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Devakshar

(an annual newsletter, 2018) Managing Editor Swami Sarvatmananda

Editor Shruba Mukherjee

Associate Editor Jaba Majumdar

Editor Art, Design Cover & Layout Debolina Gupta

Patronage Bharati Dutta Jayanta Sarkar Arunava Chakraborty Prasun Guha Biswas Debasis Biswas Shantanu Dey Sudipta Ghosh

Printing Roma Chakraborty D-630, C.R. Park, New Delhi-19 Ph. : 011-41603996, 9213134487 E-mail : chakraborty.roma@gmail.com

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Sri Sarada Math Dakshineswar, Kolkata-700 076 Phone : (033) 2564-6566/5411 Fax : (033) 2564-4388

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Sri Sarada Math Dakshineswar, Kolkata-700 076 Phone : (033) 2564-6566/5411 Fax : (033) 2564-4388

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üÓäÂÏÂóS Editorial

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Guiding Principles And Activities

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Annual Report

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Âõø¸ÇÂó¿ÂõþS÷±

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Spiritual Evolution of Man An Inner Journey Sreemoyee Sarkar / 24

ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁøž - ùÏù±¿ä™LËò, îÂN ÷òËò ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁøž ÎäÂîÂò±ûþ ÷± ðÅÃáDZ ÕæÃûþ öÂA±ä±ûÇÉ ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁËøž ÀÂõþ±÷äÂf Âõ¿µî± öÂA±ä±ûÇÉ ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁøž ÕÂõî±ËÂõþ Îá±Âó±ùö±Âõ üÅÂõèî± Îüò Ÿæè ÚUæ×·ë¤c‡æÎðß ·¤è mñÌ âæÏÙæ ÂýßýæçÁ·¤æ ˆØæ»æˆ×Âýæ‡ææ ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁËøžÂõþ ÕÍÁZîÂËÂõ±ñ ¦¤±÷Ï üÂõDZR±òµ

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ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁøž Îù±ßÁ¿úŽ ±ûþ, Îù±ßÁüÑ¢¶ËýÃà A Divine Incarnation and His Impact

Shantanu Dey

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ßÁí±ñ±Âõþ±ûþ ÛËü±

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The Genesis of Ramakrishna Movement

Paromita Roy

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From the Editor's Desk... “This is the story of a phenomenon. I will begin by calling him simply that, rather than ‘holy man’, ‘mystic’, ‘saint’ or ‘avatar’; all emotive words with mixed associations which may attract some readers, repel others. A phenomenon is often something extraordinary and mysterious. Ramakrishna was extraordinary and mysterious; most of all to those who were best fitted to understand him. A phenomenon is always a fact, an object of experience. That is how I shall try to approach Ramakrishna.”1 This is how eminent author, playwright Christopher Isherwood described avataravarishtha (supreme incarnation) Sri Ramakrishna. What was so extraordinary about him? Was it his unique personality or his godintoxicated nature, deep compassion for the suffering people or his attitude of harmony and acceptance of all? In fact, what makes Sri Ramakrishna stand out in the history of hagiography is the display of his superhuman spiritual power while following the different paths recommended not only by various Hindu sects, but also other world religions. Sri Aurobindo says: “In the life of Ramakrishna Paramahansa, we see a colossal spiritual capacity, first driving straight to the divine realisation, taking, as it were, the kingdom of heaven by violence, and then seizing upon one Yogic method after another and extracting the substance out of it with an incredible rapidity, always to return to the heart of the whole matter, the realisation and possession of God by the power of love, by the extension of inborn spirituality into various experience and by the spontaneous play of an intuitive knowledge. Such an example cannot be generalised.”2 For a man, who has realised his true nature, 8

this world is the sport of the divine or the supreme consciousness. It is the play of the chaitanya, which has manifested into many, in order to prolong the sport. For an individual soul bound by maya, this world is the only reality. However, there is an innate tendency of the individual soul to go back to the source and merge with the Absolute Reality-KnowledgeBliss. The prophets or incarnations take birth only to show the afflicted souls the path to realise that supreme goal, which can take them beyond the cycle of life and death and hence beyond suffering. Since the concept of Infinite is not easy to fathom by a finite human mind, it seeks to commune with the Absolute Reality through the ishta devata (chosen deity or God with a name and form). Usually, all spiritual persons or avataras, confine themselves to their respective chosen deities (like Sri Krishna in case of Sri Chaitanya) and follow the unique spiritual paths discovered by them. But Sri Ramakrishna not only followed those diverse spiritual paths at ease, he attained the supreme transcendental experience in each of them with incredible rapidity. He was Ramlala of Jatadhari and Gopala of Gopala’s mother. At different phases of his spiritual practice, not only did he have visions of Rama, Sita and Krishna, but they also merged into him, indicating that he was no other than them. The meticulous student of Bhairavi Brahmani in tantra sadhana scaled the peak in Advaita Vedanta and attained samadhi in just three days under the guidance of Totapuri. Incidentally, Totapuri took 40 years to attain this state. The current issue of Devakshara, the annual magazine of Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama, Devaprayag, has focussed on this particular aspect of sarva deva deviswarup Sri

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} Ramakrishna. Swami Sarvatmananda, the secretary of Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama, has portrayed Sri Sri Thakur as the champion of Advaita Vedanta, the finest flower of the Indian philosophy and spiritual tradition. He has shown how Sri Sri Thakur as a true Advaitin, explained true knowledge as the knowledge of unity behind diversity. The myriad facets of Sri Ramakrishna have come out in the articles of Bandita Bhattacharya, Ajay Bhattacharya and Subrata Sen, as they have shown how Rama and Krishna merged in the body and being of Sri Ramakrishna and also his overall contribution in ‘making God accessible’. Shantanu Dey has sought to evaluate the impact of this divine incarnation in bringing about a paradigm shift in the progress of the civilisation. As an avatara takes human form out of unselfish love for the bound souls and his main function is redemption of the mankind, he is LOVE personified. Sri Ramakrishna’s life was no exception. Swami Ritananda writes: “He (Sri Ramakrishna) combined in himself the supreme love of Chaitanya for God and the infinite compassion of Christ for the suffering humanity……..As a sadhaka he wept intensely day after day, month after month, like one who possessed something unusual, to have a vision of the divine Mother and after he had all the spiritual experiences, again he cried aloud to 3 have the sight of the devotees.” “It is really amazing to see that he who was so detached from the world, who could be immersed in samadhi for hours together, could be so much moved by the sorrows and tribulations of the worldly people. Seeing the misery and distress of the people at Deoghar he

resolved to give up his pilgrimage and made Mathur exempt the taxes of the poor peasants at 4 his estate at Kalaighata.” Joy Bandyopadhyay has shed light on this all-encompassing love of Sri Ramakrishna in his article, and shown how his unbounded affection transformed the lives of all those who came in contact with him. How Ramakrishna Mission has imbibed this ‘cult of love’ has been explained by Paromita Ray as she elaborates on the motto of the organisation "Atmanomoksharthamjagadhitayacah" (For one’s own salvation and for the welfare of the world). Once Sri Ramakrishna told Master (Mahendra Nath Gupta, the recorder of the Gospel of Sri Ramakrishna): “Just mention my name. Say, that you want to see me; then someone will take you to me.” This significant, reassuring statement is not only meant for M, but for all of us, who are lost in the maze of this world and groping in the dark to find our way back home. “Just mention my name and someone will take you to me”. What more are we waiting for? Let us take the plunge.It is now or never. Notes: 1. Approaching Ramakrishna (Commemorating the 175 birth anniversary of the Great Master), Advaita Ashrama, Kolkata, First Edition, July 2011. 2. Ibid, pg 63. 3. S r i R a m a k r i s h n a , M y r i a d F a c e t s , Ramakrishna Mission Institute of Culture, Kolkata, March 2011, pg 101 4. Ibid, pg 104. th

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ANNUAL REPORT (2017-18) The chill of the winter gives way to the warm breezes of the spring, the trees get dressed in their green finery, the drab landscape painted by an unknown hand changes into a riot of colours telling us spring is here. With this advent of spring, nature gets charged with energy and new vigor, there comes about a new rhythm in life. Along with this nature in full bloom, rich in fragrance, Sri Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama, steps into its fourth year. The programmes on the occasion of the Foundation Day commenced from 28th March, 2017 on the Chaitra Shukla Pratipada Day. Reiterating the motto of “Service for the many”

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the kalash (the consecrated pitcher) along with shriphal and mango leaves, was installed in the ashrama. Rituals including lighting of the akhandadwipa (sacred lamp), planting of five types of paddy saplings, homa and chanting of Durga Saptashati marked the nine-day-long Vasanti Navaratri celebration. Srikanta Babul Kar, a scholar from the Shri Raghunath Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya, Devaprayag, supervised the entire programme. 4th April, 2017 (Chaitra Shukla Ashtami), Tuesday was the foundation day of the ashrama. The celebrations started with the puja of Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Sarada Devi and Swami

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} Vivekananda in the ashrama shrine. The occasion was graced by the presence of Revered Pravrajika Buddhaprana Mataji, the head of the Haridwar branch of the Sarada Math, Revered Pravrajika Prabhaprana Mataji, secretary of Ramakrishna Sarada Mission, New Delhi and Principal of Nivedita School, New Delhi Revered Pravrajika Divyanandaprana Mataji. Many devotees from Kolkata and Delhi also came down to Devaprayag to participate in the four-day celebrations. They got accommodation in the hotels near the ashrama. In the evening, the devotees from Kolkata presented a musical drama on the life of Holy Mother. The programme was directed by Soma Sinha, the head of Sarada Sangha. After the evening arati, revered matajis spoke about the lives of the Holy Trio. Next day, 5th April, Wednesday, was Ram Navami. According to the local legend, Sri Ram performed austerities in Devaprayag after killing Ravana (as Ravana was a Brahmin). There is an ancient Raghunath temple near the confluence of Alakananda and Bhagirathi. In the ashrama also Raghunathji is worshipped along with Sri Sri Thakur, Holy Mother and Swamiji. On this auspicious occasion, special puja and abhisheka (a special bath to the deity) was offered to Raghunathji amidst the chanting of Vishnu sahasranama by the devotees. A special yajna (sacrifice) was performed by Shrikanta Babul Kar. In the evening, there was a special talk by eminent author Sri Ajay Bhattacharya. He elaborated on the importance of Mother Bhavatarini’s worship in Shri Ramakrishna’s consciousness. The next speaker was Prof. Bandita Bhattacharya, who talked about Sister Nivedita’s life and her mission in India. The vote of thanks was given by Swami Sarvatmananda, secretary, Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama.

After the celebrations got over, on 6th April, Thursday, the devotees went around the holy town for pilgrimage. They took bath in the holy sangam and visited the Raghunath temple. Next day, they left for their respective destinations and life in the ashrama came back to its earlier rhythm. A normal day in the ashrama starts with Vedic chanting in the shrine, then follows the ritualistic worship of Sri Ramakrishna, Sri Sarada Devi, Swami Vivekananda and Sri Raghunathji, and chanting of Gita, Vishnusahasranama and other scriptures. Food offerings are made to the Holy Trio at noon and aratrick bhajans are sung in the evening. Puja and other celebrations: Apart from these regular worships, there are pujas on special occasions: (i) Akshay Tritiya : According to the legends, Ganga descended on the earth on this auspicious day. This year, it was celebrated on 29th April, Saturday. Ganga started flowing from Devaprayag and hence, this day is very important for us. Special puja was performed in the shrine after which local devotees partook prasad. Children were treated with luchi, sweets and kheer. (ii) PhalahariniKali Puja : It was celebrated on 25th May (Jaishtha Amavasya), Thursday. On this day, Sri Ramakrishna worshipped Holy Mother and prayed to her for universal welfare. Special puja of Holy Mother was performed in the ashrama. Around ten women devotees from Kolkata attended the puja. (iii) Ganga Dashahara—Special puja was offered to Mother Ganges on 4th June (Jaishtha, Shukla Dashami), Sunday. A group of devotees led by Swami Sarvatmanandaji Maharaj visited Vyas Ghat, around 10/12 kms from Devaprayag,

