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Constructing Log book Mo Chen (Kallen) 691947


Key terms •Week 1

•Week 6

•Week 2

•Week 7

•Week 3

•Week 8

•Week 4

•Week 9

•Week 10 •Week 5


Ching: 02 The Building (2.08-2.11) • Dead loads A are static loads acting vertically downward on a structure, comprising the self-weight of the structure and the weight of building elements, fixtures(房屋的固定装置/e.g. 浴盆, 抽水马桶 ) and equipment permanently attached to it. • Settlement(沉降) loads B are imposed on a structure by subsidence of a portion the supporting soil and the resulting differential settlement of its foundation. • Ground pressure C is to the horizontal force a soil mass exerts on a vertical retaining structure. • Water pressure D is the hydraulic(水压的) force groundwater exerts on a foundation system. • Thermal stresses E are the compressive or tensile stresses developed in a material constrained against thermal expansion or contraction(收缩).


Static loads Assumed to be applied slowly to a structure until it reaches its peak value without fluctuating(波动) rapidly in magnitude & position. Under a static load, a structure responds slowly & its deformation(变形) reaches a peak when the static force is maximum. Live loads comprise(由…组成) any moving or movable loads on a structure resulting from occupancy, collected snow & water or moving equipment. A live load typically acts horizontally as well to reflect the dynamic nature of a moving load.

•Occupancy loads results from the weight of people, furniture, stored material & other similar items in a building. Building codes(建筑规范) specify minimum uniformly distributed(分布的) unit loads for various uses and occupancies •Snow loads are created by the weight of snow accumulating(堆积) on a roof. Snow loads vary with geographic location, site exposure, wind conditions and roof geometry. •Rain loads result from the accumulation(堆积) of water on a roof because of its form deflection, or the clogging(堵塞) of the drainage system. •Impact loads Are kinetic loads of short duration due to moving vehicles equipment and machinery. Building codes treat this load as static load, compensating(补助) its dynamic nature by amplifying the static load.


Ching 2.08-2.10: Dynamic loads Dynamic loads Applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid change in magnitude and point of application. Under a dynamic loads, a structure develops inertial forces in relation to its mass and its maximum deformation does not necessarily correspond to the maximum magnitude of the applied force. The Two major types of dynamic loads are wind loads & earthquake loads. Wind loads (2.09) Are forces exerted by the kinetic energy of a moving mass of air, assumed to come from any horizontal direction. -further refers to the rapid oscillations(震动) of a flexible cable or membrane structure caused y the aero dynamic(空气动力学) effects of wind. -tall, slender buildings, structures with unusual or complex shapes & light weight, flexible structures subject to flutter require wind tunnel testing or computer modeling to investigate how they respond to the distribution of wind pressure.

Earthquake loads(2.10) An earthquake consist of a series of longitudinal(纵向) & transverse(横向) vibrations. Induced in earth’s crust(外壳) by the abrupt(突然) movemnt of plates along fault lines(断层带). -the natural period of a structure varies according to its height above the base and its dimension of the applied forces. Relatively stiff structures oscillate(使震动) rapidly and have short periods while more flexible structures oscillate more slowly & have longer periods.


The structure, components & cladding(骨架外墙) of a building must be designed to resist wind-induced sliding, uplifting or over-turning. -wind exerts positive pressure horizontally on the wind ward (迎风) vertical surface of a building & normal to windward roof surface having a slope grater than 30. -wind exerts negative pressure on suction(吸力) on the sides and leeward(背风) surfaces & normal to windward roof surfaces having a slope less than 30.

Why do we use scales? •To represent larger elements in smaller format •To represent smaller elements in larger format •For practical reasons

MDF -an engineer wood product made by breaking downward wood or softwood residuals(残渣) into wood fibers often in a defibrator(碎木机), combing it with wax and a resin(树脂) binder(粘合剂) and forming panels by applying high temperature and pressure. Material -strength: strong/weak (e.g. steel stronger than timber in both compression & tension) -stiffness: concrete stiff/ropes flexible/ strenchy/ floppy -shape: mono-dimensioned (linear)/bi-dimensional (planar)/ tridimensional (volumetric)? -Material behavior: isotropic(等方向 性)/anisotropic(各向异性) -Economy -Sustainability: expense, availability, impact of manufacturing, transport, officiency of use


Melbourne: blue stone(dark color) = basalt from volcanoes/lava

Sydney: sand stone Perth: clay for bricks & limestone(石炭岩)

Structural forces 2.11 Force Is any influence that produces a change in the shape or movement of a body. It is considered to be a vector quality processing both magnitude & direction: represented by an arrow: •Length: magnitude •Orientation: direction in space •Defined by direction sense(箭头) and magnitude (size) Tension: stretch and elongate the material/ parcticles move apart amount of elongation(延长): •Stiffness of the material •Cross section area •Magnitude of the load Compression: opposite effect of a tension force/particles compact together


Key terms •Load path The load path is simply the direction in which each consecutive load will pass through connected members. The sequence commences at the highest point of the structure working all the way down to the footing system, ultimately transferring the total load of the structure to the foundation. (www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au) how loads & forces are transferred thru structure •Masonry Masonry is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.(http://en.wikipedia.org/) Building with units of various natural or manufactured products …… usually with the use of mortar as a bonding agent. (Ching 12.06) •Compression the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress.(http://en.wikipedia.org/) •Reaction force a force that has the same magnitude and opposite direction to the action force. •Point load a load which is localized to a specific location on a structure. (highaccess.co.uk/glossary-of-terms) •Beam a long, sturdy piece of squared timber or metal used to support the roof or floor of a building. Especially as a horizontal support in construction.(free-


Structural systems •Solid- old buildings- great wall •Surface-opera house •Skeletal-Eiffel tower •Membranenorth coast-sail (to catch the wind) Sports stadium •Hybrid –Beijing Olympic swimming Cube

Construction systems Ching 2.03 Performance requirements: •Aesthetic qualities •Economic efficiencies •Environmental impacts


Environmentally Sustainable Design (ESD) & selecting Materials •Orientation of a building e.g. Protection for hot summer sun burn Access for warming winter sun Water harvesting occurs? Air conditioning?

•Consumption of building Potable H2O Raw materials CO2 Energy Electricity •Embodied energy Is the total energy (Oil, Water, Power0 used during all stages of a material’s life. (materials for sustainable sites, by Meg Calkings, 2009, p30) •Life cycle Begins with the extraction of raw materials from the Earth and ends with the disposal of waste products back to the Earth or recycled (partially or totally) into other products. •Stages Raw material acquisition(获得)——primary processing and refining——manufacturing—— delivery——construction use and maintenance——final disposal.(materials for sustainable sites, by Meg Calkings, 2009, p24-27)


•Recyclability Ability of a material to be captured and separated from a waste stream for conversion or reuse (www.businessdictionary.com) •Carbon Foot Print Measure of the amount of green house gases generated during the fabrication, transportation and use of a particular product. •Common ESD strategies


Key terms

Structural joint :Ching 2.30

•Structural joint

•Stability The state or quality of the structure being stable. (google) •Rigid frame •Braced frame •Tension apply a force to (something) which tends to stretch it.(google) •Frame The fitting together of pieces to give a structure support & shape. (wikipedia) •Bracing •Ties & rods used for supporting and strengthening various part of a building used for lateral stability for columns and beams. (NCRS Construction Dictionary)

•Column a long, relatively slender, supporting pillar usually loaded axially in compression.(dictionary of construction.com)


Week 3 Structural elements

Structural concepts geometry & equilibrium Ching, Francis D.K., Building Construction Illustrated. Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2011 Vassigh, Shahin, Interactive Structure Version 2.0, Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008DVD-Rom Hunt, T., Tony Hunt’s Structures Note Book, Architectural Press, 2003

Centre of mass The point about which an object is balanced. The point where the entire weight of the object is connected. Location of the centre of mass depends on the object’s geometry. This concept is also sometimes referred to as centre of Gravity.

Moment (力臂) Measured by the product of the force magnitude and the perpendicular distance between the line of the action of the force and the point (this distance is called the moment arm) Magnitude + Sense

Since moments are product of force & distance, units (Nm/kNm) Mo = F*d (ie, moment= force*distance)

http://www.bbc.c o.uk/schools/gcse bitesize/science/tri ple_aqa/using_phy sics_make_things_ work/centre_of_m ass/revision/1/

Equilibrium Is a state of balance or rest resisting from the equal action of opposing forces. Any applied forces must be resisted by equal & opposite forces——called reaction forces. In a building structure, the reaction forces are developed in the supporting elements.

ΣFv =0 ΣF h = 0 ΣFm = 0

http://www.cyberphysics.co.uk/topics/forces/momen ts.htm

Moment of forces The tendency (倾向) to make an object or a point rotate. A force will only produce a moment about a point if it is applied at a distance from that point along a line of action that doesn’t pass through the point.


