Lörz, Alan Jamieson UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN

nichola.lacey@abdn.ac.uk

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

The supergiant Alicella gigantea is the largest known species of amphipod and has previously only been recorded in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. For the first time A. gigantea has been recorded in the Southern Hemisphere, including the recovery of 9 individuals from baited traps and observation in situ of a further 9 individuals from photographs within the Kermadec Trench, South West Pacific. These records also increase the known bathymetric distribution of this rarely observed species by 1000m into hadal depths. Measurements of environmental parameters combined with in situ observation reveal the environmental conditions experienced by A. gigantea and provide information on feeding behaviours. Genetic analysis will provide insight into the level of gene flow between these distant populations and as such provide an indication of the ability of deep sea amphipoda to maintain genetic flow between hadal environments in different oceans.

Variability of the North Atlantic Ocean Carbon Dioxide Sink Peter Landschützer, Ute Schuster, Dorothee Bakker, Nicolas Gruber UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; ETH ZÜRICH

p.landschutzer@uea.ac.uk

The North Atlantic is one of the globe’s most important sink for atmospheric CO2, but this sink is known to vary substantially on multi-annual to decadal time scales. Here we use the existing underway network of observations in the North Atlantic to estimate this sink and its temporal variations, benefitting from a continuous improvement of the quantity and quality of the observation of sea surface fugacity of CO2 (fCO2), i.e., the main quantity determining the sink strength, and an improved technique to interpolate the observations in space and time. In particular, we combine 2 artificial neural network methods to reconstruct sea surface fCO2 on a monthly basis from 1998 through 2007 to produce basin-wide flux maps. The evaluation of our estimates with independent time series products and bottle data demonstrate that our method is robust. This enables us to quantify the variability in the CO2 sink strength, to identify regions of exceptional fluctuations and


UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Grazing Control on Southern Ocean Biomass

jonathan.lauderdale@liverpool.ac.uk

Corinne Le Quéré, Erik T. Buitenhuis

The Southern Ocean meridional overturning circulation is thought to play an important role in the global carbon cycle for both past and future changes in climate, but the short duration of direct observations and ambiguity of the paleoceanographic record defies interpretation of the mechanism(s) involved. Using a coarse resolution ocean general circulation model (MITgcm) and coupled biogeochemistry code, an ensemble of idealised perturbations to external forcing and internal physics of the Southern Ocean will be examined to determine how Southern Ocean ventilation governs the partitioning of carbon dioxide between atmosphere and ocean and to explain the processes that link circulation, nutrient distributions and biological productivity. We find that intermediate waters are important in determining O(1020) µatm anomalies in atmospheric CO2 levels in these simulations. The integrated changes in oceanic dissolved carbon partitioned into saturated and disequilibrium pools correlates well with atmospheric CO2 anomalies. Although the change in soft-tissue and carbonate pools cannot be neglected, there appears to be no direct link to resulting pCO2 changes. These results are robust to significant alterations to surface heat and freshwater boundary conditions, mesoscale eddy activity and rates of air-sea gas exchange and represent a large proportion of the change in glacial-interglacial CO2 that can be currently generated by altered circulation in a variety of models.

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Welcome

c.lequere@uea.ac.uk

It has long been known to oceanographers that the surface concentration of chlorophyll in the Southern ocean is low, in spite of the abundance of macro nutrients in that region. These ‘High Nutrients Low Chlorophyll’ regions (HNLC) have been attributed to the lack of availability of the micro nutrient iron. Global ocean biogeochemistry models have attempted to reproduce HNLC regions without success. None of the published models succeed to reproduce at the same time the high Northern and low Southern chlorophyll concentration. Studies that have incorporated iron dynamics perform better than simpler models, but still produce excessive concentrations of chlorophyll in the summer. Here we build an ocean biogeochemistry model that represents six groups of phytoplankton, three groups of zooplankton and bacteria. This model reproduces the North-South difference in chlorophyll concentration. We show that the role of grazing by macrozooplankton and the trophic cascade it induces are the primary factors controlling the concentration of chlorophyll in HNLC regions rather than the iron input from dust deposition.

Modelling the Photoheterotrophy of the Bacterioplankton That Dominate Oceanic Oligotrophic Ecosystems

Sponsors

Jonathan Lauderdale, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Kevin Oliver, Richard Williams, Michael Follows

Programme

The Role of Southern Ocean Ventilation in Partitioning of the Global Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Change

depth more quickly than they rotate. This was true of an Ekman spiral identified by Lenn & Chereskin (2009) from repeat shipboard acoustic Doppler current profile data in Drake Passage where large geostrophic currents dominate the total current. We revisit this analysis by first exploring parameter space to determine what may account for the mismatch between the Drake Passage observations and Ekman’s theory. Second, we present a new method for subtracting the geostrophic currents from an updated Drake Passage dataset, leading to a new current spiral estimate that more closely matches the classical Ekman spiral.

45

Abstracts | Oral

to provide information about the processes and drivers behind these variations. Initial results for the North Atlantic Ocean suggest that the air-sea flux shows strong inter-annual variations within our study period, mainly linked to variations in the sea surface temperature, mixed layer depth and chlorophyll-a concentration.

|  Oral

Delegate Info

Abstracts 

Yueng Djern Lenn, Jeff Polton, Teresa Chereskin, Janet Sprintall BANGOR UNIVERSITY; NOC LIVERPOOL; SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY

y.lenn@bangor.ac.uk

Ekman’s theory of the wind-driven ocean surface boundary layer assumes a constant eddy viscosity and predicts that the current rotates with depth at the same rate as it decays in amplitude. Despite its place in textbooks, Ekman current spirals have been little reported in observations mainly because it is a small signal easily masked by other larger signals. The rare Ekman current spirals identified in the observations have typically been found to be ‘compressed‘ such that the observed currents decay in amplitude with

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

sll105@noc.soton.ac.uk

Experimental evidence suggests that the two most abundant bacterioplankton groups in the oligotrophic surface ocean could be photoheterotrophs. Both Prochlorococcus cyanobacteria and SAR11 alphaproteobacteria increase the uptake of organic molecules in the presence of light. The use of light energy to supplement metabolism may enhance dissolved organic matter cycling and reduce microbial respiration in oceanic oligotrophic waters. The first model to date capable of analysing the influence of photoheterotrophic metabolism on carbon and nitrogen flow in bacterial cells has been built, based on Dynamic Energy Budget theory. The model will allow us to explore how photoheterotrophy may vary as a function of light and nutrient environment, the efficiency of compound use and

Notes | Index

Can Observed Ekman Current Spirals match Ekman’s Classic Theory?

Abstracts | Poster

Sam Lew, Adrian Martin, Tom Anderson, Mike Zubkov


46

Abstracts 

|  Oral

Welcome

the rate of assimilation, in order to clarify the importance of this metabolic strategy to surviving in the oligotrophic ocean.

Unraveling DMSP Pathway Genes Barbara R. Lyon, Peter A. Lee, Giacomo R. DiTullio, Michael G. Janech, Thomas Mock, Jonathan Todd UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

bobbielyon@gmail.com

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

The biogenic compound dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) plays important roles in carbon, sulfur and climate cycles. Diatom-dominated sea-ice communities have high DMSP, in contrast to typical low levels in temperate species. Extreme conditions within the sea-ice, such as salinity, temperature, light and CO2 limitation could trigger production of this proposed compatible solute, cryoprotectant and antioxidant. Hypersalinity shifts were used in conjunction with a global proteomics approach to evaluate the hypothesis that hypersalinity will increase proteins associated with the methionine-DMSP biosynthesis pathway proposed by Hanson and colleagues. Salinity experiments with the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus showed intracellular DMSP increased 70% under hypersaline conditions. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry identified candidate DMSP synthesis genes under salinity stress. Signal peptides on these genes indicate potential chloroplast subcellular localization which would have important implications on function. Quantitative PCR of selected enzymes demonstrated the changes in protein abundance follow changes in RNA abundance. Preliminary transformation experiments have validated function of several of the candidate DMSP synthesis genes. Understanding the impact of environmental parameters on the cellular biology associated with DMSP production is of critical importance to predicting effects of climate change and sea-ice loss on global biogeochemical cycles. Identification of the specific enzymes involved in DMSP synthesis would provide a means for better assessing community production of dimethylsulfur compounds and regulatory pathways controlling production.

We present here a simple 2D advection-diffusion model that has been combined with results from two DIMES tracer surveys to derive a preliminary estimate for the diapycnal diffusivity in the region. The tracer evolution relative to an isopycnal surface is modelled with mean advection and diffusion in the along-stream direction, and diffusion only in the vertical. The isopycnal diffusivity Kh, diapycnal diffusivity Kz, and the along-stream velocity u are optimised to fit the model output to the experimental tracer data for the two cruises by minimising a cost function which compares the modelled profile widths and peak concentrations with their experimental values. Kz is found to be strongly enhanced in Drake Passage: approximately 30 times higher than in the Pacific. Further work is in progress using an offline version of MITgcm to model the evolution of the tracer in three dimensions.

Rossby Rip Currents David Marshall, Bendix Vogel, Xiaoming Zhai UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD; UNIVERSITY OF KIEL; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

marshall@atm.ox.ac.uk

As waves approach a beach, they transport water shoreward through their Stokes drift. This is compensated by intense seaward rip currents to return the water to the open ocean. In the same manner, long Rossby waves transport water westward through their Stokes drift (equivalent to the bolus velocity to leading order). Using an idealised reduced-gravity model, we show that this Rossby wave Stokes drift can result in rectified equatorward western boundary current transports of order 1Sv (or higher). We further estimate the rip current transports as a function of latitude from altimetric data in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. The possibility of non-acceleration conditions, where mean and eddy-bolus transports are equal and opposite, will also be discussed.

Diurnal and Intraseasonal Variability in the Equatorial Indian Ocean: Observations From Seaglider and the CINDY/DYNAMO Field Campaign Adrian Matthews, Karen Heywood, Dariusz Baranowski, Benjamin Webber, David Stevens, Sunke Schmidtko

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Diapycnal Diffusivity in Drake Passage

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Neill Mackay, Andrew Watson, Marie-Jose Messias, Jim Ledwell

a.j.matthews@uea.ac.uk

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

The CINDY/DYNAMO international field campaign took place between September 2011 and January 2012, to investigate the ocean-atmosphere conditions that lead to the formation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the leading mode of global ocean-atmosphere variability on intraseasonal (month-to-month) time scales. As part of CINDY/DYNAMO, a Seaglider was deployed to measure the upper ocean structure in the equatorial waveguide at 78ºE, 3-4ºS. In particular, the diurnal cycle of ocean temperature and salinity of the upper few tens of metres (4 hour time and 1 m vertical resolution, up to 1 m below surface), and the thermocline structure (surface to 1000 m) due to the passage of oceanic equatorial waves in 10 N-S transects, were targeted, as both play a role in MJO

n.mackay@uea.ac.uk

Enhanced mixing over regions of rough topography is believed to be important in driving the upward transport of water required to close the meridional overturning circulation of the oceans. Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean is thought to be a region where strongly enhanced mixing takes place, and quantifying this is one of the aims of the UK-US DIMES (Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean) project. The DIMES programme involves a tracer release in the SE Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean with a number of subsequent cruises tracking the spreading and mixing of the tracer as it progresses through Drake Passage into the Scotia Sea.


coupled ocean-atmosphere dynamics. The evolution of these processes throughout the field campaign will be discussed within the framework of the three MJO events that occurred during that time.

Buoyancy-Driven Currents in Layered and Continuous Stratifications Benjamin Maurer, PF Linden

|  Oral

(Phaeocystis sp.) were labelled with 13C and 15N; these were used as representatives of high- and low-quality POM respectively. Different quantities of these two contrasting substrates were introduced to the seabed and the fate of the constituent C and N was quantified during ex-situ incubation experiments. This talk will focus on C cycling and explore why mineralization rates were affected by habitat-dependent interactions between the quantity and quality of POM.

47

Welcome

Abstracts 

Daniel J Mayor, Barry Thornton UNIVERSITY OF ABERDEEN; THE JAMES HUTTON INSTITUTE

dan.mayor@abdn.ac.uk

The composition of phytoplankton communities is changing in response to human intervention in the global cycles of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). These changes are affecting the biochemical composition (‘quality’) and quantity of particulate organic matter (POM) that reaches the seabed. It is currently unclear how these changes will affect the contributions of marine sediments to the global cycles of C and N. This study used stable isotope ‘pulsechase’ experiments to examine how the quantity and quality of POM affect the rates and pathways of C and N cycling in the sediments at 3 contrasting locations: a temperate estuary (intertidal), the Arctic shelf (330m) and the deep-seabed (1080m). Cultures of a lipid-rich diatom (Chaetoceros radicans) and lipid-poor prymnesiophyte

Elaine McDonagh, Brian King, Harry Bryden, Peggy Courtois, Stuart Cunningham, Zoltan Szuts, Chris Atkinson, Neil Wells, Joel Hirschi, Simon Josey NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

Programme

The climate of NW Europe is anomalously warm for its latitude due in part to heat transported northward in the Atlantic by major ocean currents that is released to the atmosphere in the subpolar gyre. Heat and freshwater (buoyancy) forcing at the ocean’s surface drives the formation of deep waters in the North Atlantic and hence the MOC. Over the last eight years the UK has been monitoring the strength and variability of the MOC at 26°N using the Rapid Mooring array. In this talk I will use a combination of hydrographic data from full depth transatlantic cruises, argo float data and information from the Rapid Mooring array to quantify a 5.5-year time series of the freshwater flux at 26°N every ten days. The flux shows no significant trend with time although there is significant seasonal variability. The equivalent freshwater flux (mean; 0.32 Sv ± standard deviation; 0.22 Sv) is decomposed into its horizontal gyre component (0.29 Sv ± 0.04 Sv), its vertical overturning component (mean = -0.67 Sv± 0.23 Sv) and the throughflow component (0.06 Sv ± 0.00 Sv). The strength, sign and variability of the freshwater flux is dominated by the overturning component.

Sponsors

elm@noc.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral

Carbon Cycling in Contrasting Marine Sediments: The Effects of Resource Quantity and Quality

Time-Series of Freshwater Flux at 26N in the Atlantic Ocean

Global Trace Element Distributions, How They Shape Our View of Oceanic Processes Chris Measures UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII

chrism@soest.hawaii.edu

Dennis Burton was a pioneer in the development of methodology for trace element determinations when the field was first developing. He was also keenly aware of the global nature of marine chemistry and the potential that trace element distributions in the ocean have to illuminate many important chemical, biological and physical processes. However, obtaining samples in sufficient quantities that accurately represent in situ trace element concentrations (i.e. are not contaminated) to investigate these processes has been a major challenge until recently. Now, with modern rapid sampling systems, we are on the verge of developing large data bases for trace elements and isotopes that can be used throughout the oceans to quantify

Abstracts | Poster

Buoyancy-driven flow occur in many oceanographic contexts. Processes such as advection of different water masses, mixing, and double-diffusion can create nonuniform horizontal density gradients in an otherwise stable density stratification. The ensuing flow transports mass, momentum, and energy either as a boundary current along the upper or lower surface of the fluid, or as an intrusion along an isopycnal surface within the ambient fluid. As a paradigm for these flows we present a laboratory and numerical study of buoyancy-driven, high Reynolds number flows between two stratified fluids of differing mean densities but equal density gradients. The two fluids are initially at rest, separated by a vertical barrier, and all the energy in the system is the potential energy of the density stratification. The barrier is then removed to start the flow. If the two fluids are of constant buoyancy frequencies, the exchange occurs as boundary currents separated by a region of adjustment at intermediate heights. If the stratification is composed of finite-thickness layers of constant density, the flow consists of interleaving intrusions along the interfaces. We show that the dynamics of these flows can be described by a conversion of available potential energy to kinetic energy. While this is consistent with classical approaches to gravity currents, the application to stratified ambient fluids characteristic of the ocean is somewhat surprising, and has implications for the role and energetics of internal waves in these adjustment flows.

Notes | Index

b.d.maurer@damtp.cam.ac.uk

Delegate Info

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE


48

Abstractsâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;

|â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Oral

Welcome Delegate Info

chemical fluxes and investigate the global nature of marine chemical cycles. The CLIVAR program has already resulted in global data sets for a limited number of trace elements in the upper waters of the oceans. The International GEOTRACES program is now starting to produce full water column global data sets for multiple trace elements and isotopes that will be used to provide oceanographers and geochemists with new insights into fundamental oceanic processes. This talk will show distributions of dissolved trace elements from several ocean basins obtained during the CLIVAR program and speculate on the processes that are defining these distributions. Dennis Burton through his mentoring of students and colleagues has been a primary force in spurring these developments, his passing is a great loss to us personally as well as to the global scientific community.

Spatial and Temporal Changes in the Freshwater Inputs to the Ocean at the West Antarctic Peninsula Sponsors

Michael Meredith, Hugh Venables, Andrew Clarke, Sharon Stammerjohn, Melanie Leng, Hugh Ducklow, Matthew Erickson, Jan Lenaerts BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

mmm@bas.ac.uk

Programme Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster

The west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has warmed more rapidly than anywhere else in the Southern Hemisphere in recent decades. Associated with this, there has been a marked shortening of the sea ice season, a retreat of the majority of glaciers, and an increase in precipitation. Each of these changes in the freshwater system has the potential to exert significant influence on regional climate and the ecosystem, via processes such as stabilisation of the upper water column, modifications to air-sea fluxes, and supply of micronutrients to the mixed layer. A decade-long time series of oxygen isotope measurements collected at a nearcoastal site at the WAP is used to quantify the changing prevalence of glacial melt and precipitation separately from sea ice melt. Significant seasonal, interannual and long-term variability is seen, and related to climatic variations in inputs and internal changes in the ocean. In addition, results from the first comprehensive spatial survey of oxygen isotopes at the WAP are used to quantify the rates of input of freshwater of different sources to the ocean during summer 2010/11, and the impact of this freshwater on the circulation and properties of the WAP ocean. As rapid climate change and deglaciation at the WAP progresses, we expect further changes in each of the components of the freshwater budget, and also changes in the redistribution of this freshwater by oceanographic processes. Our ongoing isotope monitoring will track these changes, and elucidate their consequences for regional climate and the operation of the marine ecosystem.

Oceanic Front Maps Combine Thermal and Colour Features to Explore Biophysical Interactions Peter Miller PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

pim@pml.ac.uk

We have developed novel Earth observation (EO) methods for visualising and inferring the spatio-temporal distribution of dynamic oceanic fronts, in order to reveal new information on the surface physical and biological oceanography. This talk will describe how front contours derived from EO thermal and colour data can be combined to best exploit these complementary data sources and to explore biophysical interactions caused by mesoscale processes. Ocean colour may reveal additional physical processes even if there is no thermal signal. Combined thermal and colour front maps will be presented and animated at a range of scales from coastal through to basin-scale. This research is based on the composite front map approach, which is to combine the location, strength and persistence of all fronts observed over several days into a single map, improving interpretation of dynamic mesoscale structures (Miller, 2009). These techniques are robust and generic, and have been applied to many studies of physical oceanography and marine animal distribution, and as an indicator of pelagic diversity for assisting the designation of marine protected areas.

Oceanic Nutrient Limitation: Patterns and Potential for Change Mark Moore, Matthew Mills NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; STANFORD UNIVERSITY

cmm297@noc.soton.ac.uk

Notes | Index

The availability of nutrients exerts a fundamental control on marine ecosystems and ocean biogeochemistry. Research over the past three decades has clarified the relative roles of nitrogen, phosphorous and iron as the primary limiting nutrients on ocean basin scales. However, our knowledge of co-limitation by these and other nutrients, alongside our understanding of the interacting biogeochemical cycles of all the nutrient elements is far from complete. Representing the IGBP working group on Upper Ocean Nutrient Limitation, we present a metaanalysis of experimental data providing a global scale description of the patterns of phytoplankton nutrient limitation in modern marine systems. We then highlight the current level of undersampling and uncertainty concerning patterns of nutrient limitation for other groups. Finally we briefly review the potential for anthropogenic changes in external nutrient inputs over the remainder of the century, making specific reference to remaining uncertainties in conceptual prediction of how these changes will impact on marine biogeochemical cycles.


munday@atm.ox.ac.uk

Recent advances suggest that the circulation of the Southern Ocean is a balance between low latitude wind forcing, globally integrated diapycnal mixing, and deep water formation (in both hemispheres). Eddy processes play an essential role, with modelling studies demonstrating that coarse resolution ocean models, with or without parameterised eddies, and eddy-resolving ocean models respond in fundamentally different ways to changes in forcing. Such models are sensitive to a large range of parameters, such as frictional coefficients and eddy diffusivities, many of which are uncertain at best. We will discuss eddy-permitting model results aimed at understanding the response of such models to climaticallyrelevant forcing perturbations, in this case wind stress and diapycnal mixing. These results are aimed at testing ideas regarding the invariance of circumpolar transport (eddy saturation) and the reduced sensitivity of overturning (eddy compensation) when in the eddying regime. Our results indicate that these ideas are robust to large wind perturbations, but are less applicable to changes in diapycnal mixing. Simple biogeochemical experiments demonstrate the climate link, and suggest that changes to wind forcing may not be a way to explain past climate variability.

Quantifying the Effect of Phytoplankton N:P Ratio on Mesozooplankton Physiology Raffaella Nobili, Carol Robinson, Erik Buitenhuis, Claudia Castellani

Eutrophication and the Ecosystem Approach Tim O'Higgins SCOTTISH ASSOCIATION FOR MARINE SCIENCE

tim.ohiggins@sams.ac.uk

Eutrophication has long been recognised as a major problem in Europe’s seas. Through implementation of the Water Framework Directive there have been major advances in the monitoring and measuring of eutrophication which have contributed enormously to our understanding of it. The introduction of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) with its focus on an Ecosystem Approach places an emphasis on the human dimensions of the eutrophication problem, the effects of eutrophication on ecosystem services and the trade-offs required between the drivers of eutrophication and the losses of human welfare (economic externalities) caused by eutrophication. These pose an enormous challenge to marine scientists and managers but have largely been ignored to date. We examine the relationships between the eutrophication criteria of the MSFD and ecosystem services and explore ways of communicating these links and incorporating them into the management of the marine environment. We discuss implications for aggregation of criteria and descriptors. We conclude the MSFD has the potential to become a social force for sustainable use of the seas or an expansion of the WFD with its inherent limitations.

Delegate Info

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

Sponsors

David Munday, Helen Johnson, David Marshall

dependence of zooplankton physiology. Preliminary model simulations, using zooplankton gross growth efficiencies to simulate algal nutrient ratios variation, suggest that changing N:P can lead to significant differences in timing of the spring bloom in temperate regions.

49

Programme

On the Impact of Meso-Scale Ocean Eddies on Southern Ocean Circulation

|  Oral

Welcome

Abstracts 

Suzanne Painting, Johan van der Molen, Ruth Parker, Clare Coughlan, Silvana Birchenough, Stefan Bolam, John Aldridge, Rodney Forster, Naomi Greenwood CEFAS

suzanne.painting@cefas.co.uk

A conceptual model of biogeochemical cycling was used to identify key attributes of ecosystem structure and functioning, to inform a field programme and modelling work, and to propose and develop indicators of ecosystem functioning, in support of the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). The indicators describe ecosystem attributes such as phytoplankton, zooplankton and zoobenthos productivity, benthic bioturbation, ecosystem productivity, ecosystem balance and ecosystem recycling, which are inter-linked due to cycling between pelagic and benthic food webs. Field measurements and modelling results were used to describe prevailing conditions and temporal and spatial variability in the indicators, and to evaluate the suitability of the indicators for assessing and managing the impacts of climate change and demersal trawling. Results indicate that a suite of indicators should be used, to detect changes

Abstracts | Poster

Phytoplankton nutritional quality and zooplankton feeding activity impact copepod reproduction and metabolism with important consequences for global biogeochemical cycles and marine ecology. Food quality is dependent on the algal biochemical composition and varies considerably in space and time according to community structure and environmental conditions. While the effects of protein, fatty acids and carbon content have been shown, quantitative parameterization of zooplankton physiological rates in terms of the stoichiometry of the algal N:P ratio is not well known. This study investigated the response of copepod feeding, egg production and respiration to food quality through laboratory manipulation of algal food N:P stoichiometry, collection of samples on a latitudinal transect through the Atlantic Ocean and exploration of some of the findings through ecosystem modelling (PlankTOM10). Temora longicornis females were fed Rhodomonas salina covering a range of organic N:P ratios from 8:1 to 23:1. The data confirms that algal N:P ratio and fatty acid content can be used as a food quality bioindicator. Maximum copepod egg production and respiration occurred when fed on algae with an N:P ratio of 16:1 (Redfield), confirming a strong food quality

Development of Indicators of Ecosystem Functioning for a Temperate Shelf Sea

Notes | Index

r.nobili@uea.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; SAHFOS


50

Abstracts 

|  Oral

Welcome Delegate Info

that are propagating through the ecosystem; integrated assessments of environmental status should consider the indicators in terms of human pressures, ecosystem responses, and impacts on ecosystem functioning; that indicators should be monitored routinely, using rapid assessment techniques and in situ monitoring systems; temporal and spatial variability in the North Sea need to be taken into account for determining reference conditions, and for monitoring programmes; and further development and testing is needed for indicators shown to be potentially suitable.

Understanding Freshwater Pathways in Coastal Systems Using Ocean Gliders Matthew R. Palmer, Carl Spingys, Clare O’Neill, Jeff A. Polton NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE

and Europa. The recent discovery of the presence of the hydrated form of calcium carbonate (ikaite) in sea ice in both hemispheres has strengthened the view of sea ice as an active air-sea interface in the polar carbon cycle. Ikaite forms in sea ice as a result of concentration changes that occur during seawater freezing and result in brine formation by dissolved sea salt concentration and its subsequent trapping in brine channels in sea ice. Ikaite is the least-studied of the carbonate mineral forms, with limited information on solubility and, hence, little knowledge of the formation-dissolution cycle of the mineral in the marine environment under the conditions that characterise our polar oceans currently. We report results from laboratory measurements of the solubility and dynamics of ikaite in seawater and cryogenic brines, and discuss the application of our findings to the well characterized seasonal physical changes in sea ice.

matthew.palmer@noc.ac.uk

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster

Liverpool Bay has been described as a region of freshwater influence (ROFI). The River Mersey is the major source of freshwater into the Bay and is fed by tributaries covering a wide variety of land uses including heavily populated areas, arable and livestock farming, heavy industry and chemical processing plants, finally passing through the city of Liverpool. Understanding the fate of freshwater within this system is therefore vital not only to understand the physical structure of the coastal ocean but also to identify biogeochemical, pathogen and pollutant pathways. In this paper we combine data from the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory with data from a novel deployment of an ocean glider which was deployed close to the coast over a three week period in February 2011. Glider data was successfully collected in water less than 20m depth and provided high temporal and spatial resolution, physical and biogeochemical data beyond the capability of traditional measurements made as part of the Observatory. This novel method permits identification of the development and evolution of the physical structure of the plume and the biological response to nutrient rich river water as it enters the coastal system. Glider and observatory data reveal that lateral diffusion plays a key role in freshwater dispersion in the Bay. The model dramatically underestimates this process and so unrealistically predicts transport by a fresh coastal current. Modifications are made in an attempt to improve the capabilities of coupled POLCOMS (physics) and ERSEM (ecosystem) models in reproducing plume behavior.

Autonomous Platforms for High Latitude Marine Research: Sensors, Power and Comms Ettore Pedretti, Keith Jackson, Alistair James, Shane Rodwell, Bernhard Hagan, Lovro Valcic, Jeremy Wilkinson SCOTTISH MARINE INSTITUTE; DUNSTAFFNAGE MARINE LABORATORY

ettore.pedretti@sams.ac.uk

The Physics and Sea Ice technology department at the Scottish Marine Institute (SMI) has been very active in the design and deployment of autonomous marine platforms in the arctic ocean. These platforms are automatic, consume very little power, provide unique measurement of the arctic ocean and sea-ice parameters and allow the estimation of the ice mass balance. Ice and ocean time-resolved temperature profiles and GPS position are accessible through a satellite link and the acquired data is transfered on a daily basis. The integration of pressure, light and tilt sensors is under development. In situ energy harvest from the ocean thermal mass is also under study and positive results have already been achieved. In situ energy production will allow the operation of the platforms during winter, without the need of large disposable battery packs.

Modelling Larval Migration in the Irish Sea Jack Phelps NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL; UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

jkphe@noc.ac.uk

Carbonate Minerals in Polar Oceans: The Case of Ikaite in Sea Ice Stathys Papadimitriou, Hilary Kennedy, Paul Kennedy, David Thomas BANGOR UNIVERSITY

Notes | Index

s.papadimitriou@bangor.ac.uk

The cold geochemical processes that occur in ice-water systems on Earth are poorly constrained at present. Such systems are currently intensely investigated for their role in the carbon cycle in sea-ice-covered polar oceans and also serve as models for equivalent systems on Mars

Consideration of connectivity between marine populations is essential for effective implementation of marine spatial planning techniques. Ideally one would aim to create an ecologically coherent network of marine protected areas (MPAs) which allow individuals to migrate between protected sites, without placing unnecessary restrictions upon legitimate use of our shelf seas. Many marine invertebrate species remain sessile or sedentary throughout their adult lives, therefore it is crucial that MPAs are connected through larval exchange. As planktonic larval transport is primarily dictated by hydrodynamical


Jenny Pratscher, Sophie Mazard, Jonathan D. Todd, Andrew Curson, Anthony Davy, J. Colin Murrell, Andrew W. D. Johnston, Hendrik Schaefer

SCOTTISH ASSOCIATION FOR MARINE SCIENCE

marie.porter@sams.ac.uk

If the entire Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) was to melt it would cause a predicted 7 m of global sea–level rise. While it is unlikely that this will happen in the near future, we have only limited knowledge about how the ice sheet will behave in a changing climate. The global impacts of changes within the GIS were omitted from the most recent IPCC report, which has led to renewed interest in the processes which influence it. Many recent studies investigate how the ocean influences melt at the periphery of the ice sheet. However, comparatively few consider the link between the ocean and the upper ice sheet. To fully understand the variability of the GIS it is crucial to improve our knowledge about the processes influencing both its inputs and outputs. In this study a previously unappreciated link is been identified between the mixed layer temperature (MLT) of the Irminger Sea and the accumulation rate in the accumulation zone of the south-eastern Ice Sheet. Here it is shown that, dependent upon wind direction, the MLT of the Irminger Sea has a positive relationship with the accumulation rate in south-eastern Greenland. Throughout the time period of this study the relationship is linear. However, a preliminary study in Norway suggests the possibility of a regime shift at a threshold (presently unrealised) MLT, with further increases in MLT coinciding with a decrease in accumulation rate.

The Influence of Coccolithophore Diversity on Pelagic Calcite Production and Export Alex Poulton, Chris Daniels, Jason Hopkins, Helen Smith, Laure Maugendre, Jonathan Hurst, William Balch, Jeremy Young NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; BIGELOW LABORATORY FOR OCEAN SCIENCES; UNIVERSITY OF VILLEFRANCHE; UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON

alex.poulton@noc.ac.uk

In the modern ocean, coccolithophores contribute ~50-80% of pelagic calcite production and export. Coccolithophores are almost ubiquitous, being present from warm tropical waters to polar seas. Diversity generally decreases from the central subtropical gyres

UNIVERSITY OF WARWICK, UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

j.s.pratscher@warwick.ac.uk

Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is a key organic compound in the sulfur cycle with ~109 tons of this compatible solute being made each year by marine phytoplankton, macroalgae and some salt marsh plants, e.g. the cord grass Spartina. DMSP catabolism involves its microbial cleavage to dimethyl sulfide (DMS), generating ~300 million tons each year in the oceans and their margins. DMS represents the most important transfer of biogenic sulfur from sea to air, and thence back to land. Furthermore, DMS oxidation products act as cloud condensation nuclei over the oceans, affecting global climate and atmospheric chemistry. But despite their importance, the understanding of the biochemistry, genetics, and ecology of DMSP- and DMS-degrading microorganisms is still limited. Our goal is to identify the main microbial players, including key genes and biochemical pathways that contribute to the turnover of DMSP and DMS in oxic and anoxic parts of intertidal sediments, combining geochemical and molecular biological approaches, such as stable isotope probing (SIP), DGGE, and quantitative PCR (qPCR). In this study, we performed SIP of DNA to investigate the assimilation of 13C-DMSP and 13C-DMS by microorganisms in sediment of the Stiffkey salt marsh (Norfolk), in an area with dense Spartina anglica colonisation. Incorporation of 13C into DNA and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA genes of the labelled SIP-fractions revealed the activity of specific microbial groups involved in the uptake of DMSP and DMS in surface sediments. Together with metagenomic analyses of these populations, these results provide new insights into the cycling of organic sulphur compounds.

Welcome

Marie Porter, Toby Sherwin, Brice Rea, Doug Mair

Delegate Info

Making and Breaking of DMSP and DMS in Salt Marsh Sediments

Sponsors

Do Mixed Layer Temperatures in the Ocean Control the Weather on the Greenland Ice Sheet?

Programme

to high latitude waters, where one species (Emiliania huxleyi) may form large-scale satellite-detectable blooms. However, Emiliania huxleyi has a relatively low cellular calcite inventory compared with other coccolithophores (e.g., Coccolithus pelagicus), so that its contribution to calcite production and export may be over-shadowed by other species. Here we examine results from both field (e.g., Patagonian Shelf, NW European Shelf waters, Arctic waters) and laboratory studies in the context of species composition, cellular physiology, and biogeography. These observations highlight the significant role that inter- and intra-species variability has on pelagic calcite production and export.

Abstracts | Oral

conditions, the subject has attracted significant attention from ocean modellers, however the overzealous application of two dimensional circulation models and passive Lagrangian particles have received justified criticism. Here the necessity to couple hydrodynamical models with larval behaviour models will be discussed, with emphasis upon how neglecting vertical migration, temperature-dependant pelagic durations and habitat suitability can lead to highly erroneous results. Finally some preliminary results from a modelling investigation into larval dispersal in the Irish Sea will be presented. Particular attention will be placed upon how notable physical features within the Irish Sea may facilitate larval dispersion or act to promote local retention.

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Abstracts | Poster

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Notes | Index

Abstracts 


52

Abstracts 

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Welcome

How Does Phytoplankton Respond to Iron Fertilization in Different Areas of the Southern Ocean? Fiona Preston-Whyte UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN

fionapw11@gmail.com

Delegate Info Sponsors

In the face of increasing carbon dioxide accumulation in the atmosphere and associated climate change, an understanding of important global carbon sinks such as the Southern Ocean becomes imperative. Phytoplankton, being the driver of the biological pump, needs to be understood on a level of photosynthetic efficiency, especially in relation to its limiting factors such as Iron. Here we report both observational and experimental findings from the summer months of 2009/2010 and 2010/2011, focusing on the Southern Ocean area between South Africa, Acta Bukta (Antarctica) and South Georgia. The study includes six ship based Iron enrichment incubation experiments to examine the interaction of Fe and light controls on photosynthesis. This study focuses on the phytoplankton photosynthetic responses using Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry (FRRf). The incubations are studied in conjunction with knowledge of both the biological and physical environment at the various sampling stations, which together yield an understanding on Fe and light controls on phytoplankton production in the Southern Ocean. Specifically the regional implications in the response of the phytoplankton community structure to Fe fertilization.

Programme

Spatial Extent and Historical Context of North Sea Oxygen Depletion in August 2010 Bastien Queste, Liam Fernand, Timothy Jickells, Karen Heywood UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

b.queste@uea.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Prompted by recent observations of seasonal low dissolved oxygen from two moorings in the central North Sea, a hydrographic survey in August 2010 mapped the spatial extent of summer oxygen depletion. Typical near bed dissolved oxygen saturations in the stratified regions of the North Sea were 75-80% while the well-mixed regions of the southern North Sea reached 90%. Two regions of strong thermal stratification, the area between the Dooley and Central North Sea Currents and the area known as the Oyster Grounds, had oxygen saturations as low as 65% and 70% (200 and 180 μmol dm-3) respectively. Low dissolved oxygen was apparent in regions characterised by low advection, high stratification, elevated organic matter production from the spring bloom and a deep chlorophyll maximum. The consumption of oxygen for the remineralisation of matter exported below the thermocline exceeded the supply from horizontal advection or vertical diffusion and caused a decrease in dissolved oxygen. Historical data over the last century from the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) oceanographic database highlight an increase in seasonal oxygen depletion and a warming over the past 20 years. Regions showing sub-saturation oxygen concentrations were identified in the central and northern North Sea

post-1990 where previously no depletion was identified. This correlated with an increased temperature signal but could not be entirely explained by the temperature-driven decrease in solubility. The 2010 survey is consistent with, and reinforces, the signal of recent depleted oxygen at key locations seen in the (albeit sparse) historical data.

‘Missing’ Polar Lows Enhance Deep-Water Formation in the Nordic Seas Alan Condron, Ian Renfrew UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

i.renfrew@uea.ac.uk

The atmosphere plays a key role in forcing the largescale ocean circulation by moderating the formation of deep water in the sub-polar North Atlantic. Every year thousands of intense storms – polar lows – cross this climatically sensitive region of ocean that are either too small, or short-lived, to be captured in meteorological reanalyses or numerical models. Here we show that by parameterizing ‘missing’ polar lows we are able to reproduce the high wind speeds and heat fluxes associated with individual storms, as well as their integrated effects on the ocean, in remarkable agreement with observations. In a high resolution ocean circulation model our realistic atmospheric forcing increases the frequency and area of deep convection in the Greenland and Irminger Seas, and results in an unexpectedly large increase in the volume of deep water overflowing Denmark Strait (by up to 0.5 Sv). We conclude that polar lows play an important role in driving the large-scale ocean circulation and so must be accounted for in models in order to accurately predict near-future climate. Recent studies predict a decrease in the number of polar lows over the Northeast Atlantic in the 21st Century which, based on our work, implies a reduction in deep convection and a potential weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation.

Carbonate Chemistry Dynamics in the Surface Seawater of the North-Western European Shelf Seas Victoire Rerolle, Dorothee Bakker, Gareth Lee, Matthew Mowlem, Eric Achterberg NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

victoire.rerolle@noc.soton.ac.uk

Ocean acidification is a serious cause of concern for the marine ecosystems as well as for the ocean’s capacity to absorb atmospheric CO2. A better understanding of the marine carbonate system is necessary to apprehend the ocean acidification phenomena and forecast its consequences on ecosystems and climate. Four variables of the marine carbonate system can be accurately determined directly: total dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), total alkalinity (TA) and pH. If two of the carbonate system variables are measured, along with in situ temperature, salinity and nutrient measurements, it is possible to calculate the other two. High-quality analyses of the four parameters have been performed during a cruise around the UK over a wide range of environmental


ossøø9@bangor.ac.uk

Observational data have been used to evaluate a simple model for the generation of shear spikes at the base of the upper ocean mixed layer. The model predicts that large changes in shear squared are due to alignment and magnitude of the wind and shear. The observational data from a high resolution cruise in Drake Passage have shown that the model is most effective at predicting changes in shear when shear is driven by near-inertial wind-driven currents and as stratification approaches typical open ocean values. Richardson number analysis confirms that much of the shear spiking is adequate to drive diapycnal mixing across the base of the mixed layer well in excess of background levels. Rotary spectral and statistical analysis of an additional 242 Drake Passage transects from 1999 to 2011 reveals the prevalence of shear-spiking throughout the year, with the highest associated diapycnal mixing potential occurring in northern Drake Passage during winter.

Springs-Neaps Patterns in Seabed Irradiance: An Important Control on the Depth Distribution of Benthic Algae? Martyn Roberts, David Bowers, Andrew Davies BANGOR UNIVERSITY

ospc4c@bangor.ac.uk

In a non-tidal sea, with fixed water depth and clarity, the temporal behaviour of seabed irradiance mimics that arriving at the sea surface. In a tidal sea, the changing water depth and clarity modulates the patterns in seabed irradiance. We might expect this effect to average out over time such that a tidal scenario might approximate a comparable non-tidal one. This is not necessarily the case. The typically exponential attenuation of light (Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) waveband and monochromatic light) with depth means that

Sources and Fluxes of Iron Into the Sub-Polar North Atlantic: Using Scale Analyses and Simple Modeling Studies to Resolve Data Observations

Welcome Delegate Info

Nick Rogan, Ric Williams, Claire Mahaffey, Eric Achterberg, Sebastian Steigenberger UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

n.rogan@liv.ac.uk

The subpolar North Atlantic, specifically Irminger and Iceland basins, is hypothesised to be iron-limited. The presence of excess phosphate, post-summer, is an indicator of this limitation, and is supported by bioassay experiments. A scale analysis has been carried out to estimate the sources and fluxes of dissolved iron to the Atlantic north of ~40°N. Drawing on data from specific cruises targeted at investigating this problem, as well as additional data from other sources, a first order estimate suggests that sedimentary sources, from the continental shelf and overflow sills, and transport of nutrients from lower latitudes are the dominant supplies of dissolved iron to the region. Sediment resuspension, as a source of iron to the water column, can be seen in the observational data, but the data do not reveal a specific mechanism of supply to the euphotic zone. In addition the mechanism and rate of transport from shelf locations to the open ocean is also unclear from the limited data. Similarly the data suggest a significant hydrothermal source in the observations along the Reykjanes Ridge, but it is unknown as to its relative importance with the sedimentary supply. A further scale analysis of dividing up the subpolar gyre into a shelf region and ‘boxes’ for each of the separate basins, Labrador, Iceland and Irminger, provides a clearer understanding of the spatial variability and impact of iron sources and fluxes. These analyses will be compared to regional box modeling studies based on a global box model and the scale analysis framework.