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} where Ganga has taken a turn northwards. (iv) Ashad Purnima Snanjatra : Special snan abhisheka and special puja on 9th June, (Jaishtha Purnima) Friday. The devotees partook prasad. (v) Rathayatra : Lord Jagannath’s picture was worshipped in the shrine on 25th June and the celebrations continued till 3rd July on the day of ultarath. (vi) Harishayani Ekadashi and Guru Purnima : Different programmes were organized on the occasion of Harishayani Ekadashi on 4th July, Tuesday with the commencement of chaturmashya (four-monthlong austerity practice). Special puja was offered to Sri Ramakrishna and special homa was performed on 9th July, Sunday on the occasion of Guru purnima. Many devotees from Kolkata and Delhi and local children partook prasad (vii) Special worship for Lord Shiva : Special worship was offered on every Monday to the Narmadeshwar Shiva Linga in the ashrama shrine from 18th July to 17th August (the month of Shravana) along with the chanting of the Shiva Mahimna Strotra. (viii) Sri Krishna Janmashtami : This special day is always celebrated in the ashrama with much fanfare. There is a special place for Gopala (baby Krishna) in the spiritual discipline established by Sri Ramakrishna. He was very fond of an old lady, who was a devotee of Gopala and was known as Gopaler Ma (Gopal’s mother). Sri Ramakrishna gave her darshan in the form of Gopala. We have a small idol of Gopala in the ashrama shrine and this special day (14th August, Monday) was observed in a solemn manner. In the morning, a special abhisheka (bathing) was done with honey, ghee, sugar, Gopala was bathed in holy water and then offered new clothes. In the evening, students of 14

Raghunath Sanskrit Mahavidyalaya did chanting from Shrimad Bhagavata. Next day, Nandamahotsav was celebrated by performing homa for the well being of Gopala. Around 50children were invited on the occasion and were treated with rice, sweets and rice pudding. They were also given special gifts. Other devotees also took prasad. (ix) Durga Puja : Durga puja is celebrated with much fanfare and gaiety in the ashrama with an ashtadhatu Durga idol, which is there in the shrine. The festivities started from 21st September, Thursday with the installation of the consecrated pitcher, ceremonial lighting of the lamp, planting of haryali and chanting of Durgashaptasati. Special invocation of Mother Durga was held on 25th September, Monday evening. Bathing of Navapatrika was done on 27th September, Wednesday at the holy confluence of Bhagirathi and Alakananda. The ambience of the Bengal Durga puja was created in this hilly Garhwaltown amidst the beating of the traditional dhak (drum) and kansar (an accompanying instrument). Soumitra Chakrabarty from Kolkata was responsible for performing the worship. He was assisted by Parimal Mukherjee and Sunirmal Banerjee. Other responsibilities were carried out by Shrikanta, Bhola, Bapon and Yadav. In the evening, bhajans were sung by Amarendra Ghosh, a senior devotee from Kolkata. Many devotees from Kolkata, Delhi, Lucknow and Vrindavan were present on the occasion. An account of the Durga puja was published in the Kolkata-based Anandabazar Patrika. Lakshmi puja and Kali puja were also performed in the ashrama in the presence of devotees from Kolkata, Delhi and Silchar, Assam.

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} The birthday celebrations of Sri Sri Thakur, Holy Mother and Swami Vivekananda and Kalpataru Utsav - in spite of being new concepts here in Devaprayag - were celebrated in the ashrama in the presence of devotees. A marble idol of Sri Ramakrishna was installed in the ashrama shrine on 31st January, maghi Purnima. The two-day celebration included special puja, homaetc and was held in the presence of many devotees from Kolkata, Delhi and Bilaspur. The main organizer of this programme was Arun Chatterjee from Bilaspur, who belongs to the illustrious family of revered Swami Prajnananandaji Maharaj. Serving the devotees: Devaprayag is on the way to Kedarnath and Badrinath and it is an important pilgrimage centre also. Pilgrims from all over the country visit this small town throughout the year and more so during the season of Chardham Yatra (May to October). Many monks come here for their spiritual practice as well. It is also a favourite destination for the mountain lovers. For all these people, Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama is like their second home. This year, around 350 people from various parts of the country and abroad have visited this ashrama and enjoyed the hospitality here. Many monks from the Ramakrishna Math and Mission and matajis from the Sarada Math and Mission have visited this ashrama on their way to Kedarnath and Badrinath and it was our privilege to serve them in the ashrama. They have taken holy dip in the sangam, visited Raghunathji’s temple and also Chandrabadani temple. For accommodation, one should send an e-mail to the Secretary, Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama at rmksarada@gmail.com.

Child Care: Child care is neglected in Devaprayag as majority of the local people are poor and illiterate. Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama is trying to play a constructive role here through its project “Neeram Sneha Sarada”. As part of this project, 25 children from the nearby villages are given special tuition in the ashrama every week and are provided with exercise books, pen, pencil, books for colouring, toys etc. They are also given prasad and snacks. Special workshops are also organized for creating awareness on health, environment and different lifeskills. A painting competition with the theme “Natural beauty in Devaprayag” was organized in the ashrama under the supervision of Hena Chakrabarty, a well-known artiste from the Culture Department of the Central Govt. Delhi. Niren Sengupta, former Principal, Delhi Art College, was the chief guest. As part of the “Viveka Bodha” project, six boys from poor families are staying in the ashrama. They have been admitted in the local schools and the ashrama authorities are taking care of their education and other needs. Spiritual Discourses/Publication: (i) The annual magazine of the ashrama “Devakshara” has come out with a special issue on the Himalayas. For every Indian, this mountain range is a cultural icon. Readers appreciated the varied range of stories on different aspects of the Himalayas including the legends, historical importance of various pilgrim centres etc. The 2016 issue of Devakshara contained special articles on the occasion of the birth centenary of Most Revered Mokshaprana Mataji. A number of articles and letters written by Most Revered Mataji have been published in

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} the issue, which has earned appreciation from the devotees. (ii) A Hindi translation of Most Revered Mokshaprana Mataji’s letters “Patravali: Pravrajika Mokshaprana” has been published. The book was released on 3rd September by Revered Pravrajika Prabhaprana Mataji, the secretary of the Delhi Ramakrishna Sarada Mission. The book release function was organized in C.R.Park Kali temple, New Delhi. (iii) Swami Sarvatmananda, the secretary of the ashrama, has been conducting spiritual discourses on Gita in Faridabad and Uddhava Gita in C.R.Park, Delhi. He conducts discourses in the houses of devotees as well. By the grace of Sri Sri Thakur, this ashrama has become well known among the devotees and

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monks/nuns of Ramakrishna and Sarada Mission in a short span of time. We sincerely hope and pray that with the cooperation and good will of devotees and well-wishers this ashrama will grow into a full-fledged centre for spreading the message of the Holy Trinity in the Himalayas.

ú ¥ âÌæð ×æ â¼ý×ØÐ Ì×âæð ×æ …ØæðçÌ»ü×ØÐ ×ëˆØæð×æü ¥ ×ëÌ¢»×ØÐ ú àææç‹ÌÑ àææç‹ÌÑ àææç‹ÌÑH (Lead us from the unreal to the real Lead us from darkness to light Lead us from death to immortality Aum peace, peace, peace!) Shri Ramakrishnapanamastu

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Third Anniversary, 28th March, 2017


ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v}

Âõø¸Ç Âó¿ÂõþS÷± 2017-2018

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Spiritual Evolution of Man : An Inner Journey Sreemoyee Sarkar

Evolution is the very key word of progress. When we talk of evolution in the spiritual realm, it does not mean mere mechanistic progress but a goal which inspires us as well as guides us to reach the truth.The history of mankind depicts marvels of creation. Such creation not only manifests an outward excellence but also the gradual development of human consciousness in the inner realm. How did humans evolve in the inner world? It is pertinent to state here that humans are curious by their basic nature. They always want to go beyond the known in order to realize the unknown which cannot be unveiled by any sensory apparatus. As the intellect matures and evolves the imaginative faculties also develop and with that the individual becomes aware of the inner world, learns to go inwards into the hitherto unknown territories of consciousness. Direct perceptions mature into power of guessing, comparison logical inter-pretations etc. for example seeing smoke one guesses there is fire behind it. In other words, seeing the effect, the cause can be detected. Thus, we see as consciousness unfolds within man his power of imagination also grows within him. Billions of years ago, probably a cave man had faith that he could catch the largest fish in the river. He planned and made his tools accordingly so that he could catch that fish. He brooded and pondered and worked the hardest; failure may havecome a thousand times before he succeeded in making the perfect fishing rod or spear. Once the weapon was made, he tried and tried to find the biggest fish till he finally succeeded. Behind the success of the cave man, there has been series of disappointments and disillusionments. But he did succeed because he had deep rooted faith in himself. Qualities like perseverance, patience and confidence which strengthen the inner world 24

grew within him even though he was consciously unaware of it. Tracing back to the time of the stone man, human beings believed in nature since nature has always been superior and untamed by mankind. Therefore, a kind of worshipping developed what we call nature worship. Ancient religion or worship had a natural origin sprung from fear, illusions and inability to control the environment. Men have been bewildered by the forces of nature .Nature worship initially started with the feeling of helplessness in front of the vast universe. The inner impulse to find answer to the unknown acted as a guide to man. He gradually started to realize the expression of Supreme Power in every single phenomenon of nature. Powerful supernatural forces such as storms, floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, etc were then looked upon as wrath of this Powerful Being. Hence, entire nature was realized as pulsating under its control. Man, initially began his search of this being through faith. Faith is thus the bridge to land at the metaphysical state where reason cannot guide. Each force and phenomena then became the article of worship for man as he realized the blessing of Supreme being through them. This is how mankind made its journey from the early period of history.It is faith that not only guides in the physical world but also helps cross the river of the physical to land in the eternal ocean of joy. This was man’s struggle to move from the material world to the cosmic world. To achieve higher goals and win the battle of life man realized that work and worship had to become a part of his daily life. Thus, he recognized, acknowledged and established the existence of an authority that was much more powerful than him. Our country has always given countless

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} instances as to how people of this land have looked upon earth and all its elements with the attitude of reverence. Often,we find stones gathered in a corner of a tree, smeared with vermillion and sandalwood paste and incense sticks lit around it. Trees are worshipped, stones are worshipped as the Lord Shiva. Tribal culture also depicts acts of reverence towards natural phenomena and objects. The search for the object of worship had taken root in man’s mind. The desire to acquire strength and peace both in the physical and mental world and to solve the daily problems of life he showed his respect towards things that were capable of helping him in finding solutions. This reverence slowly transformed the definition of spirituality and uplifted his life slowly but steadily towards the transcendental plane in the time that followed. Worshipping of stones has a history in most religions. In Bengal, the meteorite which fell in 1880 A.D. has become temples and shrines. The various 51 piths of Shakti, such as Kalighat is one big example. Mecca far in the West is another example. Tombstone serves as one of the manifestations of spirits after death. Followed by this, hill worship was also in vogue. The huge mountains or hills became the abode of the gods. We know about Mount Olympus being the abode of the great Greek gods such as Zeus; Kailash in the like manner is considered the home of Shiva and Parvati. Men of faith have considered Asgard, the home of the Norse gods in Norse mythology. Trees also became the possessor of spirits as we stated earlier. Plants were worshiped for its immense medicinal values. Trees such as Ashathya or Banyan are still considered to be holy. Tulsi is also widely known for its medicinal values and is associated with the worship of Lord Vishnu. Human beings benefit enormously from trees. Apart from stones, trees, worshipping water is common in our culture. River Ganga, is the holiest river in India and we use it for all auspicious purposes. We see in the Old Testament how important the Jordan river is as

the border of land that God gives to Israelites. And latter Jesus is baptized with this water an event that makes a mark in the history of Christianity. Gradually, humankind started to paint god according to its own physiology and imposed powers on them which were beyond human capacity. This is how men tried to achieve spiritual enlightenment by keeping an ideal in mind. It is from here that monotheism and polytheism sprung and religion started evolving further as depicted in mythologies. Hence, man by his own efforts made way to go beyond Symbols through the worship of plants, stones and rivers. Thus, developed the worship of Saguna Brahman, that is, a powerful God with form. This worship of Saguna Brahman fulfilling desires gave rise to schools of thought according to human personality. The worship for power, position and achievement lead to worship of Lord Indra, lord Skanda etc. (as depicted in Goverdhan leela by Lord Krishna) Similar effort is noticed in the Western culture also.In the west, especially among the Greek Mythology, the gods derive from the pantheon based on conquests, power in battle, force, and heroism. The creation myths deal with the story of creation of the universe. The universe initially is full of chaos. From there, out of the void Gaia was born. Gaia means earth. Along with her, other divine beings sprung fourth like Eros – the god/representation of love, Abyss – the deep torture for all vice, and Erebus – the deep darkness. From Gaia, emerged Uranus – the sky. Then came the Titans, a divine race. Among the Titans, Cronus, the youngest Titan became all powerful and started to rule as their king. Cronus’s son Zeus, rebelled against his father; and with the help of the Cyclops (another race of giants on earth) and his brothers, he overthrew the Titans, and became the new ruler. This is primarily the beginning of the mythical stories of the Greeks. Zeus starts ruling from Mount Olympus. Gradually, other gods and goddesses started to evolve with living characteristics. For instance, Aphrodite was the