Footings & Foundations Ching 3.02

Foundation The substructure of the building constructed partly or wholly below the ground in order to support superstructure(上层结构). Loads of superstructure needs to be transferred into the footing system.

http://agapegeek.com/2010/04/12/bible-creation-revealedhttp://www.bosai.go.jp/sougou/sanjigen/3D pt-2-introduction-to-the-foundation-of-the-world e/ephotos/elist_3/ep72715.htm

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Type of shallow footings Ching 3.08

Pad footings Also called isolated footings, these type of footings are help to spread a point load over a wider area of ground. Strip footings Used when loads from a wall or a series of columns is spread in a linear manner. Raft Foundation Also called a raft slab, this type of foundation provides increased stability by joining the individual strips together as a single mat. Floating Foundation Used in yielding soil, a mat placed deep enough that the weight of the excavated soil is = or > the weight of the construction supported has for its footing.


Type of deep footings Ching 3.24 deep foundation

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/recreati onal_trails/publications/fs_publications/072328 04/page06.cfm


One side of the earth is higher than another so they are holding the earth back. Put plastic membrane for water proof. Ching 3.07/3.10


Concrete blocks

Australia standard: 390* 90* 190 mm

2 hands manage & place them due to the weight: 3-4 kg Colors and textures can be added to the blocks so they can change from standard grey concrete appearance.

Holes: reduce the weight and increase strength allow reinforcement rods be placed in the holes, holes are grouted up if needed.


Similar to bricks

http://buildingmaterialslllw.blogspot.com.au/2 012/03/concrete-blocks.html

http://4photos.net/en/image:44-217401White_block_wall_textured_background_images

Not recycled as bricks/ crushed used as a rock

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Mass Mass material •Stone (pyramid) •Earth •Clay (fired in oven at very high temperature/ china empire) •Concrete Properties •Strong in compression/weak in tension •Hard, resists abrasion (磨损:scratching & blasting) •Compressive strength •Good thermal mass •Durable •Modular (模块化)/non-modular.

Masonry Masonry materials •Stone: slabs/ Ashlar blocks (琢 石,方石)/ rubble stone •Clay: bricks/ Honey comb blocks •Concrete: blocks •Earth: mud bricks (adobe)


Vertical elements: •Walls •Columns/piers Horizontal & curved spanning elements: •Beams/lintels(门窗 过梁,楣) •Arches Spanning/ enclosing elements: •Vaults(拱顶) •Domes

Bricks Standard size: 110*76*230 mm Natural material-wide variation in colors. Clay bricks From clay/ shale(泥板岩). Shaped & then hardened by a firing process (in a kiln 窑) Types •Hand made •Machine •Extruded& wire cut Use of bricks •Walls •Arches •Paving (铺路材料)


Joints •Vertical joints- perpend •Horizontal joints- bed joint Mortar joints are usually 10mm range of joint finishing profiles selected depend on: •Type of bricks •Weather exposure •Aesthetics (美学)

Arrangement

Iron bar

Rain flush


Properties

Permeable(non-waterproof) -Advantages •Can be joined with water based mortar •If adequately(令人满意的) ventilated (通风的) – any wetness can escape, not deteriorate (恶化).

-Disadvantages

•Absorb moisture & expand over timeexpansion joints required •Salts & lime(石灰) from the soil can be draw up through the bricks when in contact with the ground.-cause serious pathologies(病理学 的) and/or aesthetic(美学) problems such as efflorescence(风化).

http://www.dreamstime.com/stockimage-damaged-brick-wall-texturecloseup-old-image32657271


Stone Types •Igneous Formed when molten rock (lava/magna) cools. i.e. granite/ basalt/ blue stone •Sedimentary Formed when accumulated (堆积的) particles are subjected to moderate(中等的) pressure. i.e. limestone/ sand http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Met stone amorphic_rock •Metamorphic Formed when the structure of igneous or sedimentary stone changes when subjected to pressure, high temperature or chemical processes. i.e. marble/ slate

Uses One of oldest building material, very broad use today mainly •Walls (structural/ non-structural) •Paving (块石面路) •Cladding(骨架外墙) •Aggregates(集料- 可 成混凝土或修路用) •Feature design elements Elements & units •Monolithic(整个的)columns & beams •Ashlar (琢石, 方石)carved into small elements, tend to be flat face •Rubble (碎石)- not smooth, used as how they’re found, smaller stones.

http://www.spraypavetasmania.com. au/spraypaving.html

http://craftstoneoz.com.au/stonecladding-and-stone-veneer-melbourne/


http://www.colourbox.com/image/br oken-stone-ballast-pattern-image2702016?ver=b&utm_expid=223650 66-38.j3VkgNzRgCMRMAFvmd_kg.1&utm_referrer =http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com.a u%2Fblank.html

Properties http://seebsan.deviantart.com/art/Broken-stonetexture-329558004


Key terms •Moment (力矩): Torque, moment or moment of force, is the tendency of a force to rotate an object about an axis, fulcrum, or pivot. Just as a force is a push or a pull, a torque can be thought of as a twist to an object. ...

http://zonalandeducation.com/m stm/physics/mechanics/forces/to rque/introductionToTorque.html

•Strip footing: is a continuous strip of concrete that serves to spread the weight of a loadbearing wall across an area of soil. It is the component of a shallow foundation. (http://en.wikipedia.org/)

http://www.ab.deakin.edu.au /online/vgallery/2005/srt251/ choo_k/Construction%20Web page/foundation.htm

http://www.cdeep.iitb.ac.in/nptel/Ci vil%20Engineering/Foundation_Engi neering/Slides/Module%204/Lecture %2016/Section%2016.2/16.2_5.html

•Pad footing: Pad foundation refers to the foundation which is intended for sustaining concentrated loads from a single point load such as structural columns. (http://www.engineeringcivil.com/)


Two beams are combined together, but it doesn’t transfer any weight of the building just decoration.


Iron bar

The wall finishing is ironed. But I think the choice is depend on Aesthetics not for other reasons.

Rain flush

Fake grass To create a more natural, relaxed atmosphere.


Expansion joint: To allow movement of the building due to the movement of the foundation

Blue stone foundation. Blue stone is very hard and strong which is good to form a stable foundation.


Load path diagram

Cantilever


Steel frame + Timber batten

Concrete stairs

foundation

Metal web foundation Hollow inside


Vertical expansion joint

Horizontal expansion joint

Concrete is hard while brittle when there’s force that big enough it will be crushed.


Weight of the cantilever Is transferring to the wall.

cantilever

Weeping hole Which allows water get out of the building.


Awning are used to prevent strong direct sunshine and rain water get in the building.


Awning windows

Most of the windows are fixed windows, only a few are awning windows.


Diagonal bracing is used to make the structure more strong.


Iron bar

Rain flush

The wall finishing is just for the purpose of decoration

Used to be a cavity wall. Should be used to prevent heat loss in winter and heat get into the building in summer while here it is the wall of the garden so just for decoration.


cantilever

Down pipe

scaffolding


Membrane structure is Light weight structure.

Weight added to the cable to make the structure more stable.


The stairs are mostly supported by the cable not the support beneath it.


Diagonal bracing make the structure more stable, here just for decoration.

Concrete precast column. Unique shape hard to achieve in situ.

Weight of the upper level along with static loads and live loads


Retaining wall- a wall that holds back earth or water.(google) http://www.ultimate-handyman.com/retaining-walls-2/

https://www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/toolbox/buildright/con tent/bcgbc4010a/10_floor_systems/05_concrete_slab_t ypes_of_construction/page_003.htm

Slab on the ground- is constructed similar to the stiffening raft, however it doesn’t require internal stiffening beams & can only be constructed on Class A/S sites. (dlsweb.rmit.edu.au) Substructure-an underlying or supporting structure.(google) http://eu.lib.kmutt.ac.th/elearning/Courseware/ARC261/chapter1_2.html


Span & Spacing •Span the distance between two structural supports span can be measured between vertical supports or between horizontal supports. Span is not necessarily the same length of a member.

•Spacing of the supporting elements depends on the spanning capabilities of the supported elements.

•Spacing The repeating distance between a series of like or similar element. Span is often associated with supporting elements(such as beams, columns, etc.) and can be measured horizontally or vertically.


Beam & Cantilevers •Beam (mostly) a horizontal structural element. The function of a beam is to carry loads along the length of the beam & transfer these loads to the vertical supports. A beam can be: •Supported at both ends of the beam •Supported at numerous points along the length of beam •Supported at points away from the ends of the beam.(create overhangs/cantilevers beyond the supports) •Supported only at one end of the beam.

• Cantilever Created when a structural element is supported by at only one end (or the overhanging portions of a member are significant). The function of a cantilever is to carry loads along the length of the member and transfer these loads to the support.

A cantilever can be: •Horizontal •Vertical •Angled

http://www.wisegeek.com/whatis-a-wide-flange-beam.htm

http://dornob.com/best-deck-evercontemporary-cantilever-housedesign/#axzz31ttcQReJ


Floor & framing systems Ching 4.03 purpose of a floor system- to transfer dead & live loads via horizontal members to supports. •Concrete systems Slabs of various type are used to span between structural supports. These can be one way/twoway spans.