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD; BANGOR UNIVERSITY; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; SCRIPPS INSTITUTION OF OCEANOGRAPHY

Abstracts | Oral

Liam Brannigan, Yueng-Djern Lenn, Thomas Rippeth, Elaine McDonagh, Teresa Chereskin, Janet Sprintall

Abstracts | Poster

Shear-Driven Mixing at the Base of the Upper Ocean Mixed Layer

gains in seabed irradiance from mid- to low-tide can be disproportionately large compared to losses from mid- to high-tide. This effect is more pronounced if the attenuation coefficient and the tidal range are large. Furthermore, the daily sea surface irradiance curve is typically pseudoGaussian or half-sinusoidal, with a peak at midday and a finite daylength, which changes seasonally. Therefore, the times of high and low waters relative to midday and to dawn and dusk are also important. For coasts with an appreciable S2 tidal constituent, times of low water, tidal range and water clarity vary in a predictable way over the springs-neaps cycle. This should lead to predictable spring-neaps patterns in instantaneous seabed irradiance and daily totals; patterns which, in turn, vary seasonally with daylength. We present evidence of such patterns from observations at sites with contrasting S2 phases (Menai Strait, Wales and Brest, Brittany) and explore, numerically, their importance as anthropogenically (i.e. water clarity) influenced controls on the growth and depth limits of benthic algae.

53

Notes | Index

conditions, a part of the UKOARP. The work presented here focuses on surface data and investigates the air-sea CO2 fluxes in the NW European shelf seas in relation to the biological and physical forcings of the areas. The fully mixed regions of the Southern North Sea presenting low pH and high pCO2 characteristics are a source of CO2 to the atmosphere whereas the higher latitude regions at 60N with an important biological activity are a sink of CO2 (opposite pH and pCO2 characteristics to the Southern North Sea). The high spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurements provide a fantastic opportunity to study the dynamics of the marine carbonate system and to identify the optimal choice of input parameters for the study with regards to the different environments.

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Sponsors

Abstracts 


54

Abstracts 

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Novel Molecular Insights Into the Fate of N2 Fixed by Diazotrophic Plankton Welcome

Elizabeth C. Sargent, Tom S. Bibby, C. Mark Moore, Julie LaRoche, Rebecca Langlois, Alex J. Poulton UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; LEIBNIZ INSTITUTE FOR MARINE SCIENCES; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

e.sargent@noc.soton.ac.uk

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

Marine diazotrophs play an important role in oligotrophic surface oceans by fixing N2 into bioavailable forms. To date, studies of the three main groups of N2-fixing organisms in the ocean (i.e. filamentous, heterocystous, and unicellular diazotrophs) have generally been limited to assessment of their presence and function in the euphotic zone, while the role these organisms have in the export of material to the ocean’s interior has seldom been addressed. Optical assessments of sinking particulate material from the eastern subtropical and tropical Atlantic demonstrated that Trichodesmium and Richelia intracellularis were commonly present below 100 m and as deep as 500 m. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis with TaqMan probes was carried out on extracts of sinking particulate samples to 500 m to assess the presence of 5 nifH phylotypes: a single filamentous cyanobacterial probe specific to Trichodesmium, two heterocystous cyanobacterial probes specific to Richelia-Rhizosolenia and Richelia-Hemiaulus (diazotrophic diatom associations), and two unicellular cyanobacterial probes specific to the uncultured Group A and Group C cyanobacteria. These analyses revealed the presence of all of these diazotrophs below the mixed layer, which indicates previous assessments of the vertical distributions of these organisms may have overlooked the presence of diazotrophs at depth. Contrary to previous expectations, results suggest that all three groups of marine diazotrophs are constituents of sinking material and are exported out of the euphotic zone in the subtropical and tropical Atlantic Ocean, providing novel insight into the cycling of fixed nitrogen in the oligotrophic ocean.

Iron Biogeochemistry in the (Sub-) Tropical Atlantic Ocean

Abstracts | Poster

Christian Schlosser, Jessica Klar, Bronwyn Wake, David Honey, Joe Snow, Mark Moore, François-Eric Legiret, Alex Forryan, Rosie Chance, Tim Jickells, Alex Baker, Angie Milne, Maeve Lohan, Toby Grosskopf, Julie LaRoche, Rebecca Langlois, Malcolm Woodward, Eric Achterberg NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

c.schlosser@noc.soton.ac.uk

Notes | Index

Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient for phytoplankton and a low abundance of this element limits the growth of phytoplankton, including parts of the Atlantic Ocean. Sources of Fe to the euphotic zone of the tropical North Atlantic Ocean are formed by wet and dry deposition of Saharan dust and supply of iron from below the mixed layer by vertical mixing. As part of the UK GEOTRACES cruise Discovery 361, trace metal samples were collected from 19 deep casts with a titanium CTD rosette and more than 200 surface samples were taken. We aimed to address 3 issues: to quantify aeolian supply and vertically mixed inputs of Fe to the euphotic zone, to quantify the regeneration of Fe in sinking organic matter, and to determine dissolved

Fe concentrations in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the tropical Atlantic. Results indicated that dissolved Fe in the OMZ was derived from sinking remineralised biogenic material. Dissolved Fe in the areas with the highest Fe and Al concentrations in surface waters was mainly derived from aerosols. These elevated concentrations strongly coincided with the latitudinal extension of the ITCZ and high rates of rainfall containing Saharan dust. Comparison with another dataset revealed that the regions receiving high Fe inputs track the seasonal displacement of the ITCZ. This means the position of the ITCZ also controls Fe inputs, but also determines the northern and southern boundaries of the latitudinal expansion of the nitrogen fixer Trichodesmium spp. and consequently the drawdown of phosphate.

Temporal Evolution and Variability of the Antarctic Slope Front in Boreal Summer 2012 GENTOO project Sunke Schmidtko, Karen Heywood, Andrew Thompson UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

s.schmidtko@uea.ac.uk

Analysis of ship-based and ocean glider hydrographic measurements during the GENTOO project during the austral summer 2011-2012 is presented. The surveyed area was partly covered by sea ice, which extended unusually far north in February 2012, well into the Powell basin, the northwestern part of the Weddell Sea. Variations in currents in this region have global significance for ocean circulation, climate and krill ecology. Data include two hydrographic CTD sections and multiple cross shelf glider sections, occupied simultaneously by 3 Seagliders. The Seagliders were deployed to measure temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence and depth-averaged current in the upper 1000 m along sections across the Antarctic continental shelf and slope into the Weddell Sea. We present the observations of the 2012 summer variability of water mass properties, geostrophic currents and intrusions along the continental shelf break in the Powell basin. Multiple, simultaneous crossings of the Antarctic Slope Front (ASF) along its pathway revealing its characteristic V-shape give insight into its spatial and temporal evolution. The ASF separates the high biomass on the shelf with a deep (>100 m) chlorophyll signal from the uniformly low biomass in the deeper water. As expected, despite a shallow (1000 m) maximum dive depth, Antarctic Bottom Water is observed in the glider sections across the ASF near the sea bed. GENTOO demonstrates the capability of ocean gliders to play a key role in future high resolution polar ocean observing systems, by resolving temporal evolution and variabilities over a broader lateral scale than a mooring.

Atlantic and Arctic Air-Sea CO2 Fluxes, 1990-2009 Ute Schuster, Galen McKinley, et al UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

u.schuster@uea.ac.uk

The Atlantic and Arctic oceans are critical components of the global carbon cycle. Quantification of the net air-


Abstracts 

jons@liverpool.ac.uk

Vertical turbulent mixing is fundamental to ocean primary production, through its effects on the light experienced by phytoplankton and the fluxes of nutrients through the water column. Here we bring together results from several research cruises in the seasonally-stratifying Celtic Sea to provide a synthesis of how turbulence controls primary production. We will revisit the role of tidal mixing in controlling the spring bloom, and then describe the physics of horizontal patchiness of turbulent mixing and the implications for the rates of nutrient supply to the summer sub-surface chlorophyll maximum (SCM). We demonstrate that the annual primary production in the Celtic Sea is made up of contributions of about a third from the spring bloom, a third in summer fuelled by nitrogen mixed into the SCM by typical background turbulence, and a third in summer supported by strong diapycnal mixing driven by tidal flows over a few seabed banks. Mixing by stratified flow over seabed banks is a process currently not resolved by models of shelf sea physics and biogeochemistry, indicating a significant underestimation in model-derived predictions of a shelf sea’s biological carrying capacity.

Nutrient Limitation on the Diazotrophic Growth of Trichodesmium: Linking Quantitative Proteomics to Intracellular Stoichiometry and Environmental Forcing Joe Snow, Metodi Metodiev, Mark Moore, Tom Bibby, Eric Achterberg NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX

Welcome

Phytoplankton community structure has a strong influence on the nature of organic carbon (Corg) export and the strength of the Biological Carbon Pump (BCP). Previous work has hypothesised that there are significant differences in BCP strength and transfer efficiency of Corg to depth based on ecosystem structure; fundamentally between diatom and coccolithophore dominated communities. We have investigated these hypothesised relationships in the Atlantic (Jan/Feb 2011) and Indian (Feb/Mar 2012) sectors of the Southern Ocean, and more recently in the polar North Atlantic (Jun/Jul 2012). Samples for the determination of community structure were collected from the upper mixed layer and sinking particles were captured with a Marine Snow Catcher (MSC). Two classes of sinking particle were operationally defined from the MSC: slow sinking particles (>10 m d-1). Fast sinking aggregates were digitally imaged and had their sinking speed measured individually, allowing analysis of relationships between sinking speeds and bulk particle characteristics (size, shape, content). We have used multivariate statistical techniques to compare the plankton composition of the surface community with those of the slow-sinking particles and fast sinking aggregates. Our results provide new insights into the factors influencing plankton composition in the Arctic and Southern Ocean, and also reveal new information on how this links to Corg export from the surface ocean.

Delegate Info

h.smith@noc.soton.ac.uk

Sponsors

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; BANGOR UNIVERSITY

Helen Smith, Alex Poulton, Richard Sanders, Richard Lampitt

Abstracts | Oral

Jonathan Sharples, Mark Moore, Tom Rippeth

Phytoplankton Community Composition and Carbon Export in the Arctic and Southern Ocean

j.snow@noc.soton.ac.uk

Trichodesmium spp. are colonial diazotrophic cyanobacteria that are thought to dominate the crucial process of nitrogen fixation in the northern and central Atlantic. Here we quantitatively link Trichodesmium’s macromolecular composition to both the intracellular metal stoichiometry and nutrient uptake rates. Recent culture

Abstracts | Poster

The Turbulent Foundations of Shelf Sea Primary Production

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sea CO2 flux across several methodologies is needed for consistent time and space scales in order to assess the state of our understanding. Here, we quantify the longterm mean, seasonal cycle, interannual variability and trends in air-sea CO2 flux for the period 1990 to 2009 using regional cuts from global observations and modelling products, specifically a pCO2-based CO2 flux climatology, ocean inversion, atmospheric inversions, and ocean models, and basin-wide flux estimates from surface ocean pCO2 observations. We will present our best estimate of the net uptake by the Atlantic (40ºS to 79ºN), and by the Arctic for the two decades. There is broad agreement between methodologies with respect to the seasonal cycle in the subtropics, but not elsewhere. Agreement with respect to detailed signals of interannual variability is poor; and correlations to the North Atlantic Oscillation Index are weaker in the North Atlantic and Arctic than in the equatorial region and south Subtropics. Linear trends for 1995 to 2009 indicate increased uptake and generally correspond between methodologies in the North Atlantic, but there is disagreement between approaches in the equatorial region and south Subtropics. This study is a contribution to the global effort for REgional Carbon Cycle Assessment and Processes (RECCAP).

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56

Abstracts 

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Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors

work has shown a number of novel nutrient acquisition and compensatory adaptations exhibited by Trichodesmium spp. and other cyanobacteria. Our approach thus offers the possibility to take these observations and apply them to environmental samples. Samples were collected aboard the RRS Discovery cruise D361 and AMT 21, both covering a North-South transect believed to show the transition between iron limitation of diazotrophy activity in the south to phosphorus limitation in the north. The macromolecular composition was determined by LC-MS/MS AQUA proteomics, intracellular metal and phosphorous concentrations via acid digestion and ICPMS, whilst 15N labeling and EA-IRMS were employed to derive cellular N concentrations along with nitrogen fixation rates and 55Fe labeling to derive cellular Fe uptake. We then relate differential protein profiles, variability in intracellular metal stoichiometry and nutrient uptake rates to environmental forcing and in particular surface nutrient distributions. Coupling advanced quantitative proteomics with high-sensitivity intracellular analyses and highresolution nutrient distribution patterns we aim to link the novel nature of this cyanobacterium to its significant role in the global nitrogen cycle.

Recent Warming in the Cayman Trough – New Observations of the Deep-Water Hydrography and Circulation

Cooling of the West Spitsbergen Current: Turbulence Measurements West of Svalbard Edward Steele, Timothy Boyd, Mark Inall PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY

edward.steele@plymouth.ac.uk

The role of turbulence is critical in the redistribution of heat and salt in boundary currents of the high-latitude oceans. In the Arctic, the warm, saline waters of Atlantic origin are carried northwards by the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), whose properties are typically 3.5ºC and 35 on entry to the Arctic basin. While the subsequent, fast along-stream cooling of the WSC is well-known, the process by which this heat flux occurs is still an area of active research. The variability in turbulence characteristics, measured in July 2010, within and across the shoreward edge of WSC forms the basis of the present study. Ship-based Conductivity, Temperature and Depth (CTD) instruments and a vertical free-fall micro-structure sensor (MSS) provided profiles of water properties and turbulence parameters, while an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) recorded complimentary horizontal profiles across the edge of the WSC. The impact of mixing on the cooling of the WSC is assessed. In addition, comparison of the data concurrently sampled by the MSS and the AUVmounted turbulence packages illustrates the capacity of these platforms to resolve small scale variability in both the vertical and the horizontal.

Programme

Kate Stansfield, Sarah Taws NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

ks1@noc.soton.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

The Mid-Cayman Spreading Centre (MCSC) – situated in the northwest Caribbean – is the world’s deepest seafloor spreading centre, with depths along the axis ranging from 4200 m to >6000 m. Until recently few measurements of the deep water properties, and no measurements of the abyssal circulation in the MCSC existed. Here we present results from a recent cruise from which detailed measurements of the deep water properties and deep-water circulation of the MCSC were made. Sampling techniques included use of a CTD/LADCP package deployed from the ship; a CTD package mounted upon the Autosub6000 AUV and a short mooring deployment (10 days) with a current meter at 100-m above the sea-floor. Early analysis suggests that temperature and salinity properties below ~2000 m are indicative of modified North Atlantic Deep Water, which potentially enter the Caribbean via the Windward Passage and flow along the Oriente Fracture Zone. Data from the mooring illustrates that currents are relatively weak (~4 cm/s) and flow predominantly northeastwards. There is also some evidence of diurnal variability particularly in the eastward velocity component. Finally, there is evidence to suggest that deep water properties have experienced a warming, of ~0.03°C, which is consistent with the abyssal temperature rise also observed to the south in the Venezuela basin.

Effect of Elevated pCO2 on the Production of Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and Dimethylsulfide (DMS) in Two Species of Ulva (Chlorophyceae) Michael Steinke, Phil Kerrison, Mark Breckels, Esther Borell UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX; INTERUNIVERSITY INSTITUTE FOR MARINE SCIENCES, ISRAEL

msteinke@essex.ac.uk

Concentrations of the secondary algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and its breakdown product, the climate-active gas dimethylsulfide (DMS), are sensitive to changes in pCO2. Data on the response of marine macroalgae to future pCO2 levels are lacking. Here we report the first measurements of DMSP and DMS production in two species of chlorophyte macroalgae (Ulva lactuca and U. clathrata). Laboratory cultures were grown in pH-stated medium that received pulses of CO2 to create pCO2 conditions ranging from ambient (385 µatm) to future (1514 µatm). Intracellular concentration of DMSP remained unaffected in both species (101 ± 21 and 69 ± 20 mmol g-1 FW in U. lactuca and U. clathrata, respectively) but significant differences in extracellular production of DMSP and DMS were observed for U. lactuca. Whilst production of total DMSP (the sum of external DMSP and DMS) was different between replicated experiments, the percentage of total DMSP produced throughout each experiment increased significantly by up to 65% with increasing pCO2 to 1514 µatm. In contrast, DMS production decreased from 0.4 to 0.25 nmol g-1 FW h-1. This decrease was not a linear function of pCO2 but an almost 50% step-wise loss of DMS production was


David Todd, Alejandro Souza, Colin Jago, Rodolfo Bolanos

j.r.taylor@damtp.cam.ac.uk

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL

Submesoscales, Turbulence, and Phytoplankton Blooms Recent advances in numerical modelling and observational techniques have shown that the upper ocean is filled with a rich collection of dynamical features on scales between 1-10 km. These ‘submesoscales’ are less constrained by the earth’s rotation than their larger (~100 km) ‘mesoscale’ counterparts. As a result, the vertical velocity associated with submesoscales can be elevated by an order of magnitude compared to mesoscales. Previous studies have shown that in oligotrophic waters, large vertical velocities associated with submesoscale features can trigger phytoplankton blooms by drawing nutrients towards the surface. Here, we will present evidence that submesoscales can also trigger phytoplankton blooms in light-limited conditions. Many of the instabilities that generate submesoscale motions feed off of available potential energy, and ultimately lead to an increase in the vertical density stratification. Turbulence-capturing large-eddy simulations indicate that this restratification suppresses vertical mixing in the upper ocean, triggering phytoplankton blooms in otherwise light-limited conditions. Implications for the timing of the spring phytoplankton bloom, and efforts to represent submesoscale dynamics in ocean models will also be discussed.

Horizontal Evolution of Tidally Modulated Buoyant Pumes as Observed With an AUV Based Microstructure Profiler Matthew Toberman, Mark Inall, Tim Boyd SCOTTISH ASSOCIATION FOR MARINE SCIENCE

matthew.toberman@sams.ac.uk

The tidally modulated outflow of brackish water from a sea loch forms a thin stable surface layer that propagates into the coastal ocean as a buoyant gravity current, transporting nutrients and sediments, as well as fresh water, heat and momentum. The fresh intrusion propagates as an undular bore, and the introduced stratification supports trains of non-linear internal waves (NLIWs). In February 2011 an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) was used on repeated reciprocal transects to make simultaneous CTD, ADCP and shear microstructure measurements of the evolution of these phenomena in conjunction with conventional mooring measurements. AUV-based temperature and salinity signals of NLIWs of depression were observed together with increased turbulent kinetic

davdda@noc.ac.uk

Suspended particular matter (SPM) is a highly variable and important aspect of estuarine systems. It determines turbidity; impacting water quality, generates benthic fluff, modifies biogeochemical exchanges, and constrains primary productivity. Further, SPM carries biogeochemical components (e.g. carbon, nitrogen), deciding the fates of anthropogenic system inputs. Outside of the non-cohesive fraction (sand), little is known of the properties of estuarine SPM (i.e. sizes, densities, settling velocities) and how these impact fine particle entrainment and sedimentation as most SPM is in the form of flocs (aggregates of dead and living organic matter, cohesive inorganic matter, and water) that are modified by conventional sampling methods (easily ruptured and/or may aggregate during sampling). As such we lack reliable information on parameters such as settling velocities, particularly since floc properties change on a range of time scales: tidal (suspension/advection), lunar (spring-neap cycle), and seasonal (storm resuspension and biological production). Turbulence is an important mediator of floc characteristics; low turbulence promotes collisions and flocculation, while high levels cause shear-induced rupture, literally tearing flocs apart. Because of this, turbulence parameterisation is key to understanding the relationship between turbulence and particle size. The results of an extensive field campaign and flocculation modelling of the Dee estuary (N.W. United Kingdom) are presented, investigating the fates of SPM. Using data from a combination of acoustics, optics, moored deployments and CTD stations, a 1-D (GOTM) model shows variation across tidal, spring-neap, and seasonal time-scales, extended through the use of Son & Hsu’s 2011 flocculation formula to predict D50 particle sizes.

Comparative Metatranscriptome Analysis of Eukaryotic Phytoplankton Communities From Distinct Latitudinal Temperature Zones

Welcome Delegate Info

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

Sponsors

Analysis and Modelling of Turbulence-Controlled Flocculation in a Macro-Tidal Estuary

Programme

John Taylor, Raffaele Ferrari

Abstracts | Oral

Turbulence, Submesoscales, and Phytoplankton Blooms

energy dissipation rates of over two orders of magnitude within and in the wake of the NLIWs. Repeated measurements over several tidal cycles allow a unique opportunity to investigate the horizontal structure of these phenomena, the interaction of each tidally driven pulse with ambient stratification and the remnants of previous plumes, as well as the genesis of and subsequent mixing induced by the NLIWs.

57

Andrew Toseland, Jan Strauss, Christiane Uhlig, Klaus Valentin, Vincent Moulton, Thomas Mock UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

a.toseland@uea.ac.uk

Phytoplankton form the basis of the marine food chain and produce upwards of 50% of the earth’s oxygen. However, increasing sea surface temperatures are believed to be responsible for globally decreasing phytoplankton

Notes | Index

indicated between 635 and 884 µatm, a pCO2 predicted for the next 100 years. Ulva spp. form massive harmful blooms (‘green tides’) that can occur free-floating and faraway (>100 km) from the coast. Hence, a loss of DMS production in macroalgae could weaken the DMSdependent cooling of the remote marine boundary layer and may accelerate warming.

|  Oral

Abstracts | Poster

Abstracts 


58

Abstracts 

|  Oral

Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors

numbers. In order to study the effects of temperature on naturally occurring phytoplankton communities, we sampled, sequenced and analysed in-silico, whole population mRNA samples of eukaryotic phytoplankton communities from tropical (TRO), temperate (TEM) and polar (POL) environments. PhymmBL taxonomic analysis confirmed the dominance of transcripts originating from the phytoplankton groups – dinoflagellata and bacillariophyta in all samples. Comparative analyses (multidimensional scaling, GO term enrichment, comparisons with species specific transcriptomics) revealed a clear separation of polar and tropical phytoplankton metabolic activity, and an enrichment of transcripts involved in protein biosynthesis in POL and TEM compared to TRO. In contrast, metabolism in TRO was dominated by ion transport, regulation of photosynthesis, and protein catabolism. Suggesting that increasing surface ocean temperatures may influence natural communities of phytoplankton by shifting their metabolism away from protein biosynthesis with implications on marine carbon cycling under global warming.

UK GEOTRACES: Coupled Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopes Trace Nitrate Movement Within South Atlantic Water Masses (40°S) Robyn Tuerena, Raja Ganeshram, Walter Geibert, Anthony Fallick, Andrew Tait, Julie Dougans, Malcolm Woodward

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH

e.e.tuerena@sms.ed.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Stable nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotopes of nitrate (NO 3-) have been measured on two cruises across a South Atlantic transect at 40°S (D357 and JC068). Depth profiles are used to identify changes to isotope signatures between water masses and to understand the integrated scale of NO3- cycling processes. Coupled N and O isotope measurements show correlations through the water column with δ18ONO3 consistently lower in deeper water (below ~300m), an indication of NO3- regeneration from organic matter as the principal source of NO3- to all water masses. Mean deep ocean δ15NNO3 and δ18ONO3 values for the Cape basin, of 5.1 ‰ and 1.9 ‰, respectively, were measured, and deviations are identified in the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW). Lower NADW δ15NNO3 values of ~4.5 ‰ correlate with typical low nutrient and high N:P values. This preliminary data may indicate nitrogen fixation in Atlantic surface waters and release of lighter N through sinking particles in the NADW. This depleted isotopic signal may help quantify the extent of nitrogen fixation in the North Atlantic. In contrast, the AAIW shows relative enrichment to ~5.8 ‰, indicating partial utilization of NO3- from the Southern Ocean. These results will be supplemented with further samples from the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean, to help identify nitrogen fixation rates in relation to micronutrient and oxygen availability, and trace the transport of NO3- through the Atlantic.

Using Marine Spatial Planning as a Tool to Manage Non-Native Species in the Shetland Islands Jacqueline Tweddle NAFC MARINE CENTRE

jacqueline.tweddle@nafc.uhi.ac.uk

Marine environmental policy is an important aspect of the current European, UK and Scottish environmental agenda. The development of the Shetland Marine Spatial Plan (SMSP) was initiated by the Scottish Government, and it has been implemented on a voluntary basis since 2008. So far, it has successfully been used as a tool to guide developers and others in putting their proposals for changes to existing uses (such as aquaculture and fishing) and introduction of new uses (such as expansion of ports, renewable energy and oil and gas infrastructure). More recently, it has been used by managers to voluntarily close sea areas to scallop dredge fishing and develop oil spill contingency planning to protect important habitats. Through policy, it provides suggestions, proposes directions and highlights opportunity for development. This presentation will demonstrate the unquestionable benefits of spatial management, with a focus on using GIS to map the distribution of non-native marine species around the Shetland Islands and how this will assist in implementation of marine policy.

The Role of Ocean Acidification on Coccolithophore Distributions in Polar and Temperate Seas Toby Tyrrell, Alex Poulton, Anastasia Charalampopoulou, Eithne Tynan, Jeremy Young NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

tt@noc.soton.ac.uk

While anthropogenic CO2 is accumulating in all surface waters, it has a more pronounced impact on the carbonate chemistry of high latitude oceans which have naturally high CO2 concentrations due to temperature effects on CO2 solubility. Therefore, in polar oceans, the influx of anthropogenic CO2 adds to an already very high baseline level of CO2. This in turn depresses Ω, the saturation state with respect to CaCO3, which is lowest in high latitude oceans. There is therefore much concern as to the fate of calcifying organisms in future polar oceans where the onset of CaCO3 undersaturation occurs earliest. This presentation reviews evidence from many recent observational studies of coccolithophores in polar and temperate seas: the Arctic Ocean between Tromsø and Svalbard, northwest European shelf seas, the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea, the Patagonian Shelf, the Bay of Biscay, and Drake Passage in the Southern Ocean. They are seen to be completely absent from some of the high latitude seas (further south in the Southern Ocean, during winter in the Arctic near to Svalbard, in the Baltic Sea) but conversely to bloom elsewhere (for instance the Barents Sea and the Patagonian Shelf). A number of different suggestions have been made as to how ocean acidification might impact on coccolithophores. We evaluate these hypotheses by comparing to the observational evidence from the studies listed. In particular we consider whether it is the wintertime conditions that


Abstracts  Isopycnal Mixing in the Southern Ocean

LIVERPOOL UNIVERSITY

vandenberg@liv.ac.uk

Suwannee River humic acid acts as ligand for iron, copper and other metals when added to seawater and these have been shown to compete for this ligand. Humic-like substances in seawater have been shown to bind iron too. Competition by copper would mean that the chemistry of iron is affected by variations in the copper concentration. This could cause the bioavailability of iron to vary too. The presence of iron-binding and copper-binding organic ligands in coastal waters (Irish Sea) was ascertained by cathodic stripping voltammetry. Specific detection of the iron-binding humics in the presence and absence of copper showed that copper strongly affected the iron complexation by these ligands. This is the first evidence for metal competition between iron and the natural ligands in coastal waters.

Isopycnal mixing rates in the Southern Ocean are diagnosed using effective diffusivities derived from a passive tracer in the OCCAM 1/12 degree eddy-resolving ocean model. The zonally averaged mixing has a subsurface maximum at 500 – 1000m depth in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which shoals towards the north, with weaker mixing in the upper core of the current. The mixing rates vary by an order of magnitude along the course of the ACC, with high mixing rates downstream of the Kerguelen Plateau, Campbell Plateau and Scotia Sea, and mainly weak mixing elsewhere. The processes governing the contrasting mixing rates are explored, and the implications for parameterising isopycnal mixing in non eddy-resolving models are discussed.

Investigating the Upwelling and Bloom Dynamics of the Galician North Atlantic Shelf Using Seagliders Christopher Walker Brown, Jan Kaiser, Karen Heywood, Carol Robinson

Delegate Info

Stan van den Berg, Alessio Castelletti

m.wadley@uea.ac.uk

Welcome

Martin Wadley, David Stevens

University of East Anglia

Competition Between Metals for Complexing Ligands in Seawater

59

Sponsors

are critical in determining the viability of a location for coccolithophores.

|  Oral

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Melting of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet would result in a global sea level rise of at least 3 metres. Accurate models are required in order to understand the timescales in which this might happen and these models require quantification of a number of components. One such component is the basal melt rate of ice shelves, the floating extensions of ice sheets. Ice shelves are known to act as buttresses to ice sheets, hence their presence is significant in terms of slowing the drainage of continental ice into the ocean. Ice shelves lose much of their mass through basal melt where they are in contact with relatively warm oceanic water. It is necessary to quantify the heat supply to the ice base and its melting rate and furthermore to understand the processes that drive this heat supply, yet direct oceanic observations in the ice shelf cavity are challenging to make. Between November 2011 and January 2012, instruments were deployed through ~370 m of ice from field camps on the Larsen C and George VI ice shelves. These deployments provided the first data acquired through a borehole from beneath the Larsen C ice shelf and the first microstructure shear measurements ever made beneath an ice shelf. Thermohaline staircase formations were present in CTD data from the double diffusive environment beneath George VI Ice Shelf, while microstructure observations suggest a dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy O(108 W kg-1). Currents of 10-15 cms-1 were observed at the ice base in both locations.

Abstracts | Oral

eminab@nerc.ac.uk

Abstracts | Poster

BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

Wind driven summertime upwelling events along the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula help fertilize one of Europe’s most productive oceanic regions. The dynamics and biogeochemistry of this system were investigated using a Seaglider, completing 17 zonal transects in summer 2010 traversing the shelf, continental slope and open ocean at 42.1° N. Onboard instruments measured temperature, salinity, 650 nm optical backscatter, chlorophyll a fluorescence and oxygen. We present the first high temporal resolution estimates of net community production (NCP) for the Iberian shelf region, in conjunction with temperature, salinity, chlorophyll and surface wind data. Two phytoplankton bloom events occurred, with a maximum NCP O2 productions of 157 and 198 mmol m-2 day-1. Between these two events, the region remained net autotrophic, with an average NCP of 62 mmol O2 m-2 day-1 over the 17 transects. Net community respiration (averaging -43 mmol O2 m-2 d-1) only occurred for 11 days of particularly calm weather between the 2nd and the 13th June. A lag of three days and a change in wind direction and strength from W to NE to 4.7ms-1 and 11.2ms-1 was associated with a change from heterotrophic to autotrophic conditions, highlighting both the importance of the region for carbon sequestration, and the impact of short timescale physical processes on NCP.

Notes | Index

Emily Venables

Programme

c.brown3@uea.ac.uk

Turbulence and Mixing Beneath Antarctic Ice Shelves


60

Abstracts 

|  Oral

Does Marine Conservation Work? Evaluating Management Strategies for Bait Collection Welcome

Joanna Murray, Gordon Watson, Martin Schaefer, Adam Bonner UNIVERSITY OF PORTSMOUTH

gordon.watson@port.ac.uk

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

Bait collection is a contentious issue in UK coastal areas as it removes target species (e.g. Nereis virens and Arenicola marina), damages benthic communities, disturbs wading birds and alters the physical characteristics of the mudflat. The Solent region contains a number of Special Areas of Conservation and Special Protection Areas which designate the protection of inter-tidal mudflats. However, collection of bait remains a public right in these areas, although it can be regulated indirectly by a variety of local authority, public health, conservation and fisheries byelaws. The project evaluates the efficacy of three local management methodologies (a Special Nature Conservation Order, a byelaw to protect moorings, and zonation combined with licensing) in meeting their primary objectives (protecting habitats and biodiversity and other shore users). CCTV cameras were installed to monitor bait collection (location and time spent digging per individual) and bird activity in relation to disturbance at each site over a number of tidal cycles. Macrofauna and sediment cores were taken inside and outside the managed areas and analysed for species diversity, abundance and sediment characteristics. In addition, biological traits of key species will be used to identify changes in the functional structure of the communities due to bait collection, whilst the CCTV footage will confirm if collectors adhere to the rules. The results of this study will be used to inform the future management of inter-tidal soft sediment resources in the context of the new UK MCZ process.

Strain-Induced Shear Instability in Liverpool Bay Abstracts | Oral

Juliane U. Wihsgott, Matthew R. Palmer NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

jugott@noc.ac.uk

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Liverpool Bay is a shallow subsection of the eastern Irish Sea with large tides (10m) which drive strong tidal currents in excess of 1m/s. The Bay also receives a significant amount of freshwater input from several English and Welsh rivers that is sufficient to maintain an extensive region of freshwater influence (ROFI). The interaction of the resultant horizontal density gradient and strong tidal currents strains freshwater over denser pelagic water at the tidal frequency resulting in strain-induced periodic stratification (SIPS), a process that impacts heavily on local mixing. Understanding turbulence and stratification is of critical importance to quantify freshwater transport (including associated nutrients, sediments and pollutant loads). Recent work identified that SIPS regularly separates the water column to produce two counter rotating layers which results in strong mid-water shear with the potential to induce shear instability and promote diapycnal mixing. We present new data from a short, high intensity process study which provides evidence of mid-water instability and mixing. We will also use a decade of measurements collected as part of the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

(CObs) to put these preliminary results into a long term perspective. We will quantify the significance of this midwater process in coastal mixing and compare our results with that of a model which utilises a commonly used turbulence closure scheme to assess current predictive capability and suggest model improvements.

An Ocean Carbon Budget Without Expletives! Peter Williams UNIVERSITY OF BANGOR

pjlw@bangor.ac.uk

The title of the paper by Burd and a host of co-authors (DSRII 2010 57 1557) “What the @$#! is wrong with the present calculations of organic carbon budgets!” paraphrases their findings. I have gone through the various components of the budget for the dark zones of the oceans and by contrast have concluded that, given a modicum of judgement, the budget can be constrained quite well without resorting to four character words. Estimates of export from the euphotic zone range from 290-2,650 TmolC/annum, but can be reasonably constrained to 500-1,500 (geometric mean 800±120) TmolC/annum. I use this range to constrain other aspects of the budget. Of the export material 80-90% is consumed within the mesopelagic zone, only 100 TmolC/annum passes down to the bathypelagic zone. The problem Burd identified comes up when the measured rates are considered. I have adopted the philosophy that if, with confidence, you can set constraints, then rates that fall outside these constraints can be deemed to be wrong and justifiably ignored. Using this principle, I get a geometric mean measured consumption rate of 800±130 TmolC/annum for the mesopelagic zone and 75±17 TmolC/annum for the bathypelagic zone, i.e. a total of 875±131 TmolC/annum. Thus the mean estimate for consumption within the dark zone of the ocean is not significantly different from the independent estimate of the export into the dark zone – so the budget’s looking healthy. There are undeniably some problems over microbial rates to sort out and no doubt lessons to be learned.

The Influence of Polar Tides on Ice Sheet Dynamics in the Past, Present and Future Sophie-Berenice Wilmes, Mattias Green, James Scourse BANGOR UNIVERSITY

osp001@bangor.ac.uk

Tides influence polar climate through a number of mechanisms, e.g., internal mixing processes which subsequently affect the vertical stratification of the water column and have the potential to alter the circulation and heat transport in the Polar Regions. Further, they impact the fracturing and movement of ice sheets which are of major importance for not only the regional but also the global climate. Historical changes in bathymetry led to significant changes in tidal dynamics in the Arctic. Recent simulations showed that the Labrador Sea and the Canadian Archipelago may have experienced megatides during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM, 21 kyr BP) (Griffiths and Peltier, 2008). These megatides may have played a role


We simulate the descent of a dense water cascade into ambient stratification representing the main water masses of the Arctic Ocean at Fram Strait. The cascade under investigation originates in the Storfjorden, a sillfjord in the Svalbard Archipelago where intense sea ice formation produces significant amounts of near-freezing brine-enriched shelf water. From the sill the overflowing dense water sinks into Fram Strait down the continental slope. On its descent the cascade encounters a layer of warm, saline Atlantic Water which occupies a depth range of approximately 200-500m. Our study uses a highresolution 3-D numerical ocean model (NEMO) with a 1 km resolution in the horizontal and 42 levels in the vertical. The model geometry is an idealised conical slope based on the bathymetry of western Svalbard. In a series of model runs we vary the inflow rate ‘Q’ and the salinity ‘S’ of the simulated Storfjorden overflow to investigate both strong (high Q and/or S) and weak (low Q and/ or S) cascading conditions. The model reproduces well the mixing of the plume with the warm Atlantic Water to identify the depth ranges into which the flow penetrates under different initial conditions and quantifies the fluxes of shelf waters into the different layers of the ambient waters. The model results compare well with previously measured characteristics of cascaded and ambient waters in Fram Strait, revealing the capability of the model to predict the fate of cascaded shelf waters under a variety of initial conditions.

The Distribution of Dissolved Zinc in the South Atlantic as Part of the UK GEOTRACES Programme Neil Wyatt, Angela Milne, Malcolm Woodward, Gideon Henderson, Paul Worsfold, Maeve Lohan PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY; PLYMOUTH MARINE INSTITUTE; PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

neil.wyatt@plymouth.ac.uk

We report the first comprehensive dataset of dissolved zinc along the South Atlantic 40º S latitudinal line as part of the NERC funded UK GEOTRACES programme. To date there is little understanding of the supply of zinc, an essential requirement for phytoplankton, to this highly productive region of the Atlantic Ocean. To address this issue we utilized a modified Flow Injection Analysis (FIA) method,

Welcome Delegate Info

fred.wobus@plymouth.ac.uk

Long-Term Changes in Sea Surface Temperature and Response of the Local Weather and Marine Environment Around Oman Veerabhadrasarma Yellepeddi SULTAN QABOOS UNIVERSITY

sarma@squ.edu.om

Regime shifts in the sea surface temperature (SST) and associated environmental parameters were investigated using a 50 year (1961-2010) record of SST off Muscat and off Masirah along Oman. Transition from quasi-steady state appears to have occurred recently in SST in the seas around Oman. Regime shifts in SST occurred several times on shorter time scales prior to 1984 but a notable shift in SST occurred after 1984 when the mean annual SST increased by 0.53°C off Masirah and by 0.32°C off Muscat. A generalized additive model was developed to simulate the bimodal variability of the SST at the selected locations which showed that amplitude and period of heating/ cooling are smaller and shorter off Muscat compared to Masirah. An increase in summer warming coupled with decrease in winter cooling rendered the upper ocean warmer after 1984, a condition that impacted biological productivity of the region. Anomalous increase in SST during the month of May in the study region was observed before the severe cyclones “Gonu” in 2007 and “Phet” in 2009 hit the Oman coast. Massive and protracted periods of harmful algal blooms (HABs) during recent years coincided with large variability in the sea surface height (SSH) anomalies and the shift in the SST. The correlations among the mean annual SST, rainfall and the multivariate ENSO Index (MEI) show that the influence of El NinoSouthern Oscillation (ENSO) is evident on the SST regimes and rainfall variability off Muscat and Masirah.

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF PLYMOUTH

Abstracts | Oral

Fred Wobus, Georgy Shapiro, John Huthnance, Miguel Maqueda

Abstracts | Poster

An Idealised Modelling Study of an Arctic Dense Water Cascade Piercing the Atlantic Layer

with a detection limit of 14 pM. Vertical zinc profiles displayed nutrient-like distributions with distinct gradients associated with the different South Atlantic water masses. Surface values of 15 pM were observed which represents the lowest zinc concentrations reported for the Atlantic Ocean and Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean. These extremely low concentrations may limit phytoplankton growth. Highest deep water zinc concentrations (9.55 nM) were found in the Argentine Basin associated with the northward flow of Antarctic Bottom Waters and the possible re-suspension of zinc rich particulates within the nepheloid zone. A strong correlation was observed between zinc and silicate across the entire study region with the highest zinc to silicate ratios observed in the upper 800 m. By utilizing Si* as a tracer for Subantarctic Mode Water, we suggest that these waters were formed in the northern frontal zones of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, regions of low zinc and silicate concentrations. Our data suggests that the preferential removal of zinc in these formation regions prevented a direct return path for zinc to the surface layers of the South Atlantic, maintaining extremely low surface zinc values.