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} goddess of beauty and love, Ares was the god of war, Hades was the ruler of underworld, Athena, the goddess of wisdom and courage, Apollo, the sun god, patron of music, wisdom and poetry, Ceres, the goddess of agriculture. Slowly, stories of interaction of these gods and human beings are found. Most of the early epics and religious texts depicts such stories for both the west and the east. While reading The Iliad and The Odyssey we find the gods and mortals interacting on the same plane depicting natures of vice and virtue side by side. Homer, the great poet, composed in two of these epics the grandness of the gods and the heroes. These texts give us a picture of the Heroic Age of the Greeks. The Trojan War and the Theban Cycle—two important events in the history of Greece shows the religious approach of the west. Each of these gods had their assigned temples and the priests were the patrons/protector of these temples. The priests had devoted their lives in serving the gods just like the brahmins did in ancient India. They were the learned men who influenced scholars and helped people to achieve wisdom and spirituality. Through their influence and under the patronage of the kings, the bards or poets and scholars flourished and composed literature. Homer—whose identity is vague regarding whether he was a single scholar or a school of scholars who had composed the great epics—The Iliad and The Odyssey. It depicts the similar picture that we find in our country. Valmiki and Vasa as we know had composed and compiled the epics—The Ramayana and The Mahabharata. The grandness of these epics lies in the composition of the epic meter which allowed them to remember and narrate these stories of the epic battles and legends and the poetic meter allowed them to create more verses. Such can only be achieved because of the spirituality and belief that percolated among these scholars and poets. With the passage of time man’s intellect evolves and with that evolves his nature of worship. Through constant hit and trial in his 26

methods of worship his fear transforms into love for that Divine Being for he realizes that this AllPowerful Being is full of love, compassion, purity and bliss. He relates to Him, calling Him mother, father, child or friend. In order to further strengthen this relationship with his Creator man inculcates the values that he has seen in this being, he practices spirituality by imbibing the virtues of love, purity and compassion. Thus, man bonds with his Creator putting himself in His able hands, singing His glory and believing whatever He decides for him, will be the best. The Sufis, the Bhakti poets in India or the Troubadour and Minnesingers in Medieval Europe—these poets or singers composed their literature due to faith and for the achievement of the greater spirituality. The Bhakti poets—the Vaishnavism—worshippers of Vishnu, Shaivism – worshippers of Shiva—sang their ballads (gathas) for the gods. The Sufis sing, dance and their poems glorify god. The ultimate aim is to achieve the greater spirituality and be one with god. One of the poems of Rumi, a great Sufi saint of the 13 century says— Out beyond the ideas of wrongdoing and right doing,/There is a field./I will meet you there. The Bhakti period in India, is one of the richest literary age, which depicts how love can help us achieve and be one with god. Meerabai was one such sadhika who composed and sang the glory of Lord Krishna. We also find poets and bhaktas like Namdev, Eknath and Bitthal Maharaj who chanted the glory of god. Their compositions are popular even today. Mans love for his kith and kin transcended into a love for that Eternal Being. His projection of animal instincts like greed, anger, hankering for power transformed and got sublimated into the noble emotion of love. The poets and singers since the ancient Greek times have influenced literature in various ways till the period of 18 century in European history. Orpheus, who is said to be the son and descendant of the god Apollo, is one of the earliest poets whose songs and stories have been th

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} written and re-written over centuries. The later scholars like Horace and Ovid have recorded and composed literature about the Greek gods and goddesses. Their stories too, influenced many European poets and writers till the 18 century. But as religion, they no longer exist. With the advent of Christianity and after the Byzantine Emperor, Constantinople declared Christianity asthe religion of the Empire, the Greek gods seemed to take a backseat and slowly faded away only to remain as myths and not as a living religion. And Jesus took their place. Most people embraced Christianity and worshiped Jesus as their God looking upon him as their father. This bhakti however developed into ritualistic worship. The idea that gods needed to be pleased in order to achieve anything in life took deep roots. This idea flourished all the more due to the fact that the complicated methods of worship became the property of a few people that is the priest. As this pattern grew religion became more and more complex and the importance of sacrifices, yagnas, charities took firm root. In other words, conservatism and fundamentalism started becoming the rule. Each religion wanted to dominate the other. The tendency was “My religion is the best”. People started fighting and professing their own religion as the best. One religion tried to convert the others into their own. In this scenario came Adi Sankaracharya who professed Vedanta as the ultimate aim of life. God according to this philosophy had no form He was one and He was everywhere. But the problem arose when the study of this philosophy came to be limited to a few intellectuals. We can see the same trend in Christianity where again extreme rules and regulations of the Catholic priests became oppressive for the common man and as a revolt Protestantism developed. Amidst this chaos peace took a back seat. How would one restore peace and win the battle of the inner world? To bring about harmony and peace we see many teachers coming into the world with their own ideas. In the last three thousand years we see Lord Buddha and Christ th

taking the role of the Godman to restore this lost rhythm. Both in their own way professed the same basic ideas. a) The world is not the absolute object of pleasure and peace. b) Sublimating the desires that is the lower passion for sensual enjoyment, is necessary. c) Be good and do good to others. The basic idea then is to develop one’s inner strength and explore one’s own mind and find peace there. Further to give priority to values rather than rituals and fundamentals of religion. Thus, all these schools of thought gave priority to values. Latter Adi Sankaracharya, has shown us what the ideal of life should be. He popularized Advaita Vedanta as the only religion that mankind needs to profess. It states that the only truth is - behind every body-mind complex, singular consciousness prevails. This truth has to be realized. The other school was professed by Ramanujacharya and Madhavacharya. This school professed, idol worship and love for the deity would lead man towards the same truth. Thus, we see that two schools of thought prevailed a) jnana b) bhakti. A little over a hundred years ago a brahmin priest had the courage and confidence to say that God the Supreme Being could be realized both through jnana and bhakti. This was Sri Ramakrishna. He says that God could be realized by any method that you choose. God is the only truth. What is required is the desire to realize Him. If you sincerely call Him, He will show you the way towards the truth because He resides within you, each man is potentially divine. So being pure, sincere and loving is the only solution Hence every school of thought is correct. There is no right way or wrong way of realizing the truth. In all spheres of life what is needed is the practice of spirituality. Every individual can attain the truth. Love is the only religion. Through this love one can evolve and reach his ultimate destination thereby completing his inner journey.

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֝«Âõþ¿öÂi§Âõþ+ËÂó ¿òÂõDZäÂò ßÁÂõþ± û±ûþ ò±¼ ÛËßÁ üðÃüðÃÝ Âõù± û±ûþ ò±, ßÁ±Âõþí ðÅÿé ¿ÂõÂóÂõþÏî &í Âõ± ¿ÂõX¦¤ö±Âõ ÛßÁý×à ÂõdËî ÛßÁý×à ßÁ±Ëù ï±ßÁËî Âó±ËÂõþ ò±¼ úÑßÁÂõþ ÂõËùËåÃò Ûý×à ÷±ûþ± Õ¦¤îÂLa [ÂóÂõþ±ñÏò] ßÁ±Âõþí ¿òËæÃÂõþ Õ±|ûþ Ý ÕÂõö±üßÁ ÆäÂîÂòÉ ÂõÉ¿îÂËÂõþËßÁ Û¿é ßÁ±ûÇ ßÁÂõþËî Âó±ËÂõþ ò±, Õ±Âõ±Âõþ ¦¤±ñÏò Âõ± ¦¤îÂLaÝ ÂõùËî ýÃÃûþ ßÁ±Âõþí ¦¤±|ûþöÓÂî Õüe ¿ò¿ÂõÇËúø¸ ÂõèpÁËßÁ [Õ±R±ËßÁ] Ûý×à ÷±ûþ± ü¿ÂõËúø¸ Ý ò±÷Âõþ+Âó ëÂ×Âó±¿ñûÅMÃ ßÁËÂõþ ÎôÂËù¼ ¿ÂõËÂõßÁäÓÂëÂÿ±÷¿íËî ձä±ûÇ úÑßÁÂõþ ÷±ûþ±Âõþ ¿Âõø¸Ëûþ ¿ùËàËåÃò – ‘ÕÂõÉMÃò±¥§Ï ÂóÂõþË÷úú¿MÃÐ Õò±ðÃÉ¿ÂõðÃɱ ¿S&í±¿RßÁ± ÂóÂõþ±¼ ßÁ±ûDZòÅË÷ûþ± üÅ¿ñÍûþÂõ ÷±ûþ± ûûþ± æÃáÈ üÂõÇ¿÷ðÃÑ ›¶üÓûþËî¼¼ üi§±ÂóÉüi§±ÂóÅÉöÂûþ±¿RßÁ± Îò± ¿öÂi§±ÂóÉ¿öÂi§±ÂóÅÉöÂûþ±¿RßÁ± Îò±¼ ü±e±ÂóÉòe± UÉöÂûþ±¿RßÁ± Îò± ÷ýÃñ¾ÅÃî±ýÃÿòÂõÇäÂòÏûþÂõþ+Âó±¼¼”[108-09] – ÕÂõÉMÃ ÂóÂõþË÷«ËÂõþÂõþ ú¿MÃÂõþ+¿ÂóíÏ Ûý×à ÷±ûþ± üN, ÂõþæÃ, îÂ÷ ¿îÂò&ËíÂõþ Õ±ñ±Âõþ ¦¤Âõþ+Âó±, Ûý×à æÃáÈ ÷±ûþ±›¶üÓîÂ, î±ý×à æÃáÈ ÕïÇ±È ÷±ûþ±Âõþ ßÁ±ûÇÁZ±Âõþ± ÷±ûþ±Âõþ ¦¤Âõþ+ÂóËßÁ ÂõÅçÁËî ä±ò :±òÏÂõþ±¼ ßÁÏ Ûý×à ÷±ûþ±· üÈ òûþ, ÕüÈ òûþ, üðÃüðÄÃÝ òûþ¼ [ÂõèpÁ ýÃÃËîÂ] ¿öÂi§ òûþ, Õ¿öÂi§ òûþ, ¿öÂi§±¿öÂi§Ý òûþ¼ [ÂõèËpÁÂõþ üËe] ûÅMÃ Âõ± üeÏ òûþ, ÕüeÏ òûþ, üe±üeÝ òûþ¼ Ûý×à ÷±ûþ± ÷ýÃñ Õ¾ÅÃîÂ, ö±ø¸±ûþ ›¶ßÁ±ú ßÁÂõþ± û±ûþ ò±, Õ¿òÂõÇäÂòÏûþ¼ ¿ßÁc ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁËøžÂõþ ÷±îÔÂö±Âõ±¿i¤î ýÃÃ+ðÃûþ ÂõèpÁú¿MÃËßÁ Õ¿òÂõÇäÂòÏûþ ÂõËù Õ±àɱ ÎðÃûþ¿ò¼ Âõè±pÁü÷±ËæÃÂõþ ëÂ×ÈüÂõ ÎïËßÁ ÎôÂÂõþ±Âõþ ÂóËï ¿ÂõæÃûþßÔÁøž Îᱦ¤±÷ÏËßÁ ÂõùËåÃò, ‘Îüý×à ü&í ÂõèpÁ, ¿û¿ò ›¶±ïÇò± qËòò îÒ±ËÂõþý×à ÂõËù±, ¿î¿òý×à Îüý×à ÂõèpÁ:±ò ¿ðÃËÂõò¼ ÎßÁòò±, ¿û¿òÃý×à üÁ&í ÂõèpÁ, ¿î¿òý×à ¿ò&Çí ÂõèpÁ, ¿û¿òý×à ú¿MÃ, ¿î¿òý×à ÂõèpÁ¼ ÂóÅíÇ:±ËòÂõþ ÂóÂõþ ÕËöÂðü” ÕÍÁZîÂËÂõðñ˙LÂõþ Âó¿Âõþö±ø¸±ûþ ¿ò&Çí ÂõèpÁ ¦¤Âõþ+Âóî տñ‡Â±ò - ¿S&í±RßÁ ›¶ßÔÁ¿î î±Ëî Âõ±ýÃÃÉ, Õ±ËÂõþ±¿Âóî¼ Ûý×à ձËÂõþ±Âó :±òù±ËöÂÂõþ üËe üËe ÕÂõùÅ5 ýÃÃûþ Âõ± î±Âõþ ÕÂóÂõ±ðà ýÃÃûþ¼ ¿ßÁc ÕñɱËÂõþ±Âó æñîÂÏûþ ÎßÁ±òÝ Âõɱàɱ ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁøž ÎðÃò¿ò¼ ú±ÑßÁÂõþ-ÎÂõðñ˙LÂõþ Âó¿Âõþö±ø¸±ûþ Õñɱü ÷±Ëò ‘û± òûþ î±ý×à ö±Âõ±’ – Õûï±ïÇ ‘ÕœòÄ îÂÁZÅ¿X’ ÕïÂõ± ‘w÷Õñɱüп÷ïɱ›¶îÂÉûþÂõþ+ÂóÐ’ ¿ßÁc ÷±ûþ± ÂõèpÁËßÁ Õ±|ûþ ßÁËÂõþ

