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Rio+20 The UN conference on Sustainable Development Chantal Line Carpentier Major groups programme coordinator ** this document is based on an orginal document prepared by Jan Gustav Strandenaes, ANPED, NGO organizing partner


The UN decided that • On 24th December 2009 the UN General Assembly adopted a Resolution (A/RES/64/236) agreeing to hold the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD) in 2012 - also referred to as 'Rio+20' or 'Rio 20'.


Objective • Secure renewed political commitment for sustainable development ▍ assessing progress to date and the remaining gaps in the implementation of the outcomes of the major summits on SD ▍ addressing new and emerging challenges


Thematic focus Include:

• a green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication; • the institutional framework for sustainable development


Major groups • Major groups and civil society are referred to in 8 of the 29 paragraphs of the GA resolution calling for the UN CSD in Rio in 2012 • At all levels of the process, nationally regionally and globally including at the conference


Children and Youth Indigenous People

Women

Farmers

Major Groups

NonGovernmental Organizations

Local Authorities

Scientific and Technological Community

Business and Industry

Workers and Trade Unions


Organizing Partners • 1 to 3 per major groups • Contact info available at: http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.ph p?menu=35


Major groups priorities Emerging focus and planned activities for Rio+20


Workers & Trade Unions Green jobs, decent work A green economy that works for social progress Ratify ILO conventions Incorporate unions into a green economy


Workers & Trade Unions o Global Union Research Network (GURN) Workshop on Green Economy o 1 Oct 2011 in Brussels, Belgium


Indigenous People Update the Carioca & Kimberley Declarations Alternative economic system Local economies, rather than green economy Social equity Ecological balance Economic sufficiency


Indigenous People o Rio+20 preparatory mtg for indigenous people o 11 – 13 August 2011 in Manaus, Brazil

o Indigenous women’s meeting on Rio+20 o Dates TBC in Nicaragua


Local Authorities Green urban economies Cities working for sustainability—how many? Role of local governments in sustainability “Reforms in the global sustainability governance architecture should not concentrate capacities and resources in international institutions. A meaningful reform process must not only actively involve developing countries in all stages, but must also strengthen institutions and actors in sustainability governance at various levels, specifically at the regional, sub-regional, national and local levels.� (Major Groups and Stakeholders Advisory Group on International Environmental Governance)


Local Authorities o ICLEI European Convention 2011 o 12 – 14 September 2011 in Brussels, Belgium

o ICLEI World Congress 2012 o 29 May – 1 June 2012 in Belo Horizonte, Brazil

o Global Town Hall meeting, at Rio+20 o By 2050, two-thirds of all humans will live in cities o Dialogue on the urban future of our planet


Business and Industry Business Action for Sustainable Development  Unite industry coalitions behind Rio+20 themes  International Chamber of Commerce  World Business Council for Sust. Development  The Global Compact

Business for a green economy


Children and Youth Broader participation to include young people Youth-friendly green economy More civic action for sustainability Youth are “moral stakeholders� in sustainability Green job creation & decent work principles


Children and Youth o J8 Summit in the run-up to Rio+20 o International Year of Youth o Peace Child 6th World Youth Congress


Farmers  Food security, food waste  Poverty reduction  Social development  Sustainable agriculture within a green economy  Rural development and lives of rural women  Biodiversity  Green jobs


Non-Governmental Organizations Partners for sustainable development Independent advocates Mobilize society formally, informally and through grass-roots movements Facilitate coordination among other major groups


Non-Governmental Organizations o Developing new media tools for collectively submitting and editing texts o Coordinating information sharing among major groups networks o http://ngorioplus20.wikispaces.com/ o http://rioplus20ngo.ning.com/


Scientific and Technological Community Industrial design for sustainability Planning sustainable cities Green technologies Collaboration between science and policy Physical limitations of the environment


Scientific and Technological Community o Science and Technology Workshop for Latin America and the Caribbean o 3 – 5 August 2011 in Mexico City


Women Full and beneficial integration of women at all levels of sustainable development End gender-based discrimination Ensure access to land and other resources Education for women Safe and equal employment


Women o Women’s symposium for Rio+20 o May 2012 in Rio de Janeiro


Training and opportunities to dialogue • DESA DSD with Stakeholder Forum with support from EU offers Rio+20 training • Alongside most RIMs, DPI conference, & several other preparatory meetings • In partnership with Regional Commissions UNEP, NGLS and other agencies and programmes • Contact your organizing partners/secretariat for details