61

Notes | Index

in destabilizing the adjacent ice sheets leading to rapid ice discharge into the polar North Atlantic and disrupting the meridional overturning circulation. The current global warming trend is expected to result in a sea level rise of up to two metres (Pfeffer et al., 2008). This may change the tidal dynamics, thus, affecting calving rates and ice sheet movement. These issues will be discussed by modelling both the changes in the polar tides in the past and future and exploring their impact on ice sheet dynamics.

|  Oral

Sponsors

Abstracts 


62

Abstractsâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;

|â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Oral

Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors

On the Wind Power Input to the Ocean General Circulation

The Southern Ocean Overturning: Localised Control of a Global Juncture

Xiaoming Zhai, Helen Johnson, David Marshall, Carl Wunsch

Jan Zika, Alberto Naveira Garabato

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

xiaoming.zhai@uea.ac.uk

jan.david.zika@gmail.com

The wind power input to the ocean general circulation is usually calculated from the time-averaged wind products. Here this wind power input is re-examined using available observations, focusing on the role of the synopticallyvarying wind. Power input to the ocean general circulation is found to increase by over 70% when the 6-hourly wind is used instead of the monthly wind. Much of the increase occurs in the storm-track regions of the Southern Ocean, Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. Synoptic winds are also efficient in taking energy out of the ocean when the ocean surface velocity is accounted for in the stress calculation, leading to a reduction of power input by about one-third. Depending on the fate of the high-frequency wind power input, the power input to the ocean general circulation relevant to deep ocean mixing may be less than previously thought. This study emphasizes the difficulty of choosing appropriate forcing for ocean-only models.

The Southern Ocean is a critical juncture in the global ocean circulation. Recent studies point to the importance of particular topographic features in setting its circumpolar dynamics. Here, results from a range of eddying numerical models are presented. We find that transient eddy processes do not act uniformly to flatten zonal gradients of isopycnals. Rather, they appear to act more strongly on topographically controlled meanders of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) leading to localised regions of vertical exchange. In addition, variations in the transport of the ACC are set less by variations in the zonally averaged winds but by local variations of the forcing in regions of strong topographic interaction. The mechanisms involved in establishing isolated zones of influence in the Southern Ocean are discussed, as well as implications for the Southern Ocean Overturning and its response to future climate change.

Programme Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index


|  Poster

List of Posters Poster authors are requested to stand beside their poster for the 90 minutes of their allocated session

Poster session A

63

Welcome

Abstracts 

Tuesday 4 September 14:00–15:30

field in the Southern Ocean: microstructure and finestructure data from DIMES Katy Sheen, Alex Brearley, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Stephanie Waterman, National Oceanography Centre

A3: Modelling the DIMES tracer in the Southern Ocean

Martin Wadley, David Stevens, University of East Anglia

A4: How well do climate models represent the Southern Ocean?

Céline Heuzé, Karen Heywood, David Stevens, Jeff Ridley, University of East Anglia, MetOffice

A5: How have the Southern Subpolar Gyres responded to recent climate change?

Craig Rye, Paul Holland, Mike Meredith, George Nurser, Alberto Naveira Garabato, National Oceanography Centre

A6: Variability of volume transport of the Antarctic Slope Current in the southeast Weddell Sea

Karen Heywood, Cedric Chavanne, University of East Anglia

A7: Tidal impacts on West Antarctic Ice shelves

Sebastian Rosier, Mattias Green, James Scourse, Bangor University

A8: Methods of improving landfast sea ice modelling Nuala Carson, Miguel Angel Morales Maqueda, Clare Postlethwaite, Harry Leach, University of Liverpool

A9: Bottom and under-ice boundary layers in Nares Strait

Peter Davis, Helen Johnson, Andreas Muenchow, Humfrey Melling, University of Oxford

A10: Brine rejection and dense water cascades in the Arctic Ocean

Clare Postlethwaite, Maria Luneva, National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool

Delegate Info

A12: Icebridge dissolution in Nares Strait, Canadian Archipelago

Louise Biddle, Helen Johnson, Andreas Muenchow, University of Oxford

A13: Shear turbulence below the base of the well mixed layer

Alan Grant, Stephen Belcher, University of Reading

Sponsors

A2: Turbulent mixing rates and the internal wave

A14: Internal wave attractors

Robert Sutton, Stuart Dalziel, Cambridge University

A15: Studies of South Atlantic Ocean circulation and sea level variability

Kathryn Jones, National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool

A16: How do changing winds affect regional sea level?

Programme

Alexander Brearley, Alberto Naveira Garabato, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

Manuela Sansiviero, Miguel Angel Morales Maqueda, Daniela Flocco, Giorgio Budillon, University of Naples, National Oceanography Centre, Centre for Polar Observation and Modelling

Simon Holgate, G.Wöppelmann, M.Karpytchev, National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool & University of la Rochelle

A17: What is the steric contribution to sea level change and how does it vary with time?

Clare Bellingham, Simon Holgate, Ric Williams, Doug Smith, University of Liverpool, National Oceanography Centre

A18: Evidence of Greenland Sea water at 24º N from

Abstracts | Oral

to the East of Drake Passage: first year results from the DIMES mooring array

Terra Nova Bay polynya and its interaction with coastline geometry and land fast ice

the Greenland Sea Tracer Experiment

Marie-Jose Messias, Andrew Watson, Peter Brown, Brian King, University of East Anglia

A19: On ocean-atmosphere time scales

John Huthnance, National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool

A20: The OSMOSIS project: Better understanding of the ocean surface boundary layer

Stephen Belcher, Alberto Naveira Garabato, David Marshall, Tom Rippeth, Karen Heywood, OSMOSIS team, Universities of Reading, Southampton, Oxford, Bangor and East Anglia

Abstracts | Poster

A1: Enhanced shear variance over rough topography

A11: A model for the formation of sea ice in the

Notes | Index

Ocean dynamics and climate


64

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Biogeochemical cycles and changing seas Welcome

A21: Climatological surface carbon losses in the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre

Giorgio Dall’Olmo, Plymouth Marine Laboratory

A22: Key controls on the seasonal and interannual variations of the carbonate system in the Northeast Atlantic

Delegate Info

Zong-Pei Jiang, David Hydes, Toby Tyrrell, Susan Hartman, Mark Hartman, Cynthia Dumousseaud, University of Southampton

A23: The influence of lithogenic material on

particulate inorganic carbon measurements of coccolithophores in the Bay of Biscay Chris Daniels, Toby Tyrrell, Laura Pettit, Alex Poulton, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

A24: Assessing the spatial and temporal variability of Sponsors

the carbonate system in UK shelf seas

Naomi Greenwood, David Pearce, David Sivyer, Centre of Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS)

A25: pCO2 variability in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean

Susan Hartman, Zong-Pei Jiang, Richard Lampitt, David Hydes, Daniela Turk, Ute Schuster, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Dalhousie University, University of East Anglia

Programme

A26: A global monthly sea surface pH climatology and its uncertainty

Ute Schuster, University of East Anglia

A27: Overview of UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme

Abstracts | Oral

Phillip Williamson, Carol Turley, NERC/ University of East Anglia and Plymouth Marine Laboratory

A28: Effect of ocean acidification on production

of dissolved organic carbon and transparent exopolymer particles

Tingting Shi, Eric Achterberg, Toby Tyrrell, Mike Zubkov, University of Southampton

A29: Trace gas concentrations under high CO2 and ocean acidification

Abstracts | Poster

Alison Webb, Peter Liss, Frances Hopkins, Gill Malin, Roland von Glasow, Phil Nightingale, Stephen de Mora, University of East Anglia

A30: Long-lived greenhouse gases CO2, N2O and CH4 in Northwestern European shelf waters using cavity ring down spectrometry Natalie Wager, Jan Kaiser, Dorothee Bakker, Gareth Lee, University of East Anglia

A31: High resolution measurements of nitrous oxide Notes | Index

concentrations in the Scotia Sea

Imke Grefe, Gareth Lee, Sophie Fielding, Jan Kaiser, University of East Anglia, British Antarctic Survey

A32: Regional assessment of the sources and

distribution of the sedimentary organic matter in the Campos Basin, SE Brazilian Continental Margin

Livia Cordeiro, Dulce Pinheiro, Renato Carreira, Pontifical Catholic University and Rio de Janeiro State University

A33: Recycling versus export of bioavailable dissolved organic matter in the coastal ocean and efficiency of the continental shelf pump

Christian Lonborg, Xose A Alvarez-Salgado, Swansea University, IIM-CSIC, Spain

A34: Water masses, mixing and the export of

dissolved organic carbon from the Irish Sea

David Bowers, Martyn Roberts, Martin White, Jo Foden, Bangor University

Emerging technologies A35: Chemical speciation of lead in seawater by pseudopolarography

Zhaoshun Bi, Pascal Salaun, Stan van den Berg, University of Liverpool

A36: Towards high resolution in situ pH and pCO2 sensors

Jennifer Clarke, Eric Achterberg, Matthew Mowlem, Toby Tyrrell, University of Southampton

A37: Robust measurement systems for the study of the marine CO2 system from ships of opportunity

David Hydes, Jon Campbell, Zongpei Jiang, Mark Hartman, Doug Wallace, Daniela Turk, National Oceanography Centre Southampton and University of Dalhousie

A38: Temperature and salinity variability in the English Channel and Bay of Biscay

Mark Hartman, David Hydes, Sue Hartman, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

A39: The Southern ocean Observing System (SOOS): Towards implementation

Michael Meredith, Louise Newman, Oscar Schofield, John Gunn, Mike Sparrow, Ed Urban, Steve Rintoul, Victoria Wadley, Kevin Speer, Eileen Hofmann, Colin Summerhayes, Richard Nellerby, SOOS International Project Office, Hobart, Australia

A40: OceanScope

Bev Mackenzie, Tom Rossby, David Hydes, IMarEst, University of Rhode Island, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

A41: Biogeochemical sensors for global ocean observation systems

Matthew Mowlem, National Oceanography Centre Southampton


Abstractsâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;

Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Diane Purcell, Martha Valiadi, Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Denise Smythe-Wright, Matthew Mowlem, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

A44: The diversity of bacteria, enzymes and regulatory systems involved in the production of dimethyl sulphide from dimethylsulphoniopropionate

Andrew Curson, Jonathan Todd, Matthew Sullivan, Mark Kirkwood, Simone Newton-Payne, Emily Fowler, Andrew Johnston, University of East Anglia

A45: The infochemical role of DMS in multitrophic plankton interactions

Nicola Lewis, Mark Breckels, Michael Steinke, Edward Codling, University of Essex

Challenges and tools for managing marine and coastal resources A46: Towards the development of a Dynamic

Observation System for the Assessment of Marine Water Quality, based on PHYtoplankton analysis at high resolution by combining multiple techniques (DYMAPHY)

Luis Felipe Artigas and 24 co-authors, Laboratory of Oceanology and Geosciences, Lille, France

A47: The dynamics of toxic and non toxic strains of the harmful dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense from Scottish waters

Lisa Eckford-Soper, Keith Davidson, David Green, Eileen Bresnan, Jean-Pierre Lacaze, Scottish Marine Institute and Marine Scotland Science

A48: Quantifying ecological coherence in marine protected area networks

Caitriona McInerney, Louise Allcock, Mark Johnson, Paulo Prodohl, NUI Galway

A49: Using the continuous plankton recorder to

determine the abundance of microplastic debris in marine surface waters

Saeed Sadri, University of Plymouth and SAHFOS

A50: Why is it so hard to set MSFD indicators and targets? messages from the plankton

Abigail McQuatters-Gollop, Alison Gilbert, Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS)

Marine geochemistry: A tribute to Professor Dennis Burton A52: Estimating average atmospheric nutrient

inputs to the Atlantic using multiple ship based observations

Welcome Delegate Info

aquatic water environments using nucleic acid sequence based amplification

Alex Baker, Claire Powell, Tom Bell, Chris Adams, Tim Jickells, University of East Anglia, Cefas, University of California

A53: Atmospheric dust inputs to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans

Alex Baker, Rosie Chance, Tim Jickells, University of East Anglia

Sponsors

A43: Detection of key phytoplankton groups in

Grigorios Moschonas, Keith Davidson, Richard Gowen, Patricia Glibert, Scottish Marine Institute, Scottish Association for Marine Science, Agri-Food and Biosciences Institute (AFBI), University of Maryland

A54: Characterising the seasonal cycle of dissolved

organic nitrogen in the Southern North Sea using CEFAS SmartBuoy High-Resolution Time-Series samples Martin Johnson, Naomi Greenwood, David Sivyer, Keith Weston, Tim Jickells, University of East Anglia, Cefas

A55: Open ocean ammonium concentrations in the South Atlantic along a transect at 40oS Malcolm Woodward, Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Programme

Jan Strauss, Andrew Toseland, Thomas Mock, University of East Anglia

coast of Scotland : a detailed analysis for Loch Creran and the Lynn of Lorne, with an introduction to the role of dissolved organic nitrogen

A56: An investigation of mineral dynamics at sub-zero temperatures in cryogenic brines

Hilary Kennedy, Paul Kennedy, Stathys Papadimitriou, Colin Pulham, Chiu Tang, Alistair Lennie, Bangor University, Edinburgh University, Diamond Light Source

A57: Determination of boron isotopes in small carbonate samples

Abstracts | Oral

Fragilariopsis cylindrus

A51: The phytoplankton community on the West

Joanna Kerr, Sambuddha Misra, Mervyn Greaves, Henry Elderfield, University of Cambridge

A58: Improved method for boron isotope

determination in small samples: application to seawater and natural carbonates

Mervyn Greaves, Sambuddha Misra, Joanna Kerr, Henry Elderfield, University of Cambridge

A59: Reconstructing sea surface temperatures in the

Abstracts | Poster

A42: RNA sequencing analysis of the polar diatom

65

Labrador Sea during the last interglacial using Mg/Ca ratios

Leila Middle, Mark Chapman, Liz Farmer, Claude Hillaire Marcel, University of East Anglia

A60: Combining multi-proxies and numerical models to reconstruct past ocean carbon cycling

Philip Goodwin, University of Cambridge

Notes | Index

Biodiversity from genes to ecosystems

|â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Poster


66

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Physics and plankton: observing and modelling the interactions Welcome

A61: Physical drivers of interannual variability in phytoplankton phenology

Harriet Cole, Stephanie Henson, Adrian Martin, Andrew Yool, University of Southampton

A62: The role of physics in shaping the phytoplankton community structure at the Celtic Sea Shelf: a modelling approach

Delegate Info

Kasia Kenitz, Jonathan Sharples, Ric Williams, University of Liverpool

A63: Location, location, location: What are the drivers that determine where coccolithophores bloom?

Jason Hopkins, Stephanie Henson, Alex Poulton, Stuart Painter, Toby Tyrrell, University of Southampton

A64: Vertical translocation maintains phytoplankton position in a Strait with residual flow

Sponsors

Robert Macdonald, David Bowers, Bangor University

A65: Efficient modelling of physics and biology in UK Shelf waters

Robert Marsh, Simon Josey, Jonathan Sharples, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre Liverpool

A66: Variations of phytoplankton community in Programme

Iranian coasts of the Caspian Sea, Guilan in 2003-2004

Siamak Bagheri, Mashhor Mansor, Alireza Mirzajani, Marzieh Makaremi, Ali Abedini, Esmail Yosefzad, University Sains Malaysia

A67: Control on phytoplankton cell size distributions in contrasting physical environments

Abstracts | Oral

James Clark, Stuart Daines, Hywel Williams, Tim Lenton, University of Exeter

A68: How the wind affects phytoplankton in Shelf Seas

A69: Seasonal cycles of thermal stratification,

inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll in the Western Irish Sea: Comparing model simulations with observational data

Karen Edwards, Richard Gowen, Rachel Furner, UK Met Office, Agri-food and Biosciences Institute

A70: Patchiness: How do nutrients influence phytoplankton variability?

Simon van Gennip, Adrian Martin, Meric Srokosz, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

A71: Enhanced nutrient fluxes at the Shelf Sea

seasonal thermocline caused by stratified flow over a bank

Jacqueline Tweddle, Jonathan Sharples, Matthew Palmer, Keith Davidson, Sharon McNeill, University of Highlands and Islands

Coastal physical processes A72: Predicting suspended particulate matter

behaviour in Shelf Seas with a focus on the Irish Sea

Rafael Ramirez Mendoza, Alejandro Souza, Laurent Amoudry, University of Liverpool, National Oceanography Centre Liverpool

A73: Using satellite images for developing a

suspended particulate matter climatology in British Territorial Seas

Tiago Silva, Tony Dolphin, Rodney Forster, Jon Rees, Cefas

A74: The effect of high resolution winds on modelling surface waves

Luic Bricheno, A.Soret, J.Wolf, O.Jorba, National Oceanography Centre, Liverpool

A75: The Impact of future sea-level rise on the European Shelf tides

Mark D Pickering, N.C. Wells, K.J. Horsburgh, J.A.M. Green, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton and Liverpool, Bangor University

Charlotte Williams, Jonathan Sharples, Claire Mahaffey, National Oceanography Centre Liverpool, Liverpool University

Poster session B Abstracts | Poster

Tuesday 4 September 15:30–17:00

Ocean dynamics and climate B1: Langmuir turbulence in the ocean surface boundary layer

Brodie Pearson, Stephen Belcher, Alan Grant, Jeff Polton, University of Reading

B2: The apparent efficiency of gravitational Notes | Index

potential energy generation by diapycnal mixing in the ocean Kevin Oliver, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

B3: The ocean’s gravitational potential energy budget in a coupled climate model

Edward Butler, Kevin Oliver, Jonathan Gregory, Remi Tailleux, University of Southampton, University of Reading

B4: Global trends in altimeter derived eddy kinetic energy

Chris O’Donnell, Karen Heywood, David Stevens, Emily Shuckburgh, University of East Anglia

B5: The RAPID-MOC 26ºN monitoring array

Darren Rayner, Stuart Cunningham, Harry Bryden, Gerard McCarthy, National Oceanography Centre


Abstracts 

B8: Oceanic dominance of interannual subtropical North Atlantic heat content variability

Maike Sonnewald, Joel Hirschi, Robert Marsh, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

B9: MOC, heat content and air-sea interaction in the North Atlantic

Neil Wells, Peggy Courtois, Vladimir Ivchenko, Joel Hirschi, University of Southampton

B10: A new index to investigate the interannual

variability in the AMOC using RAPD observations and model simulations Aurélie Duchez, Stuart Cunningham, Joel Hirschi, Harry Bryden, Darren Rayner, Gerard McCarthy, Christopher Atkinson, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

B11: Model representation of salinity anomalies and the stability of the North Atlantic Overturning Circulation

Alex Megann, Adrian New, Adam Blaker, National Oceanography Centre, Southampton

B12: MIMOC: a monthly, isopycnal/mixed layer ocean climatology

Sunke Schmidtko, Gregory Johnson, John Lyman, University of East Anglia

B13: The dynamical ocean component of the MaddenJulian Oscillation

Benjamin Webber, Adrian Matthews, Karen Heywood, David Stevens, University of East Anglia

B14: Is there a feedback between climate change,

sea-level rise and the Meridional Overturning Circulation?

Jess Mead Silvester, Mattias Green, Clare Green, Bangor University, Anglesey Sea Zoo

B15: Upper ocean manifestations of a reducing Meridional circulation

Matthew Thomas, University of East Anglia

B16: The anisotrophy and the dependency on the

bottom friction of the material transport in the presence of oceanic multiple and alternating zonal jets Fan Zhang, Imperial College, London

B17: Distribution of water masses and mixing

processes in the Mauritania upwelling system: Influence on nutrient distribution

Beatriz Barreiro, Ricardo Torres, Des Barton, IIMCSIC, Vigo, Spain, Plymouth Marine Laboratory

B18: Fish finding echo sounder as a tool with which to image oceanic internal waves

Tahmeena Aslam, Stephen Jones, University of Birmingham

Welcome

B20: A biogeographical DMSP atlas of the North Atlantic

Andrew Mogg, David Green, Mark Hart, Angela Hatton, Scottish Association for Marine Science

B21: Dimethylsulfide (DMS) photo-oxidation in the Western Canadian Arctic

Abderrahmane Taalba, Huixiang Xie, Michael Scarratt, Simon Belanger, Maurice Levasseur, Institut des Sciences de la Mer de Rimouski, Canada

Delegate Info

Laure Zanna, University of Oxford

Biogeochemical cycles and changing seas

B22: Export of nutrients from the Arctic Ocean

Sinhue Torres-Valdes, Takamasa Tsubouchi, Sheldon Bacon, Alberto Naveira Garabato, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

B23: The contribution of the Weddell Sea to Global

Sponsors

temperatures

Ediang Okuku, Ediang Aniekan, Nigerian Meteorological Agency

Biogeochemical Cycles

Sinhue Torres-Valdes, Loic Jullion, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Peter Brown, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

B24: Lead isotopes in South Atlantic seawater:

Insights on anthropogenic inputs and ocean circulation from the UK GEOTRACES transect along 40ºS

Maxence Paul, Tina van de Flierdt, Dominik Weiss, Mark Rehkamper, Imperial College London

Programme

B7: Predictability of observed Atlantic sea surface

extreme precipitation events in Nigeria

B25: Atmospheric organic nitrogen

Liam Pollard, Tim Jickells, Alex Baker, University of East Anglia

B26: The effect of atmospheric dust on

phytoplankton growth in the Sargasso Sea

Yosra Khammeri, Simon Ussher, Kristen N Buck, Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences

B27: Biogeochemical and physical observations of

Abstracts | Oral

Appin Williamson, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Louis Clement, Stuart Cunningham, University of Southampton

B19: The role of ocean monsoon variability and

the Ross Sea Polynya using seagliders during the 2010-2011 Austral Spring Bastien Queste, Walker Smith, Vernon Asper, Craig Lee, Mike Dinniman, Jason Gobat, Karen Heywood, University of East Anglia

B28: Distribution of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen in a coastal area of the North Sea

Saisiri Chaichana, Tim Jickells, Martin Johnson, Gill Malin, University of East Anglia

Abstracts | Poster

Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26ºN in 2010

67

B29: Sedimentary phosphorus fractionation in central

Mediterranean marine sediments (North Tunisia) Noureddine Zaaboub, Anouar Ounis, Eduardo Anselmo Ferreira da Silva, National Institute for Marine Science and Technology, Tunisia

Notes | Index

B6: The impact of an anomalous cyclone on the

|  Poster


68

Abstracts 

|  Poster

B30: Combined constraints on ocean primary

production and phytoplankton biomass from observations and two models

Welcome

Erik Buitenhuis, Taketo Hashioka, Corinne le Quéré, University of East Anglia, University of Hokkaido

B31: Climate regulating chemicals

Charlotte Cree, Mark Fitzsimons, Steve Archer, Ruth Airs, Anthony Lewis, University of Plymouth, Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Delegate Info

Emerging technologies B32: Microfluidic technology for in situ low level detection of iron in seawater

Ambra Milani, Doug Connelly, Matthew Mowlem, Peter Statham, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

B33: Microfluidic nutrient analysers for the marine environment

Sponsors

Francois-Eric Legiret, Samer Abi Kaed Bey, Malcolm Woodward, Matthew Mowlem, Douglas Connelly, Eric Achterberg, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Plymouth Marine Laboratory

B34: Development of a colorimetric micro-sensor for seawater pH analysis

Programme

Victoire Rerolle, Cedric Floquet, Matthew Mowlem, Andy Harris, Richard Bellerby, Eric Achterberg, National Oceanography Centre Southampton and Universities of Southampton and Bergen

B35: Development of lab-on-a-chip pre-concentration system for metals in seawater

Marta Skiba, Matthew Mowlem, Peter Statham, University of Southampton Abstracts | Oral

B36: Lab-on-a-chip technology for in situ molecular analysis in marine microorganisms

Christos Loukas, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Jesus Ruano-López, Hywel Morgan, Matthew Mowlem, National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton

B37: Molecular tools for the assessment of microbial reduction on sensor materials for pristine environment exploration

Abstracts | Poster

Iordanis Magiopoulos, Catherine Burd, MariaNefeli Tsaloglou, Matthew Mowlem, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

B38: Automated tools to measure primary productivity – Protool

Denise Smythe-Wright, Jacco Kromkamp, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, NIOZ

B39: Biological regimes from ships of opportunity Notes | Index

Denise Smythe-Wright, Stephen Boswell, Aaron Daniel, Diane Purcell, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

B40: A new approach to monitoring sea level in the deep ocean

Peter Foden, Miguel Angel Morales Maqueda, National Oceanography Centre Southampton

Biodiversity from genes to ecosystems B41: Phytoplankton biodiversity in relation to North Sea hydrodynamics

Rodney Forster, Véronique Créach, Katy Owen, Gill Malin, Elisa Capuzzo, Barbora Sediva, Dave Suggett, Evelyn Lawrenz, Cefas, University of East Anglia, Institute of Microbiology, Trebon, University of Essex

B42: Phytoplankton community composition in the

Scotia and Weddell Seas (Southern Ocean), with emphasis on diatoms and coccolithophores Amy Harington, Alex Poulton, Mike Lucas, University of Cape Town

B43: Does daylength moderate the ocean

acidification response of Emiliania huxleyi?

Laura Bretherton, Tracy Lawson, Mark Moore, Richard Geider, David Suggett, University of Essex

B44: How do species richness, identity and evenness

interact to affect benthic ecosystem function on a mudflat?

Rachel Hale, Martin Solan, Alastair Grant, Trevor Tolhurst, University of East Anglia

Challenges and tools for managing marine and coastal resources B45: Modelling sea lice dispersal in a Scottish fjordic system

Berit Rabe, Nabeil Salama, Alexander Murray, Marine Scotland Science

B46: Mitilidae fouling of hydraulic structure after a catastrophic storm

Olga Soloviova, Ukraine Academy of Sciences

B47: Fish, plankton and climate variations: information from stable isotopes

Kirsteen MacKenzie, Clive Trueman, Martin Palmer, University of Southampton

B48: Integrating trophic interactions into projecting distribution of fishes under climatic change Jose Fernandes, William Cheung, Simon Jennings, Alastair Grant, University of East Anglia, CEFAS

B49: The impact of microplastics on the base of

the marine food web: ingestion, egestion and interactions between microplastics and zooplankton

Matthew Cole, Pennie Lindeque, Elaine Fileman, Claudia Halsband, Tamara Galloway, Plymouth Marine Laboratory and University of Essex


|  Poster

Marine geochemistry: A tribute to Professor Dennis Burton

B59: Do Antarctic krill go with the flow?

B50: Uptake of dissolved oxygen during marine

B60: Time-series observations of production at

B52: Diagenetic Fe supply to the Eastern South

Atlantic: evidence of flux limitation by reactive Fe minerals

William Homoky, Rachel Mills, Seth John, Malcolm Woodward, Yu-Te Hsieh, Jennifer Thompson, University of Southampton, University of South Carolina, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, University of Oxford

B53: Effect of mixing and stratification on the

summertime carbonate chemistry of the Northwestern European Shelf

Dorothee Bakker, Gareth Lee, University of East Anglia

B54: Calcification and the seasonal cycle of alkalinity and carbonate chemistry in UK coastal waters David Hydes, Susan Hartman, Zongpei Jiang, Pam Walsham, Eileen Bresnan, National Oceanography Centre Southampton, Marine Scotland Science

Physics and plankton: observing and modelling the interactions B55: Winter sea ice, stratification and summer

phytoplankton bloom changes on the Antarctic Peninsula Hugh Venables, Michael Meredith, Andrew Clarke, British Antarctic Survey

B56: How will climate change affect the distribution of Antarctic krill?

Sally Thorpe, Eugene Murphy, Geraint Tarling, Zhaomin Wang, British Antarctic Survey

B57: The role of mesoscale circulation on

zooplankton distribution in the Black Sea

Sukru Besiktepe, Sengul Besiktepe, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey

B58: Variability in fish larval retention at South Georgia, Southern Ocean: Insights from numerical modelling

Emma Young, Michael Meredith, Mark Belchier, Eugene Murphy, Gary Carvalho, British Antarctic Survey

Alba Gonzalez-Posada, Jan Kaiser, Dorothee Bakker, University of East Anglia

B62: Phytoplankton influence on CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic

Delegate Info

South Atlantic from O2/Ar ratios and O2

Clare Ostle, Carol Robinson, Ute Schuster, Andy Watson, Martin Edwards, Peter Landschützer, University of East Anglia, Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science

B63 Mechanisms of seasonal and interannual surface water pCO2 variability in the North Atlantic

Justin Krijnen, Andrew Watson, Ute Schuster, Samantha Lavender, University of East Anglia, Argans Ltd.

Sponsors

Alfred Aquilina, Laura Hepburn, William Homoky, Seth John, Rachel Mills, ChEsSo consortium, University of Southampton, University of South Carolina

B61: Biological oxygen production in the subtropical

Coastal physical processes B64: Unstructured-grid modelling applied to assess

the future resilience of the UK’s coastal energy sector Karen Thurston, Jennifer Brown, Alejandro Souza, National Oceanography Centre Liverpool

Programme

diagenesis in the central Bransfield Basin, Antarctica

Johanna Gloël, Gavin Tilstone, Morvan Barnes, Carol Robinson, Jan Kaiser, University of East Anglia, Plymouth Marine Laboratory

B65: Understanding the storm surge flood risk in the Northern Bay of Bengal

Matt Lewis, Paul Bates, Kevin Horsburgh, Bristol University, National Oceanography Centre Liverpool

B66: In the wake of natural obstructions – a field study investigation

Scott Armstrong, Paul Evans, Chris Wooldridge, Ian Fryett, Cardiff University

Abstracts | Oral

B51: Hydrothermal activity and trace metal

the Western English Channel Observatory determined from O2 based tracers

B67: Regional scale hydrodynamic modelling of

offshore wind farm development areas of the East coast of Scotland

Rory O’Hara Murray, Alejandro Gallego, Marine Scotland Science

B68: Transfer of energy from the internal tide back to the surface tide in a regional model

Rob Hall, Glenn Carter, University of East Anglia, University of Hawaii

Abstracts | Poster

Debbie Hembury, Martin Palmer, Gary Fones, Rachel Mills, Robert Marsh, Morgan Jones, University of Southampton

B69: Tidal dissipation on Shelf Seas: A new method for indirect estimates

Jeff Polton, Chris Old, National Oceanography Centre, Scottish Association for Marine Science

B70: Three dimensional structure of turbulence in the bottom boundary layer of the coastal ocean Edward Steele, Alex Nimmo-Smith, Andrey Vlasenko, Vasyl Vlasenko, Phil Hosegood, Plymouth University

Notes | Index

diagenesis of fresh volcanic material

Geraint Tarling, Sally Thorpe, British Antarctic Survey

69

Welcome

Abstracts 


70

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Welcome

Poster Abstracts In the Wake of Natural Obstructions – a Field Study Investigation Scott Armstrong, Paul Evans, Chris Wooldridge, Ian Fryett CARDIFF UNIVERSITY

armstrongsb@cardiff.ac.uk

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

The influence of natural obstructions such as islands and submerged rocks on tidal flow in dynamic systems creates complex wake effects that are of significance to the study of ecosystems, tidal regimes and tidal energy. A shipboard acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) has been utilised to measure the current through the water column in the Severn Estuary during a flood and ebb tide downstream of Flat Holm Island and a submerged pinnacle (the Wolves rock). Analysis was performed on both depthaveraged and depth profile velocity vectors yielding interesting 3D visualisations. The wake generated by Flat Holm Island appears as a single eddy with flow reversals in the centre and regular tidal flow converging around it. The wake created by the Wolves rock is more apparent at depth with some retardation of the current throughout the water column. Further research would permit a more comprehensive map of these effects and consideration of small vertical velocities may reveal upwelling within the eddy system as observed in other papers which would have implications for ecosystems local to natural features.

Towards the Development of a DYnamic Observation System for the Assessment of Marine Water Quality, Based on PHYtoplankton Analysis at High Resolution by Combining Multiple Techniques (DYMAPHY): Applications to the Eastern Channel monitoring

Abstracts | Oral

Luis Felipe Artigas, Séverine Alvain, Simon Bonato, Mathias Broutin, Emilie Caillault-Poisson, Lucie Courcot, Vincent Cornille, Jessica Chicheportiche, Véronique Créach, Nicole Degros, Natacha Guiselin, Denis Hamad, Pierre-Alexandre Hébert, Emilie Houliez, Alain Lefèbvre, Fabrice Lizon, Xavier Mériaux, Katy Owen, Machteld Rijkeboer, Thomas Rutten, François Schmitt, Melilotus Thyssen, Arnold Veen, Guillaume Wacquet, Sylvie Zongo

Abstracts | Poster

LABORATORY OF OCEANOLOGY AND GEOSCIENCES, ULCO; LABORATOIRE D’INFORMATIQUE SIGNAL ET IMAGE DE LA CÔTE D’OPALE (ULCO); CENTER FOR ENVIRONMENT, FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE SCIENCE; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; CENTRE FOR WATER MANAGEMENT; THOMAS RUTTEN PROJECTS

Felipe.Artigas@univ-littoral.fr

Notes | Index

Phytoplankton composition reflects the environmental status and water quality, sustains aquatic marine resources, and can be responsible for harmful events with consequences in socio-economic issues and human health. Current methodologies and monitoring practices are not equipped to deal with fast changes in phytoplankton composition since sampling frequencies are too low, spatial monitoring coverage is scarce, microscopic data treatment targets only the bigger fraction of phytoplankton. In order to accurately assess long term changes as well as to detect short term alerting changes in phytoplankton biomass and composition, there is a need of fast, cost effective,

innovative, robust, reproducible and standardized monitoring procedures that could be applied at high frequency. The DYMAPHY project (Development of a DYnamic observation system for the assessment of MArine water quality, based on PHYtoplankton analysis), co-funded by the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF), aims at contributing to a better assessment of the quality of marine waters in the Eastern English Channel and Southern North Sea (INTERREG IV A “2 Seas”) through the study of phytoplankton and related environmental parameters, at high resolution. By combining innovative techniques as pulse-shape recording flow cytometry (CytoSense, Cytobuoy©), spectral fluorescence (fluoroprobe and AOA bbe©) and remote sensing (PHYSAT method), the DYMAPHY project propose to develop within a cross-border effective work, betterstandardized procedures and greater automation in data analysis for monitoring phytoplankton. These procedures are being validated in common international cruises and will allow an easier integration of the methodology in routine monitoring applications by monitoring agencies and academic institutes.

Hydrothermal Activity and Trace Metal Diagenesis in the Central Bransfield Basin, Antarctica Alfred Aquilina, Laura Hepburn, William Homoky, Seth John, Rachel Mills, ChEsSo consortium NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA

a.aquilina@noc.soton.ac.uk

The Bransfield Strait is a tectonically-active marginal basin situated between the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and the South Shetland Islands. We present multidisciplinary data indicating hydrothermal activity and diagenetic metal cycling on Hook Ridge, a sub-marine volcanic edifice in the central basin. Water column Ehanomalies, visual observation of fluid flow at the seafloor, and pore fluid characteristics confirm hydrothermal activity on Hook Ridge. Concentration-depth profiles of NO3-, Mn2+ and Fe2+ suggest a diagenetically-controlled sedimentary setting. However, compared to a nearby reference shelf station, the sediment surface at Hook Ridge is enriched in Fe and Mn (up to 12% and 0.4%, respectively) and is underlain by a pool enriched in dissolved Fe and Mn (up to 547 μmol kg-1 and 97μmol kg-1, respectively). The isotopic composition of the dissolved Fe pool (δ56Fe= +0.35 to +2.23‰) is heavier than previously reported values on continental margins. The elevated pore fluid Fe and Mn concentrations are consistent with extensive redox cycling at the depth of oxygen penetration. It is suggested that the high δ56Fe values indicate dissimilatory iron reduction of a hydrothermally-derived reactive Fe substrate enriched in 56Fe. Transfer of these diagenetically mobilised trace metals into overlying seawater may have a significant impact on the ocean budgets for these elements in the


Alex Baker, Claire Powell, Tom Bell, Chris Adams, Tim Jickells

TXA886@bham.ac.uk

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; CEFAS LOWESTOFT; UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT IRVINE

alex.baker@uea.ac.uk

The atmosphere is probably a significant source of nutrients to large areas of the remote ocean. Observation of these inputs is made rather difficult however because there are very few remote island sites where monitoring activities are carried out and sampling from ships generally provides little more than a snapshot, which may not be representative of long-term fluxes. We have tried to address these problems by estimating atmospheric nutrient fluxes using observations from large numbers (10–>20) of cruises covering broad areas of the Atlantic Ocean. We will present the results of those studies as climatological average inputs and discuss their implications for the nutrient stoichiometry of the atmospheric input, average iron solubility and seasonal variability in atmospheric nutrient supply.

Effect of Mixing and Stratification on the Summertime Carbonate Chemistry of the Northwestern European Shelf Dorothee Bakker, Gareth Lee

Variations of Phytoplankton Community in Iranian Coasts of the Caspian Sea, Guilan in 2003–2004 Siamak Bagheri, Mashhor Mansor, Alireza Mirzajani, Marzieh Makaremi, Ali Abedini, Esmail Yosefzad USM

sia_Bagheri@yahoo.com

This study, undertaken between January 2003 and November 2004, focuses on spatial and temporal distribution and species composition of phytoplankton in the southwestern Caspian Sea. Samples were collected from 12 stations along three transects: Lisar, Anzali and Sefidrood. 75 species of phytoplankton were distinguished, and the annual average phytoplankton number calculated as 146 500± 60 500 and 197 000±71 800 cell/L and diatoms formed almost half of the total abundance at 66% and 57%, while cyanophytes were the second important group at 17% and 36%, in 2003 and 2004, respectively. The result shows that diatoms Dactyliosolen fragilissimus and Thalassionema nitzschioides, and cyanophytes Oscillatoria sp. and Anabeanopsis raciborskii dominated species composition in number. The average total phytoplankton number represented a nearly 13-fold increase from the averages of 1996–1997. Moreover, there were major changes in phytoplankton composition between 1996– 1997 and 2003–2004. Nutrient concentrations were nearly 3.5-fold greater in 2003–2004 than 1996–1997. Variations in the hydrology regimes and increased nutrient loading owing to river run-off have together played an important

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

d.bakker@uea.ac.uk

The northern North Sea is an efficient pump for carbon from the atmosphere to the deep ocean (Thomas et al., 2004). Stratification of the water column is an important factor in separating production and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake in the mixed layer from subsurface respiration, with subsequent subsurface carbon export to the Atlantic Ocean. Here we investigate the effect of stratification on the carbonate chemistry on the UK and Irish shelves in June-July 2011. Strongly stratified profiles with uptake of atmospheric CO2 by surface waters and high subsurface dissolved inorganic carbon are found in the Celtic Sea. By contrast, fully mixed profiles with little CO2 air-sea transfer occur in the northern Irish Sea.

Distribution of Water Masses and Mixing Processes in the Mauritania Upwelling System. Influence in the Nutrients Distribution

Abstracts | Oral

Internal gravity waves play an important role in ocean mixing however observations of these structures made with in situ probes are spatially sparse and sporadic. Fluctuations in temperature and salinity within the ocean lead to acoustic impedance contrasts that can be imaged via acoustic methods, therefore in principle, internal waves should be detectable. This work presents the initial results from a study within Rockall Trough to determine the efficacy of fish finding echo sounder as a tool with which to image and measure internal waves. The technology is traditionally used to locate fish shoals but images of the ocean produced with this method (echograms) show internal wave-like structures up to depths of 1.5km. The validity of the method will be assessed through the analysis of echogram derived internal wave measurements and also through the comparison of reflectivity observed in actual echograms with that observed in synthetic echograms produced from coincident CTD cast data. Using this method, it may become possible to map changes in internal waves across large spatial areas, thus helping us to improve our understanding of the oceanic internal wave field.

Welcome

UNIVERSITY OF BIRMINGHAM

Delegate Info

Estimating Average Atmospheric Nutrient Inputs to the Atlantic Using Multiple Ship-Based Observations

Sponsors

Tahmeena Aslam, Stephen Jones

Abstracts | Poster

Fish-Finding Echo Sounder as a Tool With Which to Image Oceanic Internal Waves

role in the variation of phytoplankton composition, in particular producing higher phytoplankton abundance in the southwestern Caspian Sea.

71

Beatriz Barreiro, Ricardo Torres, Des Barton IIM-CSIC, VIGO; PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

beabarreiro@iim.csic.es

The horizontal and vertical transport of different water properties by mixing is an important process in ocean systems. In the Mauritanian upwelling system, we measured mixing in the transition zone, which is associated

Notes | Index

Southern Ocean where trace metal inputs are thought to limit primary production.

|  Poster

Programme

Abstracts 


72

Abstractsâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;

|â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Poster

Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors

with consistent offshore flows in filament structures, between near shore and the oligotrophic ocean. The area also presents a permanent front between North and South Atlantic Central Waters (NACW-SACW), which gives rise to a heterogeneous mesoscale water mass distribution typified by localized, strong, density-compensated fronts. We investigate the spatial-temporal distribution of mixing and its implications for the biogeochemistry of the area. Characteristics of the mixing conditions were calculated through the Richardson number and Turner angle using simultaneous VM-ADCP velocity and CTD data. Furthermore direct turbulence measurements were made with the MSS. Conclusions are that doublediffusive processes are concentrated in the surface layer, the filament boundaries and over the continental shelf. Unstable gradient Richardson numbers are mainly concentrated in the pycnocline over the shelf region. The nutrient distributions are determined by different processes depending on depth. In the surface layer, biological and double-diffusive processes dominate. In the pycnocline and below, their distributions are explained by mixing between the dominant NACW and SACW.

tide gauge and satellite altimetry is used to diagnose vertical land movement, and then the combined mass and steric response is identified from the tide gauges. The steric contribution is calculated using 4 different global reconstructions of temperature and salinity profiles. One of our reconstructions involves using covariance to better predict from data rich to data sparse regions, and so provides a reduction in error compared to other techniques. The steric change contributes 21% of the global trend from 1972-2000, smaller than many recent estimates. This proportion varies annually and we have found that the southern hemisphere has contributed most to steric sea level rise since 1993. Availability of data, both in space and time, leads though to more confidence in the northern hemisphere. Comparison of decadal variability on basin scales, over both fixed depth coordinates and over isothermal layers, provides a mechanistic interpretation of the variability. The response involves a combination of water column warming and thermocline migration.