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} Õ±Ëåà Âõ± ÂõèËpÁÂõþ üËe ÷±ûþ±Âõþ Õ¿ñ‡Â±ò Õ±|ûþ ü¥óßÇÁ ò± ÂõËù ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁøž ÂõèpÁ Ý ÷±ûþ±ËßÁ Õ¿öÂi§ ÎÂõ±Ëñ ÎÂõ±ñ ßÁËÂõþËåÃò¼ Õ±Âõ±Âõþ ÆÁZîÂÂóÂõþ¥óÂõþ± ÕòÅü±ËÂõþ ü&íÂõèpÁý×à Îû ÂõèËpÁÂõþ äÂÂõþ÷ ÕÂõ¦š± Û÷ò ¿üX±™LÝ ÎðÃò ¿ò¼ ÂõËùËåÃò, “û±Âõþ ¿òîÂÉ î±Âõþý×à ùÏù±¼” î±ý×à ÷Ëò ýÃÃûþ ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁËøžÂõþ ÕÆÁZîÂËÂõ±Ëñ Âõ± ÕòÅÓöÓ¿îÂËî ÆÁZËîÂÂõþ ¦š±ò¿é ÂõËëÂÿ± Õ¾ÓÃîÂ, “÷± [ä±ý×ÃËù] ÂõèpÁ:±òÝ ÎðÃò – Û÷ò ßÁï± ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁËøžÂõþ ÂóÓËÂõÇ ÎßÁ±òÝ Õ±ä±ûÇ ÂõËù û±ò¿ò¼ î±ý×à ÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁËøžÂõþ ÕÍÁZîÂËÂõ±ñ ÛßÁ üÂõÇ¢¶±üÏ ðÃúÇò, ÛÂõþ ÎïËßÁ Õ±Âõþ ÎßÁ±òÝ ý×ÿîÂÂõ±äÂßÁ îÂN Õ±Ëá æÃáÈ Îú±Ëò¿ò¼ îÒ±Âõþ ÕÍÁZîÂËÂõ±ËñÂõþ áöÂÏÂõþî±ûþ Îúø¸ÂóûÇ™L ëÅ Â Âõ ¿ðÃ Ë ûþ ¿ åÃ Ë ùò Âõè p Á: ÆÂõðà ± ¿™LßÁ Îî±î±ÂóÅ Â õþ Ï ¼ ùÏù±›¶üeßÁ±ËÂõþÂõþ ÎùàòÏ ÕòÅü±ËÂõþ æñòËî Âó±¿Âõþ ¿î¿òÝ ÕÂõËúËø¸ ÕòÅöÂÂõ ßÁËÂõþ¿åÃËùò – “÷±, ÷±, ¿Âõ«æÃòòÏ ÷±, Õ¿ä™LÉú¿MÃÂõþ+¿ÂóíÏ ÷±... îÅÂÂõþÏûþ±, ¿ò&Çí± ÷±/ Ûî¿ðÃò ûÒ±ýÃñËßÁ ÂõèpÁ Âõ¿ùûþ± ëÂ×Âó±üò± ßÁ¿Âõþûþ± Îî±î± ›¶±ËíÂõþ ö¿MÃ-ö±ùÂõ±ü± ¿ðÃûþ± Õ±¿üûþ±ËåÃò, Îüý×à ÷±¼ ÂõèpÁ Ý ÂõèpÁú¿MÃ ÕËöÂðü¼ ÛÝ ÛßÁ ÎðÃÂõ±ÂóÂõþ±ñ ŽÂ÷±Âóí’ Î™¦±S¼ ýÃÃûþËî± Îî±î±ÂóÅÂõþÏÝ Õ±ä±ûÇ úÑßÁËÂõþÂõþ üÅËÂõþ üÅÂõþ ¿÷¿ùËûþ ÕÂõËúËø¸ ÂõËù¿åÃËùò, ‘÷Èü÷Ð Âó±îÂßÁÏ ò±¿™¦ Âó±Âó±â®Ï QÈü÷± ò ¿ýÃü’ ¿ò&Çí ¿òÂõþ±ßÁ±Âõþ ÂõèpÁËßÁ ú¿MÃÂõþ ðÔÿ©†Ëî ÎðÃà±, ÆÁZîÂÕÍÁZËîÂÂõþ Õ±ËÂó¿ŽÂßÁ üýÃñÂõ¦š±ò - ¿ò&ÇËíÂõþ ü&íËQÂõþ üËe, ü&ËíÂõþ ¿ò&íÇQ Ûý×à ÕËöÂðÃîÂN, ‘ÂõèpÁ Ý ú¿MÃ ÕËöÂðÃ, Õ¿¢Ÿ Ý î±Âõþ ðñ¿ýÃÃßÁ± ú¿MÃ Îû÷ò ÂóÔïßÁ òûþ, ÎîÂ÷òý×Ã’ – ê±ßÅÁËÂõþÂõþ Ûý×à ÕÍÁZîÂËÂõ±ñ Õ¿öÂòÂõ¼ ûÅᛶËûþ±æÃËò ¿î¿ò ú¿MÃÂõþ ¦¤Âõþ+ÂóËßÁ ëÂ×ðÃËÂõ±¿ñî ßÁËÂõþ ÎáËùò¼ “ûï±Ë¢ŸðÇñ¿ýÃÃßÁ± úMÃÏ Âõþ±÷ßÔÁËøž ¿¦šî± ¿ýÃà û±¼ üÂõÇ¿ÂõðÃɱ¦¤Âõþ+Âó±Ñ î屄 ü±ÂõþðÃ±Ñ ›¶í÷±÷ÉýÃÃ÷ļ¼” îÂïÉüÓS 1. ^Ð ü¥ó±ðÃò± Ð ¦¤±÷Ï Îù±ËßÁ«Âõþ±òµ, úîÂÂõþ+ËÂó ü±Âõþðñ [Âõþ±÷ßÔÁøž ¿÷úò ý×Ãk¿é¿éÂëÂ×é ÕÂõ ßÁ±ùä±Âõþ Ð ßÁùßÁ±î±, 2007], ÂóÔÐ 876 2. ¦¤±÷Ï ü±Âõþðñòµ, ÀÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁøžùÏù± ›¶üe [ëÂ×ËÁZ±ñò ßÁ±ûDZùûþ, ßÁùßÁ±î±, 2000], ö±á 1, ü±ñßÁö±Âõ, ÂóÔÐ 157 [ÛÂõþÂóÂõþ, ùÏù±›¶üe] 15

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3. îÂËðÃÂõ, ÂóÔÐ 160 4. ^Ð îÂËðÃÂõ, ÂóÔÐ 163 5. îÂËðÃÂõ, &ö±Âõ - ÂóÓÂõDZñÇ, ÂóÔÐ 26 6. îÂËðÃÂõ, ü±ñßÁö±Âõ, ÂóÔÐ 164-65 7. îÂËðÃÂõ, &ö±Âõ - ÂóÓÂõDZñÇ, ÂóÔÐ 142 8. ÷ËýÃÃfò±ï &5, ÀÀÂõþ±÷ßÔÁøžßÁï±÷Ôî [ëÂ×ËÁZ±ñò ßÁ±ûDZùûþ Ð ßÁùßÁ±î±, 2001], ÂóÔÐ 218 9. îÂËðÃÂõ 10. îÂËðÃÂõ 11. îÂËðÃÂõ, ÂóÔÐ 608 12. îÂËðÃÂõ, ÂóÔÐ 780 13. îÂËðÃÂõ, ÂóÔÐ 779-80 14. îÂËðÃÂõ, ÂóÔÐ 670 15. ùÏù±›¶üe, &ö±Âõ - ÂóÓÂõDZñÇ, ÂóÔÐ 145-46 16. ÎðÃÂõÉÂóÂõþ±ñŽÂ÷±Âóí Ι¦±S, ÀúÑßÁÂõþ±ä±ûÇ ÎüÌæÃòÉ - ¿òËÂõ±ñî ÂÂó¿SßÁ± Àü±Âõþðñ÷êÂ, ðÿŽÂË흫Âõþ, 24Âõø¸Ç, 5÷ üÑàɱ [æñòÅûþ±ÂõþÏ-ÎôÂÂõèn¸ûþ±ÂõþÏ, 2011]

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v}

A Divine Incarnation and His Impact Shantanu Dey A simple boy from a remote village of Bengal born in a poor brahmin family came to the city of Kolkata with his elder brother only to look for a livelihood.He took up the job of a simple priest earning only rupees 7 a month. This is how Sri Ramakrishna started the journey of his life. But this ordinary priest after two decades no longer remains so common, he transforms into a Divine Incarnation. Strangely within 100 years his name spreads all over the world as a savior of mankind. In the wake of his bicentenary which is around the corner Shantanu Dey shows how Sri Ramakrishna has become the force which is triggering the progress of mankind and is leading it towards enlightenment Introduction Sri Ramakrishna, the divine incarnation born 180 years back in a remote hamlet had brought along in his wake such a vast transformation that it is unfathomable for contemporary historians to imagine. Moreover modern historians both Western and Indian who subscribed to a particular political or religious ideology did not have much inclination to go

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deeper into the significance of the advent of one of the greatest souls in the last millennium. But those who, by the grace of the Lord himself, and by the untiring aid of his direct disciples including Swami Vivekananda have been able to understand even a fraction of that significance, are amazed by the stupendous effect that it carries on the history and the civilization. As rightly depicted by Christopher Isherwood, Sri

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} Ramakrishna was a phenomenon, a term that possibly helps us in comprehending him with all our modern, Western ideals. One of the meanings for phenomenon as given in Merriam Webster dictionary is a rare or significant fact or event. The advent of a divine incarnation is a rare, significant fact or event as has been repeatedly witnessed by history – both puranas and recorded ones. Therefore that such a phenomenon will exert a tremendous force on history to strategically change the course of civilization, is an expected outcome. But the point of interest here is how that change unfolds during and after the life time of the avatara, possibly over centuries and probably over thousands of years. Arnold Toynbee had said in his Study of History that when wealth and vices increase a civilization undergoes decline. During that period a new group rises that brings a new thought process and ideals whom he calls as creative minority. This group is associated with a great spiritual leader, a teacher par excellence

who would be called a prophet or a divine incarnation, who would bring a new epoch in the history of humanity. Swami Vivekananda said that a prophet focuses in his own mind the thought of the age in which he is living and gives it back to the mankind in concrete form (Swami Bhajanananda – Sri Ramakrishna - “the New Man of the Age”). The incarnation is therefore the personification of all the cumulative ideals and the ideas of the new age. In Srimad Bhagavat Gita, Sri Krishna says, “My birth and actions are divine, one who realizes this in the right way does not have to be born again after his body’s death.” (Chapter 4, 9th verse) He goes on saying that, “Without knowing My real nature, that of the great Lord of all creatures, while I assume a human form, deluded men remain ignorant of Me and undermine Me.” (Chapter 9, verse 11). Therefore just as divine incarnation is rare, so are persons who can understand the incarnation and His actions in the truest sense. Swami Brahmananda and other direct disciples