Initiatives in support of Rio+20 • We invite all major groups and other relevant stakeholders to post documents, initiatives, petitions, meetings etc. on official web site.. • By contacting your Major Groups Organizing Partners or • If your initiative does not fit neatly in the major groups categories request a username/password at http://esango.un.org/irene/?page=viewProfile&ty pe=un&nr=11&section=9 and click on send message


UN Non-Governmental Liaison Service • Civil society consulted for inputs to the Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Global Sustainability • Report online at: www.un-ngls.org/gsp


Major groups & other stakeholder participation in Rio+20 • There will be a 4 days of thematic meetings for non-governmental actors in Rio, 31 May-3 June ▫ These are expected to lead to partnership launch

• Side events, partnership fairs and others are being planned, visit the web site for call for submissions


Registration • Registration for the Conference has not been open yet. Information will appear at http://www.uncsd2012.org/rio20/index.ph p?menu=90 • For participation in RIMs and training please contact your organizing partners or the Secretariat


The road map to Rio Approaching 2012


Road-map to Rio 2011 • 15-16 December Second Intersessional, UN Headquarters, NY • Fall Regional Implementation meetings (RIMs) (see next slide)

2012 • Jan 3 days meeting, NY • Negotiations on zero-draft 13-17 Feb, 19-23 March, 30 April 4 May • Third Intersessional, NY 26-27 March • 28-30, May Third prep-com, Rio, Brazil • 31 May- 3 June Thematic days • 4-6 June, Rio+20 conference, Rio


Roadmap: RIMs for • Latin America and Caribbean Region, ECLAC 7 Sep 2011 - 9 Sep 2011 , Santiago, Chile • Africa Region, ECA and partners 10 Oct 2011 - 14 Oct 2011 , Addis Ababa, Ethiopia • The Arab Region, ESCWA and partners 16 Oct 2011 - 17 Oct 2011 , Cairo, Egypt • Asia Pacific Region, ESCAP 19 Oct 2011 - 20 Oct 2011 , Seoul, Republic of South Korea • North America, W,C,&E Europe Region, ECE 1 Dec 2011 - 2 Dec 2011 , Geneva, Switzerland


Road-map to Rio • 1 September UNEP global consultations with major groups, Bonn • 3 - 5 September 64th UN DPI Conference, Bonn, Germany • 21 – 23 September Seventh “Environment for Europe” Ministerial Conference Astana, Kazakhstan

Several others See

http://www.uncsd201 2.org/rio20/index.php ?menu=23


Road-map to Rio • By end of October, inputs from member states, relevant UN organizations & stakeholders on outcomes document • Has to be relevant to the agenda points • Can be developed nationally and globally • No template available • Emailed to uncsd2012@un.org


Process for outcome document • Inputs received from all, by Nov 1 • Bureau prepares a compilation document by Dec 15-16 intersessional • Serves as basis for zero-draft by early Jan • Discussion of zero-draft in 3 days meeting in Jan • One week of informal informals in each of Feb, March and April to further discuss draft


Update on Major groups and other stakeholders’ work so far Green economy in the context of poverty alleviation * some of these came from the NGLS consultation on the High Level Panel on Global Sustainability http://www.un-ngls.org/spip.php?article3351


Informal actors in the green economy • Green Economic Coalition – IUCN, WWF, CI, Development Alternatives, WBCSD, GRI, UNEP, UN CEPAL, DFID, ILO, Bio-mimicry Institute, ITUC, Philips, Bellagio Forum, and others. ▫ Secretariat: IIED, London, www.greeneconomycoalition.org

• De-growth, critical to the system: World Future Council, ALOE (France, think tanks), groups in Brazil, Canada, Bolivia, Japan; ▫ Secretariat: ANPED; Brussels , http://www.anped.org


Informal actors in the green economy • Distributive growth, focussing on responsible consumption and production, think tanks and consumer organisations in the entire world, UNEP DTIE, Paris, environment ministries in Europe ▫ Secretariat: PERL, Hamar, Norway http://www.perlprojects.org/

• Global transition: Stakeholder Forum, NEF, New Economic Foundation


Informal actors in the green economy • Holistic growth, aims for establishing a 21st century economy based on the four sources of wealth essential to human prosperity: • natural assets • social assets • human assets • physical assets (Oxfam International)


Informal actors in the green economy “By mapping the human development index against the ecological footprint of different countries, [WWF’s Living Planet] report demonstrates that development does not have to be dependent on increasing consumption.”