The Role of Mesoscale Circulation on Zooplankton Distribution in the Black Sea Sukru Besiktepe, Sengul Besiktepe

The OSMOSIS Project: Better Understanding of the Ocean Surface Boundary Layer Stephen Belcher, Alberto Naveira Garabato, David Marshall, Tom Rippeth, Karen Heywood, OSMOSIS Team

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF READING; SOUTHAMPTON UNIVERSITY; OXFORD UNIVERSITY; BANGOR UNIVERSITY; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

s.e.belcher@reading.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral

OSMOSIS is a five-year project funded by NERC involving 8 UK Universities and research centres with the aim of developing understanding of the ocean surface boundary layer (OSBL) through better observation and modelling, and thence to develop parameterisations for use in Ocean General Circulation Models. We are studying processes deepening the OSBL including Langmuir turbulence and shear spikes producing mixing below the mixed layer, and processes shallowing the OSBL including restartification by sub-mesoscale eddies. In this presentation we shall describe recent progress in modelling and parameterisation development and the hypotheses we have developed, and then the plans for the measurements to test these hypotheses.

Abstracts | Poster

What Is the Steric Contribution to Sea Level Change and How Does It Vary With Time? Clare Bellingham, Simon Holgate, Ric Williams, Doug Smith UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; MET OFFICE

crbilhm@noc.ac.uk

Notes | Index

Steric sea level change is due to the expansion and contraction of the ocean from changes in temperature and salinity. Sea level is also affected by mass input from ice sheet and glacier melt as well as hydrological changes. This study aims to differentiate between mass and steric contributions to global and regional sea level variations between 1950 and 2010. The difference between the

DOKUZ EYLUL UNIVERSITY, TURKEY

sukru.besiktepe@deu.edu.tr

In order to understand the role of the physical process on spatial and temporal variability of the zooplankton biomass, we carried out data driven simulations using a 3-d coupled physical and biogeochemical model and data assimilation based upon observations in the Eastern Black Sea during October 2000. Instability of the rim current was identified as a major mechanism for continuous supply of nutrients to the euphotic zone through the formation of eddies in the study area. The anticyclonic eddies between the Rim Current and the coast were entrapping the zooplankton as well as the other biogeochemical variables. Along the boundaries of the anticyclonic eddies, upwelling was occurring, which was bringing nutrients into the euphotic zone and leading to short term local blooms. These episodic blooms were supplying foods for the zooplankton.

Chemical Speciation of Lead in Seawater by Pseudopolarography Zhaoshun Bi, Pascal Salaun, C.M.G van den Berg UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

shunzi@liv.ac.uk

A new electrode was developed to enable detection of lead at low concentrations. The new sensor is based on a silver wire amalgamated with mercury. The vibrating silver amalgam wire allows a very low limit of detection for lead, thus enabling detection of the labile concentration of lead at trace level in seawater. This electrode was used to determine the speciation of lead using pseudopolarography. Preliminary experiments are described using known ligands and the method is applied to samples from the Irish Sea.


NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

Water Masses, Mixing and the Export of Dissolved Organic Carbon From the Irish Sea David Bowers, Martyn Roberts, Martin White, Jo Foden BANGOR UNIVERSITY

oss063@bangor.ac.uk

Observations of the absorption coefficient of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and salinity have been used to identify water types and mixing in the Irish Sea and nearby waters. Three principal water types are identified: (1) Celtic Sea water, of high salinity and low CDOM which enters the Irish Sea from the south; (2) Mainland water, of low salinity and intermediate CDOM which is introduced into the eastern Irish Sea through rivers and (3) Irish coastal water, with intermediate salinity and high CDOM. A mixing triangle is used to determine the geographical distribution of these three water types. This shows that the Celtic Sea water flowing northwards mixes principally with Mainland water and that the mixture leaving the Irish Sea through the North Channel is mostly composed of an equal mix of Celtic Sea and mainland waters with a small proportion of Irish coastal water. We estimate the lateral mixing coefficient to be ≥160 m2s-1. The CDOM absorption in the water leaving the Irish Sea is 0.131m-1. Converting this to an estimate of the dissolved organic carbon concentration and multiplying by the volume transport in the North Channel, the flux of dissolved organic carbon leaving the Irish Sea through the North Channel is estimated to be between 5 and 17 thousand tonnes C day-1, a figure which is consistent with alternative measurements of this flux.

jab5@noc.soton.ac.uk

One component of DIMES (Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean) is the deployment of a two-year mooring array in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to the east of Drake Passage. Motivation arises from the need to understand how eddies dissipate in the Southern Ocean, and specifically how much energy is extracted from the mesoscale by breaking internal waves, which leads to turbulent mixing. The moorings are situated over a 700 m-high topographic obstacle in a region of pronounced finestructure with high eddy kinetic energy. The array, comprising 34 current meters and Microcats and a downward-looking ADCP, was first deployed in December 2009 and serviced in December 2010. Time series of current meter results from the most heavilyinstrumented ‘C’ mooring indicate that a strong (up to 80 cms-1) surface-intensified north-eastward directed ACC occupies the region for most of the year, with over 85% of the variability in current speed being accounted for by equivalent barotropic fluctuations. Furthermore, the time series of shear variance between 2800 m and 3400 m, as measured by the ADCP, shows a dominance of clockwise polarisation, especially in the first half of the year, implying that the internal wave field is characterised by upward energy propagation from the bottom. In addition, the time series of shear variance is correlated with the subinertial bottom current speed (r = 0.44). The shear variance is enhanced when the flow is oriented across the topographic bump, in line with energy radiation theory estimates produced by Nikurashin and Ferrari (2010).

Does Daylength Moderate the Ocean Acidification Response of Emiliania Huxleyi? Laura Bretherton, Tracy Lawson, Mark Moore, Richard Geider, David Suggett UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX

lmjbre@essex.ac.uk

Ocean acidification (OA) research has intensified over the last decade, yet establishing general trends still remains confounded by methodological inconsistencies between studies. Coccolithophores, and particularly the species Emiliania huxleyi, are both biogeochemically and ecologically important phytoplankton; however, one strain (NZEH) has notably produced highly varied conclusions as to how OA will affect growth and calcification. Here, we present a novel analysis that suggests previous inconsistencies between past studies of NZEH may be driven by variance of the light:dark (L:D) cycle used for growth. Specifically, longer daylight periods correspond with faster growth and less production of particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) under elevated CO2 levels. Thus we performed a set of experiments to verify this hypothesis and in turn determine whether sampling time relative to the L:D cycle influences how we perceive PIC (and POC)

Abstracts | Poster

Freshwater fluxes out of the Arctic Ocean may influence deepwater formation in the North Atlantic, and so understanding changes in these fluxes is important for climate predictions. Recently, it has been shown that freshwater fluxes through Nares Strait in the Canadian Archipelago appear to be 20% stronger during mobile ice seasons than landfast ice seasons, which occur due to the formation of an icebridge. Due to the relative inaccessibility of Nares Strait, little research has focused on this icebridge. Here, we use MODIS satellite imagery combined with atmospheric model (Polar MM5) data and in-situ ocean data to investigate break-up patterns and the processes that promote the weakening and eventual dissolution of the icebridge. We find that the ice break-up can often be split into two events; the first in Kennedy Channel to the North, the second involving the Smith Sound icebridge itself. These events appear to be controlled by atmospheric processes, with increases in temperature inducing insitu melting and high windstress values weakening the structure of the icebridge. Non-tidal flow can also amplify the effects of these atmospheric processes.

Welcome

louise.biddle@earth.ox.ac.uk

Delegate Info

Alexander Brearley, Alberto Naveira Garabato

Sponsors

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

Programme

Louise Biddle, Helen Johnson, Andreas Muenchow

Enhanced Shear Variance over Rough Topography to the East of Drake Passage: First Year Results from the DIMES Mooring Array

73

Notes | Index

Icebridge Dissolution in Nares Strait, Canadian Archipelago

|  Poster

Abstracts | Oral

Abstracts 


74

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

production. We will present these laboratory based results alongside those from additional experiments evaluating the role of the L:D cycle upon natural (mixed) phytoplankton communities as part of the UKOA program. Work here further highlights the importance of environmental variables that moderate the OA response in accurately understanding future biogeochemical cycles. Future models attempting to predict the impact of OA upon marine systems must critically account for interactive role of light availability.

model estimates a global phytoplankton standing stock of 21.6 ± 1.4 Tg Chl or 1.3 ± 0.1 Pg C (NSI-MEM yet to be analysed). The PlankTOM5.3 model includes a new photosynthesis model with a dynamic representation of iron-light colimitation, which leads to a considerable improvement of the interannual variability of surface chlorophyll, suggesting that most of the observed interannual variability in satellite chlorophyll concentration is caused by changed phytoplankton acclimation states in response to interannual variability in atmospheric forcing.

The Effect of High Resolution Winds on Modelling Surface Waves

The Ocean’s Gravitational Potential Energy Budget in a Coupled Climate Model

Luic Bricheno, A. Soret, J. Wolf, O. Jorba

Edward Butler, Kevin Oliver, Jonathan Gregory, Remi Tailleux

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF READING

luic@noc.ac.uk

e.d.butler@soton.ac.uk

The Irish Sea is a semi-enclosed basin and as such, waves in Liverpool Bay are mainly generated locally within the eastern Irish Sea so that long period swell is absent and the significant wave height is relatively low, and short in period. These short-period locally generated ‘choppy’ waves are as such heavily dependent on local meteorology. In order to model this kind of sea state accurately, high resolution meteorological models are needed. To test the importance of local meteorology in this region we apply a the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), coupled to a second generation spectral wave model (WAM). A nine day case study, covering a storm period (December 2006) is used to examine the impact of meteorological model resolution when used as a forcing to a wave model. The effect of ocean model resolution, and coupling to a hydrodynamic model (POLCOMS) will also be discussed. The coupling acts to increase both the surge elevation and significant wave heights at the peak of the storm event. An improved wave direction is seen in both higher resolution ocean and atmosphere models, giving better agreement with near-shore buoys. Overall the models give too Northerly wave direction, but with better wind forcing, and higher resolution wave models these biases are significantly reduced.

The mechanical energy budget of the ocean can provide insights into the nature of global ocean circulation. Gravitational potential energy (GPE) is an important component of total mechanical energy, but only the component of GPE known as available potential energy (APE) can be converted to kinetic energy by adiabatic processes. The relative importance of GPE and APE for our understanding of the ocean is debated, and their sources and sinks are still relatively poorly constrained. This study examines the GPE and APE budgets of a control simulation of the coupled climate model HadCM3. The largest globally integrated source of GPE is through advection (+0.54 TW) and the largest sink is through parameterised eddy transports (Gent and McWilliams mixing; -0.81 TW). The effect of these adiabatic processes on APE is identical to their effect on GPE, except for perturbations to both budgets due to nonlinearity in the equation of state and diapycnal leakage. This is not the case for diabatic processes. Diapycnal diffusion is a substantial source of GPE (0.33 TW) but a small sink of APE (-0.07 TW), whereas the combined effects of surface buoyancy forcing and convection act as a modest GPE sink (-0.13 TW), but a significant APE source (0.25 TW). Whilst wind-driven advection acts as a source of both GPE and APE, neither diapycnal diffusion nor buoyancy forcing alone can sustain both APE and GPE production.

Abstracts | Poster

Combined Constraints on Ocean Primary Production and Phytoplankton Biomass From Observations and Two Models UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA, UNIVERSITY OF HOKKAIDO

Regional Assessment of the Sources and Distribution of the Sedimentary Organic Matter in the Campos Basin, SE Brazilian Continental Margin

e.buitenhuis@uea.ac.uk

Lívia Cordeiro, Dulce Pinheiro, Renato Carreira

Erik Buitenhuis, Taketo Hashioka, Corinne Le Quéré

Notes | Index

Previous estimates of ocean primary production range from 38 – 65 Pg C y-1, with no formal error analysis. Here, we carry out the first error analysis of ocean primary production and phytoplankton biomass by using a set of perturbation experiments with two ocean global biogeochemical models evaluated against observations. We compile a new database of 14C measured primary production in the global ocean of 59383 data points. Evaluation of the PlankTOM5.3 model estimates a global particulate primary production of 59 ± 7 Pg C y-1, while NSI-MEM estimates 56 ± 10 Pg C y-1. The PlankTOM5.3

PONTIFICAL CATHOLIC UNIVERSITY; RIO DE JANEIRO STATE UNIVERSITY

carreira@puc-rio.br

Lipid biomarkers [fatty acids (FA), sterols and alcohols] and total organic carbon (TOC) were quantified in 215 surface sediment samples collected at depths ranging from 25 m to 3000 m along 10 cross-margin transects in order to investigate the processes related to the origin, transport and accumulation of organic matter (OM) in the studied region. The lipid biomarker composition suggested predominance of OM derived from primary


Abstractsâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;

Methods of Improving Landfast Sea Ice Modelling Nuala Carson, Miguel Angel Morales Maqueda, Clare Postlethwaite, Harry Leach UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL

75

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

S.Chaichana@uea.ac.uk

The presence of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen (DOC and DON) in the ocean are important and interesting because they play an important role in the aquatic system by influencing nutrient supply, bioavailability and coastal eutrophication. The North Sea is a shallow shelf sea, which is strongly influenced by terrestrial and atmospheric inputs of carbon and nitrogen in the southern, tidally mixed region, but more strongly influenced by northeast Atlantic waters in the seasonally stratified north. Recent studies have suggested that DOC and DON are important reservoirs for C and N during summer in the North Sea. This study presents DOC and DON data (measured by high-temperature catalytic oxidation) from the Cefas International Bottom Trawl survey cruise in August 2011, to characterize the spatial and vertical distribution of DOC/N in the summer and to contrast the southern and northern North Sea. The data is used to quantify the significance of the dissolved organic pools of C and N in the summer recycling regime of the North Sea, relative to inorganic nutrients and carbon matter.

Delegate Info

Saisiri Chaichana, Tim Jickells, Martin Johnson, Gill Malin

Welcome

Distribution of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Coastal Area of the North Sea

Sponsors

and secondary producers in the water column, but significant spatial gradients in the quality and quantity of the sedimentary OM were observed. Lower concentrations with predominance of labile lipids were measured at the continental shelf (< 150 m), except near areas influenced by coastal upwelling and/or sub-surface water intrusion, where high concentrations of both TOC and lipids were measured. The upper and middle slope (400 to 1300 m), exhibited the highest concentrations of TOC and lipids, but with a greater influence of lipids derived from bacterial activity. This suggested the export of materials from shallow areas, possibly due to the action of eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current and bottom currents operating in the region. In the lower slope (1900 to 3000 m), only the more recalcitrant compounds were above detection limits. The presence of labile lipids in significant amount in the shelf and slope suggested the presence of bioavailable OM in the sediment, which in turn may have a major influence on the ecology of benthic communities.

|â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Poster

UNIVERSITY OF EXETER

j.clark@exeter.ac.uk

Phytoplankton cell size is often thought of as a master trait, influencing both the trophic structure of marine ecosystems and important biogeochemical fluxes, such as carbon export from the photic zone. In phytoplankton, small cell sizes generally confer an advantage in terms of resource acquisition in low light and nutrient scarce environments, and the effective use of already-acquired resources. Large cell sizes can be advantageous in terms of avoiding predation, and for nutrient storage in variable environments. We investigate the relative importance of bottom-up and top-down controls on phytoplankton cell size in contrasting physical environments using an individual-based evolutionary ecosystem model (EVE), including a physiologically consistent model for subcellular resource allocation, size-dependent predation, and cell size as an evolvable trait. Coupled to the MIT OGCM, we use the model to derive dynamic optimal sizeclass distributions at representative 1-D sites, which are then compared with in situ data. Particular attention is given to both drivers for global patterns in phytoplankton cell size, and changes in the cell size distribution during phytoplankton bloom periods.

Abstracts | Oral

James Clark, Stuart Daines, Hywel Williams, Tim Lenton

Abstracts | Poster

Control on Phytoplankton Cell Size Distributions in Contrasting Physical Environments

Notes | Index

Landfast sea ice is ice that is contiguous with the land and lacks detectable motion for approximately 20 days. It forms due to the combined effect of external forcing, bathymetry, coastal morphology and ice characteristics. Once fast ice forms the edge is relatively stable throughout the winter period, generally following the 20m isobath. It acts as an extension of the land over the continental shelf; modifying the exchanges between the atmosphere and ocean, changing the ocean dynamics both underneath the fast ice sheet and further offshore, altering polynya location and the associated deep water formation, as well as affecting local and global economic activities such as hunting, oil and gas exploration, and shipping. Current models fail to fully capture the production, seasonal evolution and breakup of fast ice for a number of reasons. In this study we address the specific failure of sea ice models to simulate stationary fast ice along unrestricted coastlines during offshore wind events. We show that the inclusion of grounded ice ridges underneath the fast ice sheet act like pinning points, allowing the ice to remain fast under these conditions. The ice ridges form as ice deforms under wind and oceans stress. They can form in the pack ice, becoming grounded as they drift into shallower coastal regions, or they can form in situ. Once grounded they add stability to the fast ice, anchoring it to the coast. These pinning points have been included in the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, CICE, as zero velocity ice.

Programme

n.h.carson@liverpool.ac.uk


76

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Towards a High Resolution in Situ pH and pCO2 Sensors Welcome

Jennifer Clarke, Eric Achterberg, Matthew Mowlem, Toby Tyrrell

The Impact of Microplastics on the Base of the Marine Food Web: Ingestion, Egestion and Interactions Between Microplastics and Zooplankton

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

Matthew Cole, Pennie Lindeque, Elaine Fileman, Claudia Halsband, Tamara Galloway

J.clarke@noc.soton.ac.uk

PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY; UNIVERSITY OF EXETER

Delegate Info Sponsors

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations have a large impact on the climate due to radiative forcing. In addition, dissolution of CO2 in the oceans affects the carbonate system worldwide, with potential impacts on marine biogeochemical processes and marine organisms. It is therefore important to develop sensors to monitor such change; pCO2 and pH are 2 parameters that can be used to define other parameters of the carbonate system (DIC, TA, HCO3-, CO32-). In this presentation pH and pCO2 sensors based on luminescence quenching in the presence of protons are presented. This is a simple method for oceanic measurements with potential for remote autonomous deployments. Initial results for a pCO2 system based on luminescence quenching will be demonstrated. In addition we will present novel pH sensor with a precision of ca. 2 mpH in the pH range 6-8.5. The end goals of this project are a pH and pCO2 sensors which will match the needs of ocean monitoring in terms of precision and accuracy.

Physical Drivers of Interannual Variability in Phytoplankton Phenology Programme

Harriet Cole, Stephanie Henson, Adrian Martin, Andrew Yool UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

harriet.cole@noc.soton.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

A significant seasonal cycle in phytoplankton biomass is seen to occur every year over large areas of the world’s oceans. The timing of annual phytoplankton blooms affects ecosystem dynamics with implications for carbon export efficiency and food availability for higher trophic levels. Climate change is expected to alter phytoplankton seasonality through changes to the underlying physical drivers controlling bloom timing. For example, seasonal stratification is expected to occur earlier and last longer in a warmer world altering the availability of light and nutrients needed for phytoplankton growth. However, we must first determine the current variability in timing and what drives it before trying to understand future changes. Here, we calculate phytoplankton phenology metrics, such as bloom initiation, peak, termination and duration globally from satellite ocean colour data. The interannual variability in the timing of bloom events is quantified and links are made to interannual variability in physical drivers such as the timing of maximum mixed layer depth, wind speed, net heat flux and light. We compare the phenological response to variability in physical drivers in subpolar regions to the response seen in subtropical regions and discuss the differences found. In addition, we investigate whether the interannual variability in bloom initiation is more strongly linked to physical drivers than other metrics.

mcol@ex.ac.uk

Microplastics describe small plastic detritus <5 mm in diameter, a constituent of anthropogenic marine debris of increasing scientific concern. A review of existing research has shown microplastics are both widespread and abundant within the marine environment. A range of marine biota, including mussels, worms, fish and seabirds, are capable of ingesting such microplastics, which may translocate into the circulatory system or introduce toxins, including adhered waterborne contaminants or chemicals added to the plastic during its manufacture, to the organism. Here we investigate the ingestion, egestion and interactions between zooplankton and microplastics. We establish that a number of zooplankton species are capable of ingesting polystyrene microplastic spheres. Our work further considers the selectivity of zooplankton exposed to microplastic spheres – ranging from 7 µm – 30 µm in diameter – in the absence and presence of natural prey, and their gut passage times. Experimental work has identified that microplastics frequently adhere to the appendages and carapace of zooplankton, potentially impacting upon motility. Further, we highlight how the egestion of faecal pellets containing microplastics may have repercussions for the transfer of this marine debris within marine ecosystems. The investigation now aims to determine the efficacy of trophic-transfer of microplastics from a heterotrophic dinoflagellate to zooplankton, subsequently considering transfer between zooplankton and higher trophic organisms. Our eventual goal is to determine whether the ingestion of microplastics will result in detrimental health effects in zooplankton.

Climate Regulating Chemicals? Charlotte Cree, Mark Fitzsimons, Steve Archer, Ruth Airs, Anthony Lewis UNIVERSITY OF PLYMOUTH; PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

charlotte.cree@plymouth.ac.uk

Phytoplankton synthesise a variety of low molecular weight organic compounds as compatible solutes including dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) and glycine betaine. The fate of DMSP has received considerable attention as it is the main precursor of the climate regulator, dimethyl sulphide (DMS). However, the fate of glycine betaine may be equally important. Glycine betaine is among the most effective and widely-used compatible solutes found in nature. Levels of glycine betaine have been linked with light stress and initial work carried out shows up to 3.2 fold higher levels of glycine betaine in phytoplankton cultured under high light levels than those cultured under low light levels. Glycine betaine degrades to produce methylamines which can diffuse across the sea-air interface and may play a role in climate regulation. As a source of base in the atmosphere methylamines form sulphate


Dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP) is made in large quantities (~1 billion tonnes per annum) by many marine phytoplankton, algae and a few species of higher plants. When released from such organisms into the oceans, DMSP is catabolised by a variety of marine bacteria, most notably members of the proteobacteria, and particularly the alpha-proteobacterial Roseobacters. There are two major routes for DMSP breakdown – demethylation and cleavage. The latter of these causes the release of dimethyl sulphide (DMS), which has wide-ranging environmental effects: as a major component of the sulphur cycle, in initiating cloud formation over the oceans, and as a signalling compound in marine food webs. DMSP lyases, the enzymes that cleave DMSP to form DMS, were identified from a variety of microbes and reveal great diversity, with six different enzymes, DddD, DddL, DddP, DddQ, DddW and DddY, all catalysing this reaction. In some cases, the expression of these enzymes is controlled by the DMSP substrate, but, unusually for bacteria, some are regulated in response to the products of the DMSP cleavage reaction. The taxonomic distribution of the ddd genes is also interesting, with great diversity occurring here as well. Some bacteria have multiple DMSP lyases in addition to enzymes for the DMSP demethylation pathway. The sporadic distribution of some ddd genes, for example in different classes of proteobacteria, suggests extensive horizontal gene transfer, even between the domains of life. In addition, metagenomic datasets reveal that the different DMSP lyases may be localised to specific environments within the marine biosphere.

Climatological Surface Carbon Losses in the North Atlantic Sub-Tropical Gyre

Welcome

c.daniels@noc.soton.ac.uk

Following earlier data suggesting a decoupling between coccolithophore abundance and its suggested proxy, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), we investigated this relationship in the Bay of Biscay (North West European shelf), between December 2009 and July 2010. Coccolithophore abundance, coccolith calcite, and PIC were determined in surface waters (5 m depth) along a transect crossing the Bay. Emiliania huxleyi was the most abundant species of coccolithophore and the main contributor of coccolith calcite (55–64%). Particulate inorganic carbon ranged from 0.07 to 11.7 mmol C m-3, and coccolith calcite from 0.002 to 0.27 mmol C m-3. Total PIC exceeded coccolith calcite in all samples, with only ~11% of the PIC attributed to coccoliths. Coccolithophores alone could not account for the PIC concentrations measured. Lithogenic particulate matter, with calcite and dolomite components, was observed in samples across the route and decoupled the relationship between PIC and coccolithophore abundance. Presence of lithogenic material and Mesozoic fossil coccoliths in the samples implies sediment resuspension. An ability to accurately characterise naturally occurring coccolithophore populations is essential for assessing their response to ocean acidification over time. However, these findings question the suitability of PIC as a proxy for coccolithophore abundance and dynamics, particularly on or near continental shelves, where the resuspension and lateral transport of lithogenic calcite may decouple the potential relationship between PIC and coccolithophores.

A New Index to Investigate the Interannual Variability in the AMOC using RAPID Observations and Model Simulations

Giorgio Dall’Olmo

Aurélie Duchez, Stuart Cunningham, Joël Hirschi, Harry Bryden, Darren Rayner, Gerard McCarthy, Christopher Atkinson

PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

gdal@pml.ac.uk

A.Duchez@noc.ac.uk

Oceanic loss rates are one of the important unknowns in the ocean carbon cycle system. Large uncertainties remain especially in oligotrophic ocean gyres which are considered net sources of CO2 by some authors or systems

The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) has received considerable attention, motivated by its major role in the global climate system. Observations of AMOC strength at 26°N made by RAPID-WATCH (which is a

Sponsors

andrew.curson@uea.ac.uk

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTON

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Chris Daniels, Toby Tyrrell, Laura Pettit, Alex Poulton

Abstracts | Oral

Andrew Curson, Jonathan Todd, Matthew Sullivan, Mark Kirkwood, Simone Newton-Payne, Emily Fowler, Andrew Johnston

The Influence of Lithogenic Material on Particulate Inorganic Carbon Measurements of Coccolithophores in the Bay of Biscay

Abstracts | Poster

The Diversity of Bacteria, Enzymes and Regulatory Systems Involved in the Production of Dimethyl Sulphide From Dimethylsulphoniopropionate

in near balance by others. In situ pCO2 climatologies were exploited to derive the concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) within the mixed-layer of the north Atlantic subtropical gyre when vertical mixing was negligible. By accounting for air-sea exchange and vertically-resolved net primary production estimated from space, the contribution of losses to variations in DIC were estimated. Preliminary results on spring-summer climatological carbon loss rates from the surface the north Atlantic sub-tropical gyre will be presented and discussed.

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salts that may act as cloud condensation nuclei and affect cloud albedo. Methylamines in marine systems have been investigated but the link between the quaternary amines and their atmospherically active degradation products the methylamines has not been looked at. This study aims to address this lack of understanding by developing a novel method of methylamine analysis and applying it to a seasonal study of glycine betaine and methylamine concentrations.

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78

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combination of Gulf Stream transport, zonally integrated Ekman transport and mid-ocean transport), provide our best current estimate of the state of the AMOC. The period 2004-2012 where RAPID AMOC is available is too short to assess the decadal variability of the AMOC. Here we define a new AMOC index at 26°N that combines the Gulf Stream transport, the Ekman transport and the southward geostrophic Sverdrup transport. This index is expected to reflect variations in the AMOC at interannual time scales. This estimate of the surface branch of the AMOC can be constructed back in time for the period when reliable measurements are available for the Gulf Stream and the wind stress. Our observation-based AMOC index suggests a trend toward decreasing AMOC strength since 1980 due to an increased Sverdrup transport of the recirculating thermocline waters. To test the reliability of the index on interannual and longer timescales we use three different NEMO simulations: a forced, coupled and climatic simulation. Using these simulations, the index can capture a substantial fraction of the AMOC variability and is in a good agreement with the AMOC transport at 26°N both at interannual and decadal timescales. These results indicate that it might be possible to extend an observation-based AMOC index at 26°N back to the 1980s.

Programme

The Dynamics of Toxic and Non Toxic Strains of the Harmful Dinoflagellate Alexandrium Tamarense From Scottish Waters Lisa Eckford-Soper, Keith Davidson, David Green, Eileen Bresnan, Jean-Pierre Lacaze SCOTTISH MARINE INSTITUTE; MARINE SCOTLAND SCIENCE

Lisa.Eckford-Soper@sams.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Harmful algal blooms pose a threat to human health worldwide. In Scottish waters this is most commonly through the production of bio-toxins that are concentrated and then vectored to humans by filter feeding shellfish. One of the most prominent harmful species is the dinoflagellates Alexandrium tamarense that produces bio-toxins associated with paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). A. tamarense can be highly toxic with the presence of relatively low cell densities (<1000 cells l-1) potentially resulting in shellfish fishery closures. Historically Scottish waters were thought to be dominated by the toxic group I ‘North American’ Strain but in recent years there has been a shift towards the non-toxic group III ‘Western European’ Strain with both strains potentially co-occurring at the same location. I shall present some initial findings from a set of a set of laboratory batch culture, time course growth experiments where both toxic and non-toxic strains of A.tamarense were co-cultured at different temperatures (12, 15, 18 and 21°C). Cells were grown in low phosphate media (5µM) so cells experienced the phosphate limitation that is thought to promote toxicity. A Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization-Flow Cytometry-Cell (FISH/FC) SortingBased Method was developed for the separation and enumeration of these morphologically indistinguishable ribotypes. Differences in growth rates were noted between toxic and non-toxic strains. Early results appear to suggest that there is a difference in growth dynamics between

toxic and non-toxic strains as well as some allelopathic interactions in co-culture.

Seasonal Cycles of Thermal Stratification, Inorganic Nutrients and Chlorophyll in the Western Irish Sea: Comparing Model Simulations With Observational Data Karen Edwards, Richard Gowen, Rachel Furner UK MET OFFICE; AGRI-FOOD AND BIOSCIENCES INSTITUTE

karen.edwards@metoffice.gov.uk

The UK Met Office is running coupled 3D carbon-cycle and biogeochemical models for both the open-ocean and UK shelf-seas which have been developed in collaboration with partners in the National Centre for Ocean Forecasting. For the UK shelf-seas, the operational system has recently been transitioned to the coupled NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean adapted for use on the shelf)-ERSEM (European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model) framework on the 7km AMM (Atlantic Margin Model) domain. This paper presents a description of the coupled NEMO-ERSEM system with a focus on the physical-biological linkages. Comparisons are made between model variables and available in situ mooring and cruise data from the Irish Sea to provide an assessment of model performance with the intention of investigating the ecosystem dynamics and the physical processes driving the food web interactions in this region. Data are presented that show the model generally performs well with regard to field observations with good correlations in the temperature, salinity and nitrate fields. The model performance against the other inorganic nutrients and chlorophyll observations is not as good and a persistent bias in the modelled salinity is found when compared with observations at the mooring site in the western Irish Sea. Some of the issues around model performance are discussed.

Integrating Trophic Interactions Into Projecting Distribution of Fishes Under Climatic Change Jose Fernandes, William Cheung, Simon Jennings, Alastair Grant UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

ja.fernandes.sp@gmail.com

Climate change is affecting the distribution and abundance of fishes and invertebrates around the world ocean. Previous modelling studies focus on examining the effects of changes in ocean conditions at the species level while the implications for trophic interactions are not addressed. However, changes in distribution are expected to affect interactions between species. In this paper, we propose a framework that integrates the species-based dynamic bioclimate envelope model with size spectrumbased approach. This model considers competition between species for limited resources and predator-prey interactions through size-spectrum theory when predicting species’ changes in population dynamics, distribution and abundance under scenarios of climate change. This model addresses a major gap in conventional species distribution


Current estimates of mean sea level and sea level change are based on tide gauge records and satellite measurements. Tide gauge data are representative of coastal sea level but not necessarily of sea level in the deep ocean, unless the gauge is located on a remote island. Deep-ocean buoys using bottom pressure or GPS technologies provide sea level information at time scales comparable to tide gauges but their spatial resolution is equally limited. Satellite altimetry, in contrast, cover most of the ocean, but with an accuracy 10 smaller than that of tide gauges, and with sampling frequencies which are on the order of days, as opposed to minutes or hours for modern tide gauges. The NOC is trialling a new approach to measuring sea level in the deep ocean. In collaboration with Canadian, American and British companies, we have developed a tide gauge package to be installed on an ocean surface glider. The glider is fully autonomous, harvesting wave energy for its propulsion and using solar energy to power its navigation, communication and scientific devices. Geoid-referenced sea surface height is provided by GPS measurements with an accuracy of about 1 centimetre, similar to that of altimetric data. The sampling frequency is 1-2 hours. This system is effectively a floating tide gauge able to survey sea level at scales on the order of 100 km in a matter of days, thus bridging the gaps in time and spatial sampling rates that currently exist in sea level monitoring.

Phytoplankton Biodiversity in Relation to North Sea Hydrodynamics Rodney Forster, Véronique Créach, Katy Owen, Gill Malin, Elisa Capuzzo, Barbora Sediva, Dave Suggett, Evelyn Lawrenz CEFAS; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; INSTITUTE OF MICROBIOLOGY, TREBON; UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX

rodney.forster@cefas.co.uk

The North Sea has several contrasting hydrodynamic regimes within a few days of ship steaming time, and as such, provides an excellent opportunity for examining the interaction between environmental conditions and phytoplankton diversity and ecosystem function. The area has been well studied with traditional methods such as the Continuous Plankton Recorder which captures the larger size classes of plankton, and through many years of ship surveys. Historical data from these sources are being reconciled with recent data from highresolution pigment data and regionally-tuned ocean colour algorithms to provide a record of change in the phytoplankton standing stock. Pelagic biodiversity and ecosystem function have been investigated by CEFAS on dedicated pelagic research vessel surveys in 2007 and

Time-Series Observations of Production at the Western English Channel Observatory Determined From O2-Based Tracers

Welcome

Johanna Gloël, Gavin Tilstone, Morvan Barnes, Carol Robinson, Jan Kaiser UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

j.gloel@uea.ac.uk

Regular measurements of physical and biological parameters have been performed at the site of the Western English Channel Observatory (WECO) for at least 100 years. In 2009/2010, for the first time, O2/Ar ratios, measured using a membrane inlet mass spectrometer, were added and used to derive net community production (NCP). In addition, gross oxygen production (GOP) was determined from triple oxygen isotope measurements. Whilst net heterotrophic conditions occurred during the late autumn and winter months, WECO was predominantly net autotrophic for the rest of the year. The yearly balance showed that WECO is net autotrophic. As sampling occurred on a weekly basis, even short term episodic changes in NCP could be detected. Biological oxygen supersaturation of up to 13% was observed during a bloom of Phaeocystis at approximately 25-50 m. Oxygen undersaturation of 30% was measured during a Karenia bloom in August 2009. This was followed by an anoxic event in surface waters along the Cornish coast. GOP derived from triple oxygen isotope measurements correlated with primary production data from PI curves with a lag phase of about two weeks during relatively stable mixed layer depth periods. The ratio of net community to gross production, f(O2), was calculated from O2/Ar and oxygen triple isotope measurements. f(O2)reached values up to 0.3 in spring, -0.1 in winter and varied between -0.1 and 0.1 during summer and autumn.

Sponsors

prf@noc.ac.uk

Programme

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, LIVERPOOL

Abstracts | Oral

Peter R. Foden and Miguel Angel Morales Maqueda

Abstracts | Poster

A New Approach To Monitoring Sea Level In The Deep-Ocean

2011, and also on opportunistic sampling on fisheries cruises in 2010 and 2011. Phytoplankton functional types were measured by flow cytometry, 77K fluorescence excitation-emission and HPLC pigment analysis. Samples showed a wide range of diversity, with up to ten accessory pigments occurring in significant quantitities alongside chlorophyll-a. This indicates the co-existence of multiple phytoplankton functional types at the same site and depth. The photosynthetic performance as measured by FRRF also varied greatly between hydrodynamic regions. The results will be discussed in the context of improving representation of phytoplankton in ecosystem models of the North Sea.

79

Biological Oxygen Production in the Subtropical South Atlantic from O2/Ar Ratios and O2 Isotopologues Alba Gonzalez-Posada, Jan Kaiser, Dorothee Bakker UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

a.gonzalez-posada@uea.ac.uk

The South Atlantic Tropical Gyre (SATL) is a vast and highly under-sampled region of the world’s oceans that has not yet been well characterized for its metabolic

Notes | Index

modelling approaches, providing a valuable tool for developing more realistic scenarios of future marine ecosystems under climate change.

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80

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status. Previous studies by means of bottle incubation techniques have not been conclusive, some reported the gyre to be slightly autotrophic, while others found it to be net heterotrophic. Production rates are assumed to be low, but because of the sheer size of the SATL region, its metabolic balance is relevant for the calculation of global carbon budgets. In austral autumn 2010, measurements of O2/Ar ratios and O2 isotopologues have been used to determine key metabolic parameters. Mixed-layer net community production (NCP) was inferred from O2/Ar ratios. Gross oxygen production (GP) was derived from the distinctive isotopic signature of photosynthetic O2 relative to atmospheric O2. Our results show that the gyre was net autotrophic at the time of sampling, producing O2 at a rate of 13 mmol m-2 d-1 for NCP. GP was 177 mmol m-2 d-1 in terms of O2. Both of our results were larger than what was found in bottle incubation studies in the same season. The 24 % variability of NCP was negligible when compared to 55 % variability in GP. Perhaps counter-intuitively, the f-ratio (NCP/GP) was greatest at low values of GP. In light of these results, previous measurements based on bottle incubation methods, that often found net heterotrophy and rather variable NCP rates, may have to be revisited.

Combining Multi-Proxies and Numerical Models to Reconstruct Past Ocean Carbon Cycling Philip Goodwin

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

pag46@cam.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

One important role the ocean plays in Earth’s climate is through its storage of carbon, which in turn affects atmospheric CO2 levels. Understanding the ocean’s role in past atmospheric CO2 changes has proved difficult, with no agreed explanation of the causes of observed CO2 changes either during glacial-interglacial cycles or in the Holocene. The ocean variables linked to past CO2 levels are not directly measurable. Further to this, measurable proxies often reflect multiple facets of carbon cycling, so multiple proxies must be combined to form a palaeo-reconstruction. These difficulties raise the question: ‘How is it best to combine measurable proxies and numerical models to reconstruct past ocean carbon cycling?’ Palaeo-modelling studies simulate some combination of measurable proxies, which are then checked for consistency with their realworld counterparts. However, even simultaneous consistency between all modelled and real-world proxies does not necessarily imply an accurate palaeo-simulation. A new method is presented to assess which combination of proxies most accurately constrains modelled palaeoreconstructions, by considering the propagation of uncertainties between proxies and ocean variables. This method is then used to identify the combination of proxies that best constrains the causes Holocene CO2 change. Identifying a good combination of proxies for glacialinterglacial CO2 is more problematic, and will require a full quantitative understanding of how each proxy relates to each mechanism of atmospheric CO2 change. Such a mechanistic understanding is presented for reconstructed carbonate ion concentrations, which are related seven mechanisms that alter atmospheric CO2.

Shear Turbulence Below the Base of the Well-Mixed Layer Alan Grant, Stephen Belcher UNIVERSITY OF READING

a.l.m.grant@reading.ac.uk

The well mixed layer in the upper ocean is maintained by mixing due to turbulence generated by the action of wind, waves and buoyancy fluxes at the ocean surface. Scaling laws for shear and convective turbulence are well established. More recently large-eddy simulation (LES) has been used to establish scalings for Langmuir turbulence, generated through the action of wave induced Stokes drift. Regions of shear and low Richardson number often occur below the base of the mixed layer. These regions are frequently turbulent and have been considered to form a transition between the mixed layer and the underlying ocean. Turbulence in these shear layers is often characterised by eddy diffusivities that are taken to be functions of the Richardson number. In this presentation LES is used to investigate the nature of turbulence in these shear layers and the results used to develop a scaling for the shear turbulence based on the surface stress and mixed layer currents. A key feature of this scaling is that it assumes that the boundary layer spans both the well mixed and shear layers. It will be shown that the length scale of the shear turbulence is consistent with this assumption. The interaction between the well mixed layer and the shear layer will also be considered. It will be shown that this can be described using a non-dimensional parameter based on the rates of generation of mixed layer and shear turbulence.