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} practiced severe austerities to comprehend Sri Ramakrishna and His divine Leela. Who can fathom the infinite! With our very limited intellect and completely sensory perception and world view it is almost impossible for us to know Sri Ramakrishna and his impact. The impact of the advent of a divine incarnation like him will unfold for many thousands of years and not even 150 years have passed since his demise. So it is quite natural that we have very little ideas of who he was and what was the purpose of his advent. The boundless infinite had for the benefit of mankind assumed form, in order to protect the devotees and to eliminate the many hindrances against spiritual progress. And we can only know the Infinity through the prism of the incarnation, his life and works. A Peek into His Contemporary World If we analyze the social conditions prevailing during the time of Sri Ramakrishna, we’ll possibly be able to give some contextual idea to our assertion of his influence on the present age.Perhaps a year earlier than the birth year of Sri Ramakrishna Lord Macaulay delivered his infamous speech in British Parliament of breaking the backbone of the country, i.e. her spiritual and cultural heritage through a new form of education policy that would undermine everything that was traditionally Indian and Hindu. So the British agenda was unveiled and Missionaries on the one hand and free thinkers on the other hand had a free run to demolish the little self-respect and faith that every Hindu had in his religion and culture. On the other hand, traditional Hinduism was decaying for ages after a brief spell of revival in the fifteenth and sixteenth century through the influence of Chaitanya Deva and other spiritual giants. By the turn of the nineteenth century it was putrefied. Hypocrisy in the name of religious practices was rampant, Upper castes dominated over and tyrannized the other castes through their rigid and often inhuman rules and customs. The politics of 70

power and money made the life of poor peasant miserable as rich zamindars and oppressive East India Company, both exploited and sucked their life blood causing widespread distress resulting in famines and death due to starvation. Horrible debauchery and despondency reigned in many areasespecially in Bengal. Women were particularly vulnerable as they were denied of the basic rights of education and had to remain confined within the strict purdah system, and were often subjected to oppressions in a male dominated society. The first signs of rebellion came in the form of a great man, a veritable lion among the jackals – Raja Ram Mohan Roy, who broke many traditional barriers and formed the seed of the future reforms. He established Brahma Sabha which gained popularity among the free thinkers like Debendranath Tagore & Akshay Kumar Dutta who were genuinely disillusioned by the orthodox Hinduism and the social narrow mindedness. On the other hand the Young Bengalis, the disciples of Derozio, like Ram Gopal Ghosh, Radhanath Sikdar, Peary Chand Mitra, Krishna Mohan Bannerjee, Ramtanu Lahiri and others who were influenced by the Western free thinkers like Jeremy Bentham, Adam Smith etc. also became the rebel children who took up all practices considered as taboo by orthodox Hindus.And then came the vicious onslaught of the Christian missionaries who took full advantage that the European rule offered them and they started a campaign of vilification of Indian culture and religion, esp. the Vedic lore and Puranic traditions. They attacked the Hindu practices of idolatry, its treatment of woman, caste system, general backwardnessand prevailing superstitions of the people of India which they attributed to the Hindu religion. Soon the missionaries got a committed audience. Many of the free thinkers like Krishna Mohan Bannerjee came into its fold, especially by the powerful presence of the people like Alexander Duff. The Hindus were also hopelessly divided at this stage into various sects, each claiming supremacy over the others

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} like Vaishnavas, Shaktas, Shaivas and other smaller, often peripheral sects like the vamacharis, kartabhajas, Nabarashiks etc. whose practices were often not very pure and were looked down upon. So, they could offer very little resistance, especially there was a lack of intellectual prowess to counter the highly educated missionaries and their propaganda. Gradually a section of the society, especially the traditionally rich, became extreme materialists and thus were at the forefront of the cultural decay, often leading a morally corrupt life tainted by all possible weaknesses such as adultery, drinking, gambling and extreme sensory indulgence. Brahmo Samaj, led by Debendranath led a staunch defense of what he considered a pure ideal of Hinduism, far removed from the social practices and idolatry of orthodox Hinduism. Many educated Hindus who were loath to join either the Christian

bandwagon or the materialists found the new idea of Brahmo Samaj more appealing. One of them was a very talented, educated young man from a devout Hindu family, Keshab Chandra Sen, and another one was Bijoy Krishna Goswami. This caused the orthodox Hindus to grow alarmed and Brahmos to be more dismissive of orthodox Hinduism and its idolatry and thus increased the distance between the two sects. But there was soon a rift in Brahmo Samaj and Keshab, Shibnath Shastry, Bijoy Krishna Goswami, and their followers formed a different group, by separating from the Adi Brahmo Samaj of Debendranath. Brahmo movement also spent a lot of energy in social reforms and tried to form a bridge between Christianity and Brahmo faith, which was rejected by more conservatives like Debendranath. Keshab was felicitated for his efforts in England where the queen herself met her and he developed a huge following among educated youths through his oratory skills and ability to converse lucidly on socially and spiritually relevant topics. Dayananda

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} Sarswati was another leader of the religious reform movement called Arya Samaj in Punjab & Sindh and he also met Keshab in Calcutta in 1872. Brahmo movement also spread to other areas of India like Maharastra where it was rechristened as Prathana Samaj, by the untiring proselytizing efforts of Keshab. He was later joined by great reformers like Mahadev Govind Ranade and Bhandarkar. It led frontal attack against caste divisions practiced by traditional Hinduism in various parts. Other highly educated and accomplished figures like Iswarchandra Vidyasagar led the space of social and educational reforms. The first signs of a revival in literature & culture were thus seen and eminent literary figures like Peary Chand Mitra, Kali Prasanna Singha, Iswar Chandra Gupta, Dinabandhu Mitra, Madhusudan Dutta and later Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay led the initiatives, supported by various enlightened newspapers and magazines like Tattvabodhini of the Adi Samaj, the Mirror of Keshab, Bamabodhini, Tattvamanjari etc. mostly from the Brahmos and few from orthodox Hindus. Art and culture were not far behind. Pioneers of Bengali theatre – Girish Chandra Ghosh, Ardhendu Shekhar Mustafietc. led the effort to claim space in an English dominated arena to provide the Bengalis their own entertainment apart from the traditional ones like Jatra, Kavi Gaan and Panchali. Women began to participate in the theatres as actresses and thus could earn respect for their talents, Binodini, Tarasundari etc. being the most reputed and talented among them. Government College of Art was formed which was later reformed by Havell to produce exclusively Indian art form. Hitherto traditional Bengali art was dominated by indigenous style of painting like Kalighat Pat. Annada Prasad Bagchi and Shyamacharan Shreemani were two eminent artists from the Government College which during Havell era produced great calibers and talents like Abanindranath. Science made its first strides during this period. Industrial revolution 72

and its byproducts - steamships, telegraph, railway and large scale mechanization had revolutionized trade and commerce around the world and created prosperity for some and adversity for many in its wake. India, though slow to adopt, was not far behind. Under the British rule, atleast Calcutta, the capital was not entirely deprived of the modernization. Great improvements were made in the field of medical sciences. Scientific discoveries like the Darwin’s theory of Evolution, Faraday’s Eletromagnetic induction & Maxwell’s electromagnetism, conservation of energy, Pasteur’s germ theory, Mendel’s law of inheritance that formed the foundation of genetics, Periodic Table, Radioactivity, discovery of electrons etc. were some of the greatest discoveries during this period. The field of medicines expanded and Homeopathy was accepted along with traditional medicines and newly invented drugs for treatment of complex diseases. Many great doctors and scientific inventors during this time came up in Calcutta, which included Dr. Madhusudan Gupta, who was the first Indian medical student to dissect a corpse, Dr. Rajendralal Dutta and Dr. Mahendralal Sarkar, the noted pioneers of Homeopathy, and later Kadambini Ganguly, the first woman doctor. As a result of the social reforms schools were founded for girls where girls of many enlightened families, especially from the Brahmo Samaj, got education. Women began to make a mark in male dominated areas and opportunities, hitherto being denied to them were being opened – like in medical education. Women made marks in literature and poetry. Orthodox Hindu women however relied more on self-learning at home and were proficient in Sanskrit, Bengali and in some cases even English literature, knew Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas by heart. The educated, erudite young Bengalis were inspired by Western speculative philosophy and were more attracted by the great works of Utilitarianism of John Stuart Mill and Jeremy Bentham, Idealism

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} of Immanuel Kant, Fichte, and Hegel, and Positivism of Auguste Comte. Therefore God was at best regarded as a remote entity who cannot be known, and at worst, the material world was the be all and end all. There was nothing beyond it. There was a rejuvenation of interest in ancient India through the translation of all major works including Ramayana, Mahabharata, Puranas, Sanskrit poems of Kalidasa, Sanskrit Grammer, the translation of Rig Veda by Maxmueller, translation of Tantras by Sir John Woodroffe etc. The translation of Upanishadas and Bhagavat Gita had taken place a century earlier. Col. Olcott and Madame Blavastky started the theosophical society to promote the age old ideas of Hindus and developed a cult which had instilled new hope among the educated Hindus. But all these were prominent in urban educational society. The rural India was blissfully ignorant of the most of the modern developments. Miracles of medical science did not reach it. Availability of modern education was absent for most rural folks who led a simple, mechanical life which they have practiced for eons – under the mercy of feudal lords or zamindars, loan sharks and rich landlords, carrying on their daily drudgery in fields, having basic education in the village pathshalas, buying and selling once a week from rural markets in larger districts, perhaps commuting miles and miles to sell their field produce, paying hefty taxes, being subjected to the vagaries of weather god, dreaded diseases like malaria and cholera under the unhygienic conditions in which they lived, reproducing scores of children and losing many of them to the god of death, without the amenities of modern medicines and without even basic awareness of health and wellbeing. So while major transformations were happening, they were limited to only a very small and minor region, with the rest of India remaining steeped in darkness, often displaying a genuine resistance to any form of change. Famines were common and an estimate shows that more than a million

perished in famines in different parts of India during this period. So this was an interesting period. To use a cliché from Dickens, the beginning verses of the Tales of Two Cities –“It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair,” possibly best described the situation. On one hand a lot of traditional, existing, status quo were breaking through major conflicts, the social structure and the orthodoxy were breaking apart owing to the struggles with modernity, science made great progress, art, culture and literature made giant strides and never looked back. On the other, reformation also brought a lot of vilification in its wake, spirituality was relegated and religious discourses and dogmatic assertions held the centre stage and masses remained deprived of the progress. Sri Ramakrishna – A Beacon of Hope and a Harbinger of Change So this was the backdrop where, just like the “Black Swan” (a term coined by Nassim Nicholas Talebfor highly improbable and unpredictable events having massive impact), the “Great Swan” or the Paramahamsa Deva emerged, in the remote corner of the world with sincere and utmost yearning for God realization and with an utter contempt for the education that only promoted worldliness. The world had taken giant strides, civilization had made progress that it could not in the last thousand years but the uneducated and rustic temple priest was oblivious to all these and was immersed in his spiritual practices, to realize the ultimate truth in various ways. Her persisted like a true scientist to test various paths – Puranic & devotional, Tantra, Vedanta, Vaishnava, Ramayet, Madhur Bhava, Christianity, Islam and finally submitted all the fruits of his practices at the lotus feet of his spiritual consort with whom he shared a unique

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} relationship, unheard of in modern world. Like a child he had a curiosity to know, to meet people, to learn new things and was it a mere coincidence that he came in contact with almost every aspect of the modern civilization that dominated the world at that time and in some ways or other helped key personalities associated with them to achieve the ultimate goal! Starting with Michael Madhusudan and later Vidyasagar and Bankim Chandra, he met the intellectuals of his time. He also met several traditional scholars who became his ardent admirers – like Pandit Padmalochan of Bardhaman, Gaurikanta of Indesh, Baishnabcharan, the Vaishnav scholar and savant, Pandit Narayan Shastri of Jaipur and later Shashadhar Tarkachudamani. He impressed everybody, although in varying degrees. He visited the theatres, considered a taboo by the orthodox and even the so called enlightened Brahmo Samaj. Theatre pioneers like Girish Chandra Ghosh, who was known as the Garrick of Bengal, became his ardent admirers, nay, even disciples. He converted many of the young Bengalis who were attracted to Christianity and Brahmo Samaj to traditional Hinduism simply through his love and the purity of his personal character. He did not go and fight a battle with the missionaries and they also did not take much notice of this unlettered priest, except on some singular occasions. He was not entirely unacquainted with the latest scientific discoveries. He went to places like Asiatic Society and Indian Museum and learnt about many scientific facts including that of fossils and anatomy from his disciples and acquaintances. He got to know from his younger audience on various theories on latest Western philosophy – the agnosticism, the positivism, utilitarianism etc. He had been treated by many doctors and hence was familiar with the contemporary advancements in medical science from some of them who were very close to him – like Mahendralal Sarkar, Rajendra Lal Dutta, Dr. Bhaduri, Dr. Madhusudan, Dr. Durgacharan, Dr. 74