Looking up concrete slab •spans only shorter distance between the supporting structure one way •Spans two direction.

Timber spans from joist to joist •Joists further apart •Floor boards need to be slightly thicker than the one on the left to allow larger spans.

Advantages of web steel joist: •Services water pipe can be carried through the open web •Efficiency- steel is expensive Light weight steel joists closely spaced •Heavier joists space further apart •Flooring itself needs to be stronger in this instance, because it’s spanning further than the one on the left. •Steel systems Steel framing systems take various forms with some utilising(使用) heavy garge(规 格) steel framing. In many instances, a combination of member types and materials are combined.(e.g. heavy & light members) depends on their structural function.


Steel framing Sometimes combine with concrete slab systems to where the particular benefits of steel framing & shallow depth floor slab systems are used. The spanning capabilities of the particular materials help to determine the spacing requirements of the supports.

All these members are joist, loads are distributed evenly onto all the joist.

Steel beam

Folded decking (help providing the tensile strength necessary for the concrete span) + concrete lay on top of that decking-.

Timber systems Very common in Australia. Traditional timber floor framing systems use a combination of bearers(primary bearers) & joists (secondary beams). The span of the bearers determines the spacing of the piers or stamps and the spacing of the bearers equals the span of the joists.

Bearer- bearing the weight of these joists

Foundation wall


Like an artificial stone

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Building_material

http://home.howstuffworks.co m/homeimprovement/remodeling/conc rete-countertop4.htm


Concrete poured between these two formwork (reinforcement is inserted forehand), allow to set and then the formwork will be taken away.


Both strong in compression and in tension


Not so easy to be recycled or reused although elements can be crushed and reinforcement can be extracted & reused.


Curing = process of setting

Concrete tucked into site, pump into plane & vibrated to get rid of any air bubbles allow to set. Use floats to get a flat finish


Control joints e.g. materials changing shape overtime. Concrete in a setting process tends to shrink a little concrete will also changing its size depending the amount of moisture to ensure the big amount of concrete doesn’t crack.

Precast column is being lifted


Doesn’t need to be supported in plane until the remain structure is there. Here, a prop(支柱) holding this column in place, once the floor is cast that prop will be taken away.

How precast wall is lift in site.

This is an elevation: span panel over doors below floors. They can actually over hang.


Construction joints are joints necessary in construction when one material meets another or they needs a gap between one and another material due to the maximum size. In this case, the panel can be cast in.

Structural joints Is how these two elements connected to operate in concert(一致) with each other.

Very high level of quality: Reusable silicon form work for which the concrete is cast commonly used with the precast.


Key terms •Joist A length of timber steel supporting part of the structure of a building, typically arranged in parallel series to support a floor or ceiling.(google) https://www. dlsweb.rmit.e du.au/toolbox /buildright/co ntent/bcgbc4 010a/10_floor _systems/10_ sub_floor_fra ming_floor_jo ists/page_009 .htm

Steel decking

http://www.bethlehemconstruction.com/nw/c oncrete/hollowcore/

http://www.prlog.org/10303511-steel-deckingdesign-steel-bar-joist-design-drawings-at-lowcost.html

Concrete plank

•Girder A large iron or steel beam or compound structure used for building bridges and the framework of large buildings.(google) •Steel decking Type of cold-formed corrugated metal most commonly used to support the insulating membrane of a roof.(ehow.com) •Concrete plank A hollow core or solid, flat beam used for floor or roof decking usually precast & pre-stressed.(dictionary of construction.) •Span the distance between two structural supports span can be measured between vertical supports or between horizontal supports. Span is not necessarily the same length of a member •Spacing The repeating distance between a series of like or similar element. Span is often associated with supporting elements(such as beams, columns, etc.) and can be measured horizontally or vertically.


Short and long columns

Kern area

Ching 2.13

Is the central area of any horizontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be present in the section. A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section.

Column are rigid, relatively slender structural members designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of the members. •Relatively short, thick columns are subject to failure by crushing rather by buckling. Failure occurs when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the material available in the cross section. An eccentric(不同轴的) load, however, can produce bending and result in an uneven stress distribution in the section. •Long slender columns are subject to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Buckling is the sudden lateral(侧面的) or torsional(扭转 的) instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of a slender structural member induced by the action of an axial load before the yield stress of the material is reached. slenderness ratio of a column, the critical stress that will cause it to buckle design of a column: •slenderness ratio by shortening its effective length •radius of gyration(回转) of its cross section.

•External forces create internal stresses within structural elements.


•The slenderness ratio of a column is the ratio of its effective length (L) to its least radius of gyration (r). For asymmetrical column sections, therefore, buckling will tend to occur about the weaker axis or in the direction of the least dimension. •Effective length is the distance between inflection points in a column subject to buckling. When this portion of the column buckles, the entire column fails.

•Ratio of gyration (r) is the distance from an axis at which the mass of a body may be assumed to be concentrated. For a column section, the radius of gyration is equal to the square root of the quotient of the moment of the inertia and the area.

•The effective length factor (k) is a coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions in order to determine its effective length. For example, fixing both ends of a long column reduces its effective length by half and increases its load-carrying capacity by a factor of 4.


Frames Ching 2.17

A beam simply supported by two columns is not capable of resisting lateral forces unless it is braced. If the joints connecting the columns and beams are capable of resisting both forces and moments, then the assembly(集合) becomes a rigid frame. Applied loads produce axial, bending and shear force in all members of the frame because the rigid joints restrain(抑制) the ends of the members from rotating freely. In addition, vertical loads cause a rigid to develop horizontal thrusts at its base. A rigid frame is statically(静止的) indeterminate(不定的) and rigid only in its shape. •Fixed frame is rigid frame connected to its supports with fixed joints. A fixed frame is more resistant to deflection than a hinged(铰链式的) frame but also more sensitive to support settlements(支点沉降) and thermal expansion and contraction. •Hinged frame(铰链式的) is a rigid frame connect to its supports with pin joints. The pin joints prevent high bending stresses from developing by allowing the frame to rotate as a unit when strained(抑制) by support settlements(支点沉降), and to flex slightly when stressed by changes in temperature. •Three-hinged frame Is a structural assembly of two rigid section connected with each other and to its supports with pin joints. While more sensitive to deflection than either fixed or hinged frame, the three-hinged frame is least affected by support settlements and thermal stresses. The three-pin joint also permit the frame to be analyzed as a statically(静止的) determinate(确定的) structure.


•If we fill in the plane defined by two columns and a beam, it a long bearing wall that acts a long thin column in transmitting compressive forces to the ground. Load-bearing walls are almost effective when carry coplanar(共面的), uniformly distributed loads and most vulnerable to forces perpendicular to their planes, for lateral stability, load- bearing walls must rely on buttressing(扶壁) with pilasters(壁柱), cross walls, transverse rigid frames, or horizontal slabs. •Any opening in a load-bearing wall weakens its structural integrity(完整). A lintel(过梁) or arch must support the load above a door or window opening and allow the compressive stresses to flow around the opening to adjacent(邻近的) sections of the wall


Ching: 05 wall systems

Reinforcement can be square, circular column may have spiraling reinforcement going down. In connecting to a footing system


•Universal column alike to I beam, while column’s both sides dimensions are roughly equal while beam is shorter on one side. A column will tend to buck along a weaker smaller dimension, so by keeping these dimensions roughly equal means it will be a more efficient use of materials. •Circular hollow sections are very efficient use of material •But sometimes rectangular hollow section or square hollow sections are selected. Keep the loads of the actual weight , the dead loads down. stabilized thru bracings, bracing sheet walls or by making the joints rigid.

Keep the beams and columns rigid can be done in timber in a similar way to the way that rigidities are achieved with steel corner brace, it may be bracing on a larger scale and occasionally the joints might also be made rigid with a beam connects into a column.


In apartment buildings occasionally the walls are load bearing. In precast concrete, the precast itself could be used to span openings.

To strength them, masonry walls that build from concrete blocks sometimes reinforcement is placed through the core within each of the blocks and then that is grouted in place with mortar mix. To deal with openings, it’s possible to put a steel lintel in. but in this case, the lintel itself is actually a bound beam made out of blocks themselves need to be temporary propping while these bound beams are put in place. Once the reinforcement is laid and it was filled with grout or concrete, allow to set it becomes quite a rigid spanning lintel.