Improved Method for Boron Isotope Determination in Small Samples: Application to Seawater and Natural Carbonates Mervyn Greaves, Sambuddha Misra, Joanna Kerr, Henry Elderfield UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

mg109@cam.ac.uk

The boron isotopic composition of seawater, as recorded by foraminifera, can be used as a tracer of past variations in atmospheric pCO2. However, widespread application of B isotopes in geochemical studies has been limited by the large relative mass difference for high precision measurements, a large memory effect, high procedural blanks, isotope fractionation induced by matrix purification methods, and low matrix tolerance. We present an improved method for B isotope ratio determination with low mass consumption (5 to 10 ng B per quintuplicate analysis), high precision (± 0.5‰, 2 sigma), low blank (< 9 pg B/ml) and high matrix tolerance, using a Thermo ElementXR Single Collector ICP-MS. The present method is optimised for the analysis of < 0.5 mg foraminifera samples. Preliminary analyses of B standards following standard – sample bracketing technique gave external precision (quintuplicate) of ± 0.50‰ independent of analyte concentration in the range 4 ppb – 10 ppb B. Moreover, this new ICP-MS method has a relatively large tolerance for the dominant matrix elements; Na, Mg, and


Coastal seas play an important role in the global carbon cycle and link terrestrial and oceanic ecosystems. They exhibit high temporal variability in biogeochemical cycles due to large and variable biological activity. The importance of coastal seas in transferring carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean has been highlighted in the last decade. Measurements of the carbon cycle are needed in coastal seas to assess the potential large seasonal and interannual variability and to detect underlying changes above this variability. Measurements of the carbonate system have been carried out in UK shelf seas within the UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme since late 2010. Discrete sampling has been conducted on surveys in the North Sea and Celtic and Irish Seas by augmenting sampling on existing research cruises and three time series stations have been established at SmartBuoy sites in the southern North Sea. In addition, the research ship RV Endeavour has been instrumented with underway sampling capability for pCO2. Results confirm previous findings of large regional differences in dissolved inorganic carbon in the seasonally stratified North Sea and the strong riverine signal in total alkalinity in the southern North Sea. Data from the time series stations in the southern North Sea show large seasonal variation in carbonate parameters driven by strong biological activity and differing behaviour between the sites due to contrasting hydrographic regimes.

High-Resolution Measurements of Nitrous Oxide Concentrations in the Scotia Sea Imke Grefe, Gareth Lee, Sophie Fielding, Jan Kaiser UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

i.grefe@uea.ac.uk

Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a potent greenhouse gas and precursor of ozone-depleting substances in the stratosphere. Atmospheric concentrations are currently rising at 0.26 % yr-1 with the oceans contributing about 30 % to the total emissions. A novel laser-based analyser, using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research) was combined with an equilibrator for continuous N2O measurements in seawater. The highresolution measurements resolve small-scale changes in surface concentrations that could be missed with traditional discrete sampling methods. Measurements were made in the Scotia Sea around South Georgia between December 2011 and January 2012. Supersaturations of > 10 % were found across the Polar Front and in Stromness Bay. Frontal regions are associated with enhanced productivity that fuels nitrification as organic matter is remineralised,

Welcome

How do Species Richness, Identity and Evenness Interact to Affect Benthic Ecosystem Function on a Mudflat? Rachel Hale, Martin Solan, Alastair Grant, Trevor Tolhurst UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

r.hale1@uea.ac.uk

This research aims to examine how biodiversity changes in a mudflat habitat, caused by climate change, will affect the functioning and stability of that ecosystem. Previous work looking at community composition and ecosystem relationships has established that successful provision of ecosystem services and ecosystem function is supported by species richness and the idiosyncratic effects of certain key species. Much of this work has been carried out in a terrestrial setting and examines how a single community characteristic affects a single ecosystem function. This study investigates the combined effects of species identity, richness and evenness on multiple ecosystem function measurements within an intertidal benthic sedimentary habitat. Macrofaunal and algal communities on a mudflat are important for maintaining sediment stability through a number of biostabilisation mechanisms, such as the excretion of extracellular polymeric substances and the creation of burrows and other structures. Species identity, abundance and richness of three common mudflat species (Hediste diversicolor, Hydrobia ulvae and Corophium volutator) will be substitutively manipulated in artificial ecosystem mesocosms placed on the mudflats at Breydon Water, Great Yarmouth, UK. Sediment stability, microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass, particle size and carbon and nitrogen sediment content will be measured to determine ecosystem function. This study will determine which diversity characteristics play the most important role in the maintenance of ecosystem functions and provision of ecosystem services using a fully crossed investigative design to determine the effects of individual species, species combinations and species evenness.

Sponsors

naomi.greenwood@cefas.co.uk

Programme

CENTRE OF ENVIRONMENT, FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE SCIENCE

Abstracts | Oral

Naomi Greenwood, David Pearce, David Sivyer

Abstracts | Poster

Assessing the Spatial and Temporal Variability of the Carbonate System in UK Shelf Seas

leading to local N2O production. Furthermore, deep water ventilation could contribute to observed supersaturations. High saturations in the shallow waters of Stromness Bay might be a consequence of sediment denitrification and enhanced microbial nitrogen cycling in the overlying water column. The influence of windspeed and chlorophyll on observed N2O concentrations, as well as fluxes to the atmosphere are discussed. Surface concentrations of N2O throughout the survey were above air saturation, highlighting the importance of this part of the Southern Ocean for the global N2O cycle. High-resolution continuous measurements of N2O concentrations, such as collected in this study, have the potential to significantly improve our understanding of marine sink- and source regions of this important trace gas.

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Ca. We will present results from analyses of seawater samples collected from the major ocean basins and discuss the relative merits of this new method for the analysis of mass limited carbonate samples.

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Transfer of Energy From the Internal Tide Back to the Surface Tide in a Regional Model Welcome

Rob Hall, Glenn Carter UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; UNIVERSITY OF HAWAII

robert.hall@uea.ac.uk

Delegate Info Sponsors

M2 barotropic and baroclinic tides in the region around Monterey Submarine Canyon are simulated using a modified version of the Princeton Ocean Model. Barotropicto-baroclinic energy conversion, p′(−H)(u ¯ ⋅∇(−H)), and baroclinic energy fluxes, u′p′, are diagnosed. Most baroclinic energy entering the canyon originates on Sur Slope, but there are other, more remote sources within the model domain. Re-running the model with a smaller domain that excludes these remote generation sites decreases baroclinic energy flux in the canyon, but also changes energy conversion throughout the area common to both domains. The remote pressure perturbation (p′remote), from internal waves generated outside the common area, enhances or suppresses energy conversion inside the common area depending on its phase relative to the local pressure perturbation (p′local). This has three implications: (1) local internal wave generation is modulated by remote generation sites; (2) the internal wave field in regional models may be highly sensitive to domain size; and (3) if p′remote > p′local and the phase difference is ~180°, negative barotropic-to-baroclinic conversion will occur, i.e., transfer of energy from the internal tide back to the surface tide.

Programme

Phytoplankton Community Composition in the Scotia and Weddell Seas (Southern Ocean), With Emphasis on Diatoms and Coccolithophores Amy Harington, Alex Poulton, Mike Lucas UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN, NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTON

Abstracts | Oral

a.g.harington@googlemail.com

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Phytoplankton community composition in the Southern Ocean (SO) is important for primary production, supporting marine ecosystems and the export of material to the deep sea, especially with respect to diatoms and coccolithophores. Small nanoplankton (cell diameters 2-20µm) are poorly resolved by traditional microscopy, and it is becoming apparent that unknown diversity and ecosystem functionality may be contained in this size class: for example, small diatoms (<10 µm) appear widespread in the SO, and may have significant roles in the silica-cycle. In order to address these issues we analysed water samples using Scanning Electron Microscopy from a transect between Antarctica and South Georgia, as part of the 2008-2009 South African National Antarctic Expedition. Multivariate analysis distinguished two distinct communities, one in the Weddell Sea and the other in the East Scotia Sea. The coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the chrysophyte Tetraparma pelagica were common in the East Scotia Sea, although the Ligeti Ridge (60°S) acted as the southernmost boundary for E. huxleyi. A statistical comparison of community composition and environmental data showed that silicic acid concentration and sea surface temperature were the major factors

driving phytoplankton distribution. Cell counts also indicated that the nanoplankton size class represented a substantial fraction (57-97%) of the total community which implies that traditional phytoplankton methods may have underestimated the importance of small mineralising nanoplankton. Underestimation of the biomass of this important floral group, and their role in primary production and export, may inhibit our understanding of how plankton communities may respond to climate change.

Temperature and Salinity Variability in the English Channel and Bay of Biscay Mark Hartman, David Hydes, Sue Hartman NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTION

mch@noc.ac.uk

A key challenge in oceanography is to capture and quantify processes that happen on short time scales, seasonal changes and inter-annual variations. To address this the P&O European Ferries Ltd. Ship ‘Pride of Bilbao’ was fitted with a FerryBox from 2002 to 2010 and data returned to NOC in near real time (www.noc.soton.ac.uk/ops). This provided near continuous hydrographic measurements along the ferry track, between the UK (Portsmouth) and Spain (Bilbao). They include surface water (5m depth) measurements for salinity, temperature, oxygen and chlorophyll-fluorescence. Development of robust physical systems and data processing methodologies are necessary to deal with the demanding, harsh environments and the large amount of data produced. Data were logged at a rate of 1 sample per second and cover 0.8x106km of ships track over the 8 year period. Persistent seasonal and regional features were identified in the data from the well mixed tidal region off Ushant to the deep waters of the Bay of Biscay. Variability in temperature measurements between in situ, towed and hull measurements are also discussed. The year to year variability in physical measurements that have been indentified will effect calculations of pCO2 uptake and of productivity (through changes in oxygen anomalies). The full dataset demonstrates that ships of opportunity, particularly ferries with consistently repeated routes, can deliver high quality in situ measurements over large time and space scales that currently cannot be delivered in any other way. Data are available from the British Oceanographic Data Centre (www.bodc.ac.uk).

pCO2 Variability in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean Susan Hartman, Zong-Pei Jiang, Richard Lampitt, David Hydes, Daniela Turk, Ute Schuster NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; DALHOUSIE UNIVERSITY; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

suh@noc.ac.uk

The northeast Atlantic is the most significant oceanic CO2 sink region. However the sink has been shown to vary from year to year (1-3 mol C m-2 yr-1). This variability has been attributed to changes in wintertime mixing and stratification. However to understand both the physical and biological causes for this variability we require a wide range


Abstracts 

d.hembury@noc.soton.ac.uk

Convergent plate volcanism typically occurs close to the oceans, hence a high proportion of fresh, highly reactive, volcanogenic material is rapidly deposited onto the seafloor. Previous studies (Haeckel et al., 2001) have shown that dissolved oxygen (O2) is extensively depleted in the pore waters of ash deposited in the South China Sea from the 1991 Pinatubo eruption. Here we report the results of an extensive field, laboratory and modelling study of dissolved O2 concentrations and ancillary geochemical data in the sediments surrounding the volcanic island of Montserrat, Lesser Antilles. Dissolved O2 is depleted to zero within 0.3 cm of the sediment–water interface in sites containing the thickest layers of volcanogenic material (35 cm), compared to a penetration depth of ∼6 cm in sites with minimal ash loading of <0.5 cm. Results from laboratory flow-through experiments indicate similar O2 consumption rates to those observed in studies of individual minerals and basalt (White and Yee, 1985). These results, and comparison with other geochemical data, lead us to conclude that the dominant mechanism for dissolved O2 uptake in volcanogenic sediments is oxidation of silicate-bound FeII by a coupled electron transfer reaction. The observation that rapid dissolved O2 uptake by volcanogenic sediments is a ubiquitous feature of deposition of fresh volcanic material in the oceans may have global implications. For example, widespread deposition of volcanic ash from massive explosive eruptions may lead to enhanced preservation of organic carbon in marine sediments and thus lowering of atmospheric CO2 concentrations during critical periods in Earth history.

Variability of Volume Transport of the Antarctic Slope Current in the Southeast Weddell Sea Karen Heywood, Cédric Chavanne UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

k.heywood@uea.ac.uk

A moored array of current meters, conductivity/ temperature sensors and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers was deployed across the Antarctic continental shelf and slope in the southeast Weddell Sea from February 2009 until March 2010 as part of the international SASSI project. The array allows the first direct measurement of the seasonal variability of the volume transport of the Antarctic Slope Current in a key region for preconditioning the water for dense water formation. The annual mean transport measured by the array is ~7 Sv. We discuss the dominant timescales for variability in the transport time series from tidal to annual. There is a pronounced seasonal cycle with a maximum transport of ~15 Sv in May – June. The maximum is consistent with an April 1995 snapshot value of volume transport of ~14 Sv at the same location. The local wind is indeed strongest in May, but the transport starts to increase long before the wind does, and there is no strong correlation. We discuss mechanisms for the seasonal cycle in volume transport including the influence of the large-scale wind stress curl

Welcome

The Southern Ocean plays an important role in regulating the Earth’s climate, hence its accurate representation in climate models is essential for predicting future climate change. Comparison of climate models has been facilitated by the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5), which provides a new set of coordinated model experiments in support of the next Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Assessment Report (IPCC AR5). The Argo Project tremendously increases the data coverage in remote regions such as the Southern Ocean and provides an important new dataset for evaluating climate models. Simulations of salinity and potential temperature of the Southern Ocean for the period 1985-2005 from fourteen CMIP5 climate models and the high-resolution HiGEM are compared to new climatologies constructed from Argo and CTD/XBT datasets. For both salinity and temperature, we based the comparison of four main tests: Taylor diagrams (variance ratio, correlation and standard deviation difference), zonal means of particular layers (salinity minimum, salinity maximum and temperature minimum), value of the bottom layer and volumes of water in a certain range of temperatures (below 0°C, between 0°C and 2°C, 2°C and 4°C, and 4°C and 6°C). Given those criteria, we find that the majority of the climate models perform reasonably well, with however big discrepancies from one test to another. Here we discuss possible causes of the different model behaviours, including their resolution and model physics.

Delegate Info

c.heuze@uea.ac.uk

Sponsors

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; MET OFFICE

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

Céline Heuzé, Karen Heywood, David Stevens, Jeff Ridley

Abstracts | Oral

Debbie Hembury, Martin Palmer, Gary Fones, Rachel Mills, Robert Marsh, Morgan Jones

How Well Do Climate Models Represent the Southern Ocean?

Abstracts | Poster

Uptake of Dissolved Oxygen During Marine Diagenesis of Fresh Volcanic Material

83

Notes | Index

of measurements as offered by time series studies. Here we compare various datasets to investigate inter-annual variability in pCO2. A full-depth mooring has been in place at the Porcupine Abyssal Plain (PAP) Sustained Observatory (49°N, 16.5°W; 4800m) since 2002, with autonomous sensor measurements of temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a fluorescence, nitrate, and pCO2. Surface seawater pCO2 shows a persistent under-saturation resulting in a significantly larger oceanic sink than at subtropical time series sites such as ESTOC. We investigate the effects of various processes and time scales (from diurnal to inter annual) on the pCO2 variations. We use ancillary data to elucidate both physical and biological processes controlling seasonal variability, which will ultimately affect the annual flux estimates. Due to recent collaboration with the UK Met Office we can also investigate the effect of the relatively high wind measurements in the area.

|  Poster


84

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Welcome

across the Weddell Gyre. Points of interest include changes in the isopycnal slopes across the moored array, movement of the front onshore/offshore and narrowing/broadening of the frontal jet. Finally we discuss the variability of temperature and freshwater anomaly fluxes deduced from the temperature, salinity and velocity fields from the moored array and the implications for the water mass transformation region downstream.

equilibrium processes might also be important mechanisms of Fe supply from sediment to the ocean.

Location, Location, Location: What Are the Drivers That Determine Where Coccolithophore Bloom? Jason Hopkins, Stephanie Henson, Alex Poulton, Stuart Painter, Toby Tyrrell UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

jason.hopkins@noc.soton.ac.uk

Delegate Info

How do Changing Winds Affect Regional Sea Level? Simon Holgate, G. Wöppelmann, M. Karpytchev NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL; UNIVERSITÉ DE LA ROCHELLE

simonh@noc.ac.uk

Sponsors

Regional sea level variability is more important for most of society than global mean sea level changes. Much of this regional variability is driven by re-distribution of ocean mass by the wind field. Here we present results which demonstrate that regression analysis of sea level against reconstructed sea level wind stress has significant skill in hindcasting regional sea level change and that this is unrelated to the inverse barometer (IB) effect. The method is shown to have utility in identifying problems such as offsets in data records. By identifying the re-distribution signal within sea level records, greater confidence can be assigned to mean trends.

Satellite data has been successfully used to globally resolve the spatial and temporal distribution of the seasonal cycle of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and to demonstrate that this species can form extensive blooms. It is being increasingly recognized that E. huxleyi also exists as a variety of morphotypes or ecotypes, identified by variations in coccolith size and design. Surprisingly though, comparatively little is known about basic physiological differences between these morphotypes. Here we present preliminary data from laboratory culture experiments showing potential eco-physiological differences between these different E. huxleyi morphotypes and discuss how these variations may influence the global distribution of this coccolithophore as seen in satellite data.

On Ocean-Atmosphere Time Scales John Huthnance

Programme

Diagenetic Fe Supply to the Eastern South Atlantic: Evidence of Flux Limitation by Reactive Fe Minerals William Homoky, Rachel Mills, Seth John, Malcolm Woodward, Yu-Te Hsieh, Jennifer Thompson UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH CAROLINA; PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY; UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

W.Homoky@soton.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Studies of river-dominated and/or low-O2 continental margins have highlighted the role of O2 and organic C for stimulating a benthic flux of reduced Fe to the oceans carrying a light isotopic composition (δ56Fe < -1.5 ‰). However, the flux and isotopic composition of Fe from more arid continental margin environments neighboring well-oxygenated waters, such as the western margin of South Africa, have not yet been evaluated. We present sediment and pore water data collected from six stations along an E-W transect off the western South African margin (GEOTRACES A10). Sites have been characterized for diagenetic reactions of O2, NO3-, Fe and Mn, and a range of redox gradients are observed. Diffusion-reaction modeling of pore water Fe and O2 data indicates that the shallow penetration of O2 overlying dissolved Fe maxima (up to 6 μM) on the shelf-slope sites contributes ~ 0.1-0.3 μmol Fe m-2 d-1 to bottom waters in this region – approximately two orders of magnitude less than is supplied by riverdominated continental margins. The concentration of reactive Fe substrates is suggested to limit the sub-surface dissolved Fe maxima and thus the flux in this region. The isotopic composition of the Fe flux (δ56Fe = -0.4 ± 0.3 ‰) is heavier than observed on river-dominated margins, and mass-balance considerations indicate non-reductive and

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, LIVERPOOL

jmh@noc.ac.uk

We consider an elementary model coupling a three-”box” ocean and two-”box” atmosphere. The present form of largest-scale overturning ocean circulation is built in. Coupling adds two degrees of freedom, hence two new time-scales compared with ocean or atmosphere alone. With temperatures and transports as the only variables, the model has a unique, stable, steady state: all perturbations on the steady state decay. The new time-scales are some decades, corresponding to adjustment of ocean temperature above the main thermocline. [Atmosphereonly relaxation times are days to months; ocean-alone overturning relaxation times are centuries]. No oscillatory modes are found, probably because the model has little spatial description or anomaly propagation. Adding salinities as oceanic variables, and exchanges of water with the atmosphere, allows instability in a limited range of relative “box” sizes. Growing oscillations with time-scales of centuries are possible if the density effect of fresh-water flux via the atmosphere is significant and tropical “upwelling” is small relative to the total transport from the tropical to the northern ocean. Overall this evidence suggests that (ocean) models should allow spatial propagation if internal (climate) variability is to be represented.


Abstracts 

David Hydes, Susan Hartman, Zong-Pei Jiang, Pam Walsham, Eileen Bresnan NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; MARINE SCOTLAND SCIENCE

djh@noc.ac.uk

Assessing future impact of ocean acidification requires we know what present day conditions are and the key processes maintaining them. The DEFRApH project has provided baseline information on the annual variation in the carbonate chemistry of key sites around the UK. Sites were chosen based on the availability of data from ongoing monitoring projects. Two sites were relatively well mixed year round – Stonehaven and the Central English Channel. The Stonehaven site is 5 km off shore, south of Aberdeen. It has a consistent record of weekly sampling for hydrography, plankton and nutrient chemistry, which started in 1997. Measurements of Total Alkalinity TA and Dissolved Inorganic Carbon DIC were started in October 2008. At the same time monthly sampling was carried out in the English Channel using the NOC FerryBox system on the Portsmouth-Bilbao ferry. Alkalinity is important, as higher alkalinity waters will be more buffered against change. TA variations were much larger than expected and in both areas an annual cycle of around 40 micro-mole kg-1 was observed. Concentrations reached a maximum in spring coincident with the removal of nitrate during the spring bloom they then fell progressively through the summer and slowly recovered though winter. The causes

The seasonal-to-interannual biogeochemical variations in the Northeast Atlantic were examined by the highfrequency underway measurements combined with monthly sampling of carbon-related biogeochemical variables in the Bay of Biscay. The controlling mechanisms were investigated by distinguishing the contributions of various bio-physical processes to the monthly changes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pCO2. The winter maxima and summer minima of DIC and nutrients were primarily driven by convection-deep winter mixing followed by spring biological removal. The annual cycle of pCO2 (61-75 matm) showed two peaks associated with winter maximum DIC and summer maximum sea surface temperature, respectively. Winter mixing is identified to play a significant role in modulating the carbon variability both on seasonal and interannual timescales. The interannual variability in DIC mainly results from the changes in the strength of winter mixing which can be linked to climate indexes. Cold years with deep MLD in the Bay of Biscay seem to be associated with negative indexes of the wintertime North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Eastern Atlantic pattern (EA). Although deep winter mixing tends to increase the seasonal amplitudes of DIC (47-81 mmol kg-1) and nutrients as well as the rates of biological production, there is no clear link to consequent enhanced oceanic CO2 uptake. Overall, the Bay of Biscay was a CO2 sink (-1.2 mol m-2 yr-1) with stronger uptake in spring and early winter. The C:N:P stoichiometry were close to Redfield ratio during the spring bloom, but nonRedfield uptake under nutrient stress was observed in the post-bloom summer.

Atmospheric Dust Inputs to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans Alex Baker, Rosie Chance, Tim Jickells UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

t.jickells@uea.ac.uk

Dennis Burton’s interest in trace element cycling in the oceans included studies of inputs including those from the atmosphere. The focus of scientific interest in such studies has evolved from issues associated with their potential impacts as pollutants to the role of atmospheric inputs as nutrient sources to the oceans. Here we will present the results of several recent studies in which we try and quantify the magnitude of total and soluble inputs of iron, phosphorus and fixed nitrogen to the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans and their impacts on ocean new and total primary

Sponsors

zongpei.jiang@noc.soton.ac.uk

Delegate Info

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

Programme

Calcification and the Seasonal Cycle of Alkalinity and Carbonate Chemistry in UK Coastal Waters

Zong-Pei Jiang, David Hydes, Toby Tyrrell, Susan Hartman, Mark Hartman, Cynthia Dumousseaud

Abstracts | Oral

Accurate assessment of the role of the ocean in controlling atmospheric levels of CO2 requires a global network of measurements. The interest of a Swire Group shipping company in supporting this global effort to determine regional and inter-annual variations of pCO2 at the sea surface stimulated the development of an on board system that could be simply maintained by a ship’s crew. The SNOMS system (www.noc.soton.ac.uk/snoms ) was produced to meet this need. The core sensors are a modified CO2Pro and a GTD (Gas Tension Device) from ProOceanus. Here we report an evaluation of the system based on operations in the Pacific between Australian and western Canada in 2010 to 2012. A key feature of this work reported here is the variation in the extent of the high sea to air flux region in the equatorial current carrying high CO2 waters from the up welling off South America. In 2012 extensive testing of this system along with new sensors from ProOceanus and Satlantic (SeaFET) will be carried out using the Aquatron Laboratory at Dalhousie. We will report on the results of these tests and consider how this work fits into the OceanScope and ICOS concepts for enhanced ocean monitoring.

Key Controls on the Seasonal and Interannual Variations of the Carbonate System in the Northeast Atlantic

Abstracts | Poster

djh@noc.ac.uk

Welcome

of this cycle are related to cycling of nutrients, river inputs and benthic and pelagic calcification.

David Hydes, Jon Campbell, Zongpei Jiang, Mark Hartman, Doug Wallace, Daniela Turk NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; UNIVERSITY OF DALHOUSIE

85

Notes | Index

Robust Measurement Systems for the Study of the Marine CO2 From Ships of Opportunity

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86

Abstracts 

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Welcome

production both directly and via stimulation of nitrogen fixation.

statements about the coherence of different networks with relatively straightforward genetic information.

Bottom and Under-Ice Boundary Layers in Nares Strait

Characterising the Seasonal Cycle of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen in the Southern North Sea Using Cefas SmartBuoy High-Resolution Time-Series Samples

Peter Davis, Helen Johnson, Andreas Muenchow, Humfrey Melling UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

helen.johnson@earth.ox.ac.uk

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

The export of freshwater from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic may play a key role in determining the magnitude of deepwater formation in the Labrador and Greenland Seas, and thus may directly impact the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Nares Strait to the west of Greenland is one of the major export pathways, and has recently been the focus of an intensive observational campaign aiming to quantify the freshwater flux in this region. The results suggest that the freshwater flux is driven both by winds and the along channel pressure gradient, with an important dependence on the seasonal changes in the ice regime. However, little is known about the dynamical processes (e.g. turbulence in bottom and under-ice boundary layers, internal waves, hydraulics etc.) that act to “limit” the flow through Nares Strait. Through the analysis of tidal current ellipses, calculated from three years of ADCP data collected between 2003 and 2006, we show that the tidal current boundary layers and the effect of the tidal critical latitude play an important role in frictional processes within the strait, with distinct dynamical differences between the different ice regimes, and thus are partly responsible for “limiting” the flow through Nares Strait.

Abstracts | Oral

Quantifying Ecological Coherence in Marine Protected Area Networks Caitriona McInerney, Louise Allcock, Mark Johnson, Paulo Prodohl

Martin Johnson, Naomi Greenwood, David Sivyer, Keith Weston, Tim Jickells UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

martin.johnson@uea.ac.uk

The Cefas SmartBuoy network provides a unique insight into the biogeochemical dynamics of the Northern European shelf seas, particularly the North Sea, through high-resolution automated offshore water sampling. We present total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) from the Dowsing SmartBuoy site (53.531°N, 1.053 °E) from January to October 2010, the first high resolution seasonal (winter-autumn) cycle of DON from the open North Sea. On top of a refractory background DON concentration of approximately 5 µM, a rapid increase in DON of a further ~5 µM is observed over the course of the spring bloom. This rapidly produced DON declines at an estimated net decay rate of between 0.6 and 1.8 µM/month. The slow decay suggests that the majority of the additional DON produced during the spring bloom is of semi-labile nature and has a lifetime of weeks to months. The dataset allows us to tightly constrain the budget for water column nitrogen over the winter, spring and summer of 2010 and clearly demonstrates the ‘sawtooth’ nature of the seasonal cycle of DON in the open North Sea, which has been impossible to resolve with a more traditional ship-based mode of operation. This work highlights the importance of autonomous sampling approaches in better understanding shelf sea biogeochemistry in the future.

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND, GALWAY

Studies of Central and South Atlantic Ocean Circulation and Sea Level Variability

mark.johnson@nuigalway.ie

Kathryn Jones

Many marine protected area networks are designated with a biodiversity conservation aim rather than a specific fishery protection aim. Protection for biodiversity involves a number of concepts and organizational scales. This complexity can make concepts difficult to define and some of the underlying aims may be conflicting. For example, the most distinctive site to complement an existing network is likely to be at some distance from the currently protected sites, but a closer site is likely to be better placed to improve network connectivity. We estimated the most suitable site to add to existing protected sites in Ireland, using genetic distances in intertidal molluscs to summarize the relationships among sites. Apparently conflicting criteria for ‘ecological coherence’ could be reconciled, leading to a clear choice of site in the region with the strongest genetic structuring. Results were also similar across molluscs with quite different dispersal modes. This suggests that it will be possible to make quantitative

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL

katjon@noc.ac.uk

Sea level is influenced by a variety of processes and upon many different timescales. Such processes typically include melting ice sheets and glaciers, hydrological changes, patterns of wind stress and atmospheric pressure, density changes caused by thermohaline expansion and contraction, changes in basin volume and shape. None of these processes affecting sea level create a spatially uniform signal and they operate on a variety of timescales from geological to synoptic and shorter timescales. Using altimetry data it can be seen that global sea level has increased by approximately 3mm/yr. This increase is shown to not be uniform around the world, particular regions show a sea level increase by 10mm per year and other regions show a decrease of a similar magnitude. The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the mechanisms which change sea level in the South Atlantic. Given that North Atlantic and Southern Ocean sea


UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL

An Investigation of Mineral Dynamics at Sub-Zero Temperatures in Cryogenic Brines Hilary Kennedy, Paul Kennedy, Stathys Papadimitriou, Colin Pulham, Chiu Tang, Alistair Lennie BANGOR UNIVERSITY; EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY; DIAMOND LIGHT SOURCE

h.a.kennedy@bangor.ac.uk

The cold geochemical processes that occur on Earth, Mars, and Europa are currently inadequately understood, and we rely on poorly constrained thermodynamic models to predict mineral equilibria at sub-zero temperatures. We have recently tested a novel method aimed at determining the relevance of these models to natural

Welcome

Determination of Boron Isotopes in Small Carbonate Samples Joanna Kerr, Sambuddha Misra, Mervyn Greaves, Henry Elderfield UNIVERSITY OF CAMBRIDGE

jk537@cam.ac.uk

Calcitic foraminifera incorporate trace boron from seawater in their tests. The isotopic composition of this seawater-derived boron is strongly influenced by ambient pH and hence atmospheric pCO2 – a critical controller of Earth’s climate. Boron isotopic composition of foraminifera can thus be used as a proxy for palaeo-pH and has the potential to help reconstruct past shifts in the oceanic carbonate system driven by changes in atmospheric pCO2. Widespread application of foraminifera as palaeo pH proxy is complicated by post depositional diagenesis, vital effect, and limitations of present analytical methods. We have developed an improved mass spectrometric method using Element XR Single Collector ICP-MS for B isotope ratio determination with low mass consumption (5 to 10 ng-B per quintuplicate analyses) and high precision (± 0.5‰, 2 sigma). Our ICP-MS method is optimised for analysis of < 0.5 mg of foraminifera samples. We will use this method to analyse multiple planktonic and benthic species from core-top samples collected from different ocean basins, to critically evaluate our analytical method prior to large scale application to down-core samples. The effects of oxidative and reductive chemical cleaning techniques on foram bound B isotope ratios will also be evaluated.

The Effect of Atmospheric Dust on Phytoplankton Growth in the Sagrasso Sea Yosra Khammeri, Simon Ussher, Kristen N Buck

Sponsors

The variability between phytoplankton species leads to different species being more successful in different physical environments. Shifts in the physical regime have been observed to lead to the emergence of background species to outcompete the previously dominant. At the Celtic Sea shelf edge we observe distinct shifts in the phytoplankton community where Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, thriving in the open ocean, are outcompeted by picoeukaryotes and other larger phytoplankton at the shelf edge with the community shifting to Synechococcus dominated on the shelf. These shifts are associated with a region of strong vertical mixing of nutrients caused by the internal tide. Using numerical simulations, we investigate structural and functional properties of the phytoplankton community in the contrasting physical environments across the Celtic Sea shelf break. The model used in this study is a 1D physical model, providing turbulent diffusivity profiles to the emergent ecosystem model of Follows et al. (2007). The ecosystem model is seeded with many phytoplankton types with their cell traits being stochastically assigned with applied trade-offs and allometric constraints. We present preliminary model results on how the physical forcing at the shelf edge controls the phytoplankton community structure. We determine which physical factors affect the spatial distribution of phytoplankton species from the open ocean across the shelf break and into the Celtic Sea, illustrating the fundamental role of the internal tide in setting a distinct shelf edge ecosystem.

Programme

kkenitz@liv.ac.uk

Abstracts | Oral

Kasia Kenitz, Jonathan Sharples, Ric Williams

Abstracts | Poster

The Role of Physics in Shaping the Phytoplankton Community Structure at the Celtic Sea Shelf: A Modelling Approach

systems. We studied mineral formation in-situ for the first time during seawater freezing by using synchrotron powder diffraction as a non-invasive technique. Although water ice was the main solid phase formed, the high contrast I11 instrument has enabled us to easily discern the precipitation of mirabilite (NaSO4.10H 2O) and hydrohalite (NaCl.2H2O). The experiment also allowed us to determine the temperature dependence (263 – 243 K) of the unit cell parameters of these minerals for the first time. This experimental approach has produced interesting results and will lead to a better understanding of mineral deposition at sub-zero temperatures, especially in the marine environment under the conditions that characterise our polar oceans currently and more widely during glacial times.

87

BERMUDA INSTITUTE OF OCEAN SCIENCES

yosra.khammeri@gmail.com

This study investigated the effect of atmospheric dust on phytoplankton growth in the Sargasso Sea (Hydrostation S, North Atlantic, 32° 10.244 N, 64° 30.016 W) during spring in March 2011. Chlorophyll a, phaeopigments and phytoplankton taxa numbers were determined using flow cytometry and fluorometry. The aim was to determine the effect of two types of dusts; anthropogenic (NIST)

Notes | Index

level variability appears to be influenced by fluctuations associated with key atmospheric modes (SAM, NAO), it seems reasonable to suppose that the South Atlantic might respond similarly to the changes depicted by the dominant climatic modes in that region, such as the Pacific-South American Modes. Other possible processes affecting sea level in South Atlantic include the Meridional Overturning Circulation, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, El Nino and the Agulhas Current.

|  Poster

Delegate Info

Abstracts 


88

Abstracts 

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Welcome Delegate Info

and Saharan dust (TSD) on phytoplankton growth, by comparing different incubation treatments. Our data show that anthropogenic dust incubations have a negative effect on phytoplankton growth compared with Saharan dust. Chlorophyll a concentrations were consistently lower than initial values at the end of incubations and declined to the lowest levels with greatest amount of anthropogenic dust of 10 mg in 2.5 L. There was no big change in phaeopigments concentrations with different treatments. Flow cytometry measurements demonstrate that the response of phytoplankton growth to dust additions differ across phytoplankton species. Eukaryotes showed a large decrease in cell numbers compared with the predominance of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus. The anthropogenic dust additions caused a significant decrease in Synechococcus growth in contrast to Saharan dust which stimulated growth. The results have implications for continued anthropogenic emissions influencing the health and ecology of the Sargasso Sea.

Sponsors

Mechanisms of Seasonal and Inter-Annual Surface Water pCO2 Variability in the North Atlantic Justin Krijnen, Andrew Watson, Ute Schuster, Samantha Lavender UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; ARGANS LIMITED

j.krijnen@uea.ac.uk

Programme Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

The world oceans are currently taking up about 25 % of anthropogenic CO2, with the North Atlantic being one of the most important sink regions. The North Atlantic sea surface partial pressure of CO 2 (pCO 2) shows substantial seasonal to inter-annual variability as does the uptake of atmospheric CO2, both spatially and temporally. Additionally, observations point towards a decrease in the sink for CO2 between the mid 1990s to mid 2000s in the mid-latitude North Atlantic. We study the drivers of the seasonal and inter-annual variability of the observed surface pCO 2 and air-sea CO 2 flux. With respect to the seasonal surface pCO2 variability in temperate regions (>40°N), we find that the subpolar gyre circulation strength, in response to the winter North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAOI), deepens the mixed layer, entraining carbon-rich subsurface waters in the surface layer, increasing its pCO2 in late winter. This deep winter mixing is found to enhance the following spring bloom, decreasing the pCO2. The subtropical regions (25 – 35°N) are primarily sea surface temperature driven and changes in the winter surface circulation lead to warming and increased pCO2 with a much weaker biological response in spring. On inter-annual timescales, the winter NAO phase alters the ocean circulation in all regions. Under a positive NAO index, the subtropical gyre is more spun-up and with increased SST, increasing the annual mean pCO2. In the temperate zone, the interplay between carbon entrainment and biological drawdown dominates, dampening the interannual pCO2 variability.

Microfluidic Nutrient Analysers for the Marine Environment. François-Eric Legiret, Samer Abi Kaed Bey, Malcolm Woodward, Matthew Mowlem, Douglas Connelly, Eric Achterberg NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

fe.legiret@soton.ac.uk

The warming of the oceans and consequent enhanced stratification will have significant consequences for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration. Nutrient supply to microbial ecosystems will reduce as a result of the stronger stratification. Oligotrophic ocean regions are therefore predicted to increase in size as a consequence of global warming. This strengthens the need for analytical techniques with low limits of detection for nutrients. In recent years, sensitive techniques with a high sample throughput have been developed for shipboard nutrient analysis at nanomolar levels but these techniques are not suitable for autonomous oceanic deployment for longterm observations. The work presented here focuses on the optimisation and miniaturisation of in situ analytical systems for the determination of nutrient concentrations using novel Lab-on-a-chip technology. These systems integrate a microfluidic chip milled into tinted poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), a custom syringe pump, embedded control electronics and on-board calibration standards. This enables in situ adaptation of classical wetchemical methods with colorimetric analysis using a LED as a light source and a photodiode as a detector. A phosphate micro-analyser was successfully deployed and compared with reference analytical methods in both coastal waters and the open ocean.

Understanding the Storm Surge Flood Risk in the Northern Bay of Bengal Matt Lewis, Paul Bates, Kevin Horsburgh BRISTOL UNIVERSITY; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL

matwis@noc.ac.uk

An inundation model has been developed from freely available data sources for the Northern Bay of Bengal region at risk from storm surges. This is the first time Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data has been used in a dynamic coastal inundation model, and the first time a computationally inexpensive flood storage coastal inundation model has been developed for this region. The LISFLOOD-FP inundation model was forced with a storm surge model (IID-T) hindcast of the 2007 cyclone Sidr flood event, using parameters from two cyclone databases (IBTrACs and UNISYS). Validation showed inundation prediction skill with an approximate root mean squared error (RMSE) on predicted water level of 2 meters, which was of the same order of magnitude as the forcing waterlevel uncertainties. Indeed, the estimated extreme waterlevel, used to force such flood hazard inundation models, is shown to have significant uncertainty, which needs to be resolved or quantified before meaningful flood risk estimates can be made for the Bay of Bengal region. Unless the data available to scientists improves and forcing water-


Dimethylsulphide (DMS) is a trace gas produced from the catabolism of phytoplankton intracellular dimethylsulphoniopropionate (DMSP), a process rapidly accelerated by microzooplankton grazing. DMS is important for the global biogeochemical cycling of sulphur and may play a role in climate regulation; however its production is largely determined by microbial interactions in the pelagic environment. In particular, DMS elicits behavioural responses in numerous marine organisms including planktonic copepods, which may use concentrations of DMS as infochemical cues to locate suitable prey. It has therefore been proposed that DMS, released following microzooplankton grazing on phytoplankton, mediates multitrophic interactions by attracting predatory copepods. This may then enhance predation on microzooplankton and create a refuge from grazing for phytoplankton. Here we considered a model of the interactions between these three trophic levels of plankton. We show that the inclusion of a grazing-induced DMS production term had a stabilizing effect on the system dynamics, and that the feedback between trophic levels potentially promotes the formation of phytoplankton blooms. Elucidating the function of DMS in the ecology of marine food webs will enhance our knowledge of bloom development and food-web structure in oceanic environments, as well as improving our understanding of DMS production.

Recycling Versus Export of Bioavailable Dissolved Organic Matter in the Coastal Ocean and Efficiency of the Continental Shelf Pump Christian Lønborg, Xosé A Álvarez–Salgado SWANSEA UNIVERSITY; INSTITUTO DE INVESTIGACIÓNS MARIÑAS SPAIN

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

LabOnFoil is a European project developing costeffective, fast, sensitive, and easy-to-use lab-on-chip (LOC) technologies for different applications. We are focused on a LOC-based sensor for in situ molecular analysis of water samples and the detection of marine microorganisms. Molecular methods in the field of oceanography are considered valuable tools in ecological studies because of their reliability, effectiveness, and high specificity, but can be particularly time-consuming, costly, sometimes impractical, and require specialised training. Optimising molecular techniques in the form of automated analytical devices is a complex topic and requires careful consideration of sample volume, minimal detection limits, energy consumption, fastness and sustainability. The sensor, currently known as “LabCardReader”, uses multichamber microfluidic cartridges to perform nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) in an automated fashion, thus making the requirement of highly-trained operators obsolete. Quantitative results are achieved with the incorporation of an internal control (IC) and the addition of two molecular beacons; each emits a fluorescent signal and attaches itself specifically to either the target molecule (wild-type) or the IC. A fluorescence detector monitors the reaction at 600 nm (wild-type) and 680 nm (IC), microfluidics are controlled by three peristaltic micropumps and the activation of seven pin-like micro-valves, whereas a heater performs primer annealing at 65ºC and maintains the reaction optimum at 41ºC. The cartridges are fully disposable, contain preserved reagents along with the IC, and remain functional at room temperature for up to 8 months. The system is accompanied by user-friendly software and can be connected to a tablet-PC via USB.

clonborg@gmail.com

In this work, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen (DON) and phosphorus (DOP) bioavailability measurements from published bottle incubation experiments have been compiled and reanalysed to examine the role of bioavailable DOM (BDOM) in the coastal ocean. DOM bioavailability decreased in the sequence DOP > DON > DOC, with BDOM representing 22 % of DOC, 35 % of DON and 70 % of DOP. Firstorder microbial degradation rate constants (K) of BDOM increased in the same sequence, being 6.6, 11.1 and 15.4

Welcome

C.Loukas@noc.soton.ac.uk

Vertical Translocation Maintains Phytoplankton Position in a Strait With Residual Flow

Sponsors

ndlewi@essex.ac.uk

Christos Loukas, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Jesus Ruano-López, Hywel Morgan, Matthew Mowlem

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF ESSEX

Lab-on-a-Chip Technology for in Situ Molecular Analysis in Marine Microorganisms

Abstracts | Oral

Nicola Lewis, Mark Breckels, Michael Steinke, Edward Codling

Abstracts | Poster

The Infochemical Role of DMS in Multitrophic Plankton Interactions

% per day for DOC, DON and DOP, respectively. The C: N: P molar ratio of the DOM that resists microbial degradation was extremely C-rich and N- and P-depleted 2835: 159: 1 compared with the BDOM fraction, 197: 25: 1. The renewal time of water (t) in relation to the turnover time of BDOM (1/K) demonstrates that large scale export of BDOM fuels parts of the oceanic new production and influences the N/P limitation of the open ocean.