Pratap Majumdar, whose names can be found in the Gospels. Along with the doctors he seemed to have enjoyed a cordial relationship with the noted Kaviraj’s of that period – like Ganga Prasad Sen, Durga Prasad Sen, Ram Kaviraj of Natagarh, Mahendra Kaviraj of Sinthi being prominent among them He underwent even the most rustic treatments like spleen splintering in the backward hamlets. So although he was aware of the advances of modern science he held the traditional treatments with respect. He was thus a wonderful synthesis of modernity and traditional and could easily find harmony in them. He would acknowledge the importance of material science and its contribution but also did not forget to point out that the reality behind everything was the pure consciousness, and that is the most important lesson that science should learn, rather than being engaged in material synthesis and analysis. Even though science operated within nature it should do well to understand that Nature was not inert, but rather God has become everything, including Nature. He had a great distaste for scientific or any endeavor that was solely engaged in the pursuit of material pleasures of lust and greed (Kamini Kanchan) as he used to call them. He himself was an artist per excellence and enjoyed art, music and even theatrical performances as long as they were centred on spirituality and God consciousness. He saw and could imitate Jatra performances, Kavi Gaans, Panchalis and other traditional modes of entertainment and also visited theatres several times,especiallyafter his meeting with Girish Chandra Ghosh. Girish said that he actually learnt acting from Sri Ramakrishna. Sri Ramakrishna also met Annada Prasad Bagchi, the famous artist at that time. He appreciated art work in the house of Nandalal Bose in Baghbazar. Thus in performing arts also he inspired a wonderful symphony with traditional and modernity. Thus during his lifetime he could influence and inspire people from all fields – doctors as representatives of scientific thoughts (there

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} wasn’t any known Bengali scientist during his time), artists, theatre actors or performing artists, intelligentsia (Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra, Pdt. Shashadhar, Michael Madhusudan and others), educators (M himself, Vidyasagar), spiritual figures (Bijoykrishna Goswami, Keshab Chandra Sen, Dayanand Saraswati, Pandit Gauri Kanta, Bainshnab Charan, Bhagaban Das Babaji and several others), editors (Hiranand Advani of Sindh Times, an ardent Brahmo devotee), social reformers like Krishna Das Pal, rich business men like Shambhu Mallik, Manilal Mallik, Jadu Nath Mallik, Beni Madhav Pal, Captain Biswanath Upadhyay, the Marwari traders like Lakshmi Narayan, deputy magistrates like Adhar Lal Sen, Government employees like Prankrishna Mukherjee and Ishan Chandra Mukherjee, people of scientific temperaments like Ram Chandra Dutta and many other known and unknown persons whose accounts may not have been recorded in either Gospel or in the Great Master (Leela Prasanga). He encouraged

women’s education. Through a symbolic gesture he inspired Gauri Ma to develop a full-fledged ashrama and school for women and left behind Holy Mother to serve the cause of humanity through universal love, especially for the sake of upliftment of women, the culmination of which wasin Nivedita School and many years later in Sarada Math. He however had disdain for those who were not spiritually inclined but were running after miracles and special powers – like the Theosophists. He definitely turned quite a few Theosophy supporters to genuine spirituality. His redeeming power made better persons of robbers like Tara Kanrad, ruffians like Manmatha and drunkards and wayward like Kalipada and Girish Ghosh. In his lifetime he thus inspired and influenced many person who would leave an indelible imprint on future generations. He also entrusted his sannyasi disciples with the task of establishing the future organization and himself developed its nucleus in Kashipur. The organization would in later

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} days, develop into a vast machinery to transform a huge mass of humanity and help uplift society from general decadence and stagnancy. In this respect the leading and pivotal role would of course be played by Swami Vivekananda, ably supported by Swami Brahmananda, Swami Shivananda, Swami Abhedananda, Swami Saradananda and others. Through Vivekananda Sri Ramakrishna’s ideals would reach the West and later even to the Far East and across the globe, even to Latin America and Africa. It was Sri Ramakrishna who through Swami Vivekananda really inspired what is now euphemistically called as “New Age” thoughts that would include everything that falls outside conventional orthodox Semitic dogmas. A few of these thoughts were direct products of the transcendental movement that was started by Thoreau and Emerson in America, others like Christian Science founded by Mary Baker Eddy evolved later and held a good influence on A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y. M a n y o f S w a m i Vivekananda’s close associates in America were either free thinkers like Sarah Farmer, open minded thinkers like Dr. Lewis G. Janes, philosophers like William James or scientists like Helmholz, Lord Kelvin and Nicola Tesla. Many of his steadfast followers like Christine Greenstidel and Mary Funke were initially interested in Christian Science. So when Swami Vivekananda visited America he found that he had a great support structure already in place by his guru’s grace. God Becomes Accessible Sri Ramakrishna’s advent unleashed many fundamental changes in the society whose impact can be judged only after a considerable lapse of time. When we reflect on his life and times we are able to discern some of these changes quite clearly as nothing sort of revolutionary. It is a miracle that the boy Gadadhar from the remote hamlet of Kamarpukur became a sensation in the educated world just within 10 years of his death. The rustic 76

Brahmin priest, who was illiterate became a source of reverence for even European scholars. It was Maxmueller who first studied the life of Sri Ramakrishna and wrote his article – ‘A Real Mahatma”, which made Ramakrishna known to the world at large. Then came Swami Vivekananda’s master piece – My Master, in which he formally declared to a large gathering on the great work and life of his guru. Before that he had already familiarized Ramakrishna Paramhansa as his guru to his close circle in America and also to a section of young educated Indians during his itinerant period throughout the length and breadth of the country. But if we go further back in history, perhaps the first time Ramakrishna became known to the world at large was through Keshab Chandra Sen. In 1875 Keshab Chandra Sen first published a short article about the Pramahamsa of Dakshineswar in “The Mirror”. That was the beginning of the saint of the Dakshineswar’s name being published. It was undoubtedly this effort of Keshab Chandra Sen which resulted in generating interest in Sri Ramakrishna among the educated masses of Calcutta and also perhaps in some areas of India. But then as Sri Ramakrishna had said, when a lotus blooms, its scent attracts the bees. So also the devotees flocked to the Dakshineswar temple, being attracted by this saint and savant. The greatest source of attraction was the ease with which the divine, the esoteric, the greatest of the mysteries was accessible to all through Sri Ramakrishna and his God consciousness state. His relentless teachings based on simple parables, his ordinary colloquial depiction of the extra ordinary philosophical thoughts, his simple and lucid explanation of the most profound truths, his exposition of the god conscious state, his ecstasies, his devotion and on the top of everything his sincerity and childlike guilelessness, were all recipes for developing great admiration for him. However the influence was not far and wide. It was limited to a select group of devotees during his lifetime who would

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} be the torch bearers of his message and principles. As a mighty river in its upper course flows in one stream, his ideals flew through one channel, that of himself, in his life time. Once the same river enters its middle and lower course it meanders and many tributaries are formed. So also in the later years his ideal had flown through many channels, some of them mighty and some of them narrow, but always reaching the intended destination to people who were thirsty of spiritual truths and were tired of fanaticism, narrow mindedness and dogmatism of traditional orthodox religions. Socio Economic and Cultural Impact – Transcending Barriers & Unifying Diverse Ideals Sri Ramakrishna had led the transformation journey in his life time that had evolved and grown in the subsequent years to become the norms for the new age. That is why Swamiji had said that since Sri Ramakrishna had come, satyayuga had come with him. In various ways he had paved the way for the new age and new thoughts of that age – that of rationalism, humanism, and universal tolerance. His simple but profound statement that as many opinions, so many paths, had become a universal truth and interfaith movements of today, the liberal views in almost all educated societies and the spirit of

tolerance and acceptance that are exhibited in general despite undercurrents of bigotry and fanaticism are a testimony to it. Sri Ramakrishna as young Gadadhar of 7 years did a quite formidable social upheaval in a placid hamlet whose society was till then quite unequipped to even think about such measures. He, an initiated Brahmin from a pious and orthodox family, insisted on taking his first alms from Dhani – a lower caste woman. Most of his boyhood friends, like that of Lord Krishna himself, belonged to the so called low castes. His great friend was Gayavishnu of the Lahas, the rich merchant family next door. His ardent devotee was Chinu or Srinivas Shankhari, an old man of humble origin who had first worshipped him as the Lord incarnate. Breakings established norms he had several friends among the local Muslim families and he participated in their festivals joyously. He accepted a post in the temple of Rani Rasmoni, who was shunned by orthodox sections. Every low born person who was sincere and had some inclination for God was dear to him, like Rasik the cleaner of drains. However he chastised those who were egotists or proud. His grace was not based upon privilege and entitlements. Therefore he was rightly the friend and redeemer of the fallen ones, as avatars would do in every age. This redemption of the fallen is evident in his spontaneous visit to the theatres and blessing all the actors and actresses

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} there who were socially outcastes. His unbounded love and grace won him admirers from the underprivileged sections who looked upon him as the veritable God on the earth and rightly so. Only God or God like person can go against all established norms and conventions and accept all and sundry in his fold through his unbounded grace. He brought harmony among the different feuding religious sects by accepting them and inculcating in them the spirit of God consciousness that would eliminate their narrow mindedness. We’re now amazed to see his futuristic vision. He knew that one of the fundamental problems of India would be to regain her National identity. In order to achieve that, the Nation has to come together around a common cause. And what better common cause can exist than that of God or spirituality. Its only spirituality that can foster love that transcends all other barriers of regionalism, caste, sectarianism and religion. Possibly with that in mind he created a band of devotees from across India who rallied around him and were genuine spiritual seekers. They came to him as a honey bee would be coming to a full blown lotus attracted by the fragrance. His original devotees were a group of Sikh soldiers of Barrackpore cantonment whose leader was Kumar Singh. He also had a very good following among the Marwaris who loved him. He was thus acceptable to the extended Hindu society in general which included the Sikhs and was instrumental in establishing a larger Hindu base by bringing the Brahmo religion of Keshab Chandra out of orbits of Christian influence. He was thus emphasizing on seeking spiritual unity as the highest step but also used social and religious unity as stepping stones. His sadhana of Islam also helped him come closer to a section of genuine lovers of God among Muslims. Similarly few Christian mystics like Prabhudayal Misra and William looked upon him as Christ himself. In general even among the influential Christian intellectuals of Bengal like 78

William Hastie&C.H Tawney, he enjoyed a very positive image. He had no critic and no enemy, at least not among the contemporary intellectuals. Only materialists looked down upon him as they could not understand him. The love and respect from everybody was possible because he had boundless love and respect for all, even for the fallen ones. His divine ecstatic love worked as the redeeming weapon, just like that of any other greatest teachers. He taught about the responsibility of householders, how to live in a strife ridden world, how to engage into social relationships and yet keep God consciousness as the centre stage of everything. It is as if he knew all the problems of the modern world and gave a prescription beforehand. Modern Age & Sri Ramakrishna’s Ideals – Avatara Shapes the Age The modern age is characterized by three aspects – 1) Technological progress and innovation that shape the prosperity of mankind 2) Socio Economic progress in terms of intellectual development, education among wider sections, liberalism and humanism as the cornerstone of all thoughts 3) an increase in awareness, information as well as interest in true spirituality rather than in traditional ritual & dogma based religion, especially among those who are inquisitive in nature and who do not accept material universe as be all and end all. Along with these trends there is also much visibility to heinous crimes driven by lust and greed like assault on women, elderly and children, corruption, terrorism, financial irregularities, corporate scandals. But as Swami Vivekananda pointed out, lust and greed were always there, since time immemorial and that’s why great prophets and avatars come to teach mankind the basic lessons of humanity – to progress from being a beast by being subservient to sense pleasures, to true manhood of honesty, courage and respect for all and then progress further towards divinity by becoming selfless, by foregoing ego. It seems that Sri Ramakrishna

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} foresaw all the present age problems and provided human civilization the ways and means to deal with them to make holistic progress. He had for instance formed a great relationship with science and scientists but warned them to make spirituality as the backbone that would lead them to focus more on benefits to humankind rather than discovering ways and means to destroy civilizations. He had encouraged all forms of performing arts and met the great literary figures and educationists to ensure that spirituality forms the basis of mediums of mass entertainment and education so that man making and character building becomes easy. He also practiced all religions to first set the trend for universal acceptance, harmony and tolerance. Great scientists of twentieth century who made path breaking discoveries like Einstein, Schrödinger, Warner Heisenberg, Robert Oppenheimer and others like Carl Jung accepted spirituality as the one of the key ingredients of scientific thoughts. Now in the present age interfaith meetings have become a norm but it took one parliament of religion and a divine sage from the world of ancient wisdom, the best disciple of Sri Ramakrishna to proclaim his guru’s message to the future human race, “Sectarianism, bigotry, and its horrible descendant, fanaticism, have long possessed this beautiful earth.They have filled the earth with violence, drenched it often and often with human blood, destroyed civilization, and sent whole nations to despair. Had it not been for these horrible demons, human society would be far more advanced than it is now. But their time is come; and I fervently hope that the bell that tolled this morning in honor of this convention may be the death-knell of all fanaticism, of all persecutions with the sword or with the pen, and of all uncharitable feelings between persons wending their way to the same goal”. That set the mantra for the present age. That’s why Swamiji said that Satyayuga had set in moment Sri Ramakrishna had come. Satyayuga is the age of truth, age of reason, not one of blind dogma.