空心墙


Next is the water resistant barrier on the external sheathing and these are fixed on the structural frame. At the bottom, a fill cavity is provided with through wall masonry flashing. The flashing should extend from outside the veneer face through its thickness, across the air space and onto the backing. It should be installed to a height of at least 8" up the backing. Since this is a critical portion of the wall, only the best material should be used for flashing. The water that collects in this cavity is directed outside the building through weeps, which are provided at the bottom of the brick veneer wall. http://www.structuralengineerscivplex.com.au/brick-veneer-construction.html


The structural element of brick veneer walls is the timber stud frame.

http://www.hometips.com/buying-guides/sidingbrick-stone-veneer.html


•Hard wood, at the centre which is not useful used in construction, it doesn’t last as long as the sapwood and then the extra ring that get out in place each year as the tree grows


http://learning.covcollege.ac.uk/con tent/citycol/seasoning/air%20drying .htm


https://elcombefirewood.co.uk/woodyard/seasonedsoftwood-logs-2/


We are going to make this structure into model of scale 1:20 by balsa wood and glue.

I bought 1.5 mm balsa wood sheet. While other team members have different types of balsa wood to me which is good so we can explore the properties of different size and shape of same material.


In order to make it into the right sale we need to measure and convert the dimension we get from the drawings. Because it should be 1:100 from the original drawing, our drawing are half sized which makes the scale become 1:200. In order to get 1:20, we need to multiple the length we get from our drawing set with 10. For example: length in real life is 180 cm In 1: 100 scale is 1.8 cm —— 1:100 = 1.8:180 In 1: 200 scale is 0.9 cm—— 1:200=0.9:180 Convert to 1:20 is 9 cm.——1:200=1:(20*10)=0.9:180 1:20=9:180 While during the calculation we find out the elements width and height should be 1:20 scaled as well so we choose to use the balsa wood strip that fits the requirement. But we ignore an important detail that the elements are not cut 90 degrees there are angles in order to make them fit to each other. But we just cut it into 90 degree.

Doesn’t fit to each other.


When we put the elements from left to right. The left part sits in and use the space of the elements that’s going to be in there because we didn’t notice the angle of the ends of the diagonal bracing .


Other group uses thin slender balsawood strip which won’t affect a lot when they cut it 90 degrees and joint it. And looks the same on to the drawing. While through model-making we can find that in real life more detailed problems will appear and we have to think carefully before we take action other wise the material will be wasted and expense on labor, energy and time will be wasted as well.


Key terms •Stud an upright timber in the wall of a building to which laths and plasterboard are nailed. (google) •Nogging an architectural term, may refer to: Brick nog, (nogged, nogging) term used for the filling in-between wall framing in buildings Nogging or dwang, a horizontal bracing piece used to give rigidity (http://en.wikipedia.org/)

http://home.howstuffworks.com/hom eimprovement/construction/materials/ steel-studs-more-common-thanwood.htm

•Lintel A lintel can be a load-bearing building component, a decorative architectural element, or a combined ornamented structural item. It is often found over portals,doors, windows, and fireplaces.(http://en.wikipedia.org/)

•Axial load Axial loading refers to the force acting or administered along the lines of an axis of an object. It is expressed as compression or tension and may be as a result of downward weight or induced conditions such as expansion caused by variations in temperatures. (www.ask.com) •Buckling buckling is characterized by a sudden failure of a structural member subjected to high compressive stress, where the actual compressive stress at the point of failure is less than the ultimate compressive stresses that the material is capable of withstanding.(http://en.wikipedia.org/)

•Seasoned timber Seasoning is the controlled process of reducing the moisture content (MC) of the timber so that it is suitable for the environment(http://www.slideshare.net/ flameboy87/5-timberseasoning)

http://www.mitcalc.com/


Trusses(桁架) Ching 6.08

Steel trusses Are generally fabricated(组合的,焊接的) by welding or bolting structural angles and tees(T形物) together to form the triangulated frame work. Because of the slenderness of these truss members, connections usually require the use of steel gusset(角板) plates. Heavier steel trusses may utilize wide-flanged(带凸缘的,折边的) shapes and structural tubing. •Metal or cementitious(水泥的) roof decking or panels span purlin(桁条) spaces

•Channel or w-shape purlins span the truss spacing •If not bearing at a panel point, purlins subject top chord to local bending.

•Steel bearing plate •Structural steel or reinforced concrete column support

•Members are bolted or welded(焊接 的) with gusset(角板) plate connectors •To prevent secondary shear and bending stresses from developing, the centroidal axes(质量中心轴) of truss members and the load at a joint should pass through a common point.

•Trusses require lateral(横向的) bracing in a direction perpendicular to their planes. •Mechanical services such as piping, conduit(导水管) and ductwork(通风管道) may pass through the web space. •Noncombustible(不燃的) steel construction may be left exposed if at leas 20’(6095) above the finish floor, consult the building code for requirements.


•Depth range for pitched(斜的,人字形的) trusses: span/4 to span/5 •Depth range for bowstring(弓弦) trusses: span/6 to span/8 •Their increased depth of trusses all allow them to span greater distances than steel beams and girder. •Span range 25 to 120’(7 to 36 m)

•Flat trusses have parallel top and bottom chords. Flat trusses are generally not as efficient as pitched(斜的) or bolted trusses. •Pratt(屁股) trusses has vertical web member in compression and diagonal web member in tension. It is generally more efficient to use a truss type which in the longer web members are loaded in tension. •Howe(中空的) trusses have vertical web members in tension and diagonal web members in compression. •Belgian(比利时的) trusses have only inclined web members.


•Fink trusses are Belgian trusses having subdiagonals to reduce the length of compression web members toward the centerline of the span. •Diagonals connect a top to a bottom chord. •Subdiagonals join a chord with a main diagonal. •Warren(拥挤的地区,大杂院) trusses have inclined web member forming a series of equilateral(等边的) triangles. Vertical web members are sometimes introduced to reduce the panel length of the top chord, which is in compression.

•Bowstring(弓弦) trusses have a curved top chord meeting a straight bottom cord at each side. •Raised –chord trusses have a bottom chord raised substantially above the level of the supports. •Crescent(新月的)trusses have both top and bottom chords curving upward from a common point at each side. •Scissors trusses have tension members extending from the each top chord to an intermediate(中间的) point on the opposite top chord.


Plates & Girds (网格) Ching 2.18

Plate structure are rigid, planar, usually monolithic structures that disperse(分散) applied loads in a multidirectional pattern, with the loads generally following the shortest and stiffest routes to the supports. A common example of plate structure is a reinforced concrete slab. •A plate can be envisioned as a series of adjacent beam strips interconnected continuously along their lengths. As an applied load is transmitted to the supports through bending of one beam strip, the load is distributed over the entire plate. •By vertical shear transmitted from the deflected strip to adjecent strips. The bending of one beam strip also causes twisting of transverse strips, whose torsional resistance increases the overall stiffness of the plate. •Therefore, while bending and shear transfer an applied load in direction of the loaded beam strip, shear and twisting transfer the load at right angles to the loaded strip. •A plate should be square or nearly square to ensure that it behaves as a two-way structure. As a plate become more rectangular than square, the two-way action decreases and a one-way system spanning the shorter direction develops because the shorter plate strips are stiffer and carry a greater portion of the load.


•Folded plate structure Are composed of thin, deep elements joined rigidly along their boundaries and forming sharp angles to brace each other against lateral(横向的) buckling(屈曲):

Each plane behaves as a beam in the longitudinal(纵向的) direction. In the short direction, the span is reduced by each fold acting as a rigid support. Transverse(横向的) strips behaves as a continuous beam supported at fold points. •Vertical diaphragms(横膈膜) of rigid frames stiffen a folded plate against deformation of the fold profile(轮廓). •The resulting stiffness of the cross section enables a folded plate to span relatively long distances. •A space frame is composed of short rigid linear elements triangulated in these dimensions and subject only to axial tension and compression. The simplest spatial(空间的) unit of a space frame is a tetrahedron(四 面体) having 4 joints and 6 structural members. Because the structural behavior of a space frame is analogous(类似的) to that of a plate structure, its supporting bay should be square or nearly square to ensure that it acts as a two way structure. Enlarging the bearing area of the supports increases the number of members into which shear is transferred and reduces the forces in the members. See 6.10 for more information on space frames.


Ching: 06 Roof systems.

Roof system •As the primary sheltering element for the interior spaces of a building. •Form & slope of a roof must be compatible with the type of roofing—— shingles(木瓦), tiles(瓷砖), or a continuous membrane——used to shed rainwater and melting snow to a system of drains, gutters(排水沟) and down spouts(水落管). •The construction of a roof should also control the passage of moisture vapor, the infiltration(渗透) of air, and the flow of heat and solar radiation. •And depending on the type of construction required by the building code, the roof structure and assembly may have to resist the spread of fire.

•Like a floor system a roof must be structured to span across space and carry its own weight as well as the weight of any attached equipment and accumulated(积累的) rain and snow. •Flat roofs used as decks are also subject to live occupancy(居 住) loads. •In addition to these gravity loads, the planes of the roof may be required to resist lateral(横向的) wind and seismic(地震的) forces, as well as uplifting wind forces, and transfer these forces to the supporting structure.