(WWF-UK)


Informal actors in the green economy • Platform for an Inclusive, Green and Responsible Economy A green economy seeks to ensure a friendly relationship between society’s production processes and the natural processes, fostering the conservation, recovery and sustainable use of ecosystems, and addressing ecosystem services as financial assets of public interest. Developed by Ethos Institute www.ethos.org.br/plataforma


Informal actors in the green economy • Localisation. Decentralization. Deglobalization. “To reduce exploitation of people and nature, economic production should be local. The present global trading system has pushed us in completely the opposite direction.” (Focus on the Global South) Focus on the Global South proposes a “deglobalisation” paradigm: “Deglobalisation is not a synonym for withdrawing from the world economy. It means a process of restructuring the world economic and political system so that the latter builds the capacity of local and national economies instead of degrading it. Deglobalisation means the transformation of a global economy from one integrated around the needs of transnational corporations to one integrated around the needs of peoples, nations, and communities.”


Informal actors in the green economy “The global market should be seen as a tool for delivering local needs and supporting local sustainable livelihoods, rather than local markets delivering resources to a global demand.” (Christian Aid) “The locus of decision-making should be devolved to the lowest level of government with the competence to deal with the issues concerned – as close as possible to the people most affected.” (IBON) “First and foremost, a paradigm shift requires reclaiming the power from the corporations to democratically elected regimes. Central governments for their behalf need to empower and enable local communities to implement local solutions.” (Greenpeace) “Localization, combined with equity considerations both locally and globally, is key to revamping the global economy in a sustainable direction.” (Network of Regional Governments for Sustainable Development) “In looking at the bigger picture, it is evident that food production needs to shift from industrial, multinational systems towards moderate- and small scale, humane models with local supply chains and markets, thereby contributing to greater national and regional self-sufficiency in food. This transition would reduce not only the environmental damage caused by livestock production,3 but also the unpredictability in global food markets such as that underlying the current food crisis.” (World Society for the Protection of Animals) “It is time for the rejection of the old assumptions that energy is generated at a central location and transmitted / distributed to “sinks” (buildings and houses). It is time to adopt a paradigm that requires every building / house to become a net-zero energy node, so power generation is distributed, and the need for externally generated energy consumption is minimized; where possible eliminated.” (Nuclear Information and Resource Service)


Informal actors in the green economy • Equity, Public Goods and Human Rights “Overall what is needed is a quantum leap in ethics.” (PRODENA - The Association for Defense of Nature) “Expanding the commons and reclaiming the public: in opposition to privatisation and exploiting nature for profit, we need a new model of managing and sharing the common good – whether it be water, forests, land, biodiversity, cities, transport, knowledge, etc.” (Focus on the Global South) “The language and action of a Human Rights Based Approach is key to the paradigm shift and serves as an overarching guide to systemic change. Focusing on the protection and realization of human rights, it provides a framework that addresses the most marginalized and excluded in society, strengthening social, political, economic and environmental justice and equity. Human rights principles (e.g., participation and inclusion, accountability) can drive every activity, across any sector and become part of the design, implementation and monitoring of sustainable development policies and programs. The Human Rights approach coexists with many key Rio Principles - including common but differentiated responsibilities, access and participation, gender equality, polluter pays and the precautionary principle - that should remain part of any new vision because they intimately tie together the 3 pillars.” (Women’s Environment and Development Organization)


Informal actors in the green economy • Addressing Inequalities and Poverty “Make the transition to a green economy fair and equitable and commit to a decent jobs agenda by committing to making national just transition plans.” (Greenpeace) “Income inequality could be reduced by setting maximum wage differentials, increasing the progressivity of taxation, universalizing public services such as education and healthcare, and reorganizing enterprises along workeror community-based forms of ownership, decision-making, and distribution of profits.” (IBON) “High rates of global poverty stem from an unequal distribution of wealth… Innovative financial mechanisms have the capacity to play a role in reducing inequality and empowering the poor and marginalised. Those mechanisms which reach small scale activities with minimal ‘leakage’ are vital for supporting urban development and effective local level climate change adaptation.” (Bond)


Informal actors in the green economy • Agriculture – Food Security / Sovereignty A great many contributors strongly supported placing a renewed emphasis on strengthening the viability, scale and security of local, small-holder, ecologically friendly agriculture. This section presents a selection of specific proposals that are representative of the priorities indicated by a number of organizations.     