Education, information, technological and scientific progress have all ensured material advancement, but at the same time they have also ascertained that people become dependent on powers of intellect and reason rather than on customs and faith. Sri Ramakrishna was a scientist himself. He encouraged his disciples to test everything, including himself before accepting and never accept anything just because he said so. Need of spirituality, i.e. something beyond the mundane or the sense world is a genuine need of the age of reason as people are not satisfied with pure materialism which they see has not been able to provide the basic preconditions of human existence - that of peace and lasting happiness. They have realized like Yayati that one is never satiated by the fulfilment of material desires. The desires go on increasing as we fan and fuel the fire through enjoyment of senses and ultimately assume explosive nature that engulf the entire civilization. So they are looking for role models, of icons and ideals that would help them in the perilous journey of life by providing guidance and help and ideals of Sri Ramakrishna – of renunciation and love for God, the purest ideal, are being looked upon with increasing reverence as they are spreading all over the world. Swamiji rightly said that this age has the best chance of propagating and promoting ancient wisdom because of the interconnectedness achieved by technological progress. No other avatar had that advantage – their followers took the help of fire and sword and had to send missionaries to faraway places to spread the ideals of their masters and it took ages. Not so any more. Sri Ramakrishna also attacked the vices that he knew would dominate the present age – that of lust and greed. He said truth is the mainstay of religion in this age – without truth everything else falls apart while with steadfastness in truth one may even realize God. That would hit at the core of the twin evils as all other evils and sins stem from ignorance of our real nature, the

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} ultimate truth of who we are - the supreme existence, consciousness and pure bliss or the Satchidananda. When we reach that state, when according to Swamiji, we are established in the doctrine of Vedanta and make it practical in our lives, we make ourselves better and better and move from being the primitive beast, the slave of our senses, to manifest the inherent divinity, to become God ourselves. That is the goal of human civilization that was not only set by Ramakrishna but was demonstrated by him to them by his and the holy mother’s life as well as through the medium of Swami Vivekananda and the Ramakrishna Monastic Order, when that was forgotten by all other traditions. The discriminative and dismissive attitude which one mass of humanity used against another is largely being replaced by more reverential attitude towards others even though we have a very long way to go before the Vedantic ideals can be imbibed by the masses. But breaking down of social barriers and economic progress have made education of masses a reality. So humanity’s march for progress is accelerated. He influenced intellectuals of his age as he knew that the intellectuals are the influences. They as the leaders of the society set the norms and conventions. They are the rishis of the present age. So if they are influenced, masses are influenced easily through the mass education medium controlled by the intellectuals including art, science and entertainment. He also ensured that the women of today get the greatest veneration and regard and share equal status with men. He left behind Sri Sarada Devi as a beacon of hope for women and used Sister Nivedita and other modern women devotees as instruments to help shape the future of women. His worship of mother Kali, his mother-child relationship with God, his worship of the Holy Mother are all geared towards that goal, of upliftment of women through various ideals which is the truth of worship of Shakti or the divine mother. 80

The light emanating from the source of darkness We see that within just eight years of his passing away, Ramakrishna’s name spread like wildfire among the educated spiritually hungry masses, especially those in the West. Leo Tolstoy after coming across Ramakrishna’s teachings was greatly inspired. Many modern thinkers who shaped the world were influenced by him that included Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, Subhas Chandra Bose, Sri Aurobindo, Bagha Jatin, Dhan Gopal Mukherjee, Romain Rolland, Aldous Huxley, Christopher Isherwood, James Campbell, Franz Dvorak the Czech artist who painted his pictures through a vision, J.D Salinger the famous writer, Sir Francis Younghusband, historians like Arnold Toynbee, Ramesh Chandra Mazumdar, Will Durrant, great spiritual figures like Raman Maharishi, Narayana Guru, Paohari Baba, Swami Yogananda, Swami Chinmayananda, and many others. Philip Glass, the famous composer and an ardent Vedantin developed his master piece, The Passion of Ramakrishna in 2006. He is held in reverence even among clergymen and scholars from other traditions and religions. There are however many exceptions and still scholars, both Western and Indian have viewed him from their own narrow prisms. For instance some so called intellectuals have tried to decipher his transcendental state through a flawed process of psychoanalysis in the process maligning him, others have not taken very kindly to his claims to divinity, still others have used reductionist approaches to fit him within their own frameworks – like that he was predominantly a Kali worshiper or belonged to the tradition of tantra. Even religious practitioners from other denominations, while accepting his ideals and preaching have not taken too kindly his claims of divinity as that contradicted with their own dogmatic religious heritage. Christopher Isherwood’s Ramakrishna and His Disciples was for instance widely

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} criticized because critics felt that Isherwood had become too devotional or that he had become a “Hindu” by leaving his Christian fold. Still others were piqued by his assertion of divinity of Ramakrishna as that dismisses Christian theology’s dogmatic assertion that Christ was the only begotten son of God. However they have not cut much ice with the sincere and ardent students of spirituality. Nor could they influence the opinion of masses who have been devoted to the Ramakrishna and the Vedanta traditions. So Ramakrishna’s influence and legacy stands unscathed even after hundred and thirty years after his leaving his gross body behind. In fact it is growing slowly but deliberately, just as the dawn spreads the light, as is evident from the widespread awareness and acceptance of the ideals of harmony for which he stood. Although still a very large section of humanity in India and in the world is still not aware of Sri Ramakrishna and his teachings, nevertheless his sphere of influence is spreading. The Ramakrishna Mission and Math centres and Vendanta Societies as well as centres affiliated to his ideals are growing everywhere, sprouting up in different corners of India and in the world including that in America, Africa, Asia, Latin America and Europe. Avatara Brings a Paradigm Shift It is however intellectually very difficult to link the advent of Sri Ramakrishna with all the positive developments in the world today. Possibly much more analysis is needed by historians and social scientists linking a civilization’s progress with the advent of a great spiritual figure. But the trends are there for everybody to see. There has been, in today’s jargon, a paradigm shift in science, technology, culture, economy, medicine and societies. Such a paradigm shift, historically happened only whenever a great spiritual force appeared. This time the shift is even greater, perhaps the greatest, and therefore more easily discernible.

Even though it has been shaped by contribution from many people in diverse fields, there still has to be one central and pivotal cause, and what else that cause can be other than the divine incarnation who triggered and accentuated it and gave it momentum. Our puranas claimed that Vishnu assumed avatarhood to restore the Vedas which were lost. The Vedas stand for the accumulated spiritual knowledge and practice which get lost in every age owing to the domination of devil (asuric) tendencies inherent in the Maya and then another force unleashes itself to restore that spiritual tradition. The greater the asuric propensities the more powerful has to be the redeeming or restoring force and hence more powerful the avatar. Sri Ramakrishna himself admitted that in his incarnation it is the advent of pure sattvic ideals that is predominant. Only pure sattva can counter the unmitigated rajas which is the creative power ensuring material progress and also quickly degrading into the destructive (tamasic) propensities of lust and greed resulting in sufferings and miseries. Sri Ramakrishna as the pure sattvic redeeming force was thus essential not only to trigger the progress made by human civilization but also to save humanity from the ill effects of that progress and lead us gently to the path of enlightenment – which should be the ultimate goal. The number of years that have elapsed since his taking birth is still too short for us to see the changes holistically. Possibly the future generations will bear a testimony to his divine play (leela) in a more comprehensive manner and will in the process be able to chart out for themselves their goals and paths and thereby progress more rapidly towards enlightenment. And that is possibly also the grand cosmic goal of evolution – the divine mother’s design to gently lead the human civilization to perfection through many rises and falls, crests and troughs – the true paradigm shift for which the Avatar Varistha as the fullest manifestation had come down among us.

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v}

The Genesis of Ramakrishna Movement: Paromita Roy

The movement towards ‘oneness in many’ is the essence of Vedanta Philosophy where the obstruction is the attachment for the world, maya and avidiya. In order to get more and more inward, the spiritual aspirant takes the path of renunciation. From here starts a skeptical attitude to refuse the world. Swamiji points this out to us again and again, this negativity of life in the name of religion. Here Paromita Roy depicts the development of an organization and how it became a key instrument and ideal for the growth of a positive

The entire spirit of Ramakrishna movement is embedded in the motto of the twin organization of Ramakrishna Math and Mission formulated by Swami Vivekananda which is – ‘Atmanomoksarthamjagadhitayacah’ meaning ‘For one’s own salvation and for the welfare of the world’. The motto lays bare a wonderful harmony of crude ideology of Vedanta restricted

to the caves with its practical application in day to day life. How did Swami Vivekananda envision such an ideal for the organization? For this we need to go down the memory lanes to witness the journey of the sapling (monastic brotherhood) to a gigantic tree (Ramakrishna Movement). It was 16 August 1886 that Sri Ramakrishna

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} passed away. But the spirit of His Universal Love and Compassion was alreadysown in heart of his disciple, Swami Vivekananda. We remember one occasion when Sri Ramakrishna asked his own Naren what he wanted. Naren immediately replied: ‘I want to remain immersed in the bliss of Samadhi like Shukhdeva, only to come down for a while now and then just to preserve the body’. Sri Ramakrishna being highly dissatisfied with the answer of his disciple said: ‘Shame on you! You are such a huge receptacle and you say such things! I thought you would be like a huge banyan tree giving shelter and refuge to millions in your shade, and instead, you crave for your own Mukti! This is just demeaning. Do not have such a narrow insight.’On another occasion, a devotee heard Sri Ramakrishna saying: “I shall do good to others even if I have to subsist on mere sago water. The quotes above lay bare in a nutshell what Sri Ramakrishna had implanted in the heart of Swami Vivekananda. The journey to achieve the goal set by Sri Ramakrishna was not a pleasant one. 1

Bumpy road to the goal The idea of organization though present in the heart of Swami Vivekananda (hereafter Swamiji), the way to achieve it was very obscure. Time and again we find Swamiji feeling the need of an organization. To quote his words: “Therefore, to make a good future of India the whole secret lies in organisation.” On another occasion, we find Swamiji uttering: “In India lectures and teaching cannot do any good. What we want is Dynamic Religion.” For such a Dynamic religion that Swamiji had envisioned, an organization was the need of the time. Question may crop up in the mind as to whether the organization was different from Sri Ramakrishna. In answer it may be said that Sri Ramakrishna was the means as well as the end of the organization. In a letter to sister Nivedita, 2

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Swamiji writes: “…You may ask: What is the place of Sri Ramakrishna in this scheme? He is the method, that wonderful unconscious method! He did not understand himself… But he lived that great life … and I read the meaning.” Sri Ramakrishna was means in the form of that powerful storehouse of Divine Energy constantly inspiring and motivating masses to attain God- Consciousness. He was also the end in the sense that constant Divine Energy which inspired masses, ultimately led them to that consolidated Divine Energy in itself. In this sense, the means and the end become identical. How could Sri Ramakrishna inspire masses to attain God- Consciousness? It was because he was saturated with God and God alone. The universal appeal in the words of Sri Ramakrishna was something which Swamiji wanted to bring down to masses by preaching and missionary work. Thus, he felt gradually inclined towards organized religiosity. But being aware of the narrow mindedness and bigotry through organized religiosity, Swamiji wanted to form such an organization which would uphold all its advantages thereby eliminating the evils of an organized sect. In the famous letter to Kidi dated 3 March 1894, Swamiji writes: ‘For a religion to be effective, enthusiasm is necessary. At the same time, we must try to avoid the danger of multiplying creeds. We must avoid that by being a non-sectarian sect, having all the advantages of a sect and the broadness of a universal religion. The fear of the consequences of an orgnization is also noticeable in Swamiji’s letter to Mrs Bull where he writes: ‘Organization has its own faults, no doubt, but without that nothing can be done.’ Swamiji made intense pilgrimage to the whole of India mostly on bare foot. He gathered countless experiences which made him intensely think about the future of India. He sat in contemplation for three days on the rock of 4