Flat roofs •Flat roof requires a continuous membrane roofing material. •Minimum recommended slope: ¼ per foot (1:50) •The roof slope may be achieved by inclining the structural members or roof deck, or by tapering(逐渐减少) the layer of thermal insulation. •The slope usually leads to interior drains. •Flat roof can efficiently cover a building of any horizontal dimension, and may be structured and designed to serve as an outdoor space. •The structure of a flat roof may consist of: Reinforced concrete slabs Flat timber or steel trusses Timber or steel beam and decking Wood steel joists and sheathing(外壳). Sloping roofs •Sloping roofs may be categorized into Low-slope roofs——up to 3:12 Medium- to high-slope roofs——4:12 to 12:12 •The roof slope affects the choice of roofing material, the requirements for underlayment(屋面衬垫材料) and eave flashing(屋檐防水板), and design wind loads. •Low-slope roofs require roll or continuous membrane roofing: some shingles(木瓦) and sheet materials may be used on 3:12 pitches(倾斜). •Medium- and high-slope roofs may be covered with singles(木瓦), tiles(瓷 砖), or sheet materials. •Sloping roofs shed rainwater easily to eave gutters.

•The height and area of a sloping roof increase with its horizontal dimensions. •The space under a sloping roof may be combined to form a variety of roof forms.


Beam: Carried load through the column down to the foundations.

Much more expensive than steel or timber structures but can be useful where traffic need at roof gardens and car parks, or other need such as a fire rating because concrete is a major structural element, it tends to be supported on a concrete frame or masonry low-barren frame.

Portal frame: Columns and beams are connect by a rigid joint. Material need to be quite thick but it can taper(逐渐减少) away when there’s not so much bending occur


Trusses are efficient beams they can span long distances with relatively little material. They have highest strength to material radio.

http://www.hungryarchitect.com/blog/?p=901

http://trussform.co.uk/content.php/info_id/323


3D trusses efficiently. Circular hollow sections or pipe/range of unusual connections http://buildz.blogspot.com.au/2013/01/space-frame-quickie.html

http://www.carpentry-pro-framer.com/hip-roof-framing.html


http://www.psdgraphics.com/textures/scratched-metal-texture

/


http://cinziadesigns.com/shop/guitar-string-bracelets-2/

https: //ww w.etsy .com/l isting/ 51843 892/st eelbench blockformakin gjewelr y


http://www.samhaskinsblog.com/?m=200710

http://www.restorationonline.com.au/wrought-iron-doors-and-old-indiandoors/wrought-iron-doors

http://www.turbosquid.com/FullPreview/Index.cfm/ID/589013


http://www.thomasnet.com/articles/ha rdware/fastener-materials http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Steel http://www.capitalsteel.net/news /blog/hot-rolled-vs-cold-rolledsteel http://www.arenametal.com/steel/f lat-carbon-steel/hot-rolled-steel/ http://www.ruukki.co m/Products-andsolutions/Steelproducts/Coldformed-steel-sections


http://opteareferencement.com/choosethe-corrugated-metalpanels-for-yourhome/corrugated-steelsheet-design/

http://www.stlpipesupply. com/blog/five-minutetutorial-stainless-steel316-sheet-metal/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper

http://www.haaslti.com/copper-mirror-laser.html


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium_Nag_Hamm%C3%A2di

http://www.smithfieldglass.com.au/aluminum-windows-doors/

http://www.indiamart.com/ankurindustries/door-handles.html

http://www.ajaxengineers.com/?product =aluminium-compositepanel-cladding


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc

http://academic.emporia.edu /abersusa/go336/morris/


http://poster.4teachers.org/vi ew/poster.php?poster_id=471 759

http://periodictable.com/Elements/022/


http://lured2stock.deviantart.com/art/Gold-Bronze-Brown-3045595

https://www.onlinemetals.com/merchant.cfm?step=4&pid=4589&id=257&top_cat=79


Our site is just started so there’s not as much structures as the other group


There site has been building the second level already. Our site will have the second level as well.


Key terms •Rafter a beam forming part of the internal framework of a roof. (google)

http://design.medeek.com/resour ces/trusses.html

•Purlin a horizontal beam along the length of a roof, resting on principals and supporting the common rafters or boards.(google) •Cantilever a long projecting beam or girder fixed at only one end (google)

http://dornob.com/best-deck-ever-contemporary-cantileverhouse-design/#axzz31ttcQReJ

•Portal frame a rigid structural frame consisting essentially of two uprights connected at the top by a third member. (google)


•Eave the part of a roof that meets or overhangs the walls of a building. http://www.stratco.co.nz/products/flashings/types/flashings/flashings.asphttp://content.answcdn.com/main/content/img/barrons/realestate/59.gif (google)

•Alloy a metal made by combining two or more metallic elements, especially to give greater strength or resistance to corrosion. (google) •Soffit •the underside of an architectural structure such as an arch, a balcony, or overhanging eaves. (google)

http://www.specialtydesign.com/blog/what-is-soffit-and-why-is-it-important-to•Top chord a-house/ The top beams in a truss are called top chords and are generally in http://www.kpinspections.com/TrussUplift.html compression. (en.wikipedia.org)


Arches, Domes & shells

Week 7

Ching, 2.25-2.27

Arches(拱门) Are curved structures for spanning an opening, designed to support a vertical load primarily by axial compression. They transform the vertical forces of a supported load into inclined components and transmit them to abutments(桥 台) on either side of the archway. •Masonry Arches Are constructed of individual wedge-shaped stone or brick voussoirs (拱石); for more information on masonry arches, see 5.20 •Rigid arches Consist of curved, rigid structures of timber, steel, or reinforced concrete capable of carrying some bending stresses. Vaults (拱顶) Are arched structures of stone, brick, or reinforced concrete, forming a ceiling or roof over a hall, room, or other wholly or partially enclosed space. Because a vault behaves as an arch extended in a third dimension, the longitudinal supporting walls must be buttressed(用扶壁支撑, 加固) to counteract(中和,抵消) the outward thrusts of the arching action. •Barrel vaults: Have semicircular cross sections. •Groin or cross vaults Are compound vaults formed by the perpendicular intersection of two vaults, forming arched diagonal arises called groins.

•For bending to be eliminated throughout an arch, the line of thrust must coincide with the arch axis. http://www.sandia.gov/tp/SAFE_RA M/ARCH.HTM

•The thrust of an arched structure on its abutments is proportional to the total load and span, and inversely proportion to the rise.

http://www.yourdictionary.com/vault


Dome

Ching, 2.26

Is a spherical surface structure having a circular plan and constructed of stacked blocks, a continuous rigid material like reinforced concrete, or of short, linear elements, as in the case of a geodesic(测 地线) dome. A dome is similar to a rotated arch except that circumferential (圆周的)forces are developed that are compressive near the crown(顶部) and tensile(拉力的) in the lower portion.

•Meridional(子午线的) forces acting along a vertical sections out through the surface of the dome are always compressive under full vertical loading. •Hoop(铁环) forces Restraining(控制) the out-of-plane movement of the meridional(子午线 的) strips in the shell of a dome, are compressive in the upper zone and tensile in the lower zone. •A tension ring Encircles(围绕) the base of a dome to contain the outward components of the meridional(子午线的) forces. In a concrete dome, this ring is thickened and reinforced to handle the bending stresses caused by the differing elastic deformations(变形) of the ring and shell. http://www.alibaba.com/product-detail/Geodesic-DomeTent_100666894/showimage.html

http://culturemechanism.blogspot.com.au/2013/09/redesigned-bymichelangelo-buonarroti.html


Shell Are thin, curved plate structures typically constructed of reinforced concrete. They are shaped to transmit applied by membrane stresses——the compressive, tensile, and shear stresses acting in the plane of their surfaces. A shell can sustain relatively large forces if uniformly applied. Because of its thinness, however, a shell has little bending resistance and is unsuitable for concentrated loads. •Translational surfaces are generated by sliding a plane curve along a straight line or over another curve. •Ruled surfaces Are generated by the motion of a straight line. Because of its straight-line geometry. A ruled surface is generally easier to form and construct than a rotational or translational surface.

•Rotational surfaces Are generated by rotating a plane curve about an axis. Spherical, elliptical,(椭圆的) and parabolic dome surfaces are examples of rotational surfaces.

•Barrel(圆筒) shells Are cylindrical shell structures. If the length of a barrel shell is three or more times its transverse(横向的) span, it behaves as a deep beam with a curved section spanning in the longitudinal(纵向的) direction. If it is relatively short, it exhibits archlike action. Tie rods(杆) or transverse rigid frames are required to counteract(中和,抵消) the outward thrusts of the arching action.

•Hyperbolic(双曲线的) paraboloid(抛物面) A surface generated by sliding a parabola with downward curvature(弯曲,曲度) along a parabola with upward curvature, (弯曲,曲度) or by sliding a straight line segment with its ends on two skew (斜的)lines. It can be considered to be both a translational(平移的) and a ruled(规则曲面) surface. •Saddle surfaces Have an upward curvature in one direction and a downward curvature in the perpendicular direction. In a saddle-surfaced (马鞍面) shell structure, regions of downward curvature exhibits archlike action, while regions of upward curvature behave as a cable(缆绳) structure. If the edges of the surface are not supported, beam behavior may also be present. •One –sheet hyperboloid Is a ruled (规则曲面) surface generated by sliding an inclined line segment on two horizontal circles. Its vertical sections are hyperbolas(双曲线).