Focus on the Global South Greenpeace ETC Group Oxfam International World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA)


Informal actors in the green economy • Forests – Biodiversity “Achieving zero deforestation by 2020” (Greenpeace, Bond)

• Oceans – Fisheries “The ocean generates most of the oxygen in our atmosphere and absorbs vast quantities of carbon dioxide. It is also key to food security for hundreds of millions of people...A healthy ocean – and a “blue economy”– is key to successful economic development dynamics, especially for small island developing states and coastal countries.” (Pew Environment Group) “Large no-take marine protected areas [should] cover 40% of the high seas.” (Greenpeace)

• Atmosphere – Climate Change “Developed countries should develop zero carbon action plans [and] carbon neutral societies...Working for a fair, ambitious and binding climate agreement on an international level as well as carbon taxes, polluter pays principles and other national measures should be implemented into these action plans.” (Climate Action Network International)


Informal actors in the green economy • Sustainable Energy “Support an energy revolution based on renewable energy and energy efficiency and provide access to energy for all. The energy revolution must be the cornerstone of any green economy roadmaps.” (Greenpeace) “The research into and production of nuclear energy would be impossible without huge subsidies from public money needed for other purposes. The mining and production processes emit greenhouse gases, are dependent on the use of scarce water resources and produce long lived radioactive and poisonous waste materials, as well as raw materials for nuclear and uranium weapons. Nuclear should be discouraged by the panel.” (ForUM, Norwegian Forum for Environment and Development) “Members of society deserve equal protection under the law. It has been and is evermore clear that nuclear and coal technology do not allow a society to deliver such a guarantee to those impacted by these forms of power generation.” (Nuclear Information Resource Service)

• Sustainable Technology “Some technologies will create new problems as they attempt to solve old ones. […] A multilateral institutional mechanism [should] consider not only whether a technology functions, but also its human rights, social, environmental and unintended impacts, as well as the structures of ownership, control and diffusion.” (ETC Group)


Informal actors in the green economy • Strengthening Corporate Accountability A clear message emanating from major groups is that transnational corporations – and their emphasis on short-term profitability in particular – remain a major hindrance to achieving more sustainable development. Governance and oversight over corporate investment and activities, especially across borders, remains irresponsibly weak. The public sector must re-assert itself and find better ways to cooperate internationally in order to provide direction and incentives to the private sector to reform their business practices.     

IBON Green Economy Coalition Convenor WWF-UK Christian Aid CIDSE


Update on Major groups and other stakeholders’ work so far Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development


Governance • The term governance refers to the process or method by which society is governed, or the ‘condition of ordered rule’. • It reflects the structures and processes of regionalization and decentralization, which have tended to build on previously informal interactions between government and other actors.


GOVERNANCE BEYOND GOVERNMENT • Governance is overwhelmingly associated with the work of governments. Yet during the last two decades, the governmental mode of governance has been complimented by modes of governance in which non-governmental organizations and the private sector are key partners. This trend is illustrated by the sustained growth of private sector standards such as certification, and of public-private partnerships, at the local to the global level.


Proposed Institutional Architecture • Strengthen CSD as an institution within the entire UN system • Upgrade CSD to permanent Council Level • Need to further develop and strengthen support functions within the UN system and at national level • Upgrade UNEP to a UN Specialised Agency or World Environmental Organization


Finance and Trade • Trade and Sustainability “States should undertake comprehensive Human Rights Impact Assessments (HRIA) before concluding bilateral or multilateral trade agreements to make sure that these agreements do not limit national policy space to realise the Right to Food and other human rights.” (CIDSE) “It is clear that the WTO is not equipped to assess interventionist measures, as it cannot undertake a detailed account of the developmental and environmental impacts of an economic measure on other countries, and on the global environment. An institution is needed to adjudicate upon both trade and complex environmental issues.” (Major Group Children and Youth, UNCSD)

• Financial Reform “To address short-termism, Oxfam supports “proposals to: ● require more active oversight role from institutional investors; ● link remuneration to social and environmental performance; ● encourage investors to hold shares for a longer period. “To address lack of transparency, Oxfam ‘believes that governments should set rules requiring companies to disclose information to the public and shareholders, for instance through Initial Public Offering (IPO) and ongoing listing rules.’”


Finance and Trade • Domestic Tax Mobilization Through Int’l Cooperation Many CSOs emphasize the need for meaningful international cooperation to combat illicit capital flight and strengthen domestic tax mobilization in developing countries, including through South-South exchange of best tax practices adapted to their realities and priorities.  Green Economy Coalition Convenor  Christian Aid

• Meeting ODA Commitments “[I]t is critical that rich nations deliver the 0.7 percent of GNI as foreign aid they promised in 1970. In addition to 0.7% commitments, rich countries need to provide climate finance to meet the needs of poor countries.” (Oxfam International) CIDSE calls for “A legal framework to enforce ODA obligations in order to make donors accountable to the citizens of their own countries and ultimately to the main beneficiaries of development assistance in recipient countries.”