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} Kanyakumari which had almost changed his world. He felt as if he could hear a Divine Call for him to visit the West. It was from West that Swamiji attained a clear vision about the organization. We can remember a witty conversation of Swamiji with Mrs Lyon. It was the end of 1893, Swamiji declared to Mrs Lyon that he had been moved by the Western organizing method and skill. Swamiji had humorously said to Mrs Lyon that he had got the greatest temptation of his life form America. Mrs Lyon wittingly remarked,’ Who is she, Swamiji?’ Swamiji bursting out in laughter said replied, ‘Oh, it is not a lady, it is organization!’ Thus, a clear vision of an organization was attained by Swamiji. We find him commanding one of his chief disciples in Madras, Alasinga Perumal: “We must organize our forces not to make a sect – not on religious matters, but on the secular business part of it. A stirring propaganda must be launched out. Put your hand together and organize” Though Sri Ramakrishna ideal needed limbs (in the form of Ramakrishna Math and Mission) for manifestation of the ideal yet it was not warmly received by all. Swamiji had to struggle hard to convince of the intention and role of organized preaching. 7

Conflict about the organization from different quarters (Jnana Vs Work) A section of devotees and monks felt that an organization was against the Ramakrishna spirit. The objection was mainly raised by Swami Yogananda. He questioned Swamiji: “You are doing these things with Western methods. Should you say Sri Ramakrishna left us any such instructions?” Swamiji immediately burst out at Swami Yogananda saying: “Well, how do you know that all this is not on Sri Ramakrishna lines? His moods and spiritual sentiments (bhava) were infinite in 8

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dimension, and dare you shut him up within the narrow walls of your limited vision? I will break down these narrow limits and scatter broadcast over the earth his boundless inspiration.” It was thus rightly pointed out by Swami Saradananda that the first phase of any movement was only opposition. Another section of devotees and monks felt that Sri Ramakrishna realization is the goal of human life-‘God alone is real and all is unreal.’ Then what is the need of such philanthropic act? Once ‘M’, the author of the magnum opus, Gospel asked Swamiji, “You talk of charity and doing good to the world; these are, after all, in the domain of Maya. When according to Vedanta, the goal of man is the attainment of Mukti by breaking all the bondage of Maya, what is the use of preaching things which keeps the mind on the mundane matters?” To this Swamiji immediately replied: “Is not the idea of Mukti also in the domain of Maya? Does not Vedanta reach that the Atman is ever free? What then is the meaning of striving for Atman’s Mukti?” Anticipating similar objections in future, Swamiji gave a clear orientation to Swami Turiyananda saying: “Haribhai, I have opened up a new vista. Till 9

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} the other day people knew that contemplation, repeating the name of the Lord, discrimination, reasoning etc were the means to God-realization. Now the spiritual aspirants will be jivanmuktas by working for the Lord and serving Him [in all creatures]” Another objection was raised from the monastic quarter. Many thought that karma was inferior to jnana and therefore rajasika nature hampered peace of mind (of the sattvika state) which is necessary for attaining Samadhi or Higher Spiritual Realization. Swamji immediately made all devotees clear. The conflict between karma and jnana was answered by Swamiji. Swamiji remarked that most wandering ascetics were sinking into inaction and tamas in the name of worklessness and meditation. Swamiji stressed that monks were making a mockery of the lofty Sannyasa Ideal. Swamiji called such Sannyasins as ‘social parasites’. Hence, he put great emphasis on karma. Later on, on another occasion, we find Swamiji uttering: “What do you understand religion? You can only cry through your noses like babies…And you think your salvation is secured, that Sri Ramakrishna will come at the final hour and take you up by the hand to the highest heaven! Study, public preaching and doing humanitarian works are, according to you, Mayas, because Sri Ramakrishna did not do them himself…As if God realization is such an easy thing to achieve! And God has made himself a plaything in the hands of an imbecile!” Swamiji had contended that for direct disciples of Sri Ramakrishna, the situation was different as they were monks of the higher sattvika nature. So, in reply to Swami Adbhutannanda as to why Swamiji took so much pain through work, he replied that he had designed this course of action for future monks who would attain liberation through service of the Lord in all beings [shivajnanejivaseva] and the society would thus be benefitted. 11

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The final shape of the organization and its objective It was Saturday, 1 May 1897 that the Grihastha disciples and the followers of Sri Ramakrishna assembled at 57 Ramakanta Bose Street (Balaram Bose’s house). Swamiji and other monks from Alambazar also favoured the meeting with their august presence. It was unanimously decided that an organization was of utmost importance to diffuse Sri Ramakrishna’s ideas, teachings and principles. Though Ramakrishna Mission was conceived and therefore said to be founded on 1 May 1897, yet the Mission came into being with the second meeting held on 5 May1897 wherein the name, objectives, methods, office bearer’s rules and other details were discussed and formulated. What is Ramakrishna Mission? To get a clear picture of it, it needs to be distinguished from Ramakrishna Math. The twin organization (Ramakrishna Math and Mission) are in fact two limbs of the Ramakrishna movement, two paths, two lenses to the same goal. Ramakrishna Movement Ramakrishna Math Ramakrishna Mission Swami Buddhananda writes: “In a manner of speaking, by its limb of the Math, the Movement keeps its firm grip over the timeless, the imponderable and essential traditions of the most ancient spiritual culture of the world. By its other limb of the Mission, it keeps in touch with time, enters into the problems of humanity and serves the needy and the helpless, as the time trying to bring on human life the impacts of the spirit. The Math gives the movement vertical ascension, the Mission horizontal diffusion.” That the two limbs are directed towards the same movement is also clearly stated by Swami Shivanananda as: “Any attempt to make a cleavage between the existing math and Mission work is distinctly against the idea of Swamiji and therefore stands self-condemned” 13

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} To clarify the confusion about practical programmes to be undertaken by Ramakrishna Mission, Swami Brahmananda wrote an article in the ‘Indian Review’ in 1910. In this article, he clearly stated that the Mission firmly believes that no one religion is completely perfect and that different religions are meant to suit different temperaments of people and this is what makes the Mission different from other organizations. Swami Brahmananda (the first President of Ramakrishna Order) stated that the Mission was established to spread the ideals of Vedanta through Sri Ramakrishna’s teachings with emphasis on universal love, peace and harmony. Later we find Swami Premamanada saying: “Believe that all these are done by the Master himself… conquer the world with love – this is Ramakrishna Mission” Sri Ramakrishna always considered that ‘It is selfish to renounce the world only for your 15

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own salvation. Do something that will be for the good of others also.” We have already seen how the Master condemned of individual sadhana as desired by Swamiji before. This sounds the same as Lord Buddha’s pledge before he left his hearth and home, “I, when I know the secret, shall return and tell it to all mankind. The way of salvation shall be open to all the world.” Thus, the sapling has grown into a giant banyan tree (Ramakrishna Movement) as stated before. 16

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What is so unique about this organization Swamiji once pronounced: ‘Sri Ramakrishna was a remarkable combination of Jnana, Bhakti, Karma and Yoga whichnever before appeared on earth’ Sri Ramakrishna was a unique personality“deep as the ocean and broad as the sky”.

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ÎðßæÿæÚU-w®v} Swamiji was aware of the fact that such personality was unique and hard to find. So, he attempted a wonderful harmony of Jnana, Bhakti, Karma and Yoga (collective in its nature) through the Ramakrishna Mission. In a letter to Kidi, Swamiji writes: “…I agree with you that faith is a wonderful insight and that it alone can save; but there is the danger in it of breeding fanaticism barring further progress. Jnana is all right, but then there is the danger of its becoming dry intellectualism. Love is great and noble, but it may die away in meaningless sentimentalism. A harmony of all these is the thing required. Ramakrishna was such a harmony. Such beings are few and far in between; but keeping them in his teachings as the ideal we can move on. And if amongst us, each one may not individually attain to that perfection, still we may get collectively by counteracting, equipoising, adjusting, and fulfilling one another. This would be harmony by a number of persons, and a decided advance on all other forms and creeds.” Hence, he designed the emblem used by both Ramakrishna Math and Mission. Swami Vivekananda writes to Mary Hale: “In the Mission Seal the snake represents mysticism; the sun knowledge; the worked-up waters activity; the lotus love; the swan the soul in the midst of all.” The organization represents a unique symbol of harmony and synthesis relevant to the modern age being torn with discords and conflicts. The organization stresses on solidarity and non-contradiction. The objective of this organization is equally meant for both an ascetic and a householder for it speaks of Divine Life

which is the common goal of all human existence. It is time now that we memorize the eternal Rishi Vakya in our spiritual journey: “swastivahparayahtamasah parastat” “Godspeed you in your spiritual journey beyond this darkness of ignorance” 21

Notes and references 1. Minutes of the Ramakrishna Mission dated 29 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

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12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

August 18OL III, p -299. Ibid, Vol VIII, p- 407 Sister Nivedita, The Master as I saw Him, 14thedn,Udbodhan, Calcutta, 1987, pp-167-68. Letters of Swami Vivekananda, Advaita Ashrama, p-68. CW, VOL VI, p- 301. Ibid., VOL V, pp- 52-53. Ibid., VOL VI, p-477. Ibid., VOL VI, pp- 477-78 Life of Swami Vivekananda by Eastern and Western Disciples, Vol II, p-230 SmritirAloy Swamiji (Bengali) edn Sw. Purnatmananda, Udbodhan, 2004, p-5 Life, VOL II pp-251-52 Swami Buddhananda, “The Ramakrishna Movement: its meaning for Mankind”, p- 24-25 Report of the Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission Convention, 1926, p-34. Swami Premananda Patravali (Bengali) Udbodhan Office, 2002, p-126 Great Master, Vol I, Chapter 1, p-79 CW of Nivedita Vol III, p-136 Romain Rolland, The Life of Vivekananda and the Universal Gospel, Calcutta, Advaita Ashrama,1988. Letters, p-69. History, p- 111-112. Mundakopanisad 2.2.6

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Letters of Pravrajika Mokshaprana

(Originally in Bangla this book is a Hindi translation, released in commemoration of birth centenary of Pravrajika Mokshaprana Mataji) Pages- 176 Price- Rs.100.00 Packing + postage - Rs.50.00 (for single copy)

The book is a collection of 67 letters – written by Most Revered Pravrajika Mokshaprana Mataji, the 2nd President, Sri Sarada Math to her own disciples, mainly, the nuns of Sri Sarada Math as well as lay devotees, the responsibility of whose spiritual life had been taken up by Revered Mataji herself. Such a book presents us with a treasure trove of spiritual gems which reflect the affection and anxiety of a mother, reveals a spiritual mentor, a guru whose hand holding uplifts the mind to the divine plane, helps in crossing the razor-edged path. Definitely it will serve as a useful handbook for every earnest spiritual seeker. Please write to: Secretary Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama DakBanglowRoad, P.O. Devaprayag, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand 249301 Ph:- 09410520939, 09897452084 Email:-rmksarada@gmail.com, Site: www.rksaradadprayag.org.

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Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama Dak Banglow Road, P.O. Devaprayag, Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand. Pin-249301 Phone : 9410520939, 9897452084 E-mail : rmksarada@gmail.com Website : www.rksaradadprayag.org Cheque / D.D May Please be Drawn in Favour of Ramakrishna Sarada Ashram Devaprayag For Online Donation: Our CBS A/C Punjab National Bank, Devaprayag A/C 0625000100098104 (IFS code - PUNB - 0062500) State Bank of India Devaprayag A/C No 30932831669 (IFS code - SBIN 0014135) All donations are exempted from Income Tax U/S 80G of the I.T. Act 1961

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Debakshar 2018  

Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama Devprayag annual magazine 2018

Debakshar 2018  

Ramakrishna Sarada Ashrama Devprayag annual magazine 2018

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