89

Robert Macdonald, David Bowers BANGOR UNIVERSITY

r.macdonald@bangor.ac.uk

Through the year different phytoplankton communities occupy different parts of the Menai Strait. Communities advect along the strait with the tidal excursion, up to 7 km. There is a nett residual flow of approximately 7 cm

Notes | Index

level uncertainties cannot be reduced, a computationally efficient inundation model, such as the LISFLOOD-FP used in this paper, could quantify sources of uncertainty through ensemble simulation. Indeed, uncertainties within coastal flood risk increase when including climate change uncertainties such as sea-level rise and cyclone intensification.

|  Poster

Delegate Info

Abstracts 


90

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors

s-1 to the south west. The phytoplankton communities bear chlorophyll, however in August 2011 a semidiurnal chlorophyll signal was recorded to be at odds with the advective system. Data were collected using a moored fluorometer and spectrophotometry was carried out on filtered water samples. Both data sets showed one chlorophyll peak per tide but peaks were of the order 13 mg l -1 in daytime compared to 4 mg l -1 at night. Furthermore the peaks did not diminish in magnitude day-to-day with the residual flow but stayed at 13 or 4 mg l-1 for six consecutive days before diminishing. Both of these anomalies were explained by modelling a community of dinoflagellates south westward of the study site. In the model tidal velocity diminished towards the sea floor. Dinoflagellates were allowed to swim upwards as daylight arrived. The centre of mass of the dinoflagellate community was high in the water column during the day, allowing the community to photosynthesise. It experienced strong advection, causing the high chlorophyll peak at the observation site. As daylight left, dinoflagellates travelled downwards. The community had a smaller advective excursion and consequently the chlorophyll peak was smaller. Finally because the community experienced more north eastward flow when higher in the water, it maintained its position against the nett residual flow.

OceanScope Programme

Bev Mackenzie, Tom Rossby, David Hydes IMAREST; UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTON

bev.mackenzie@imarest.org

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

The ocean is vastly under-observed, particularly below the ocean surface. Observations depend on getting platforms (ships, moored buoys, gliders, etc.) to locations far beyond the coasts, which can be expensive. Ships offer the best opportunities for applications that require significant power, frequent sampling, and real-time transmission of data to shore. Commercial vessels are attractive because they traverse the same routes on a regular basis. SCOR and IAPSO supported the OceanScope working group to examine the cooperation between oceanographers and the shipping industry – how this could be built on and how a framework for future activities developed The report spells out the observational and scientific rationale for implementing a global network of instrumented merchant marine vessels. It discusses how a partnership with the maritime industries can provide an integrated interdisciplinary approach to monitoring the world ocean and how it would be implemented. Work would start in the North Atlantic. It would build on exciting ocean-observing initiatives already underway and to which OceanScope could immediately contribute. The North Atlantic undergoes considerable variability in thermal structure (warming), and circulation (poorly understood), major shifts in plankton community patterns and plays a major role in the uptake of atmospheric CO2, a process which however appears to be decreasing in recent years. A key tool for getting below the surface will be the expanded use of ADCP systems.

Fish, Plankton and Climatic Variations: Information from Stable Isotopes Kirsteen MacKenzie, Clive Trueman, Martin Palmer UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTON

kym@noc.soton.ac.uk

Direct monitoring of animals at sea is difficult and expensive. The isotopic composition of carbon and nitrogen in tissues such as fish scales provides information on both the trophic level and nutritional status of the fish and the state of primary production at feeding sites, which can be used to infer migration patterns. Archives of salmon scales dating back decades exist around Europe and may be used to assess historical trends in ecology. We use carbon stable isotope data from scale tissues to identify marine feeding grounds for separate salmon populations, and therefore the extent of population-specific geographic separation. We also test isotopically whether climatically-driven changes in ocean conditions are related to marine mortality or to changes in trophic level and body condition of the returning fish. The results are compared both within and between populations, in particular assessing differences in marine behaviour of fish that return as 1 sea-winter or as multi sea-winter fish. Fluctuations in carbon-13 data are not consistent between archives, and can be used in conjunction with coeval sea surface temperature records as a novel means to determine the areas in which the tissues were grown. Results show a complex, population-specific relationship between ocean productivity, climate indices, migration and fish survival. We use these results to produce maps showing strengths of covariation between carbon-13 in these salmon scales and oceanographic variables, providing a method of inferring marine feeding areas for different salmon populations, and many other pelagic animals, based on temporal variability in carbon-13 values.

Molecular Tools for the Assessment of Microbial Reduction on Sensor Materials for Pristine Environment Exploration Iordanis Magiopoulos, Catherine Burd, Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Matthew Mowlem NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

I.Magiopoulos@noc.soton.ac.uk

More than 386 sub-glacial lakes have been found by radioecho sound data in Antarctica up to now. Lake Ellsworth, located below 3.4 km of ice in West Antarctica was chosen to be studied, by a consortium of British universities and research centres. A custom-made probe will be used, constructed mainly by titanium grade V, and equipped with sampling bottles, a custom-made filtration system, as well as physical and chemical sensors. To prevent contamination of the pristine environment of the lake and to ensure the integrity of the samples, all deployed scientific equipment will be efficiently sterilised. The probe needs to be free of viable organisms, including bacterial spores. We are using Hydrogen Peroxide Vapour (HPV) and Ultra Violet (UV) radiation to sterilise the probe. In order to access the efficiency of this process and due to low endogenous microbial load, titanium surfaces were positively


Efficient Modelling of Physics and Biology in UK Shelf Waters Robert Marsh, Simon Josey, Jonathan Sharples

necessary. At the base of the marine food-web, plankton are tightly linked to their environment and offer insight into pelagic responses to change in the marine system. Much of our knowledge of macroecological change in the North Atlantic is a result of research using data gathered by the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) survey, a near-surface plankton monitoring program which has been towing in the North Atlantic since 1931. Indicators developed using CPR data have revealed information about shifts in primary production, alterations to plankton community composition and diversity, biogeographical range shifts, links between plankton and higher trophic levels (including fish), ocean acidification, and jellyfish dynamics. Decision makers will need to consider these issues when developing pelagic targets and indicators for achievement of GES in European Seas.

91

Welcome

contaminated with biofilm-forming bacteria Pseudomonas fluorescens. Also Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were used for further monitoring of the sterilisation process. Membrane integrity and cell viability was assessed by microscopy, culture techniques, propidium mono-azide quantitative-PCR and the ATP-luciferase assays. Our results showed a log-6 reduction of the microbial load, confirming the efficiency of the sterilization process. These assessment methods can be used in future scientific expeditions in other pristine environments on Earth as well as in other planets.

|  Poster

Delegate Info

Abstracts 

Abigail McQuatters-Gollop, Alison J. Gilbert SIR ALISTER HARDY FOUNDATION FOR OCEAN SCIENCE

abiqua@sahfos.ac.uk

Unprecedented basin-scale ecological changes are occurring in our seas. As temperatures warm ocean pH is lowering, sea ice is decreasing, and marine stratification and nutrient regimes are changing. These unparalleled changes present new challenges to managing our seas as we are only just beginning to understand the ecological manifestations of these climate alterations. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires all European Member States to achieve Good Environmental Status (GES) in their seas by 2020 which means that management toward GES will take place against a background of climate-driven macroecological change. Each Member State must develop indicators and targets to monitor towards GES; however, in order to set targets for achieving GES an understanding of largescale ecological change in the marine ecosystem is first

apm@noc.ac.uk

Feedback cycles governing the decadal variability of the North Atlantic overturning circulation have previously been identified, in which modulation of tropical rainfall creates near-surface salinity anomalies that propagate northward to the winter convection regions, where they affect the wintertime convection through changes in surface density. Freshwater “hosing” experiments, in which 0.1 Sv of extra freshwater is added to the convection region, are described using two climate models: the UK Met Office’s HadCM3; and CHIME, which is identical to HadCM3 except for the replacement of the z-coordinate ocean component of HadCM3 with the hybrid coordinate isopycnic model HYCOM. While HadCM3 shows an unambiguous weakening of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) by 5 Sv, the AMOC in CHIME initially starts to decrease but returns to a value close to that in the control experiment after 40–50 years even though the hosing flux is still being applied. It will be shown that the recovery of the overturning in CHIME is mainly due to enhanced advective transport of salt from the subtropics by salinity anomalies. These are found to be substantially more coherent in CHIME than in HadCM3, consistent with the known superior ability of the isopycnic model formulation to preserve watermass properties over long distances.

Programme

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

Abstracts | Oral

Why Is It So Hard to Set MSFD Indicators and Targets? Messages From the Plankton

Alex Megann, Adrian New, Adam Blaker

Abstracts | Poster

The Sharples (2008) 1-D physics/biology model is an efficient tool for exploring physics and biology of the shelf seas, driven by surface heat fluxes, winds and tides. The model is implemented on a 12-km mesh in the region 15°W-2°E, 48-59°N. As an initial test, it is demonstrated that the model accurately predicts the location of wellknown tidal mixing fronts, locations of enhanced productivity due to the co-availability of both light and nutrients. Driving the model locally with monthly-mean “reanalysis” meteorological variables, the heat budget through a seasonal cycle is approximately balanced at each location. With a credible seasonal cycle of stratification and mixing across the domain, the extended model is then used to efficiently investigate the sensitivity of biological metrics (annual gross and net primary production; timing of the spring bloom) to a range of hypothetical changes in surface boundary conditions (winds, air temperature, humidity), motivated by typical patterns of climate variability and change.

Model Representation of Salinity Anomalies and the Stability of the North Atlantic Overturning Circulation

Notes | Index

rma@noc.soton.ac.uk

Sponsors

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, LIVERPOOL


92

Abstracts 

|  Poster

The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS): Towards Implementation Welcome

Michael Meredith, Louise Newman, Oscar Schofield, John Gunn, Mike Sparrow, Ed Urban, Steve Rintoul, Victoria Wadley, Kevin Speer, Eileen Hofmann, Colin Summerhayes, Richard Bellerby SOOS INTERNATIONAL PROJECT OFFICE

meredith@soos.aq

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

The Southern Ocean provides the principal connection between the Earth’s ocean basins and between the upper and lower layers of the global overturning circulation, with impacts on global climate patterns and the cycling of carbon and nutrients. It is also home to unique and potentially vulnerable ecosystems, and has impacts on global issues such as sea level rise. Changes in the Southern Ocean therefore have global ramifications. The region is warming more rapidly than the global ocean average; salinity changes driven by changes in precipitation and ice melt have been observed in both the upper and abyssal ocean; the uptake of carbon by the Southern Ocean has slowed the rate of atmospheric climate change but caused basinwide ocean acidification; and Southern Ocean ecosystems are reacting to changes in the physical and chemical environment. These results, and their implications, all demonstrate the need for sustained, multidisciplinary observations of the Southern Ocean. The Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS) has been developed to address this need. It will address the following key challenges of scientific and societal relevance: (1) Global heat and freshwater balance (2) Overturning circulation stability (3) Future of the Antarctic ice sheet and its contribution to sea-level rise (4) Ocean uptake of CO2 (5) Future of Antarctic sea ice (6) Impacts of global change on Southern Ocean ecosystems. This presentation will outline the development, status and future plans of SOOS.

Abstracts | Oral

Evidence of Greenland Sea Water at 24°N From the Greenland Sea Tracer Experiment Marie-Jose Messias, Andrew Watson, Peter Brown, Brian King

kg/m3< σθ< 27.82 kg/m3) and between 47 to 40°W longitude, revealing a relatively substantial southward flow along the eastern flank of the MAR.

Reconstructing Sea-Surface Temperatures in the Labrador Sea During the Last Interglacial Using Mg/ Ca Ratios Leila Middle, Mark Chapman, Liz Farmer, Claude Hillaire Marcel UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

L.Middle@uea.ac.uk

The reconstruction of past surface temperatures in the North Atlantic provides an important analogue to help us understand the present day climate system, and how it may respond to changing conditions in the future. Sediment core 1305 was raised from the Eirik Ridge during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 303. At this location the West Greenland Current rounds the tip of southern Greenland carrying cold fresh waters from the Nordic seas into the Labrador Sea, where further cooling and deep winter convection form Labrador Sea Water, which is an important source of deep water in the North Atlantic. We aim to clarify the timing and magnitude of surface temperature changes at this pivotal location throughout the Eemian interglacial (marine isotope stage 5e) that lasted from 130,000 to 115,000 years ago. Planktonic foraminifera species N. pachyderma (sinistral) from core 1305 were analysed for Mg/Ca ratios as a proxy for palaeo-surface temperatures. These are interpreted with reference to other palaeo-proxies such as published stable isotopes δ18O and δ13C. Core 1305 was sampled at 5 cm intervals, providing a resolution of approximately 340 years. Temperature reconstruction shows prominent deglacial warming of 4°C approximately 130,000 years ago, a gradual warming trend of approximately 3°C throughout the interglacial alongside short-term fluctuations of 1 – 2°C, and a sharp cooling event of about 6°C at 115,000 years ago marking a transition back toward glacial conditions.

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

m-j.messias@uea.ac.uk

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

A transatlantic hydrographic section at 24°N performed in January 2010, sampled several plumes of the excess tracer sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) released in the Greenland sea 14 years earlier. The tracer was injected along the isopycnal σθ= 28.045 kg/m3 tagging warm and salty Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water around 300 m depth. Subsequently, the tracer was found in the Icelandic basin in 2001 and in the Irminger Basin in 2003 within the Iceland Scotland Overflow Water (ISOW) and the Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW). The tracer plumes along 24°N were respectively found in the deepest part of the Florida Strait within the DSOW, in the Deep Western Boundary Current, and on the eastern side of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) within the ISOW. These observations reveals the presence of intermediate water from the Greenland Sea in North Atlantic Deep Water as far as 24°N with a transfer time upper limit of 13 years. The tagged ISOW core was observed between about 1200 and 2000 m depth (27.65

Microfluidic Technology for in-Situ Low Level Detection of Iron in Seawater Ambra Milani, Doug Connelly, Matthew Mowlem, Peter Statham NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

ambra.milani@noc.soton.ac.uk

In-situ sensors are of crucial importance to understand the physico-chemical processes that occur in the oceans. Current laboratory methods are often affected by artefacts due to sample handling (e.g. contamination, chemical changes in the sample) and are both expensive and time consuming. In-situ analysers minimise these drawbacks and provide a tool to obtain long term data sets for the interpretation of biogeochemical cycles. Trace elements are some of the most crucial parameters that require long term observations in seawater. Iron is of particular interest because of the essential role it plays in controlling phytoplankton growth and in deep sea processes. We developed an analyser for the detection of Fe(II) in


Dinoflagellates and prymnesiophytes, as the highest dimethyl sulphoniopropionate (DMSP)-producing phytoplankton taxa, are commonly acknowledged to be vital contributors to the oceanic DMSP stock, and thus key factors controlling dissolved concentrations of the biogeochemically important volatile dimethyl sulphide (DMS). Here we investigate the hypothesis that diatoms, though having a lower average DMSP content, are also important contributors due to their high biomass and opportunistic growth strategies. To assess this hypothesis a range of individual cultures from three phytoplankton taxa, dinoflagellates, prymnesiophytes and diatoms, were screened for intracellular DMSP content. The DMSP data for these taxa were then used to build a biogeographical atlas of relative taxanomic DMSP contributions in the North Atlantic based on a decadal observation of phytoplankton cell numbers and biomass, calculated to give total DMSP levels per biogeographic sector. This biogeography suggests that prymnesiophytes are the major contributors to the DMSP pool in the North Atlantic but that diatomic DMSP makes up a significant proportion of this pool in the winter and spring months (December-May) and dominates over both dinoflagellate and prymnesiophyte DMSP in the midst of the spring bloom. Dinoflagellate derived DMSP, in contrast, dominates between June and November, reaching very high levels in the shelf seas. The implications of these observations are that, in the real world, diatoms may be an important source of DMSP in the early year and as such deserve far greater attention as a factor controlling potential DMS concentrations.

Biogeochemical Sensors for Global Ocean Observation Systems Matthew Mowlem NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

matm@noc.soton.ac.uk

Despite their global importance, biogeochemical cycles in the vast (1.3 x 109 km 3) oceans remain largely undersampled (in both space and time). Biogeochemistry can exhibit variations of two orders of magnitude on hourly and metre scales whereas current subsurface sampling, with few isolated exceptions, occurs on annual and kilometre scales. A concerted international effort is focused on development of global ocean observation systems that can address this problem. Some biogeochemical parameters can be routinely measured with existing technology (CTD, O2, bulk fluorescence) whilst measurement of others is being attempted with technology that is rapidly maturing (such as pH, pCO2 and nitrate). An opportunity to achieve truly global coverage is to develop sensor systems for the existing profiling (Argo) float array but the specification for power, weight, and longevity make this a significant challenge. The requirements for ocean gliders are only slightly easier to achieve. However, sensors able to work to either of these specifications would also find ready application on a wide range of alternative platforms.

Delegate Info

We present a detailed analysis of the seasonal distribution of the phytoplankton community and relevant pelagic environmental parameters, measured during the spring and summer of 2010 at two sites, within and outside a sea loch (Loch Creran), on the west coast of Scotland. Available parameters include concentrations and uptake of nitrogenous nutrients, water column temperature, salinity, and light intensity. The measured concentrations and uptake rates of organic nitrogen, in the form of urea, were comparative to those of inorganic nitrogen species, confirming the previously hypothesised importance of this nitrogen species for primary productivity in the studied area. The results also suggest the interconnectivity of the studied sites, and the potential of a simple model based on river runoff and nutrient concentrations to predict the seasonal variation in the magnitude of the phytoplankton stock and the species succession of the phytoplankton community. These analyses form the first component of a PhD project that will investigate the role of dissolved organic nitrogen as a resource for the phytoplankton community, with a focus on species associated with Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in contrasting Scottish, Northern Irish and U.S. waters.

Sponsors

andrew.mogg@sams.ac.uk

greg.moschonas@sams.ac.uk

Programme

SCOTTISH ASSOCIATION FOR MARINE SCIENCE

SCOTTISH MARINE INSTITUTE, SCOTTISH ASSOCIATION FOR MARINE SCIENCE; AGRI-FOOD AND BIOSCIENCES INSTITUTE; UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND

Abstracts | Oral

Andrew Mogg, David Green, Mark Hart, Angela Hatton

Grigorios Moschonas, Keith Davidson, Richard Gowen, Patricia M. Glibert

Abstracts | Poster

A Biogeographical DMSP Atlas of the North Atlantic

The Phytoplankton Community on the West Coast of Scotland: A Detailed Analysis for Loch Creran and the Lynn of Lorne, With an Introduction to the Role of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen

93

Notes | Index

seawater at nanomolar level. The spectrophotometric sensor relies on the Ferrozine technique, and is based on lab-on-a-chip technology. The analyser performs insitu calibrations which allow to correct for potential instrumental drift. It is designed to be deployed at over 1600 m depth and it can perform a measurement every 3 minutes. The system has been tested on the bench at different temperatures and has been successfully calibrated in a pressure and temperature conditioned chamber which mimicked the physical conditions of a deep-waters deployment. The analyser has been deployed in dock waters at NOC, Southampton, for two full tidal cycles. Further use of the analyser will be discussed. The design of the sensor can be modified to perform total Fe analysis. Insights will be given on the engineering and chemical steps needed to achieve this target.

|â&#x20AC;&#x201A; Poster

Welcome

Abstractsâ&#x20AC;&#x201A;


94

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Welcome Delegate Info

Micro System technologies enable the construction of high precision miniaturised structures, such as optics and fluidic channels. At the Centre for Marine Microsystems in Southampton, we have used this technology to create a portfolio of high performance sensors for a range of nutrients, trace metals, carbonate parameters and biological parameters. This includes lab on chip analysers, micro cytometers, and oxygen micro-sensors combined with miniature CTDs. This emerging technology will be presented, and its potential for use in global ocean observation systems discussed.

Regional Scale Hydrodynamic Modelling of Offshore Wind Farm Development Areas Off the East Coast of Scotland Rory O’Hara Murray, Alejandro Gallego MARINE SCOTLAND SCIENCE

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

There is considerable interest in Scotland, supported by the Scottish Government, in the expansion of renewable energy production. In particular, significant offshore wind energy developments are already planned in coastal waters to the east of the Forth and Tay estuaries. It is important to understand the local and cumulative environmental impact of such developments within this region, to aid licensing decisions but also to inform marine spatial planning in general. Substantial wind farm developments may affect physical processes within the region, such as tidal-, wind-, and wave-driven circulation, as well as coastal sediment transport and more complex estuarine dynamics. Such physical impacts could have ecological and, ultimately, socio-economic consequences. The Firth of Forth and Tay areas both exhibit complex estuarine characteristics due to fresh water input, complex bathymetry and coastline, and tidal mixing. Our goal is to construct an unstructured grid hydrodynamic model of the wider Firth of Forth and Tay region using the Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM), resolving the complex estuarine hydrography of the area and representing offshore wind developments. Hydrodynamic modelling will provide an accurate baseline of the hydrography in this region but also allow the assessment of the effect on the physical environment of multiple wind farm development scenarios.

Abstracts | Poster

Global Trends in Altimeter Derived Eddy Kinetic Energy Chris O’Donnell, Karen Heywood, David Stevens, Emily Shuckburgh

a weak correlation suggesting that only the largest ENSO events can be distinguished from other sources of global EKE variability. Linear trends are best-fit to the 18-year time series and their statistical significance assessed using bootstrap techniques. The trend in near-global mean EKE is indistinguishable from zero and statistically insignificant. However, on a regional scale, statistically significant trends are found in all ocean basins. Negative trends occur primarily in both the Northern and Southern sub-tropical Pacific, with positive trends occurring in much of the North East Atlantic, the South Indian Ocean off Western Australia and in the Scotia Sea and Pacific-Antarctic Ridge regions of the Southern Ocean. In many locations the change in EKE during the 18 years is up to 30% of the mean. For example, in the Subtropical Pacific, annual mean values have changed from 0.025 m2s-2 in 1993 to 0.018 m2s-2 in 2010. Whether these trends are the result of more frequent or more energetic localised eddy activity and the causes of these localised positive and negative trends are discussed.

The Role of Ocean Monsoon Variability and Extreme Precipitation Events in Nigeria Ediang Okuku, Ediang Aniekan NIGERIAN METEOROLOGICAL AGENCY

ediang2000@yahoo.com

Coastal areas are characterized by long–term changes (development of marshes, secular rise of sea level, climate changes) as well as by highly dynamic system states, therefore the further development of these requires more extended knowledge in order to set up sustainable concepts for releasing construction measures compatible with nature. However the aim in this study is to highlight and examine what are the principal patterns of various ocean properties and monsoons observed in both data and modeling simulations forced with realistic external forcing. Also, what are the most likely underlying mechanism? The study confirmed that for some extreme events (e.g. droughts, flood, ocean surges etc) there is some theoretical basis for expecting changes in their occurrence, associated with changes in background climate state however, it’s the nature of extreme events that they are rare, and so the observant record is often sparse. We conclude by drawing to your attention that by targeting, specific proxies (paleo – tempest logy) or by increasing the appreciation of long documenting records available in Nigeria an improved basis for the characterization of some events could be developed.

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

c.odonnell@uea.ac.uk

Notes | Index

Altimeter-derived geostrophic surface velocity anomalies are used to compute an 18 year time series of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) on a near-global 1/3 degree grid. Time series of global-mean and hemisphere-mean EKE show strong seasonality with interannual variability evident particularly in equatorial regions. A large peak in nearglobal EKE is observed in 1997/1998 when the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index was at a 20 year high. However statistical analysis of the two time series shows

The Apparent Efficiency of Gravitational Potential Energy Generation by Diapycnal Mixing in the Ocean Kevin Oliver NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

K.Oliver@noc.soton.ac.uk

Large scale overturning in the ocean is sustained by gravitational potential energy (GPE) generation. The efficiency of GPE generation due to turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation is often equated with Gamma,


c.ostle@uea.ac.uk

The North Atlantic is an important sink for atmospheric CO2, and with the continued increase in anthropogenic CO2 and subsequent climate change, understanding the processes affecting this CO2 sink is vital. Surface pCO2 measurements show a ~ 20% decline in the oceanic uptake of CO2 between 1995 and 2005. These changes in the flux of CO2 are driven by both abiotic and biotic factors, yet the relative extent to which these processes influence the variability of the North Atlantic CO2 sink, on both spatial and temporal scales, is yet to be fully determined. This study investigates the influence of plankton on the drawdown of atmospheric CO2. Surface measurements of pCO2 have been collected since 2002 between the UK and the Caribbean alongside measurements of plankton abundance and diversity derived from the Continuous Plankton Recorder. During four seasons in 2012, additional measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity and oxygen will be collected to further enhance this dataset. We will present how the varying abundance, composition, and distribution of phytoplankton influence the North Atlantic CO2 sink, based on numerical and statistical analysis of this combined dataset.

Langmuir Turbulence in the Ocean Surface Boundary Layer Brodie Pearson, Stephen Belcher, Alan Grant, Jeff Polton

Sponsors

Trace elements and their isotopes play an essential role in biological processes in the marine environment. Like many micronutrient elements, lead (Pb) is mainly supplied to the remote oceans by atmospheric deposition. Unlike nutrients, however, its behaviour in seawater is dominated by passive scavenging onto particles. Lead in seawater is furthermore heavily influenced by anthropogenic contamination, and its dissolved isotopic composition can provide information on (i) anthropogenic vs. natural sources affecting the modern oceans, and (ii) the ventilation of water masses within the global oceans. To better exploit the potential of Pb isotopes for research in marine geochemistry, we have developed a new method for accurate high precision analyses of Pb isotopes in seawater. The methodology involves preconcentration of Pb using Mg(OH)2 co-precipitation and further purification by ion exchange chromatography on two successive columns of AG1X8 100–200 resin. Samples are then loaded on single Re filaments with a mixture of silica gel and phosphoric acid. The isotopic analyses are carried out on a TRITON TIMS instrument at Imperial College London, using a 204Pb/207Pb double spike for the correction of instrumental mass fractionation. Using our new analytical technique, we analyzed several depth profiles of seawater from UK-GEOTRACES cruises in the South Atlantic Ocean along 40°S. Our lead isotope data will help to constrain anthropogenic and natural dust inputs from both South Africa and South America and their migration within the vertical water column. In addition, intermediate and deep water analyses will reveal the presence of Southern Ocean and North Atlantic waters.

Delegate Info

m.paul@imperial.ac.uk

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; SIR ALISTAIR HARDY FOUNDATION FOR OCEAN SCIENCES

IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON

Abstracts | Oral

Clare Ostle, Carol Robinson, Ute Schuster, Andy Watson, Martin Edwards, and Peter Landschützer

Maxence Paul, Tina van de Flierdt, Dominik Weiss, Mark Rehkämper

UNIVERSITY OF READING

b.c.pearson@pgr.reading.ac.uk

Langmuir turbulence arises from the interaction between wind and wave forcing in the open ocean, creating large scale structures confined to the top ~5m of the ocean, known as Langmuir cells. These cells produce large amounts of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE), whilst also redistributing TKE over the full depth of the mixed layer. Langmuir turbulent regimes have been shown to increase entrainment at the base of the OSBL causing an increase in mixed layer deepening of 2-3 times over shear turbulence dominated regimes. Using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) we study the profile of terms in the TKE budget over the depth of the mixed layer for flows with a range of Langmuir number (a measure of the relative strength of shear and Langmuir turbulence). Current work has focused on conditions where wind and waves are in alignment, and the wave profile is often monochromatic. We aim to

Abstracts | Poster

Phytoplankton influence on CO2 uptake in the North Atlantic

Lead Isotopes in South Atlantic Seawater: Insights on Anthropogenic Inputs and Ocean Circulation From the UK GEOTRACES Transect Along 40°S

95

Notes | Index

the fraction of TKE used to mix the water column (the remaining energy is dissipated as heat). However, this is only correct if there is no exchange between GPE and internal energy (IE), due to contraction or expansion following mixing. Such exchange does occur due to the non-linearity of the equation of state. If the ratio of GPE-toIE conversion to mixing-energy from TKE dissipation is (1xi), then the ratio of GPE generation to TKE dissipation is the product of xi and Gamma. In this study, xi is determined globally from World Ocean Atlas data, with greater values of xi indicating that mixing is more effective at generating GPE. It is found that the regime xi < 1 dominates in the pycnocline, where contraction associated with cabbelling results in the loss of GPE. In the abyssal ocean, where there are weak positive conservative temperature gradients, the regime xi > 1 dominates due to gain in GPE associated with thermobaricity. The mean of xi is 0.6 at 400 m depth, and 1.6 at 5000 m depth, indicating that TKE dissipation is typically 2-3 times as effective at supplying GPE to the local water column if it occurs in the abyssal ocean. The effect of this result on published estimates of GPE generation from turbulence observations is presented.

|  Poster

Welcome

Abstracts 


96

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Welcome

improve the understanding of this process in the OSBL, using more complex wave profiles and misaligned windwave conditions, to evaluate current similarity scaling of Langmuir regimes. Better parametrisation of this process could also improve OSBL depth prediction in global circulation models, which is often under predicted in nonconvective regimes, particularly in the Southern Ocean.

Delegate Info

The impact of future sea-level rise on the European Shelf tides Mark D Pickering, N.C. Wells, K.J. Horsburgh, J.A.M. Green NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, SOUTHAMPTON; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, LIVERPOOL; BANGOR UNIVERSITY

mark.pickering@noc.soton.ac.uk

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster

This paper investigates the effect of future sea-level rise (SLR) on the tides of the northwest European Continental Shelf. The European shelf tide is dominated by semidiurnal constituents. This study therefore focuses primarily on the changes in the M2 tidal constituent and the spring and neap tidal conditions. The validated operational Dutch Continental Shelf Model is run for the present day sea-level as well as 2m and 10m SLR scenarios. The M2 tidal amplitude responds to SLR in a spatially nonuniform manner, with substantial amplitude increases and decreases in both scenarios. The M2 tidal response is non-linear between 2m and 10m with respect to SLR, particularly in the North Sea. Under the 2m SLR scenario the M2 constituent is particularly responsive in the resonant areas of the Bristol Channel and Gulf of St Malo (with large amplitude decreases) and in the southeastern German Bight and Dutch Wadden Sea (with large amplitude increases). Changes in the spring tide are generally greater still than those in the M2 or neap tides. With 2m SLR the spring tidal range increases up to 35 cm at Cuxhaven and decreases up to -49 cm at St Malo. Additionally the changes in the shallow water tides are larger than expected. With SLR the depth, wave speed and wave length (tidal resonance characteristics) are increased causing changes in near resonant areas. In expansive shallow areas SLR causes reduced energy dissipation by bottom friction. Combined these mechanisms result in the migration of the amphidromes and complex patterns of non-linear change in the tide with SLR. Despite the significant uncertainty associated with the rate of SLR over the next century, substantial alterations to tidal characteristics can be expected under a high end SLR scenario. Contrary to existing studies this paper highlights the importance of considering the modification of the tides by future SLR. These substantial future changes in the tides could have wide reaching implications; including for example correctly calculating design level requirements for flood defences, the availability of tidal renewable energy and dredging requirements.

Atmospheric Organic Nitrogen Liam Pollard, Tim Jickells, Alex Baker UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Liam.Pollard@uea.ac.uk

Atmospheric organic nitrogen (AON) is globally ubiquitous and is thought to comprise 25- 30% of total atmospheric fixed nitrogen in aerosols and rainwater, in addition to gaseous compounds such as PAN. Despite this quantitative importance it is relatively understudied compared to its inorganic nitrogen counterparts. AON has been shown to be a complex mixture of compounds with a range of molecular masses and C/N ratios. However AON is still largely uncharacterised. A greater knowledge of the composition of this material is of importance to further understand the role of organic nitrogen compounds in aerosol formation and the potential bioavailability of AON once deposited. The extent of aerosol formation is important as it relates to the balance of climate through indirect and direct effects and also has implications for human health. Deposition of AON means that it can be utilised as a nutrient source in receiving ecosystems and it has been shown that a portion of AON is readily bioavailable and hence potentially able to have a global biogeochemical impact. In this talk, data gathered from aerosol and rainwater samples collected on the AMT 21 cruise between the UK and the Falklands will be presented. Bulk and soluble organic nitrogen measurements will be shown alongside analyses of individual compound classes targeted for their known bioavailability. Inter-component correlations and air-parcel back trajectories will be used to evaluate of the potential sources and cycling of AON over the remote Atlantic and its impact.

Tidal Dissipation on Shelf Seas: A New Method for Indirect Estimates Jeff Polton, Chris Old NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHIC CENTRE; SCOTTISH ASSOCIATION FOR MARINE SCIENCE

jelt@noc.ac.uk

Tidal dissipation on shelf seas is estimated to account for more than half of the ocean’s energy sink. However, dissipation is a difficult quantity to measure and a subgridscale quantity to parameterise. Tidal current data from the Celtic Sea are used to fit an eddy viscosity model that is manipulated to compute dissipation. These empirically based estimates are shown to be consistent with in-situ data and simulated global tidal models estimates.

Brine Rejection and Dense Water Cascades in the Arctic Ocean Clare Postlethwaite, Maria Luneva

Notes | Index

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, LIVERPOOL

cfpo@noc.ac.uk

The formation of sea ice is accompanied by brine rejection, where the ice releases much of its salt into the underlying water. On the continental shelf the dense plume may reach all the way to the sea bed. If the horizontal density gradient


Abstracts 

b.queste@uea.ac.uk

The Ross Sea is known to be one of the most productive regions of the Southern Ocean, partly due to the persistent large areas of open water, or polynyas, present there. It has been suggested that it is responsible for 28% of the total flux of atmospheric CO2 and thus has a dominant role in global carbon sequestration. The polynyas remain largely under-sampled due to the challenges caused by sea-ice and weather conditions. From November 2010 to February 2011, two Seagliders were deployed in the Ross polynya to observe the initiation and evolution of the spring bloom. Seagliders were a novel and effective tool to bypass the sampling difficulties at a fraction of the cost and inconvenience. Equipped with fluorometers, oxygen sensors, CTDs, and the ability to estimate current speeds, the gliders were able to obtain data in the polynya before access was possible by oceanographic vessels. We present observations of phytoplankton dynamics, export of organic matter and related fluctuations in dissolved oxygen during the spring bloom in the polynya. A bloom was first observed at the end of November in the McMurdo polynya whilst a much larger diatom bloom began the second week of December in the Ross polynya. Another bloom then started the second week of January with a different planktonic composition at the same location. A thermocline formed gradually deepening to about 50m as the sea-ice melted. Strong vertical mixing was observed injecting warm fresh water down to 400m and carrying phytoplankton as far down as 200m.

Welcome

Globally, aquaculture production continues to increase and salmon production in Scotland has experienced a five fold expansion since the early 1990’s with an aspiration for a further 50% increase in marine finfish production by 2020. This intensification in aquaculture, consequently, acts as a pressure on the marine system. Loch Linnhe is a Scottish fjordic system, which includes ten active salmon farms and is consented to produce almost 10% of Scotland’s salmon. A multidisciplinary project has been initiated to investigate sea lice, a copepodid ectoparasite, and its dispersal within the system using a coupled biological-physical model and field work for model validations. The aim is to assess sea lice transmission, distribution and accumulation, interaction between fish farms, and between wild salmonid populations and fish farms. Loch Linnhe covers two Farm Management Areas (FMA), within which coordinated practices occur to optimise production, including disease management. Sea lice can potentially spread throughout the system and across FMA boundaries. Recent results from model simulations show that some farms are connected by bio-physical processes, whilst others remain separated. The project will evaluate whether coupled biologicalphysical models could be used as tools to assess sea lice transmission and distribution within inshore systems, and as aids in developing different pest/disease management strategies.

Delegate Info

b.rabe@marlab.ac.uk

Sponsors

MARINE SCOTLAND SCIENCE

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Berit Rabe, Nabeil Salama, Alexander Murray

Predicting Suspended Particulate Matter Behaviour in Shelf Seas With a Focus on the Irish Sea Rafael Ramirez-Mendoza, Alejandro Souza, Laurent Amoudry UNIVERSITY OF LIVERPOOL; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, LIVERPOOL

rrmenz@noc.ac.uk

Primary productivity, pollution and coastal erosion are strongly related to suspended particulate matter (SPM). This study tries to help in the ability to predict the SPM dynamics and in particular in the Irish Sea. Three dimensional distributions of SPM in the Irish Sea during a spring-neap tide cycle were obtained using two advanced hydrodynamic and turbulence models, POLCOMS (Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Modelling System) and GOTM (General Ocean Turbulence model) respectively, and a sediment module. To obtain the barotropic and baroclinic components a time splitting technique is used whereas a forward-time centered-space differencing technique were used to solve the depth averaged and free surface equations. A piecewise parabolic method is employed for the advective terms. The turbulent stresses and turbulent fluxes were computed using the k-epsilon closure model. An advection-diffusion equation is used in the sediment module with an additional term to include settling velocity, density and erosion. Sediment exchange between the water column and sea bed depends on erosion, which changes linearly on bed shear stress and

Abstracts | Oral

Bastien Queste, Walker Smith, Vernon Asper, Craig Lee, Mike Dinniman, Jason Gobat, Karen Heywood

Modelling Sea Lice Dispersal in a Scottish Fjordic System

Abstracts | Poster

Biogeochemical and Physical Observations of the Ross Sea Polynya Using Seagliders During the 2010– 2011 Austral Spring

97

Notes | Index

is sufficient, a dense water cascade can occur, transporting the brine down the continental slope and ultimately into the deep ocean. The fate of this brine is poorly represented in ocean models because (1) the coarse horizontal resolution does not capture the small scale over which brine release occurs and (2) the coarse vertical resolution cannot resolve the dense water cascades that transport the dense brine from the continental shelf into the deep ocean. As the Arctic moves towards being seasonally ice covered, brine transport pathways are likely to change. Understanding how this occurs is important because in addition to transporting salt, the dense water cascades can transport nutrients, dissolved gases and carbon from the surface ocean to depth. This work reports results from an 18km resolution pan-Arctic ocean/sea ice model (NEMO SHELF – LIM2) and a regional 3km resolution model focused on the site of observed cascades in the Arctic. We show that the model resolves dense water flows down and along the Arctic continental slope. A passive tracer, which tracks the brine entering the ocean when sea ice forms, indicates that the brine can cross the shelf break and enter the deep Arctic Basin but the locations where this happens are limited.

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98

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Welcome

deposition by gravitational settling. The whole modelling system is forced with meteorological data. At open boundaries, the values of salinity, temperature, elevations and barotropic tidal currents are specified each hour. The main observed sediment variability in the Irish Sea was obtained with the model. In Wicklow Head, Anglesey and the Isle of Man, large concentrations were obtained in the horizontal distributions. Comparisons with data were used to study the main factors that govern the sediment transport.

Delegate Info

The RAPID-MOC 26°N Monitoring Array Darren Rayner, Stuart Cunningham, Harry Bryden, Gerard McCarthy NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE

consumption. A robust optical set up is achieved with the use of a custom-made polymeric flow cell coupled to a three wavelength LED. The measurement is made close to in situ temperature (+0.2 °C) in the sampling chamber which has a continuous flow of the ship’s underway seawater supply. The system features a short term precision of 0.001 pH unit (n=20) and an accuracy within the range of a certified Tris buffer (0.004 pH units). The pH sensor has been deployed on RRS Discovery cruises D366 as part of the UK Ocean Acidification Research Program and D368 as a contribution to GO-SHIP sustained hydrography program. The automated pH system was operated continuously for a period of two months on an underway seawater supply. Technical details of the sensor with an emphasis on the microfluidic design are presented here as well as the pH data obtained during the cruises D366 and D368.

darren.rayner@noc.ac.uk

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of the global climate system. At 24-26°N It is responsible for approximately 25% of the global (oceanic and atmospheric) poleward heat transport of these latitudes. At mid-latitudes there is a substantial transfer of heat to the atmosphere and therefore any changes in the amount of heat transported by the AMOC will have significant impacts on the global climate. Coupled ocean-atmosphere climate models predict that the AMOC will decrease as CO2 builds up in the atmosphere (Cubasch et al. 2001; IPCC, 2007), and others predict a perturbation caused by a large freshwater input to the North-Atlantic may cause the AMOC to effectively collapse, causing severe cooling over the northern Atlantic (Vellinga and Wood, 2002). The RAPID-MOC project maintains an array of moorings across the North Atlantic at a latitude of 26°N to monitor the strength and structure of the AMOC and has greatly improved our understanding of this system. The array was first deployed in 2004 and is currently funded until 2014 to provide a decade long timeseries of the strength and structure of the AMOC. Here we present the array as it is currently deployed along with a brief summary of the main scientific results obtained from the first 7 years of data.