Detailing for heat & moisture Ching 07: moisture and thermal protection.

How to make sure that water doesn’t penetrate (渗入)building and that heat float is controlled according to climate.

Roof Water hitting roofs need to be carried away from the building. Strategies are eaves gutters into down pipes into the water drainage. If the roof drains internally, they might be a parallel wall outside, box gutters be used and typically those box gutters carry water to the outside of the building they don’t draining down through the building because that becomes a high risks situation. If that drainage pipe ever get blocked, likewise flat roof mostly be drained outside a building.

Eave(屋檐) helps building because there’s less likely to creek back towards the wall and it protects some of the wall surface. Walls have various strategies, they might be an attempt to put absolutely previous surface on the outside that’s probably the least successful strategy. Another strategy is to have a double skin wall like a brick compact wall. The final strategy is a rain screen system which attempts to equalize forces to prevent water entering. They quite complex concepts to understand. Where materials join each other need to consider like: windows, joints of wall that’s a high risks area for water penetrating. Likewise when a surface is broken in this case is a chimney that’s penetrating the roof flashing(防水 板) is required around that chimney.

Dry land: Agricultural draining, this is a small plastic pipe. This section of ground is cut away and filled with a kind of loose add with it, so water drains clearly down to the agricultural drain. If any water gets carry away from the building and into a store water pipe.

Wet land: Water proof membrane, particularly made out of artificial rubber around the construction


http://www.yorkshiredampcourse.co.uk/as pbite/categories/index.asp?intCatId=63&co ntent=penetrating_damp

http://www.dampshield.com.au/tanking.html


If a down pipe is rusted at its back it might not actually see that’s rusted but if that water is ponding eventually will find it’s way into the building and cause the damage How the junction formed in the down pipes. For these lower members to set up inside the upper member so the water will flow down in a overlap way Roofs are sloped to carry water away even flat roofs have a slight slope in them because water shouldn’t be allowed to pond.

Tiles overlap :might be gaps, these might be healed with concrete mortar

Weather board overlap

In this case, there are two types of planned connection which are potential openings. One strategy that is been used is a silt this case is placing a flexible silicone into that construction between door/window frame in the brick wall. Here as one module up against another module there’s a gas- gap which is wrapped around the entire module and gets compressed up against the other module it will prevent water penetration. Gas-gap not going to last as long as the building and they do need to be updated, buildings need to be maintained.


Some flashing over the top of the window head

Drip To stop the water penetrating all the way in.

The sill slopes so the water is carried away. Internal flashing so that any water that does creep in runs down the front surface Base of a door see sloping threshold, caping (盖)on top of the substructure to prevent any water that absorbed into this brick work/conrete, doesn’t move up through into the timber and cause the timber to rot. Paving get the water away from the house.


Roof sheeting Got thickness to it , even though the roof sheeting it self is thin, the thickness is because the sheeting is folded up and down there might be corrugated(波纹面的) roof sheet. That means the flashing curves down into that roof sheet and typically it is not showing here the roof sheet will be folded up to prevent any water running back and up under through wind pressures. A valley flashing is very shallow, is actually sloping itself again you need to thinking three dimension so it’s different to a box gutter which will tend to have a little bit of pond of water either and will running a very gentle slope towards a rain water handling outside the building. Here with the valley flashing it will be a slope, water will be moved quite quickly.

Any water that penetrate outside the skin will run down get caught by the flashing and flow out through an open joint, might be an open perpend. The slope is actually important to make sure the water goes to the right direction.


So that drip is quite useful to break that surface tension help direct water away from the surface

The capping which is made to fall into the building rather out of the building because with it will stain the exterior wall dirt that’s collected falls into the box gutter

Flashing to prevent any water that penetrates in going all the way to the interior surface and water is carried out thru a weep hole this is effectively an open joint in the brick work might be open perpend and this is called cavity flashing.

and then fold here effectively forming a drip similar to that.


The capping is just lifted at the end so that any drips don’t run onto the surface at or it pulled up by capillary reaction to that space between the capping and brick work. Here the strategy is a break so did any water that coming thru the capillary reaction it doesn’t really get past that point because the capillary reaction broken and another strategy down here.

Capillary break is perfect as you see in a moment in some other strategies for a membrane surface on a flat roof being folded up to almost form a tanking surfaces that if water does pond it doesn’t mean to thru any gaps it’s protected quite carefully.


There’s another issue that needs to be considered if the inside is a in a lower pressure than the outside, there will be a tendency for water to pump inside.

Wind driven rain gets in here and hopefully drains out.

You do something quite clever and that is to put the seal the air barrier on the inside and know what that means is this becomes a pressure equalization chain a PEC and because the pressure here is the same as the pressure outside, there won’t be the same tendency for water to pump inside. They are equalized.

Pressure wants to equalized to avoid that you actually don’t put the seal on the outside.


By putting in a thermal break It reduces the amount of conduction which occurs

It is better to shade the building on the outside of the building rather than trying to exclude heat gain by using curtains or blinds inside. Controlling heat loss, however curtains and blinds are useful strategy

Light-colored surfaces/ white painted roofs.


All three conditions are needed for leaks to occur you’ve removed on and it will simply effect the airtight.

Building wrap is effective as an air barrier/water barrier

Sacking


http://www.chatoyerenvironmenta l.com.au/Products/FloorBunding/Rubber-FloorBunding.aspx


http://indiatransportportal.com/2011/07/synthetic-rubber-to-cost-less-demandto-rise/

http://www.jingdongrubber.com/product.asp?id=36 7

http://naldzgraphics.net/ textures/rubber-tiretextures/


http://graphic.com.gh/news/

http://www.whitestradepaints.co.uk/


Key terms Drip(滴水槽): a projection from a cornice or sill designed to protect the area below from rainwater as over a window or doorway. (http://www.onelook.com/) Vapor barrier(防潮层) A vapor barrier is often used to refer to any material for damp proofing, typically a plastic or foil sheet, that resists diffusion of moisture through wall, ceiling and floor assemblies of buildings and of packaging. (http://en.wikipedia.org/) Gutter(排水沟) a shallow trough fixed beneath the edge of a roof for carrying off rainwater. (google) https://courses.cit.cornell.edu/arch264/notes/mas onry-systems.html

http://www.massenergylab.com/blog/?p=1429

http://www.maconline.org/tech/design/mason rycapsandsills/masonrycapsandsills.html

Parapet(矮护墙) a low protective wall along the edge of a roof, bridge, or balcony. (google) http://www.arcoremodeling.com/gpage5.html


•Down pipe(雨水管) a pipe to carry rainwater from a roof to a drain or to ground level. (google)

http://stormygirlscastle.blogspot.c om.au/2009/07/final-fit-off-hasbegun.html

•Flashing(防水板) a strip of metal used to stop water penetrating the junction of a roof with another surface. (google) http://www.hometips.com/how-it-works/roof-flashing.html http://advice. myhome.ie/20 11/11/solveyourinsulationproblems/

http://www.buildingdiagnostics.com/art icles/sealantjoints.html http://ww w.garland co.com/pr oducts/se alantsaccessorie s/

•Insulation(绝缘) the act of protecting something by surrounding it with material that reduces or prevents the transmission of sound or heat or electricity. (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/)

•Sealant(密封剂) material used for sealing something so as to make it airtight or watertight. (google)


Stress and Structural Members

Kern area

Ching 2.13

Is the central area of any horizontal section of a column or wall within which the resultant of all compressive loads must pass if only compressive stresses are to be present in the section. A compressive load applied beyond this area will cause tensile stresses to develop in the section.

Column are rigid, relatively slender structural members designed primarily to support axial compressive loads applied to the ends of the members. •Relatively short, thick columns are subject to failure by crushing rather by buckling. Failure occurs when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the material available in the cross section. An eccentric(不同轴的) load, however, can produce bending and result in an uneven stress distribution in the section.

•External forces create internal stresses within structural elements.

•Long slender columns are subject to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Buckling is the sudden lateral(侧面的) or torsional(扭 •Ratio of gyration (r) is the distance from an 转的) instability of a slender structural member axis at which the mass of a body may be induced by the action of a slender structural member assumed to be concentrated. For a column induced by the action of an axial load before the yield section, the radius of gyration is equal to the stress of the material is reached. square root of the quotient of the moment of slenderness ratio of a column, the critical stress that the inertia and the area. will cause it to buckle •The slenderness ratio of a column is the design of a column: •slenderness ratio by shortening its effective length ratio of its effective length (L) to its least radius of gyration (r). For asymmetrical •radius of gyration(回转) of its cross section. column sections, therefore, buckling will tend to occur about the weaker axis or in the direction of the least dimension.