Finance and Trade • Debt Relief / Cancellation / Resolution “[I]mmediate debt cancellation and reparations for ecological and climate debt are essential.” (Focus on the Global South) “There is need for binding criteria for responsible lending and an independent international debt work out mechanism which can assess the sustainability and legitimacy of debt. Without such reforms it will be difficult to solve the present debt crisis and to prevent unsustainable and illegitimate debts from accumulating in future.” (Norwegian Church Aid)

• Innovative Sources of Finance A great many CSOs call for governments to end subsidies that are harmful to sustainability goals, and to re-direct those funds to programs that do advance sustainability. A large number of contributing organizations advocate for a Financial Transaction Tax.


Improving Governance and Institutions for Sustainability • Accountability and Participation Based on Human Rights Christian Aid CIDSE ForUM, Norwegian Forum for Environment and Development Major Groups and Stakeholders Advisory Group on Int’l Environmental Gov.  Major Group for Children and Youth, UNCSD  The Access Initiative  Center for International Environmental Law

   


Reform Global Institutions or Create New Ones? • Reform global economic governance

“Effective integration of environment across other UN and non UN institutions, such as the IMF, World Bank and WTO is required, to ensure an alignment of economic policies, investment and financial reforms aligned with agreed targets on climate and biodiversity. Equivalent forms of cross-government alignment and integration need also to occur at a national level.” (Bond) “The Relationship Agreements linking the IMF and World Bank with the UN should be renegotiated to enhance the role of the UN and to ensure that IFIs fully abide by the mandates of other UN agencies, funds and bodies, particularly those with noneconomic mandates. Clear legal principles for addressing conflicts of interest between the IFIs and other UN bodies, agencies and fora should be established. [There should be] a mandatory requirement for proper and ex-ante parliamentary approval of all IMF and World Bank programmes in a country.” (CIDSE) CIDSE also supports the Stiglitz Commission’s proposal to create a Global Economic Coordination Council (GECC) supported by an International Panel of Experts. “Existing institutions such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the WTO serve no function in the transition to a new relationship between nature and society, given their ideologically-driven interests and their proven incapacity to change. Instead, bottom-up processes such as the ‘Cochabamba World Summit on Climate Change’, which gather together peoples movements, NGO, policy makers and politicians on an equal footing, need to be expanded.” (Focus on the Global South)


Reform Global Institutions or Create New Ones?

• Create a global environment organization WWF-UK, PRODENA - The Association for Defense of Nature, Climate Action Network FrancePeace Child International


Reform Global Institutions or Create New Ones? • Establish a Trusteeship for Future Generations Major Group Children and Youth, UNCSD, Ombudspersons for Future Generations

• The role of courts and tribunals “Across the board reforms are best accomplished through generic legal reforms. Establishing courts and tribunals that have power to consider all three pillars in cases brought before them can improve accountability.” (The Access Initiative) “International Environmental Law should be enforced. Every individual should have the right of access to environmental justice.” (PRODENA - The Association for Defense of Nature)


Emerging priorities


Emerging priorities • Food security; sustainable agriculture • Climate security • Energy security and access to clean energy • Water security and access • Ocean – blue economy • Urbanization/cities • Sustainable consumption and production


Identify and deal with emerging priorities • Proposal to develop a basis for three new frameworks conventions at Rio+20 • Principle 10 of the Rio Declaration and access to information, participation and justice; (WRI) • Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR, based on the ISO 26 000 outcome (Consumer International) • Develop the precautionary principle to a framework convention to include issues on emerging technologies, bio-engineering and nano-technology


Renewed political commitment • Develop a new and visionary document on how the world should look like in 2030 complete with concepts, visions, goals, all elements that should be brought into the expressed political commitments for sustainable development • The document must not be a traditional document that expects the participating countries to start a traditional negotiation process


Nothing new • Rachel Carson said it in 1960 • Barry Commoner said it in 1970 • UNEP said it in 1972 • UNCED said it in 1992 • Millennium ecosystems report said it in 2000 • WSSD said it in 2002 • Int’l Ass’t of Agr’l Knowledge, Science and Technology for Dev’t in 2008

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