Development of a Colorimetric Micro-Sensor for Seawater pH Analysis Abstracts | Poster

Victoire Rérolle, Cedric Floquet, Matthew Mowlem, Andy Harris, Richard Bellerby, Eric Achterberg NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; UNIVERSITY OF BERGEN

victoire.rerolle@noc.soton.ac.uk

Notes | Index

High quality carbonate chemistry measurements are required in order to fully understand the dynamics of the oceanic carbonate system. Seawater pH data with good spatial and temporal coverage are particularly critical to apprehend ocean acidification phenomena and their consequences. The aim of our project is to develop an accurate and precise autonomous in situ pH sensor for long term deployment on remote platforms. The system is based on the spectrophotometric approach implemented on a simple micro-fluidic platform with low power and reagent

Tidal Impacts on West Antarctic Ice Shelves Sebastian Rosier, Mattias Green, James Scourse BANGOR UNIVERSITY

s.rosier@bangor.ac.uk

Ice shelves play a key role in ice sheet dynamics, hence global sea level, through their role in buttressing high velocity ice streams draining major ice sheets such as the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS). One of the constraints on ice shelf stability is the ocean tide. Tides fracture and move ice shelves but the tides themselves are strongly influenced by the presence of the ice shelf and the adjacent ice sheet through modification of coastal topography. Any change in ice shelf or ice sheet extent will feedback into changes in the tidal dynamics. Here, we show through numerical model simulations that the removal or reduction in extent of the Ross and Ronne-Filchner ice shelves will have a profound impact on the tides around Antarctica, with generally increasing tidal amplitudes when the floating ice is reduced in thickness and/or extent. Icestreams are highly sensitive to sea-level changes at the grounding line, and iceberg calving rate and the flow of ice sheets inland can also be profoundly modified by tidal processes close to the grounding line. These model data indicate that the Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf is particularly vulnerable and that partial loss of this ice shelf will likely lead to tidally-induced positive feedbacks that will promote further ice shelf collapse, increased iceberg calving rates and increases in adjacent ice stream velocity. Enhanced tidal amplitudes following ice shelf collapse thus have far reaching consequences for the dynamics of the WAIS and global sea level.

How Have the Southern Subpolar Gyres Responded to Recent Climate Change? Craig Rye, Paul Holland, Mike Meredith, George Nurser, Alberto Naveira Garabato NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

c.rye@noc.soton.ac.uk

One of the most prominent features of recent oceanic climate change is the widespread warming of abyssal waters ventilated by Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW).


saeed.sadri@plymouth.ac.uk

There is growing evidence that as a result of weathering processes such as photo oxidation and mechanical abrasion large items of plastic debris are fragmenting into “microplastic” pieces some as small as 2 µm and therefore increasing the surface area and possibility of their interaction with a wider range of biota along the food chain. European Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC (MSFD) recognises Marine Litter as one of the indicators for the Environmental State of the European Seas and lists specific indicators for assessment of good environmental status (GES) of marine waters. Indicator 10.1.3 regards micro-particles, in particular microplastics and calls for research on trends in the amount, distribution and, where possible, composition of this debris. Our preliminary investigation of microplastic contamination in Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples reported by analysts at the Sir Alistair Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science (SAHFOS)” has confirmed the presence of synthetic polymers in several European locations (North Sea, Irish Sea, English Channel and the North Atlantic). We used Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry to identify the unknown pieces. The most common plastic types were Polyethylene terephtalate(PET) followed by Nylon and Acrylic but mean abundance was typically less than one item per cubic meter of sea water. Our knowledge of the distribution, accumulation and in particular temporal trends of this debris are limited and there is a need for broad sampling programmes and standardised analysis methods to produce comparable results in order to better understand and reliably assess the environmental impacts of this debris.

MIMOC: a Monthly, Isopycnal/Mixed-layer Ocean Climatology Sunke Schmidtko, Gregory Johnson, John Lyman UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Sponsors

The wind-driven polynya that forms in Terra Nova Bay, in western Ross Sea, is believed to be an important contributor to the formation of high salinity shelf water and, ultimate, Antarctic bottom water, which covers the lowest several hundred meters of most of the world ocean. A dynamic sea ice model, with a simplified sea ice thermodynamics but a full formulation of surface heat fluxes over the polynya, has been employed to simulate the seasonal cycle of sea ice formation in, and export off, the polynya. The model uses an elastic-viscous-plastic rheology and is forced by a combination of in-situ weather station and reanalysis data for the years 2000 and 2003. Surface heat fluxes are calculated using various bulk formulae. The model domain has a resolution of 1 km, which is sufficient to represent the salient features of the coastline geometry, notably the Drygalski Ice Tongue. Perhaps unsurprisingly, the modelled sea ice production proves to be very sensitive to the formulation of the surface heat fluxes, specially sensible and latent heat ones. This sensitivity has been identified in many other modelling studies. Not so frequently investigated, however, is the sensitivity of sea ice production to the coastline geometry, which we also examine here. The lateral boundaries of the Terra Nova Bay polynya are made of land ice and land-fast ice shelves which exhibit considerable variability over the seasons and that greatly affect the evolution of the polynya edge and polynya area and, hence, the net ice production within the polynya.

Delegate Info

manusansi@inwind.it

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF PLYMOUTH; SIR ALISTER HARDY FOUNDATION FOR OCEAN SCIENCE

UNIVERSITY OF NAPLES; NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; CENTRE FOR POLAR OBSERVATION AND MODELLING

Abstracts | Oral

Saeed Sadri

Manuela Sansiviero, Miguel Ángel Morales Maqueda, Daniela Flocco, Giorgio Budillon

s.schmidtko@uea.ac.uk

Construction of a monthly, isopycnal/mixed-layer ocean climatology (MIMOC) is explicated, motivated by comparisons with other monthly ocean climatologies. All available quality-controlled profiles of temperature (T) and salinity (S) versus pressure (P) collected by conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) instruments from the Argo Program, Ice-Tethered Profilers, and archived in the World Ocean Database are used for this climatology. MIMOC includes maps of mixed layer properties (potential temperature (θ), S, and maximum P) as well as maps of interior ocean properties (θ, S, and P) on neutral density surfaces. The final product merges the two onto a pressure grid spanning the upper 2000 dbar of the global ocean. All maps are at monthly × 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. The optimal interpolation used to map the data incorporates an isobath following component using a “Fast Marching” algorithm, as well as front-sharpening components in both

Abstracts | Poster

Using the Continuous Plankton Recorder to Determine the Abundance of Microplastic Debris in the Marine Surface Waters

A Model for the Formation of Sea Ice in the Terra Nova Bay Polynya and its Interaction with Coastline Geometry and Land-Fast Ice

99

Notes | Index

The trend in AABW is not only intriguing for its possible significance in current global heat and sea level budgets, but it is also vital in understanding how the dynamics of the abyssal oceans might affect climate in a warming world. The strongest warming of AABW is found in the southwest Atlantic Ocean, but there appears to be no equivalent warming in the source region of AABW, the Weddell Sea. It has been suggested that the warming of AABW is the result of changes in the density structure (a ‘spin up’) of the Weddell gyre that ‘push down’ isopycnals around its northwest rim, and so decrease the density of waters exported northwards through gaps in the South Scotia Ridge. However the timescale for gyre-wide adjustment is long, and more local-scale processes (involving bottom Ekman dynamics) are also possibly significant. It is thus important to determine how the subpolar gyres respond to variable climatic forcing, and on what timescale which processes dominate. This poster will discuss present evidence for the direction and scale of gyre changes, as well as discrepancies between the nature of such trends derived from different sources.

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Welcome

Abstracts 


100

Abstracts 

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Welcome Delegate Info

the mixed layer and on interior isopycnals. Recent data are emphasized in the mapping. The goal is to compute a climatology that looks as much as possible like a synoptic survey sampled circa 2005–2011 during any phase of the seasonal cycle, minimizing transient eddy and wave signatures. MIMOC preserves a surface mixed layer, minimizes both diapycnal and isopycnal smoothing of θ–S, as well as preserving density structure in the vertical (pycnoclines and pycnostads) and the horizontal (fronts and their associated currents). It is statically stable by construction and resolves water-mass features, as well as fronts and associated currents, with a high level of detail and fidelity.

A Global Monthly Sea Surface pH Climatology and Its Uncertainty

and increased upward energy propagation. Breaking lee waves, a process enhanced by stronger flow and rougher topography found in the eastern sections, is likely to be a key mechanism in determining the distribution of turbulent mixing in the ACC. Spatially varying discrepancies between the microstructure and finestructure mixing observations indicate regions where wave-wave interaction models break down and internal waves interact with the mean flow. An episodic enhancement of current velocities at 2000 m depth is observed in the northwest Scotia Sea in both LADCP and mooring data. Finestructure analysis indicates that this mid-depth jet has a profound impact of the internal wave field, causing both internal wave reflection and critical layer dissipation.

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

Effect of Ocean Acidification on Production of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Transparent Exopolymer Particles

U.Schuster@uea.ac.uk

Tingting Shi, Eric Achterberg, Toby Tyrrell, Mike Zubkov

Ute Schuster

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

A global monthly climatology of sea surface pH has been created, from the Takahashi et al. (2009) sea surface pCO2 climatology and the Lee et al. (2006) sea surface total alkalinity, after adjusting the sea surface pCO 2 climatology (nominal year 2000) to the year 2001 (of the total alkalinity climatology) using the atmospheric CO2 change from Mauna Loa. This pH climatology has then been used to create global monthly surface pH estimates from 1990 to 2011, by taking into account changes in sea surface temperature and atmospheric CO2 over the same time period. This climatology-based surface pH provides a valuable parameter, against which the variability of pH, caused by factors other than changes in SST and atmospheric CO2, can be tested. Results show that observation-based surface pH show a faster decrease in pH in temperate regions of the North Atlantic, and a significantly different seasonal and inter-annual variability.

Turbulent Mixing Rates and the Internal Wave Field in the Southern Ocean: Microstructure and Finestructure Data From DIMES

UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

tts1e09@noc.soton.ac.uk

Ocean acidification is an adverse consequence of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are important components of oceanic carbon cycle. Impact of ocean acidification on DOC and TEP production was investigated via in-situ observations and on-deck CO2 perturbation incubations. Unfiltered seawater with full site of microbial groups was cultured at four pCO2 levels (ambient, 550, 750 and 1000 µatm). DOC and TEP were measured at three time points (0h, 48h and 96h). No simple pattern was found in changes of DOC and TEP with increasing pCO2 levels. There was no significant difference in DOC between treatments. TEP increased slightly with time in most incubations, but responded variedly to raising pCO2. Analysis is still in progress. Further comparison of DOC and TEP with primary production, temperature and salinity is needed. Further CO2 perturbation incubations and in-situ observations of DOC and TEP across natural carbonate chemistry gradients will be conducted through another two cruises.

Katy Sheen, Alex Brearley, Alberto Naveira Garabato , Stephanie Waterman

Abstracts | Poster

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

k.sheen@soton.ac.uk

Notes | Index

The principal objective of the Diapycnal and Isopycnal Mixing Experiment in the Southern Ocean (DIMES) is to investigate the role of turbulent mixing in mediating the vertical and horizontal transport of water masses, which shape the overturning circulation. Here, microstructure and finestructure data, collected as part of this multicomponent experiment, are presented. Direct observations of turbulent energy dissipation rates show that mid-depth diapycnal diffusivities increase progressively from O(10–5 m2s-1) in the Pacific sector of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) to O(10–4 m2s-1) in the Scotia Sea. Analysis of coincident LADCP and CTD data demonstrates that enhanced turbulent dissipation rates are associated with a more energetic, less inertial internal wave field

Using Satellite Images for Developing Suspended Particulate Matter Climatology in British Territorial Seas Tiago Silva, Tony Dolphin, Rodney Forster, Jon Rees CENTRE FOR ENVIRONMENT, FISHERIES AND AQUACULTURE SCIENCE

tiago.silva@cefas.co.uk

Understanding and quantifying physical and ecological processes at the sea bed is necessary to distinguish environmental changes caused by anthropogenic impacts from natural variability. In this paper we present results from Theme 1 of the mALSF project Natural variability of REA regions, their ecological significance & sensitivity that quantifies the natural variability in Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) by developing monthly climatologies based on eight years of MODIS satellite data. The IFREMER OC5


ospe3a@bangor.ac.uk

The climate controlling Meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC) is sustained by the continuous input of mechanical energy from wind (via eddies and direct upwelling) and tides (via abyssal internal waves). The conversion of tidal energy from the barotropic to the baroclinic tide is dependent on vertical stratification and tidal amplitudes. A possible change in stratification due to a warming atmosphere and the possible alteration of tidal amplitudes by sea-level rise thus has the potential to subtly modify the strength of the MOC, with possible feedback effects on stratification itself. Coupling the tidal model OTIS and the ocean-circulation model Frugal, these mechanisms and feedback are investigated. Although the circulation model indeed generates a modified abyssal stratification, and large-scale sea-level rise alters the tidal dissipation, the effects are deemed too small to have a significant impact on the Atlantic MOC within realistic limits. Sensitivity tests are also presented in which we explore the level of sealevel rise and/or warming which are required for there to be a significant alteration of the MOC.

Development of Lab on a Chip Pre-Concentration System for Metals in Seawater Marta Skiba, Matthew Mowlem, Peter Statham UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

Marta.Skiba@soton.ac.uk

The oceans of our planet play a major role in the biogeochemical cycles of a range of key metal elements. Biogeochemical cycles of metals like Fe and Mn are linked with climatic variability and ocean productivity. To understand the cycles and impacts of these metals, present in sea water in trace amounts, we need to make measurements at high frequency and over extended time and space scales. Lab on a chip technology (LOAC) can provide these data. LOAC technologies have the significant

Welcome Delegate Info

Biological Regimes From Ships of Opportunity Denise Smythe-Wright, Stephen Boswell, Aaron Daniel, Diane Purcell NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE

dsw@noc.ac.uk

In conjunction with NOC engineers we have designed and built a robotic system to collect samples for biological analysis from ‘ships of opportunity’ (SOOs). The robotic arm autonomously collects three types of samples for plant pigment analysis and taxonomy using an injection system coupled to the ship’s sea water supply. The arm then moves the samples to -20°C and -80C freezers. It was installed on the Pride of Bilbao ferry throughout the Spring and Summer of 2010 and together with monthly and bimonthly manned crossings provided a comprehensive data set of the biological regime within the Bay of Biscay and English Channel. Understanding the distribution and role of phytoplankton in the ocean is fundamental to scientific advancement and societal needs. However, capturing and quantifying phytoplankton communities and their seasonal and interannual variations, especially when blooms occur sporadically and over relatively short time scales, is demanding and requires continual high-resolution measurements. By instrumenting SOOs and using a combination of pigment distributions and taxonomy, good geographical coverage is obtained without the need for man- hours. The results obtained showed a predominately diatom bloom in the Bay of Biscay in April, with a mixed population of diatoms, dinoflagellates and cocolithophores off Ushant throughout the Spring and Summer. These features have been compared with previous data and it would appear that such distributions are common each year. In addition, there was a very distinctive bloom, in the western English Channel in mid-July, which contained a large proportion of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia Mikimotoi.

Programme

BANGOR UNIVERSITY; ANGLESEY SEA ZOO

Abstracts | Oral

Jess Mead Silvester, Mattias Green, Clare Green

Abstracts | Poster

Is There a Feedback Between Climate Change, Sea-Level Rise and the Meridional Overturning Circulation?

advantages of small size, portability, limited reagent and power requirements, faster analysis and response times and reduced risk of contamination. However, even with recent developments in cell design and noise reduction, existing LOAC systems do not have adequate sensitivity for determining extremely low concentrations of trace metals, in particular Mn and Fe, typical of ocean waters. Incorporating a pre-concentration step onto a chip based metrology system will allow us to measure lower concentrations. Chelating solid phase materials have been widely used for pre-concentration and separation of trace metal ions, and appear most readily interfaced with LOAC technology. We therefore propose the development of a new and innovative approach to enhancing sensitivity through use of on chip chelating resin pre-concentration. Scaling the resin pre-concentration procedures that are presently used in bench-top flow injection analysers to LOAC dimensions is an exciting analytical and technological challenge. The poster will demonstrate generic challenges associated with interfacing existing colorimetric systems with pre-concentration methods, including capacity, elution characteristics, pressure and temperature effects.

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algorithm (Gohin et al. 2005), applied to MODIS satellite data, provided daily estimates for the sea around the United Kingdom at 1.1 km resolution. This was the base for creating monthly averages and a monthly climatology for the whole area. The daily estimates were calibrated against in situ surface measurements from five SmartBuoys and ship based observations collated from hundreds of cruises. The SmartBuoy observations include both optical measurements of turbidity (backscatter) performed every 30 minutes and automated water samples from which gravimetric estimates of SPM were obtained. The daily satellite based estimates of SPM are shown to be agree well with in situ measurements away from the coast, and are thus fit for producing a monthly climatology. In coastal areas, with frequent cloud cover and large sediment sources, the satellite estimate produced mixed results.

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Sponsors

Abstracts 


102

Abstracts 

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Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors

Automated Tools to Measure Primary Productivity – ProTool

Oceanic Dominance of Interannual Subtropical North Atlantic Heat Content Variability

Denise Smythe-Wright, Jacco Kromkamp

Maike Sonnewald, Joël Hirschi, Robert Marsh

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE; NIOZ

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

dsw@noc.ac.uk

M.Sonnewald@noc.soton.ac.uk

The new Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) adopts a foodweb approach, but understanding foodwebs needs primary production (PP) estimates, as this defines the input of organic matter in foodwebs and the carrying capacity. While PP is a sensitive indicator of ecosystem change, monitoring programs are lacking because of the tediousness of the classical methodology used to measure it. The PROTOOL project solves this problem. It measures water quality parameters and phytoplankton photosynthesis using automated optical approaches. The system comprises a fluorometer measuring the rate of photosynthesis (using the variable fluorescence approach), an algal absorption meter based on the principle of integrating cavity and a hyperspectral reflectance unit to obtain water quality parameters like chlorophyll and suspended matter concentrations and light attenuation coefficients. The design is modular so that the units can be used individually or combined and interfaced with a ferrybox system. The product is unique because it is the first sensor technology that can autonomously measure biological process rates. For more info see http://www.

Ocean heat content varies on a range of timescales, with significant impact on the local climate through interactions with the atmosphere. To diagnose the relative contributions of ocean and atmosphere we use a box model forced with GCM output to investigate the heat content variability of the upper 800m of the subtropical North Atlantic from 26°N to 36°N. The ocean and air-sea heat flux data needed to force the box model are taken from a 19 year (1985 to 2006) simulation performed with the 1/12° version of OCCAM. The box model is subjected to a range of scenarios where it is forced either with the full (detrended) ocean and air-sea fluxes, or with their deseasoned counterparts. The results show that, the seasonal variability is dominated by the atmospheric forcing, which accounts for a seasonal temperature range of ∼0.41°C. However, on interannual timescales the oceanic heat transport dominates, with changes of up to ∼0.16°C. The box-model was then applied to observational data. We use the ocean heat flux from the RAPID programme at 26°N, and at 36°N the heat transport is inferred using a linear regression from the oceanic lowfrequency transport in OCCAM. The results confirm that on longer (>2 years) timescales the ocean dominates the ocean heat content variability. This work illustrates that oceanic divergence significantly impacts the ocean heat content variability on timescales relevant for applications such as hurricane forecasts, and thus that understanding the underlying mechanisms is of great socioeconomic importance.

protool-project.eu Programme

Mitilidae Fouling of Hydraulic Structure After the Catastrophic Storm Olga Soloviova INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY OF SOUTHERN SEAS, UKRAINE

kozl_ya_oly@mail.ru

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Storm winds are causing substantial damage to coastal areas, disrupting the economic complex as well as the ecology of the region. Restoration of coastal biocenoses can take quite a long time. Community that existed at the waterworks of Sevastopol area has undergone significant changes as a result of a catastrophic storm, which took place on November 11, 2007. A survey of underwater structures on their upper levels (at a depth of 5 – 7 m) demonstrated that the biofouling was almost completely destroyed. In the example of one of the largest waterworks, which has received significant damage from a storm of this, we can trace the course of recovery of fouling community on the surface of marine structures. At the station, which was destroyed by storm and restored in the spring of 2008, fouling is significantly different from what at other sampling stations, have not undergone such significant changes. In the samples were no individuals who had settled earlier then February-March 2009. It means that at the station 2 in the period from May 2008 to 2 February-March 2009 mitilidae fouling was absent. As a result, concrete, immersed in water at the end of May 2008, the time since the construction of the berth to this survey are not formed mitilidae fouling characteristic of the substrates are immersed in the Sevastopol bay. It can be noted that the reconstructed parts of the embankment was restoring cenosis fouling, which over the past two years has not completed.

Three-Dimensional Structure of Turbulence in the Bottom Boundary Layer of the Coastal Ocean Edward Steele, Alex Nimmo-Smith, Andrey Vlasenko, Vasyl Vlasenko, Phil Hosegood PLYMOUTH UNIVERSITY

edward.steele@plymouth.ac.uk

The rotational, eddying and dynamic motions implied by the term ‘turbulence’ are the dominant state of fluid movement on Earth. As such, turbulence is effective in the transfer of heat and momentum in the sea, as well as dispersing, stressing and straining both particles and living matter in the water column, while diluting and stirring its chemical constituents. A detailed understanding of turbulence it therefore critical to explaining all marine processes and for the development of models that allow us to plan the sustainable exploitation of the marine system; for example, marine renewable energy, fishing policies and pollution control. As numerical schemes are usually only able to replicate large-scale turbulence, models are reliant on accurate parametrisation of the sub-grid scale processes, to which these are highly sensitive. This is only possible where the structure of turbulence is understood in 3D but, below the sea surface, this is difficult to study. Using 3D submersible optical flow-visualisation instrumentation, consisting of four high frame-rate, high resolution digital


Abstracts 

103

attractor is explored experimentally and by numerical techniques.

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) Photo-Oxidation in the Western Canadian Arctic

Welcome

cameras, we offer a unique insight into the form and dynamics of the small-scale, stress-containing vortices in the bottom boundary layer of the coastal ocean. The cameras track suspended particles, advected by the mean flow and turbulent eddies within a 15L sample volume, allowing the pertinent characteristics of these anisotropic motions to be quantified and discussed.

|  Poster

Abderrahmane Taalba, Huixiang Xie, Michael Scarratt, Simon Bélanger, Maurice Levasseur INSTITUT DES SCIENCES DE LA MER DE RIMOUSKI

J.Strauss@uea.ac.uk

The draft genome sequence of the polar diatom Fragilariopsis cylindrus has become available and represents the first genome from any eukaryotic psychrophile with the potential to provide unparalleled new insights into how algae adapt to polar conditions. Here we describe the analysis of 69 million sequence reads obtained from six experimental conditions: optimal growth (+4°C), freezing temperatures (-2°C), high temperatures (+10°C), elevated carbon dioxide (1000ppm CO2), iron starvation and prolonged darkness. Identifying more than 22,000 novel transcripts and several thousand differentially expressed genes, it provides novel insights into gene-functions, metabolic pathways and processes active during general adaptation to polar conditions and potential responses to a changing polar environment due to global warming.

Internal Wave Attractors

Delegate Info

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Photo-oxidation is a significant sink of the climatically important marine organic gas dimethylsulphide (DMS) in the surface ocean. Under the more and more probable climate warming-induced ice-free scenario UVs radiations can deepen in the water column and therefore enhance photochemical process efficiency. However, general studies and particularly on DMS photolysis contribution as a removal process in the Arctic Ocean are still lacking. DMS photolysis is a secondary process strongly dependent upon UV and potentially photosensitized by the chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) which can acts as a reactant. Using CDOM absorption spectra the pseudofirst-order apparent quantum yields of DMS photolysis (Φ*DMS(λ)) can be modeled as a function of the apparent quantum yield of the CDOM. Here we report findings from investigations on DMS photo-oxidation processes in the Western Canadian Arctic region in summer 2008 and 2009. Our objective is to study the spatial variability and temperature dependence of the apparent quantum yields spectra of DMS photo-oxidation. The Φ*DMS(λ) sensitivity to salinity and/or nitrate and photochemical turnover rate constants for DMS will be discussed and in open ocean and estuarine water.

Sponsors

Jan Strauss, Andrew Toseland, Thomas Mock

abderrahmane.taalba@uqar.ca

Programme

RNA Sequencing Analysis of the Polar Diatom Fragilariopsis Cylindrus

Robert Sutton, Stuart Dalziel

Geraint Tarling, Sally Thorpe BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

gant@bas.ac.uk

The distribution of most pelagic organisms within the Southern Ocean is dictated by the flow of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which is amongst the most powerful of all oceanic currents. The strong advection of the ACC results in populations of taxa such as copepods and salps being evenly spread across all circumpolar sectors. This is not true in the case of Antarctic krill however, where the circumpolar distribution is distinctly asymmetric. 80% of krill reside within 20% of the circumpolar area, with the main concentrations occurring in the Atlantic sector. It has been suggested that these organisms can resist the prevailing flow and determine their distributional fate. In turn, this may allow them to exploit areas of higher productivity more fully. Nevertheless, empirical evidence of this ability is lacking. Krill may actively alter their distributional trajectory through selecting current streams of particular velocities or by swimming to enhance or retard their net speed of transport. In this study, we examine a combination of echosounder and acoustic Doppler current profiler data to search for evidence of the above scenarios. We considered ~5,000 swarms across a

Abstracts | Oral

The motion of internal gravity waves can be described by a spatial wave equation where the wave slope is dependant only on the forcing frequency and the ocean stratification. This constraint on the direction of energy propagation can have interesting effects when the wave reflects from a sloping boundary. The frequency of the wave must be preserved, leading to an increase (or decrease) in wavelength. Where the wavelength decreases, the wave amplitude and energy density increase, both of which increase the likelihood of wave breaking and mixing of the ocean interior. In some enclosed or semi-enclosed regions, internal waves have been predicted to reflect multiple times and to focus on to a limit cycle or ‘internal wave attractor’. This has been observed experimentally in two and three dimensions. This paper compares the wave attractors observed in a two-dimensional trapezoidal tank with those observed when the sloping wall is replaced with a staircase configuration comprising only horizontal and vertical surfaces. The macroscopic shapes of the domains are seen to be similar, but the steps – with a length scale comparable to the wavelength of the waves – have no sloping boundaries and therefore there is no mechanism for wave focusing. The influence of these perturbations of the sloping boundary to the formation of an internal wave

Do Antarctic Krill Go With the Flow

Abstracts | Poster

rfs33@cam.ac.uk

Notes | Index

CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY


104

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Welcome

large area of the Atlantic sector and compared estimates of speeds of horizontal movement inside and immediately outside of swarms. We also examined the speeds of flow in which krill were most commonly found. Preliminary results indicate that swarm movement altered between regions, which may reflect different movement characteristics in differing age classes.

Delegate Info

Upper Ocean Manifestations of a Reducing Meridional Circulation Matthew Thomas UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

matthew.thomas@uea.ac.uk

Sponsors Programme

Climate model predictions of the IPCC fourth assessment project a slowing down of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation during the 21st century. Using a CO2-induced climate change simulation of the HiGEM high resolution coupled climate model, we investigate to what extent the reduction in the deep southward transport is balanced by a reduction in the northward flowing surface western boundary transport or an increase in the southward upper interior transport. During 70 years of warming, a 5.3 Sv weakening of the AMOC takes place that is balanced solely by a decrease in western boundary transport. A further 3.0 Sv reduction takes place in the interior subtropical gyre that can be explained by a weakened wind stress curl. This results in a net 8.4 Sv reduction in the northward western boundary transport. At 27ºN the largest changes occur in the Antilles current rather than the Florida Straits current. Given the typical western boundary behaviour of the Antilles current it is important not to include this current in definitions of the interior transport, as is commonly done in observations.

Abstracts | Oral

How Will Climate Change Affect the Distribution of Antarctic Krill? Sally Thorpe, Eugene Murphy, Geraint Tarling, Zhaomin Wang BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

seth@bas.ac.uk

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Antarctic krill are a key component of the Southern Ocean ecosystem. A small shrimp-like crustacean, they are important prey for many of the marine higher predators that breed in the Southern Ocean region. Krill are found throughout the Southern Ocean but with a patchy distribution. Advection plays a key role in maintaining some krill populations from krill stocks upstream. Previous modelling studies have demonstrated the importance of both the sea ice habitat and ocean current flows in determining these connections but modelled scenarios of climate change predict changes to both ocean circulation and sea ice distribution. In this study we address how the links between the krill populations may alter in response to the predicted environmental change and what impact the modified environmental conditions are likely to have on the ability of larval krill in particular to develop and survive.

Unstructured-Grid Modelling Applied to Assess the Future Resilience of the UK’S Coastal Energy Sector Karen Thurston, Jennifer Brown, Alejandro Souza NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE, LIVERPOOL

kthurs@noc.ac.uk

Long-term resilience to a changing climate and shoreline mobility is critical for the energy sector. Particularly so for the nuclear power industry, whose coastal sites have operational life-spans in excess of 100 years. The ARCoES project aims to use numerical modelling to assess future risk at key coastal locations as a result of changes to sedimentation, erosion and flood risk in the nearshore. To this end, a UK 3D circulation model has been developed using an unstructured-grid finite-volume modelling system, FVCOM. The model has been built to focus on four localized study areas: 3 nuclear power generation plants and a nuclear fuel reprocessing site; and to assess the full regional NW (Carlisle – Anglesey) energy network resilience. The UK model has been validated against observational data (tide gauges) and an established structured-grid model, POLCOMS. The FVCOM model performs favourably and provides considerable advantages in computational efficiency due to the flexibility offered by its unstructured grid. The circulation model will form the basis of a coupled system incorporating waves and their associated interactions, in addition to sediment transport. The coupled model will be used to simulate changes to the nearshore zone under projected UKCP09 and IPCC future climate scenarios for a variety of coastal environments (estuarine, gravel beach, sandy beach, dunes). The model simulations will be designed to address stakeholder needs, in order to build a GIS-based decision-support tool, while also identifying future changes in the seasonal patterns in nearshore conditions, which could have socio-economic and ecological impact.

The Contribution of the Weddell Sea to the Global Biogechemical Cycles Sinhue Torres-Valdes, Loic Jullion, Alberto Naveira Garabato, Peter Brown NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON; BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY; UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

sinhue@noc.ac.uk

Bottom water formation in the Southern Ocean plays a fundamental role in the lower branch of the Meridional Overturning Circulation and in the global biogeochemical cycles, by ventilating and cooling the deepest layer of the world’s ocean and sequestering carbon and nutrients. We aim to evaluate the role of the Weddell gyre – and in particular the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in this region – in global ocean circulation and biogeochemical cycling through the first systematic hydrographic and tracer measurements along the gyre’s outer rim (including temperature, salinity, nutrients, carbon system parameters, chlorofluorocarbons, sulphur hexafluoride, oxygen isotopes and noble gases). In this work, the nutrient chemical fields are combined with velocity measurements in a box inverse model to obtain a self-consistent estimate of the physical and biogeochemical


Current changes in the hydrological cycle at high latitudes have resulted in the increased runoff into the Arctic Ocean, thus affecting the quality and quantity of nutrient inputs to the upper ocean. While the effects this may have within the Arctic Ocean interior are not well understood, the ultimate fate of nutrients is of wider relevance as they can potentially support primary production elsewhere. Given the current changes at high latitudes and the absence of synoptic estimates of nutrient fluxes, in this study we provide physically based mass-balanced transport estimates of dissolved inorganic nutrients; nitrate, phosphate and silicate for the Arctic Ocean. We have computed nutrient transports across the main Arctic Ocean gateways (Davis Strait, Fram Strait, Barents Sea Opening and Bering Strait) using an inverse model-generated velocity field in combination with a quasi-synoptic assemblage of hydrological and hydrochemical data. Oceanic budget computations show that negative imbalances exist, being statistically robust for phosphate and silicate, but not too significant for nitrate. The Arctic Ocean is a net exporter of silicate and phosphate, supplying -16.2+/-4.6 kmol s-1 and -1.0+/-0.3 kmol s-1 to the North Atlantic. The export of excess phosphate (relative to nitrate) from the Arctic is larger than previous estimates. Net transports of silicate and phosphate from the Arctic Ocean provide 12% and 90%, respectively, of the southward fluxes estimated at 47ºN in the North Atlantic. The potential origin of nutrient imbalances and the potential fate of nutrient transports will be discussed.

Enhanced Nutrient Fluxes at the Shelf Sea Seasonal Thermocline Caused by Stratified Flow Over a Bank

Delegate Info

Phytoplankton is critical for aquatic ecosystems since they contribute to primary production and nitrogen fixation and toxin production. Some species can form harmful algal blooms (HABs) with detrimental effects to local environments, human health and economic activity. Current methods of HABs identification include microscopy, pigment analysis and multispectral imaging from space. However, they do not allow for accurate speciation, particularly for closely related species morphologically. Molecular methods are an emerging alternative for rapid and accurate speciation. We have developed nucleic sequence-based amplification (NASBA) assays for isothermal RNA detection of the rbcL gene of Dinophyceae Karenia brevis, Karenia mikimotoi, and Chlorophyceae Tetraselmis suecica, and the luc gene for Dinophyceae Alexandrium tamarense and Lingulodinium polyedrum. The assays were used to identify two localised algal blooms, in Scottish waters and in the English Channel. Marine samples from five sites in the English Channel were collected on the Pride of Bilbao in July 2010, as part of the FerryBox project. These were compared with brackish samples from Scottish Lochs Mull and Scridain in September 2011. All samples tested positive for K. mikimotoi and T. suecica, while they were negative for the rest of the targets. This confirms previous microscopy identification of the Karenia species in both locations. Our molecular biology approach offers a reliable and rapid RNA-based identification method, which is a metric of viable cells only. It could be used for identification of bloom-forming potential and biotoxin monitoring with cell counts as little as 10 cells per sample.

Sponsors

sinhue@noc.ac.uk

M.Tsaloglou@soton.ac.uk

Programme

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

Abstracts | Oral

Sinhue Torres-Valdes, Takamasa Tsubouchi, Sheldon Bacon, Alberto Naveira Garabato

Maria-Nefeli Tsaloglou, Diane Purcell, Martha Valiadi, Debora Iglesias-Rodriguez, Denise Smythe-Wright, Matthew Mowlem

Jacqueline Tweddle, Jonathan Sharples, Matthew Palmer, Keith Davidson, Sharon McNeill NAFC MARINE CENTRE

Jacqueline.Tweddle@nafc.uhi.ac.uk

Patches of enhanced Chlorophyll a (Chl) concentrations within the thermocline were observed over the slopes of several banks in the Celtic Sea. The turbulent mixing of nutrients from the bottom water into the thermocline was found to be greatly enhanced over the slope of a bank (up to 52 mmol nitrate m-2 d-1), compared to over nearby flat seafloor (~2 mmol nitrate m-2 d-1). This increased nutrient supply, forced by locally generated lee waves and internal mixing, is greater than nitrate supplies to the productive tidal mixing fronts or to the shelf edge. We hypothesize this nutrient flux promotes an increase in phytoplankton growth in the thermocline over and downstream of shelf sea banks, contributing to the horizontal patchiness in the thermocline Chl signal. The persistence of the strong

Abstracts | Poster

Export of Nutrients From the Arctic Ocean

Detection of Key Phytoplankton Groups in Aquatic Water Environments Using Nucleic Acid SequenceBased Amplification

105

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transports across the rim of the Weddell gyre and of the rate at which the deep ocean is ventilated from the gyre. Preliminary budgets of dissolved inorganic nutrients (nitrate, phosphate and silicate) are computed for the Weddell Sea and vertical transports of individual nutrients into/out of the gyre and net air-sea exchanges within the gyre are determined. We show sections of the data being used (model velocity field and optimally interpolated nutrient sections) and seek to distinguish between vertical fluxes due to physical processes and those driven by the biological pump. The context of these results with regard to implications for controls on ocean circulation and climate against a background of a changing hydrological cycle are discussed.

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Welcome

Abstracts 


106

Abstracts 

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Welcome

biological response to mixing at the bank, combined with the ubiquity of shelf sea banks, suggests these bathymetric features have wide importance for new primary production in shelf seas.

Patchiness, How Does Nutrient Feed Phytoplankton Variability? Simon van Gennip, Adrian Martin, Meric Srokosz NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE SOUTHAMPTON

Delegate Info

s.van.gennip@noc.soton.ac.uk

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

The mesoscale range is the scene of many exciting phenomena. Interplay between oceanic flow and biological activity leads to strongly heterogeneous distribution of tracers like phytoplankton. Understanding the underlying mechanisms that generate such “patchiness” is essential to link primary productivity to carbon export and climate change. The upwelling of nutrient-replete water triggers fast dynamics and interactions amongst phytoplankton and zooplankton populations within an environment of constant stirring and mixing. Nutrient variance introduced at the basin scale, cascades to smaller scales through mesoscale structures like eddies and fronts, with localised upwelling contributing further, directly imposing spatial constraints on phytoplankton and zooplankton. It remains to be demonstrated, however, how the patterns observed between components are related. Theories imply that non-linearly interacting components, such as nutrients and phytoplankton, advected by chaotic flow, should exhibit identical scaling behaviour. Comparing the power spectra of components provides a means of testing this theory. To date, only the relationship between zooplankton and phytoplankton has been tested, due to an absence of suitable nutrient data. Results have proven inconsistent mainly due to the mobility of zooplankton. Comparing nutrients and phytoplankton is a stronger test. Technological advances in nitrate sampling techniques at high resolution have successfully been developed and fitted to Seasoar, a towed undulating vehicle. Rapid simultaneous fine-scale measurements of nitrate and chlorophyll are now available for the first time. Application of spectral analysis theory to Seasoar sampled data will be presented to provide new insights into the phenomenon of phytoplankton patchiness.

more persistent fast ice. Changes in ice cover have been seen at the time series site and along the western Antarctic Peninsula. Limited sea ice leads to deeper winter mixed layer depths, which reduce the overall stratification through the following summer. Due to reduced self-shading, light availability is higher in low chlorophyll years. The area is also replete in macronutrients at all times. Vertical mixing increases as a consequence of the reduced stratification, leading to less stable conditions in the euphotic zone and likely a dilution of surface supplied iron from glacial melt. Phytoplankton are certainly light limited in winter as the time series is within the Antarctic Circle. Bloom initiation is largely unchanged between regimes, occurring in early spring at very low light levels.

Modelling the DIMES Tracer in the Southern Ocean Martin Wadley, David Stevens UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

m.wadley@uea.ac.uk

The DIMES tracer was released in the SE Pacific in 2009 and has been surveyed after one, two and three years, with the main aim of determining diapycnal and isopycnal mixing rates. Modelling the tracer release in the OCCAM 1/12 degree eddy-resolving ocean model with tracers released at slightly different locations and in different years (to form an ensemble) has shown how sensitive the DIMES tracer evolution is to inter-annual variability in the ocean circulation. Comparisons between DIMES tracer surveys and ‘surveys’ of the modelled tracers show good agreement after one year, but the actual DIMES tracer shows less meridional streakiness than the model ensemble after two years. Comparisons with the year three survey will also be made to see whether this trend continues. The implications for modelled isopycnal mixing rates, and the representativeness of the actual DIMES tracer release will be discussed.

Long-Lived Greenhouse Gases CO2, N2O and CH4 in Northwestern European Shelf Waters Using Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry Natalie Wager, Jan Kaiser, Dorothee Bakker, Gareth Lee UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Abstracts | Poster

N.Wager@uea.ac.uk

Winter Sea Ice, Stratification and Summer Phytoplankton Bloom Changes on the Antarctic Peninsula Hugh Venables, Michael Meredith, Andrew Clarke BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

hjv@bas.ac.uk

Notes | Index

Year-round, approximately weekly, observations in northern Marguerite Bay since 1998 show significant variability in the phytoplankton bloom between years. This monitoring, part of the Rothera Oceanographic and Biological Time Series (RaTS), is conducted 4km from the base from a small boat or sled. Winters with reduced sea ice are followed by summers with phytoplankton blooms approximately half as strong on average as in years with

Continuous sea surface measurements of the long-lived climatically active greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are used to study spatial-temporal changes in the air-sea exchange of these gases. Two off-axis ICOS (Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy) analysers, fed to an equilibration system, simultaneously measured CO2, N2O and CH4 mixing ratios in oceanic surface waters on a cruise track around Britain. Preliminary results indicate that surface water concentrations of CO2 and N2O are influenced by sea surface temperature, with biological activity (as indicated by fluorescence) also influencing CO2. Surface water CH4 concentrations were found to be associated with changes in salinity, with lower salinities, suggestive of riverine and estuarine inputs, inversely correlated to


An increase in anthropogenic carbon dioxide has lead to an increase in oceanic carbon uptake and changes in seawater carbonate chemistry, with subsequent lowering of surface water pH. Since the beginning of the industrial revolution, surface ocean acidity has increased by 30%. Dimethylsulphide (DMS) is a climatically important gas in the marine system. A product of marine algae, particularly the coccolithophores dinoflagellates, it is the major route of sulphur into the atmosphere and therefore a major influence on biogeochemical climate feedbacks such as particle and cloud formation. Another important suite of trace gases with a marine biogenic source are halocarbons. Halocarbons act as greenhouse gases and undergo photochemical reactions with atmospheric ozone, as well as acting as an important part of the halogen cycling to the land from the sea. Previous studies have suggested a direct relationship between high CO2 and changes in the production of these trace gases. This study aims to investigate this further, through the use of both largescale high CO2 field experiments and laboratory culturing studies. Current data shows a reduction in DMS and greater variability in some halocarbon concentrations. Further research is planned to determine the trace gas concentrations in coastal environments under increased CO2 and acidity, where it is hypothesised that halocarbon emissions will be more significant than in open ocean environments. Any changes to these gas concentrations are likely to have a significant impact on the atmospheric cycling of these elements and on the climatically important atmospheric reactions.