•Effective length is the distance between inflection points in a column subject to buckling. When this portion of the column buckles, the entire column fails. •The effective length factor (k) is a coefficient for modifying the actual length of a column according to its end conditions in order to determine its effective length. For example, fixing both ends of a long column reduces its effective length by half and increases its load-carrying capacity by a factor of 4.


You can still see the materials individually but they act together to provide improved synergistic


Very inexpensive product, see in a lot of school buildings and domestic buildings has been around. It’s a develop on that terrible accessible of cement product which has caused so much agony and health problems.

Making bars, basins, shower recess and water proofing. Also sometimes fibers are loose, sometimes they woven (交织的).

Less expensive: environmentally and financially even solid aluminum. Can be inserted into window framing system in commercial building. Aluminum sandwich panel: can be folded, curved.


Commonly used in joints in domestic constructions. Relatively new product that last couple of decades. More efficient use of timber than solid timber.


Ching 2.30 Joints & connections Structural elements can be joined to each other in three ways: •Butt joints Allow one of the elements to be continuous and usually require a third mediating element to make the connection. •Overlapping joints allow all of the connected elements to bypass each other and be continuous across the joint. •The joining elements can also be molded or shaped to form a structural connection.

The connectors used to join the structural elements may be in the form of a point/ a line /a surface. While Linear and surface types of connectors resist rotation, point connectors do not unless a series of them is distributed across a large surface area.

•Pinned joints Theoretically allow rotation but resist translation in any direction

•Rigid or fixed joints Maintain the angular relationship between the joined elements, restrain rotation and translation in any direction, and provide both force and moment resistance.

•Roller joints Allow rotation but resist translation in a direction perpendicular into or away from their faces. They are not employed in building construction as often as pinned or fixed connection s but they are useful when a joint must allow expansion and contraction of a structural element to occur.

•Cable anchorage allows rotation but resists translation only in the direction of the cable.


Movement Joints Ching 7.48-7.50

Types of Movement joints •Expansion joints Are continuous, unobstructed slots constructed between two parts of a building or structure permitting thermal or moisture expansion to occur without damage to either part. Expansion joints can often serve as control and isolation joints.

(See 5.22: in brick masonry walls, 7.29: horizontal expansion joints in masonry veneer walls, 10.04: in gypsum(石膏) plaster. )

•Control joints are continuous grooves(凹槽) or separations formed in concrete ground slabs and concrete masonry walls to form a plane of weakness and thus regulate the location and amount of cracking resulting from drying shrinkage, thermal stresses, or structural movement. •Isolation joints divide a large or geometrically complex structure into sections so that differential movement or settlement can occur between the parts. At a smaller scale, an isolation joint can also protect a non structural element from the deflection or movement of an abutting(邻接的) structural member.

(see 3.19: in concrete ground slabs, 5.22: in concrete masonry walls)


Backing walls with cocking in front which can accommodate a little bit stretching and compression

These expansion joint details, although general in nature, have the following elements in common: •A joint that creates a complete break through the structure, which is then usually filled with a compressive material. •A weatherstop that may be in the form of an elastic joint sealant(密封剂), a flexible waterstop embedded within the construction, or a flexible membrane over flat roof joints.

Normally only have small amounts of movement the impact if not consider these detail stage can be very large indeed. Sometimes the movement can be large earthquakes that’s not covering here, what we really thinking about here is really minor movement that expending/ contracting and causing potential cracking. some way we accomodating movement is to have expansion joints and movement joints.


People in danger situation such as fire might be making sure that stairs are safe. Banisters which are required to fit certain standards by regulations. As to the width and heights. Material selection restriction is also Australia’s building code base on the risk of fire.

Plasterboard is commonly used in housing. It’s Toe recess very inexpensive material and can Corners are particularly easily be vulnerable place. Angle patched and painted corner bead which is whenever it’s skied over with the damaged or dirty. finishing skin before painting so not really that But there’re some particular visible. area need to be thought of carefully: a skirting for example will prevent quick damage from foot or vacuum cleaners hitting the plaster board which is not strong.


Surfaces easy to clean is quite important. Restaurants, hospitals need have easily cleaned surfaces and avoiding corners that can trap dirt. Coved corners are quite important and material selection is important as well.

Constructability is often forgotten about by the detailers. It’s never forgotten by constructors. If the detail is difficult to construct it will invariably be expensive and client won’t be get good value for money. It’s useful to consider 3 general principles for constructability: the detail should be easy to assemble, should be forgiving (there’re small Suspended ceilings are used commonly in commercial inaccuracies, a minor mistakes ), it’s possible to adjust and buildings and the actual structure can be hidden: air make, do. Also based on efficient use of construction conditioning, duct(管道) work and all the services can be facilities, tools and labor. If something that’s been hidden. It also means that if there’s damage that occurs the tiles can be lifted up and replaced and there’s also access into manufactory in mass quantity you can just buy from a shop suits your purpose, use it don’t try and design it. And the space for cleaning or into the under floor spaces for constructed from scratch because it will be more expensive. cleaning.


Recycled concrete dirt inserted Aluminum composite panel (ACP) also aluminum composite material, (ACM) is a type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminum sheets bonded to a non-aluminum core. ACPs are frequently used for external cladding or facades of buildings, insulation, and signage. (http://en.wikipedia.org/)

Aluminum sandwich panel Fire rated, stop the fire spreading from the main place to other places.


Building

Ground

Ground is always pushing into the building.

Stop ground pushing into the building. Layer of Sliding rock on ground, cause the ground pushing back into the building.


Holes left by the rods that‘s been removed after the panel is set.

Pumping of concrete. To transferring concrete used on site. Create holes on the ground of each level temporally, will be filled afterwards.


Pre cast: column

In situ: Pulling concrete Holes left by rods while using formwork in factory, healed by concrete later on site. Produce column: •In situ- 3 days •Precast-2 days Precast columns: More efficient in time & financial concept, less labor, less cost.


Construction Protection Netting The net is set to ensure the safety of the builders and also prevent tools flying out off the building and hit pedestrians.

The net will be reused and moving up after this level is finished.


Natural waterproofing structure

Precast panel Angled: let the water flow out of the building


Crane can be used both to lift and lower materials and to move them horizontally. It is mainly used for lifting heavy things and transporting them to other places. (http://en.wikipedia.org/) They are lifting up level by level during construction. After the construction, the crane will be taking down by the crane on the higher level.

body of crane

Crane jib


Waterproof is important for hospital: water creep in will cause moldy which might kill patients.

Sealant: Plastic sheet seals the end to prevent rubbish get in to keep it a hygiene environment. Especially important for hospital where patients are very fragile.


Concrete Steel

Concrete Steel Concrete Steel Concrete-filled steel pan treads

bolted connection Steel channel stringer


Load path diagram

Reaction force


Key terms •Sandwich panel: Aluminum Composite Panel also Aluminum Composite Material, is a type of flat panel that consists of two thin aluminum sheets bonded to a non-aluminum core. ACPs are frequently used for external cladding of buildings, for insulation and for signage.(http://en.wikipedia.org/) http://www.bombayharbor.com/Product/19038/Pu_Sandwich_Panel.html

•Bending: shape or force (something straight) into a curve or angle. (google)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bending http://www.guzmanremodeling.com/t.php

•Skirting: a wooden board running along the base of an interior wall. (google)

•Composite beam: A steel beam, which has concrete decking above it, and which is connected to the concrete by shear connectors, which cause the steel and the concrete to act together.(http://www.steelbridges.com/)


•Shadow line joint

•Cornice(檐口): an ornamental(装饰用的) moulding round the wall of a room just below the ceiling.

http://www.symet.com/tank/enamelCoating http://www.boral.com.au/fact-sheets/cornice.asp

•Enamelled steel surfaces/ glazed tile will not lose the glossy appearance over time. •Coved skirting is maintenance-free and easy to clean house.


Ching 2.08-2.10: Dynamic loads Dynamic loads Applied suddenly to a structure, often with rapid change in magnitude and point of application. Under a dynamic loads, a structure develops inertial forces in relation to its mass and its maximum deformation does not necessarily correspond to the maximum magnitude of the applied force. The Two major types of dynamic loads are wind loads & earthquake loads. Wind loads (2.09) Are forces exerted by the kinetic energy of a moving mass of air, assumed to come from any horizontal direction. -further refers to the rapid oscillations(震动) of a flexible cable or membrane structure caused y the aero dynamic(空气动力学) effects of wind. -tall, slender buildings, structures with unusual or complex shapes & light weight, flexible structures subject to flutter require wind tunnel testing or computer modeling to investigate how they respond to the distribution of wind pressure.

Earthquake loads(2.10) An earthquake consist of a series of longitudinal(纵向) & transverse(横向) vibrations. Induced in earth’s crust(外壳) by the abrupt(突然) movemnt of plates along fault lines(断层带). -the natural period of a structure varies according to its height above the base and its dimension of the applied forces. Relatively stiff structures oscillate(使震动) rapidly and have short periods while more flexible structures oscillate more slowly & have longer periods.