The Dynamical Ocean Component of the MaddenJulian Oscillation Benjamin Webber, Adrian Matthews, Karen Heywood, David Stevens UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

b.webber@uea.ac.uk

The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of intraseasonal atmospheric variability in the tropics, with important implications for oceanic variability. The global influence of the MJO on ocean dynamics will be shown, as will the importance of feedbacks from these dynamical ocean processes onto the MJO. In the Indian

MOC, Heat Content and Air-Sea Interaction in N. Alantic

Welcome Delegate Info

alison.l.webb@uea.ac.uk

Neil Wells, Peggy Courtois, Vladimir Ivchenko, Joel Hirschi UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

ncw@noc.soton.ac.uk

MONACO aims to study the linkages between the MOC at 26ºN in the N.Atlantic , the heat and freshwater fluxes at 26ºN, and the seasonal and inter-annual heat and salt content changes in the upper 0–2000m of the water column between 10–70ºN for the period from April 2004 to December 2010. In particular, the MOC event of 2009 when there was a 50% reduction in the overturning circulation, will be related to the changes in heat storage and surface heat flux. This unusual event will be placed in the context of longer records.

How the Wind Affects Phytoplankton in Shelf Seas Charlotte Williams, Jonathan Sharples, Claire Mahaffey NATIONAL OCEANOGRAPHY CENTRE LIVERPOOL

Programme

UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

Abstracts | Oral

Alison Webb, Peter Liss, Frances Hopkins, Gill Malin, Roland von Glasow, Phil Nightingale, Stephen de Mora

cwill86@liv.ac.uk

Shelf seas are highly productive regions of the ocean. During summer stratification, new production at the thermocline is maintained by diapycnal nutrient fluxes that sustain subsurface chlorophyll maxima (SCM). Diapycnal fluxes across the thermocline are driven by internal tides close to the shelf edge and by wind-driven inertial oscillations across the whole shelf. A sudden increase in the wind magnitude or change in wind direction may result in oscillations of the surface layer over the thermocline. Here we quantify the contribution to diapycnal nutrient fluxes caused by a strong gale passing over a stratified shelf sea, and the subsequent effect of this nutrient enrichment upon phytoplankton community composition in the SCM. Observations of turbulent dissipation, ocean currents, phytoplankton and inorganic nutrients were taken on shelf before, during and after a strong wind event. Preliminary results suggest that although a wind-generated spike in

Abstracts | Poster

Trace Gas Concentrations under high CO2 and Ocean Acidification

Ocean, equatorial ocean Rossby waves that originate through reflection of equatorial ocean Kelvin waves at the eastern boundary can trigger MJO activity once they arrive in the western part of the basin. Analysis of the 4-D ocean response in the ECCO ocean state estimate shows how these waves are associated with downwelling, a deepened mixed layer and positive temperature advection. These processes lead to warm SST anomalies of 0.5-1 degrees C that are not attributible to forcing by surface fluxes. This feedback mechanism can be used to explain the sporadic behaviour of the MJO, since “primary” MJ events, which follow a period of relative inactivity in the MJO, are consistently preceded by the arrival of downwelling Rossby waves. Idealised ocean model experiments suggest these waves are predictable at lead times of up to five months. Since no other coherent triggering mechanism has been found for primary MJ events, this feedback from the ocean dynamics offers hope for forecasting MJ events following periods of inactivity, when forecasts generally exhibit low skill.

107

Notes | Index

higher CH4 concentrations. Preliminary analyses of the data found the Irish Sea and the English Channel to be supersaturated with N2O displaying partial pressures between 355-365 nbar (compared to about 323 nbar in the atmosphere). Surface waters highly supersaturated with CH4 at 2.4-3 µbar were identified in the Skagerak. Waters undersaturated in CO2, by about 0–20 µbar, were identified in the NE Atlantic, off the coast of Donegal.

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Sponsors

Abstracts 


108

Abstracts 

|  Poster

Welcome Delegate Info

turbulence may only last ~1 hour it can in fact increase the daily nutrient flux into the surface by 61-77%. Strong storms are shown to contribute ~4.5 mmol N m-2 d-1 to a daily background flux of 1-2 mmol N m-2 d-1. Experiments simulating a wind-driven nutrient flux indicate a fast response by the phytoplankton community, nitrate is assimilated at a rate of 0.1µM hr-1 and numbers of diatoms, particularly pennates, are shown to rapidly increase. The contribution of wind mixing to an annual nutrient flux and the consequent effect upon phytoplankton community composition will be discussed.

variability and high-resolution modelling of carbonate chemistry in the Arctic. UKOA is funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council, the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, and the Department of Energy and Climate Change.

Open Ocean Ammonium Concentrations in the South Atlantic Along a Transect at 40 Degrees South Malcolm Woodward PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

m.woodward@pml.ac.uk

The Impact of an Anomalous Cyclone on the Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26ºN in 2010 Appin Williamson, Eleanor Frajka-Williams, Louis Clement, Stuart Cunningham UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON

appinwilliamson@gmail.com

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

The meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is an essential part of the climate system, which transports heat from the equator to the poles. It has a significant impact on global climate, including keeping the climate temperate. As a result, understanding the controls on the variability of the MOC is of great importance. In 2009-10 a cyclone travelled through the North Atlantic, from the North Brazil Current to the western basin boundary at 26°N. The trajectory of this eddy was tracked from its formation using sea surface height anomalies from altimeter data. The eddy passed over a mooring, resulting in the opportunity to study the vertical structure by analyzing full height current meter and dynamic height data. It remained at 26°N in a fixed location for three months in autumn 2010, perturbing the upper 1000m of the basin-wide transport. This anomaly appears to be associated with a strengthening of the MOC, which followed the lowest MOC measurements taken between 2004 and 2011.

Overview of UK Ocean Acidification Research Programme

There are few reliable data sets for ammonium concentrations reported for any of the world’s oceans. Difficulty in the analysis, compromising of pristine samples and the need for novel analytical techniques make ammonium one of the rarely reported nutrients in the open ocean. With concentrations often in the low nanomoles it has always posed an analytical problem to many oceanographers. However, it is important to know these concentrations because in many ocean areas the phytoplankton productivity is limited by the availability of nitrogen in the water column, and most of the surface mixed layers of the Atlantic Ocean are typically depleted of all the dissolved inorganic nitrogenous nutrients. Using a fluorimetric analytical technique, following membrane gas diffusion, reliable results for ammonium along the 40 degree south transect during the UK-Geotraces cruise are reported. The 40 degree south transect passes through a number of sharp nutrient gradients, from upwelled coastal waters, to biologically active regions and to the oligotrophic south Atlantic western basin. Ammonium concentrations are shown for the full depth water column across the transect and in relation to the other nutrient species and also to the biological activity during the cruise. This will allow greater understanding of the nutrient distributions and ratios, and hence the availability of these nutrients for possible phytoplankton uptake.

Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Phillip Williamson, Carol Turley

Variability in Fish Larval Retention at South Georgia, Southern Ocean: Insights From Numerical Modelling

NERC/UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA; PLYMOUTH MARINE LABORATORY

Emma Young, Michael Meredith, Mark Belchier, Eugene Murphy, Gary Carvalho

p.williamson@uea.ac.uk

BRITISH ANTARCTIC SURVEY

The £12m UKOA research programme (2010–2015) involves over 120 scientists in 26 research laboratories across the UK, working closely with European partners (EPOCA, BIOACID and MedSeA) and other relevant international activities. Seven multi-institute consortium projects address: variability in oceanic CO2 uptake and trends for the future; ocean acidification feedback on the carbon cycle and climate; effects of palaeo- ocean acidification events; impacts of ocean acidification on upper ocean biogeochemistry, benthic ecosystems, and commercially important species; and socio-economic implications. Fieldwork is focussed on European shelf seas (research cruise in 2011), the Arctic (2012) and the Southern Ocean (2013), with associated modelling. Preliminary results will be presented on upper ocean pH

eyoung@bas.ac.uk

The waters around South Georgia are amongst the most productive in the Southern Ocean, and support internationally important fisheries. However, there is significant inter-annual variability in fish stocks, and some species have failed to recover from historical overfishing. Dispersal and retention of the pelagic stages (eggs and larvae) of marine fish can play a key role in the maintenance of adult stocks, with variability in life history and environmental characteristics (including oceanographic flow fields) having a significant influence. Here we use a numerical modelling approach to identify key influences on the dispersal and retention of two species of Antarctic fish: Champsocephalus gunnari (mackerel icefish) and Notothenia rossii (marbled rockcod). Whilst


Abstracts 

The benthic phosphorus cycling in marine sediments is determined at three sites core sediment in southern Mediterranean Sea (Bizerte lagoon: north Tunisia). Phosphorus fractions in the investigated sediments were quantified by SEDEX sequential extraction, the total organic carbon analyses and minerals composition of marine sediment was also determined. Mineral composition shows abundance of Quartz and calcite in different core sediment there is presence of pyrite in the center of Bizerte lagoon and in the core sediment in the open sea. Core sediments profiles present no noticeable variation in phosphorous fractions. The average percentage of each fraction of P in core sediments followed the sequence: whereas in core sediments it followed the sequence: detrital P (61.7%) > Fe-bound P (17.0%) > loosely sorbed P (3.0%)> organic P (2.7%)>authigenic P (0.3%). Examination of the sediments reveals that Ca-P is the major P containing phases preserved. P contained in biogenic CaCO3 significantly contributed to sedimentary P in Bizerte lagoon, the abundance and vertical distribution of carbonate building organisms are important factors to be considered in the study of sedimentary P dynamics in shallow systems. The abundant presence of Fe-bound phosphorus in the sediments document the co-precipitation of both constituents as P-containing iron oxy-hydroxides. In the site located at proximity of shellfish farming, Fe bound phosphate and Fe, Mn in the pore water are closely coupled, showing high linear correlation for all the core sediment. The presence of pyrite is related to periodic anoxic water that is in relation with continental water influence.

Ocean Dynamics and Climate: The Anisotropy and the Dependency on the Bottom Friction of the Material Transport in the Presence of Oceanic Multiple and Alternating Zonal Jets Fan Zhang

Welcome

An empirical statistical model is constructed to assess the forecast skill and the linear predictability of Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SST) variability. Linear inverse modeling (LIM) is used to build the statistical model based on observed Atlantic SST anomalies between latitudes 20ºS and 66ºN from 1870 to 2009. LIM allows to fit and test a multivariate red noise model to the observed annually averaged SST anomalies. Forecast skill is assessed and shown to be on the order of 3 to 5 years. After a few years, the skill is greatly reduced especially in the subpolar region. In the stable dynamical system determined by LIM, skill of annual average SST anomalies arises from four damped eigenmodes. The four eigenmodes are shown to be relevant in particular for the optimal growth events of SST variance with a pattern reminiscent of the low-frequency mode of variability, and in general for the predictability and variability of Atlantic SSTs on interannual timescales. LIM might be a useful benchmark for interannual and decadal forecasts of SST anomalies based on numerical models.

Delegate Info

zanna@atm.ox.ac.uk

Sponsors

nouri_zaaboub@yahoo.fr

UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD

Programme

INSTITUT NATIONAL DES SCIENCES ET TECHNOLOGIES DE LA MER SALAMMBÔ, TUNISIE

Laure Zanna

IMPERIAL COLLEGE, LONDON

fan.zhang09@imperial.ac.uk

The material transport in the ocean in the presence of multiple and alternating zonal jets is analysed experimentally using Lagrangian experiments. Passive tracers are released into an incompressible equilibrium fluid flow generated by an idealised, two-layer, eddyresolving, flat-bottom quasi-geostrophic model. The rate of material spreading and mixing is quantified by the single particle dispersions and the effective diffusivities computed along individual tracer trajectories and the significant deviations from the diffusive process are measured by the power-law fits to individual single particle dispersions. The goal of this research is to investigate the anisotropic properties and the dependency on the bottom friction of the material transport. The results suggest (a) the material transport process in the presence of oceanic multiple and alternating zonal jets is zonally superdiffusive and meridionally diffusive or subdiffusive and (b) in the meridional direction, the value of single particle dispersion increases with increasing bottom friction.

Abstracts | Oral

Noureddine Zaaboub, Anouar Ounis, Eduardo Anselmo Ferreira da Silva

Predictability of Observed Atlantic Sea Surface Temperatures

Abstracts | Poster

Sedimentary Phosphorus Fractionation in Central Mediterranean Marine Sediments (North Tunisia)

109

Notes | Index

Notothenia rossii is no longer commercially fished due to depletion of the fish stocks and their failure to recover, Champsocephalus gunnari is fished on both the South Georgia and nearby Shag Rocks shelves, and there is some debate as to the degree of connectivity between these two shelf populations. Predicted flows for the South Georgia region from a high resolution (~3 km) hydrodynamic model have been used to drive Individual Based Models of the early life stages of the two fish species. The simulations were repeated over 3 years, and the results analysed to provide insight into the roles of oceanographic variability, life history, and biological behaviour on dispersal and retention. Here we present the key findings of our research, and discuss their implications for fisheries at South Georgia.

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Notes 

|  Index

Bacon, S. 35, 67, 105 Bagheri, S. 66, 71 Baker, A. 37, 54, 65, 67, 71, 85, 96 Bakker, D. 37, 44, 52, 64, 69, 71, 79, 106 Balch, W. 51 Baranowski, D. 46 Barciela, R. 39 Barnes, M. 60, 79 Barreiro, B. 67, 71 Barton, D. 67, 71 Barus, C. 40 Bates, P. 69, 88 Beaton, A. 35 Beaulieu, C. 39 Bélanger, S. 67, 103 Belcher, S. 63, 66, 72, 80, 95 Belchier, M. 69, 108 Bell, P. 34 Bell, T. 65, 71 Bellerby, R. 68, 92, 98 Bellingham, C. 63, 72

C

Caillault-Poisson, E. 70 Calvo, E. 40 Campbell, J. 64, 85 Capuzzo, E. 68, 79 Cardwell, C. 35 Carreira, R. 64, 74 Carson, N. 63, 75 Carter, G. 69, 82, Carvalho, G. 69, 108

D

Daines, S. 38, 66, 75 Dall’Olmo, G. 64, 77 Dalziel, S. 39, 43, 63, 103 Daniel, A. 68, 101 Daniels, C. 51, 64, 77 Davidson, K. 65, 66, 78, 93, 105 Davies, A. 53 Davis, P. 63, 86

Delegate Info Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

B

Cassidy, M. 34 Castellani, C. 49 Castelletti, A. 59 Cermeño, P. 42 Chaichana, S. 67, 75 Challenor, P. 39 Chan, H.G. 37 Chance, R. 37, 54, 65, 85 Chapman, M. 65, 92 Charalampopoulou, A. 58 Chavanne, C. 41, 63, 83 Chereskin, T. 45, 53 Cheung, W. 78 Chicheportiche, J. 70 Clark, J. 38, 66, 75 Clarke, A. 48, 69, 106 Clarke, J. 64, 76 Clement, L. 67, 108 Codling, E. 65, 89 Cole, H. 42, 66, 76 Cole, M. 68, 76 Coles, B. 44 Comtat, M. 40 Condron, A. 52 Connelly, D. 68, 88, 92 Cordeiro, L. 64, 74 Cornille, V. 70 Coughlan, C. 49 Courcot, L. 70 Courtois, P. 47, 67, 107 Créach, V. 68, 70, 79 Cree, C. 68, 76 Creed, E. 41 Crocket, K. 44 Cross, J. 38 Cunliffe, M. 38 Cunningham, S. 47, 66, 67, 77, 98, 108 Curson, A. 51, 63, 77

Abstracts | Poster

Abedini, A. 66, 71 Abi Kaed Bey, S. 68, 88 Achterberg, E. 34, 52, 53, 54, 55, 64, 68, 76, 88, 98, 100 Adams, C. 65, 71 Airs, R. 68, 76 Aldridge, J. 49 Allcock, L. 65, 86 Allison, L. 34 Alvain, S. 70 Álvarez-Salgado, X.A. 64, 89 Amoudry, L. 34, 66, 97 Anderson, T. 45 Andrews, O. 34 Aniekan, E. 67, 94 Aquilina, A. 69, 70 Archer, S. 68, 76 Armstrong, S. 69, 70 Artigas, L.F. 65, 70 Aslam, T. 67, 71 Asper, V. 67, 97 Atkinson, A. 42 Atkinson, C. 47, 67, 77

Berx, B. 35 Besiktepe, Sengul 69, 72 Besiktepe, Sukru 69, 72 Bi, Z. 64, 72 Bibby, T. 54, 55 Biddle, L. 63, 73 Bigg, G. 36 Billings, S. 36 Bindoff, N. 34 Birchenough, S. 49 Bishop, J. 36 Blaker, A. 67, 91 Bolam, S. 49 Boland, E. 36 Bolanos, R. 57 Bonato, S. 70 Bonner, A. 60 Borell, E. 56 Boswell, S. 68, 101 Bowers, D. 53, 64, 66, 73, 89 Boyd, T. 56, 57 Brannigan, L. 53 Brearley, A. 63, 73, 100 Breckels, M. 56, 65, 89 Bremner, J. 36 Bresnan, E. 65, 69, 78, 85 Bretherton, L. 68, 73 Bricheno, L. 66, 74 Broutin, M. 70 Brown, J. 69. 104 Brown, P. 37, 63, 67, 92, 104 Bryden, H. 47, 66, 67, 77, 98 Buck, K.N. 67, 87 Budillon, G. 63, 99 Buitenhuis, E. 34, 41, 45, 49, 68, 74 Burd, C. 68, 90 Butler, E. 66, 74

Notes | Index

A

Welcome

Index

119


120

Notes 

|  Index

Welcome Delegate Info

Davy, A. 51 de Baar, H.J.W. 44 de Mora, S. 64, 107 Degros, N. 70 Dinniman, M. 67, 97 DiTullio, G.R. 46 Dolphin, T. 66, 100 Donnelly, M. 39 Dougans, J. 58 Duchez, A. 67, 77 Ducklow, H. 48 Dudeja, G. 39 Dumousseaud, C. 64, 85

E Sponsors

Eckford-Soper, L. 65, 78 Eckhardt, S. 34 Edwards, K. 39, 66, 78 Edwards, M. 69, 95 Elderfield, H. 65, 80, 87 Erickson, M. 48 Evans, P. 69, 70

Programme

F

Abstracts | Oral Abstracts | Poster Notes | Index

Fajar, N. 50 Falciatore, A. 44 Fallick, A. 58 Farmer, L. 65, 92 Fernand, L. 52 Fernandes, J. 68, 78 Ferrari, R. 57 Ferreira da Silva, E.A. 67, 109 Fielding, S. 41, 64, 81 Fileman, E. 68, 76 Fitzsimons, M. 68, 76 Flocco, D. 63, 99 Floquet, C. 68, 98 Foden, J. 64, 73 Foden, P. 68, 79 Follows, M. 45 Fones, G. 69, 83 Ford, D. 39 Forryan, A. 54 Forster, R. 49, 66, 68, 79, 100 Fowler, E. 65, 77 Frajka-Williams, E. 67, 108 Fryett, I. 69, 70 Furner, R. 66, 78

G

Gallego, A. 69, 94 Galloway, T. 68, 76 Ganeshram, R. 40, 58 Garçon, V. 40 Geibert, W. 40, 58 Geider, R. 68, 73 Gerringa, L. 44 Gibson, R. 44 Gilbert, A. 65, 91 Giraud, W. 40 Glibert, P. 65, 93 Gloël, J. 69, 79 Gobat, J. 67, 97 Gonzalez-Posada, A. 69, 79 Goodwin, P. 65, 80 Gowen, R. 65, 66, 78, 93 Graham, J. 41 Grant, Alan 63, 66, 80, 95 Grant, Alastair 68, 78, 81 Greaves, M. 65, 80, 87 Green, C. 67, 101 Green, D. 65, 67, 78, 93 Green, J.A.M. 66, 96 Green, M. 60, 63, 67, 98, 101 Green, R. 41 Greenwood, N. 49, 64, 65, 81, 86 Grefe, I. 64, 81 Gregory, J. 66, 74 Griffiths, G. 41 Grosskopf, T. 54 Gruber, N. 44 Guallart, E. 40 Guihen, D. 41 Guiselin, N. 70 Gunn, J. 64, 92

H

Hagan, B. 50 Hale, R. 68, 81 Hall, R. 69, 82 Halsband, C. 68, 76 Hamad, D. 70 Hanna, E. 36 Hansen, B. 35 Harington, A. 68, 82 Harris, A. 68, 98 Hart, M. 67, 93 Hartman, M. 64, 82, 85 Hartman, S. 64, 69, 82, 85 Hashioka, T. 68, 74 Hatton, A. 67, 93 Hawkins, E. 34

Haynes, P. 36 Hébert, P-A. 70 Hembury, D. 34, 69, 83 Henderson, G.M. 40, 61 Henson, S. 34, 39, 42, 66, 76, 84 Hepburn, L. 69, 70 Héuze, C. 63, 81 Heywood, K. 41, 46, 52, 54, 59, 63, 66, 67, 72, 83, 94, 97, 107 Hill, S. 42 Hillaire Marcel, C. 65, 92 Hirschi, J. 47, 67, 77, 102, 107 Hofmann, E. 64, 92 Holgate, S. 63, 72, 84 Holland, P. 63, 98 Homoky, W. 69, 70, 84 Honey, D. 54 Hopkins, F. 64, 107 Hopkins, Jason 51, 66, 84 Hopkins, Jo 42 Hoppema, M. 37 Horsburgh, K.J. 66, 69, 88, 96 Hosegood, P. 38, 69, 102 Houliez, E. 70 Hsieh, Y-T. 40, 69, 84 Huete-Ortega, M. 42 Hurst, J. 51 Huthnance, J. 42, 61, 63, 84 Hydes, D. 64, 69, 82, 85, 90

I

Iglesias-Rodriguez, D. 65, 105 Inall, M. 56, 57 Ivchenko, V. 67, 107

J

Jackson, K. 50 Jackson, L. 34 Jackson, S. 43 Jago, C. 43, 57 James, A. 50 Jamieson, A. 43, 44 Janech, M.G. 46 Jennings, S. 68, 78 Jiang, Z. 64, 69, 82, 85 Jickells, T. 37, 52, 54, 65, 67, 71, 75, 85, 86, 96 John, S. 60, 70, 84 Johnson, C. 43 Johnson, G. 67, 99 Johnson, H. 49, 62, 63, 73, 86 Johnson, Mark 65, 86


L

Lacaze, J-P. 65, 78 Lacey, N. 44 Lambelet, M. 44 Lampitt, R. 55, 64, 82 Landschützer, P. 44, 69, 95 Langlois, R. 54 LaRoche, J. 54 Larsen, K.M. 35 Lauderdale, J. 45 Lavender, S. 69, 88 Lawrenz, E. 68, 79 Lawson, T. 68, 73 Laxon, S. 35 Leach, H. 39, 63, 75 Ledwell, J. 46 Lee, C. 67, 97 Lee, G. 52, 64, 69, 71, 81, 106 Lee, P.A. 46 Lefèbvre, A. 70 Legge, O. 40 Legiret, F-E. 35, 54, 68, 88 Lenaerts, J. 48

M

Macdonald, R. 66, 89 Macey, A. 34 Mackay, N. 46 Mackenzie, B. 64, 90 MacKenzie, K. 68, 90 Magiopoulos, I. 68, 90 Mahaffey, C. 53, 66, 107 Mair, D. 51 Makaremi, M. 66, 71 Malin, G. 41, 64, 67, 68, 75, 79, 107 Mansor, M. 66, 71 Maqueda, M.A.M. 61, 63, 68, 75, 79, 99 Marañón, E. 42 Marsay, C. 34 Marsh, R. 66, 67, 69. 83, 91, 102 Marshall, D. 46, 49, 62, 63, 72 Martin, A. 45, 66, 76, 106 Matthews, A. 46, 67, 107 Maugendre, L. 51 Maurer, B. 47 Mayor, D.J. 47 Mazard, S. 51 McCarthy, G. 66, 67, 77, 98 McDonagh, E. 47, 53 McInerney, C. 65, 86 McKinley, G. 54 McNeill, S. 66, 105 McQuatters-Gollop, A. 65, 91

N

Naveira Garabato, A. 35, 37, 45, 62, 63, 67, 72, 73, 98, 100, 104, 105 Nellerby, R. 64 New, A. 67, 91 Newman, L. 64, 92 Newton-Payne, S. 65, 77 Nightingale, P. 64, 107 Nimmo-Smith, A. 38, 69, 102 Nobili, R. 49 Nurser, G. 63, 98

O

O’Donnell, C. 66, 94 O’Hara Murray, R. 69, 94 O’Neill, C. 50 O’Higgins, T. 49 Okuku, E. 67, 94 Old, C. 43, 69, 96

Welcome Delegate Info Sponsors Programme

Kadirkamanathan, V. 36 Kaiser, J. 59, 64, 69, 79, 81, 106 Karpytchev, M. 63, 84 Kenitz, K. 66. 87 Kennedy, H. 50, 65, 87 Kennedy, P. 50, 65, 87 Kerr, J. 65, 80, 87 Kerrison, P. 56 Khammeri, Y. 67, 87 King, B. 47, 63, 92 Kirkham, A. 44 Kirkwood, M. 65, 77 Klar, J. 34, 54 Kreissig, K. 44 Krijnen, J. 69, 88 Kromkamp, J. 68, 102

Measures, C. 47 Megann, A. 67, 91 Melling, H. 63, 86 Meredith, M. 37, 48, 63, 64, 69, 92, 98, 106, 108 Mériaux, X. 79 Messias, M-J. 37, 46, 63, 92 Metodiev, M. 55 Middle, L. 65, 92 Milani, A. 68, 92 Miller, P. 48 Mills, M. 48 Mills, R. 69 70, 83, 84 Milne, A. 54, 61 Mirzajani, A. 66, 71 Misra, S. 65, 80, 87 Mock, T. 44, 46, 57, 65, 103 Mogg, A. 67, 93 Moore, C.M. 34, 37, 48, 54, 55, 68, 73 Morgan, H. 35, 68, 69 Moschonas, G. 65, 93 Moulton, V. 57 Mowlem, M. 35, 52, 64, 65, 68, 76, 88, 89, 90, 92, 93, 98, 101, 105 Muenchow, A. 63, 73, 86 Munday, D. 49 Murphy, E. 41, 69, 104, 108 Murray, A. 68, 97 Murray, J. 60 Murrell, J.C. 51

Abstracts | Oral

K

Leng, M. 48 Lenn, Y.D. 45, 53 Lennie, A. 65, 87 Lenton, T. 38, 66, 75 Le Quéré, C. 34, 45, 68, 74 Levasseur, M. 67, 103 Lew, S. 45 Lewis, A. 68, 76 Lewis, M. 69, 88 Lewis, N. 65, 89 Linden, P.F. 47 Lindeque, P. 68, 76 Liss, P. 64, 107 Lizon, F. 70 Lohan, M. 54, 61 Lonborg, C. 64, 89 Lörz, A-N. 44 Loukas, C. 68, 89 Lucas, M. 34, 68, 82 Luneva, M. 63, 96 Lyman, J. 67, 99 Lyon, B.R. 46

121

Abstracts | Poster

Johnson, Martin 65, 67, 75, 86 Johnston, A. 41, 65, 77 Johnston, A.W.D. 51 Jones, K. 63, 86 Jones, M. 69, 73 Jones, S. 67, 71 Jorba, O. 66, 74 Josey, S. 47, 66, 91 Jullion, L. 37, 67, 104

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Notes | Index

Notes 


122

Notes 

|  Index

Welcome

Oliver, K. 45, 66, 74, 94 Olsen, S.M. 35 / sterhus, S. 35 O Ostle, C. 69, 95 Ounis, A. 67, 109 Owen, K. 68, 70, 79 Oxborough, K. 37

Delegate Info

P

Sponsors Programme Abstracts | Oral

Painter, S. 66, 84 Painting, S. 49 Palmer, Martin 68, 69, 83, 90 Palmer, Matthew 50, 60, 66, 105 Papadimitriou, S. 50, 65, 87 Parker, R. 49 Paul, M. 67, 95 Pearce, D. 64, 81 Pearson, B. 66, 95 Pedretti, E. 50 Pelejero, C. 40 Perez, F. 40 Pettit, L. 64, 77 Phelps, J. 50 Phillips, T. 42 Pickering, M.D. 66, 96 Pinheiro, D. 64, 74 Pollard, L. 67, 96 Polton, J. 45, 50, 66, 69, 95, 96 Porter, M. 51 Postlethwaite, C. 63, 75, 96 Poulton, A. 51, 54, 55, 58, 64, 66, 68, 77, 82, 84 Powell, C. 65, 71 Pratscher, J. 51 Preston-Whyte, F. 52 Prodohl, P. 65, 86 Pulham, C. 65, 87 Purcell, D. 65, 68, 101, 105

Abstracts | Poster

Q

Queste, B. 52, 67, 97

Notes | Index

R

Rabe, B. 68, 97 Ramirez-Mendoza, R. 66, 97 Rayner, D. 66, 67, 77, 98 Rea, B. 51 Rees, J. 66, 100 Rehdanz, K. 30

Rehkämper, M. 44, 67, 95 Renfrew, I. 52 Rerolle, V. 52, 68, 98 Ridley, J. 63, 83 Righton, D. 31 Rijkeboer, M. 70 Rijkenberg, M.J.A. 44 Rintoul, S. 64, 92 Rios, A. 40 Rippeth, T. 53, 55, 63, 72 Riser, S. 31 Roberts, M. 53, 64, 73 Robinson, C. 49, 59, 69, 79, 95 Rodwell, S. 50 Rogan, N. 53 Rosier, S. 63, 98 Rossby, T. 64, 90 Rowden, A. 44 Ruano-López, J. 68, 89 Russell, J. 31 Rutten, T. 70 Ryan-Keogh, T. 34 Rye, C. 63, 98

S

Sadri, S. 65, 99 Salama, N. 68, 97 Salaun, P. 64, 72 Sanders, R. 55 Sansiviero, M. 63, 99 Sargent, E.C. 54 Scarratt, M. 67, 103 Schaefer, H. 51 Schaefer, M. 60 Schlosser, C. 54 Schmidtko, S. 46, 54, 67, 99 Schmitt, F. 70 Schofield, O. 64, 92 Schuster, U. 40, 44, 54, 64, 69, 82, 88, 95, 100 Scourse, J. 60 63, 98 Sediva, B. 68, 79 Shapiro, G. 61 Sharples, J. 42, 55, 66, 87, 91, 105, 107 Sheen, K. 63, 100 Sherwin, T. 35, 43, 51 Shi, T. 64, 100 Shimmield, T. 43 Shuckburgh, E. 36, 66, 94 Sieben, V. 35 Silva, T. 66, 100 Silvester, J. M. 67, 101 Sivyer, D. 64, 65, 81, 86

Skiba, M. 68, 101 Smith, D. 64, 65, 81, 86 Smith, H. 51, 55 Smith, W. 67, 97 Smythe-Wright, D. 43, 65, 68, 101, 102, 105 Snow, J. 54, 55 Solan, M. 68, 81 Soloviova, O. 68, 102 Sonnewald, M. 67, 102 Soret, A. 66, 74 Souza, A. 57, 66, 69, 97, 104 Sparrow, M. 64, 92 Speer, K. 64, 92 Spingys, C. 50 Sprintall, J. 45, 53 Srokosz, M. 66, 106 Stammerjohn, S. 48 Stansfield, K. 56 Statham, P. 35, 68, 92, 101 Steele, E. 56, 69, 102 Steigenberger, S. 34, 53 Steinke, M. 56, 65, 89 Stevens, D. 46, 59, 63, 66, 67, 83, 94, 106, 107 Stohl, A. 34 Strass, V. 39 Strauss, J. 57, 65, 103 Suggett, D. 68, 73, 79 Sullivan, M. 65, 77 Summerhayes, C. 64, 92 Sutton, R. 63, 103 Szuts, Z. 47

T

Taalba, A. 67, 103 Tailleux, R. 66, 74 Tait, A. 58 Tang, C. 65, 87 Tarling, G. 69, 103, 104 Taws, S. 56 Taylor, J. 57 Thomas, D. 50 Thomas, M. 67, 104 Thomas, R. 35 Thompson, A. 36, 54 Thompson, J. 69, 84 Thorne, P. 34 Thornton, B. 47 Thorpe, S. 69, 103, 104 Thouron, D. 40 Thurston, K. 69, 104 Thyssen, M. 70 Tilstone, G. 69, 79


Valcic, L. 50 Valentin, K. 57 Valiadi, M. 65, 105 van de Flierdt, T. 44, 67, 95 van den Berg, C.M.G. 59, 64, 72 van der Molen, J. 49 van Gennip, S. 66, 106 Veen, A. 70 Venables, E. 59 Venables, H. 48, 69, 106

X Y

Yellepeddi, V. 61 Yool, A. 66, 76 Yosefzad, E. 66, 71 Young, E. 69, 108 Young, J. 51, 58

Z

Zaaboub, N. 67, 109 Zanna, L. 67, 109 Zhai, X. 46, 62 Zhang, F. 67, 109 Zika, J. 62 Zongo, S. 70 Zubkov, M. 45, 64, 100

Welcome Sponsors

Xie, H. 67, 103

Programme

V

Wacquet, G. 70 Wadley, M. 59, 63, 106 Wadley, V. 64, 92 Wager, N. 64, 106 Wake, B. 54 Walker Brown, C. 59 Wallace, D. 64, 85 Walsham, P. 69, 85 Wang, Z. 69, 104 Waterman, S. 63, 100 Watson, A. 37, 40, 46, 63, 69, 88, 92, 95 Watson, G. 60 Webb, A. 64, 107 Webber, B. 46, 67, 107 Wei, H. 36 Weiss, D 67, 95 Wells, N.C. 47, 66, 67, 96, 107 Weston, K. 65, 86 White, M. 64, 73 Wihsgott, J.U. 60 Wilkinson, J. 50 Williams, C. 66, 107 Williams, H. 66, 75 Williams, P. 60 Williams, R. 45, 53, 63, 66, 72, 87 Williamson, A. 67, 108 Williamson, P. 64, 108 Wilmes, S-B. 60 Wilton, D. 36

Abstracts | Oral

Uhlig, C. 57 Urban, E. 64, 92 Ussher, S. 67, 87

W

Wobus, F. 61 Wolf, J. 66, 74 Wood, T. 36 Woodward, M. 54, 58, 61, 65, 68, 69, 84, 88, 108 Wooldridge, C. 69, 70 Woollings, T. 34 Wöppelmann, G. 63, 84 Worsfold, P. 61 Wunsch, C. 62 Wyatt, N. 61

Abstracts | Poster

U

Vlasenko, A. 69, 102 Vlasenko, V. 69, 102 Vogel, B. 46 von Glasow, R. 64, 107

123

Notes | Index

Toberman, M. 57 Todd, D. 57 Todd, J. 41, 46, 51, 65, 77 Tolhurst, T. 68, 81 Torres, R. 38, 67, 71 Torres-Valdes, S. 67, 104, 105 Toseland, A. 57, 65, 103 Trueman, C. 68, 90 Tsaloglou, M-N. 65, 68, 89, 90, 105 Tsubouchi, T. 35, 67, 105 Tuerena, R. 58 Turk, D 64, 69, 82, 85 Turley, C. 64, 108 Tweddle, J. 58, 66, 105 Tynan, E. 58 Tyrrell, T. 58, 64, 66, 76, 77, 84, 85, 100

|  Index

Delegate Info

Notes 


The Challenger Society for Marine Science The Challenger Society is the UK’s premier society for promoting interest in Marine Science and all matters relating to the world’s oceans The Society’s objectives are: advance the study of Marine Science • Tothrough research and education knowledge of Marine Science • Towithdisseminate a view to encouraging a wider interest in the study of the worlds oceans and an awareness of the need for their proper management

contribute to public debate on the • Todevelopment of Marine Science

The Society aims to achieve these objectives through a range of activities:

Membership of the Challenger Society provides the following benefits: to attend, at reduced rates, • Antheopportunity biennial four day UK Marine Science Conference and a range of other scientific meetings supported by the Society

Newsletter (Challenger Wave) • Monthly providing details of the Society’s activities, news of conferences, meetings and seminars in addition to the Society’s magazine Ocean Challenge

Why not join the Society and play an active part in the promotion of Marine Science in Europe?

regular scientific meetings covering • Holding all aspects of Marine Science out about people, news, events and • Find specialist groups to provide a • Supporting career opportunities in Marine Science. Read forum for discussion informal articles on topical issues of a range of documents dealing • Publication to the public debate concerning • Contribute with various aspects of Marine Science our use of the world’s seas and oceans and the need for their proper management links with other groups and societies • Fostering throughout Europe and the rest of the world out what’s going on in “inner space” and • Find the exciting scientific discoveries that have radically altered our view of the oceans and the part they play in our lives

This form is also available on our website

out how interdisciplinary teams of • Find marine scientists are studying critical issues such as the impact of human activity on global climate, rises in sea level, and pollution control.

Email Contact Address: membership@challenger-society.org.uk Web Site Address: www.challenger-society.org.uk


Application for Membership If you would like to become a member please complete the form below and return it to: Jennifer Jones – Executive Secretary Challenger Society for Marine Science c/o National Oceanography Centre, Southampton Waterfront Campus Southampton SO14 3ZH Full/Overseas Membership £40

■   Student Membership £20 ■   Retired Membership £20 ■

NB Overseas Membership at full rate only

I HEREBY APPLY to become a member of the Challenger Society for Marine Science and agree to abide by the Memorandum and Articles of Association and any bylaws or regulations made thereunder. Title:

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The sum of £ on receipt of this order and thereafter on the 1st January of every year until further notice

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RESTAURANTS City Centre   1 Artorio’s Mediterranean Taverna    2 Baby Buddha Teahouse   3 The Bicycle Shop  Discount on wine with food   4 Café Rouge  20% discount   5 Clipper   6 Farmer Browns   7 Frank’s Bar   8 Italia Nostra   9 Loch Fyne  20% discount 10 Oasis  10% discount 11 Pinocchio’s 12 Pizza Express – St Benedicts 13 Pizza Express – Forum 14 The Pulse Café Bar 15 Shiki

LANDMARKS 16 Take 5 17 Torero 18 The Vine Thai Restaurant 19 Thai on the River 20 Three Ways 21 Trattoria Rustica 22 Waffle House  10% discount 23 Sugar Hut

Outside the City Centre 24 The Black Horse 25 The Cellar House 26 Garden House 27 The Mulberry 28 Rose Tavern 29 The Unthank Arms 30 The Workshop

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q

Norwich Cathedral Norwich Castle Museum The Forum Cathedral of St John the Baptist Chapelfield Royal Arcade Timber Hill Gentleman’s Walk London Street St Stephens Castle Mall Norwich Market Elm Hill Riverside Retail Norwich City Football Club Bus station Train station

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National Express coaches run from all major cities in Great Britain to the Surrey Street Bus Station in the city centre. Buses 25 and 35 run regularly from Castle Meadow and St Stephens Street in the city centre to the University campus. Bus and coach enquiries: (+44) (0) 871 200 2233 National Express enquiries: (+44) (0) 871 781 8181

By bus and coach

A47

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RESEARCH PARK

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YARMOUTH

Norwich is less than two hours from London by train and there is an InterCity link with the Midlands, the north of England and Scotland via Peterborough. Trains run from London Liverpool Street approximately every half hour. You can reach UEA from the station by taxi, which takes approximately 15 minutes. There are regular buses direct to the University from the station forecourt (numbers 25 and 35). Rail enquiries: (+44) (0) 8457 484950

By train

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25 35

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25 35

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Norwich International Airport has regular flights to and from Aberdeen, Edinburgh and Manchester, and international connections to 200 cities worldwide through regular direct flights to and from Schipol Airport in Amsterdam. The easiest way to reach UEA from the airport is by taxi. Flight enquiries: (+44) (0) 1603 428800

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128 There are regular buses (number 25 and 35) direct from the University to the city centre (St. Stephens Street) and to the railway station. For more information on bus routes and times; www.travelineeastanglia.org.uk


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The Challenger Society for Marine Science

Campus Map

09/07/2012 15:43


UNIVERSITY OF EAST ANGLIA

15th Biennial Challenger Conference for Marine Sciences 2012

15th Biennial Challenger Conference for Marine Sciences

3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;6 SEPTEMBER 2012 CL2012 cover [B3] v5v02.indd 1

09/07/2012 15:43

Challenger Conference Abstract Book  

Abstract book for Challenger Conference, September 2012

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