The structure, components & cladding(骨架外墙) of a building must be designed to resist wind-induced sliding, uplifting or over-turning. -wind exerts positive pressure horizontally on the wind ward (迎风) vertical surface of a building & normal to windward roof surface having a slope grater than 30. -wind exerts negative pressure on suction(吸力) on the sides and leeward(背风) surfaces & normal to windward roof surfaces having a slope less than 30.


Lateral supports Difference between wind forces and earthquake forces: Two quite different structures: Light weight sign board with large vertical surface V.S. Aero dynamic water tower but with quite a heavy load above the ground. Looking at what happens at the sign board, with earth quake load it is very light and moves as a whole where as the wind forces are quite substantial on this equal surface. What will happen to the water tank. It is a heavy structure, under earthquake it moves substantially while under the wind loads just flow around the structure. What do we learn by these examples. We learnt wind & earthquake are forces have different effect on building. Wind forces are function to the size of expose surface area while earth quake forces are more function to the amount of mass about the foundation particularly when the mass is kind of tall narrow building. Wind forces act on the surface of a structure have a minimum value at the base and maximum value at the highs elevation. Earthquake forces act at the base of a building structure. Force actions are quite different. The force strategies used to resist lateral forces in buildings are fairly similar. Three key strategies: •Bracing of the building •Diaphragms or shear walls •Moment joints Can all prevent a structure, a building from over turning when affected by lateral forces


Horizontal bracing surface with vertical surface. But at the moment the horizontal surface is not braced, not solid and filled. But put a diaphragm in there, the whole structure works as an entity, works more evenly. This bracing is a crucial element for resisting horizontal forces. Instead of bracing, shear wall s can also resist lateral forces by transferring horizontal forces into vertical forces. In this case it act almost like a huge cantilever and weight of the wall is over turning. We already show how concrete slabs be connected as a moment joint into columns. These joint means that horizontal and vertical acts together. And this is called moment resisting frame.


Sometimes the actual building is isolated or separated from the foundation using a slice of isolator. This is an example where metal plates and rubber layers make the building above is not largely affected by the earth movement that is occur during earthquake.

Strategies for wind loads. We’ve already understood the tall thin slab on the end is significantly affected by wind loads since it has little depth to resist lateral loads and a large surface area facing the wind.

We should also understand that are cantilever or large openings, they might also be vulnerable to wing loads. Likewise a large surface area can have up lifting the same way and aero plane have a uplift in the winds


Similar to asymmetry within buildings can cause difficulties in earth quakes Here’s an example of a building on a sloping surfaces where one end of the building will tend to move more than the other and this can be resisted by horizontal bracing reinforcement of the columns to resist lateral loads stiff affect the building. Here’s an example of a building with one ending stiff and the other is more open so the movement in an earthquake is higher is end. By making that building more symmetric is one solution for resisting forces. If the building is asymmetric one end of it may move a different rate to the other end so it becomes a stress point in the center by separating the two buildings and allowing them to move independently. The risk of pounding from one side to another will be reduce. Asymmetric building where one end is stiffen by inserting bracing to get the building moving one entity will help resist lateral loads.


Another high rise building has a soft storey at the ground where the designer may wanted to keep the foryer(前厅) very open to the street and there might be heavy load above. We can se examples where part of the building actually collapse because of that soft storey. One solution is to insert bracing stiffen that soft story while keeping it open. A re-entrant corner of a building can be a weakness where two buildings are moving differently to each other might stiffen that re-entrant corner loads can be more easily be resisted. If the upper story structure need to move discontinuously down to the foundation there can be areas of stress and areas of weakness. A simple solution is to remove those transfer forces by inserting columns below. But if that’s not possible these members just need to be designed be able to resist those area of intense forces. If this building is treated symmetrically it will be able to resist horizontal forces more evenly so initially there’s a shear wall one end so two ends of the building will be differently by putting a shear wall at each end more likely to resist twist or torsion from earthquake forces


Ching: 12 Building Materials •The dimension stability of a material as it responds to change in temperature and moisture content affects the manner in which it is detailed and constructed to join with other materials. •The resistance of a material to water or water vapor is an important consideration when it is exposed to weather or used in moist environments. •The thermal conductivity or resistance of a material must be assessed when it is used in constructing the exterior envelope of a building. •A material’s transmission, reflection, or absorption of visible light and radiant heat should be evaluated when the material is used to finish the surfaces of a room. •The density or hardness of a material determines its resistance to wear and abrasion, its durability in use, and the costs require to maintain it. •The ability of a material to resist combustion, withstand exposure to fire, and not produce smoke and toxic gases, must be evaluated before using it as a structural member or an interior finish. •The color, texture, and scale of a material are obvious considerations in evaluating how it fits within the overall design scheme. •Many building materials are manufactured in standard shapes and sizes. These stock dimensions, however may vary slightly from one manufacturer to the next. They should be verified in the planning and design phases of a building so that unnecessary cutting or wasting of material can be minimized during construction.


Concrete, masonry, steel are commonly used building materials. Details are covered in previous weeks or check Ching.


Various range of metal can be used as building materials. When we select metal we need to consider a lot of things. Galvanic series can help for the decision-making.


Stones have 3 types: •Igneous rock •Metamorphic rock •Sedimentary rock •And they are used in many types. details are covered in previous week or check in Ching.

The use of wood is very dynamic. What type, how to cut it.


Wood can be used as it is or make into wood panel product. Ching 12.14

Plastic & glass are materials that can be melted and shaped into specific shapes. But they are very different materials. Details check previous weeks and Ching.


Nails are made of different materials and formed into different length, diameters, forms with different heads, points and fasteners. Similarly, Screws & bolts have a wide range as well.

They might be small but they have huge impact on the building.


Pints and coatings work not just for the appearance but also to protect, preserve the surface to which it is applied. The principle types of coating are paints, stains and varnishes.

miscellaneous fastenings are more appropriate in certain condition where extra consideration is needed.


A Tale of Corrosion Statue of Liberty-Galvanic Corrosion Iron structure frame; cooper skin; the connection between the two is formed by the purple colors which are the ribs which attach the cooper skin to the iron structure and these purple ribs were originally also in iron material they call the armature(盔甲) or the ribs. You see those elements here in image, they are rather wrap-around supporting the shape of the cooper cladding


Timber stud wall

Actually the metal piece is touching the brick work

Plastic

concrete

luminated at night


stud beam

Purlin Light weight steel to support the weight of the roof

batten


purlin

facial


Metal beam

Timber stud

insulation

Water vapor barrier

Clip lock board


batten

stud


Key terms •Shear wall a shear wall is a structural system composed of braced panels (also known as shear panels) to counter the effects of lateral load acting on a structure. Wind and seismic loads are the most common loads that shear walls are designed to carry.(http://en.wikipedia.org) http://www.ideers.bris.ac.uk/resistant/strength_shearwall.html http://www.nex us.globalquake model.org/gembuildingtaxonomy/overv iew/glossary/sof t-storey--sos

Retail space, café not as solid as the building above.

•Soft Story A soft story building is a multi-storey building in which one or more floors have windows, wide doors, large unobstructed commercial spaces, or other openings in places where a shear wall would normally be required for stability as a matter ofearthquake engineering design.(http://en.wikipedia.org)

http://www.nexus.globalqu akemodel.org/gembuildingtaxonomy/overview/glossar y/braced-frame--lfbr

•Braced Frame A Braced Frame is a structural system which is designed primarily to resist wind and earthquake forces. Members in a braced frame are designed to work in tension and compression, similar to a truss. Braced frames are almost always composed of steel members.(http://en.wikipedia.org/) •Lifecycle the series of changes in the life of an organism including reproduction. (google) Here, it indicates building elements.


•Defect Mistake, flaw, failure and weakness •Fascis a frieze or band running horizontally and situated vertically under a roof edge, or which forms the outer surface of a cornice, visible to an observer. Typically consisting of a wooden board or sheet metal.(http://en.wikipedia.org)

•Corrosion is the gradual destruction of materials (usually metals) by chemical reaction with its environment. (http://en.wikipedia.org/)

http://www.smithandarrow.com.a u/blog/rust-corrossion/10-ways-

prevent-corrosion-metals/ •IEQ IEQ encompasses indoor air quality (IAQ), which focuses on airborne contaminants, as well as other health, safety, and comfort issues such as aesthetics, potable water surveillance, ergonomics, acoustics, lighting, and electromagnetic frequency levels. IEQ improvements to an existing building can occur at any point during the use of a building.(http://www.wbdg.org/)


Constructing Mo Chen(Kallen) Work shop


Arrive on time Safety : boots on


Knots can become weakness when the load is exerting the forces onto the structure.


settlement saw

pine

drill saw

Tools house drill


t’s hard to cut the angle accurately.

Drill a hole.

Have difficulty to punch the nails in the right place as well.


Log book kallen Chen  
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