Page 1

The Richmond

of English

Eduardo Amos Elisabeth Prescher

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Introduction The Richmond Simplified Grammar combina uma gramática de referência e exercícios em um único volume. Esta obra foi especialmente elaborada para servir de material de apoio para alunos do Ensino Fundamental II e do Ensino Médio. Desse modo, atualizamos e ampliamos os itens gramaticais apresentados, complementando-os com exercícios práticos que contextualizam o uso das estruturas trabalhadas em todas as seções. O objetivo dessa abordagem é ajudar os alunos a dominar o conteúdo e a gramática de língua inglesa atualmente solicitados nos exames vestibulares mais concorridos do país. Veja a seguir outros destaques desta edição: 1. The Richmond Grammar Practice CD-ROM (com áudio) — Mais de 230 questões de gramática, com respostas gravadas com falantes nativos da língua inglesa. 2. English – Portuguese, similarities and differences — Com base nas diferenças mais relevantes entre as duas línguas, as explicações e os exercícios desta seção enfocam dificuldades e dúvidas específicas do aluno brasileiro, permitindo-lhe ampliar seu conhecimento de maneira rápida e efetiva. 3. Progress Checks — Apresentadas a intervalos regulares, estas seções oferecem ao aluno a oportunidade de avaliar e revisar seu desempenho e domínio do idioma, por meio de exercícios que utilizam a linguagem do dia a dia. Cada Progress Check refere-se às unidades anteriores.

3

2. Fill the gaps with the determiners from the box below. (Sometimes more than one answer may be correct and you will need to use some of the words more than once). Remember to read the text once through first to understand the meaning.

Progress Check

many

a lot of

some

no

SUPERSTITION

1. Read the text to get the idea of what it is about. Then put the verbs in parentheses into the past simple tense.

There is

evidence that suggests ancient civilizations were very

that

superstitious. But superstition is also part of our modern world.

Is it a bird? Is it a plane? No! It’s Superman. Superman

very old beliefs1 are still with us

(land) on our planet in 1938.

today: a broken mirror2, for example, means seven years’

(be) sent into space

Still a baby, Jor-El and Lara’s only child

bad luck . In

on an unmanned spaceship1 before their planet Krypton (explode). The spaceship

(land) on Earth close to

the Kent’s home. The Kents

can bring you either good luck or bad luck if it crosses your

(find) the baby and

path4.

(decide) to raise2 him and call him Clark, Clark Kent.

curious superstition; the number 13 is a sign of bad luck and (follow) Superman’s adventures – in action cartoons, on the

Almost everyone

buildings have

radio, on TV and in the movies – each one telling a different part of Superman’s story. Action Comics first

thirteenth floor.

(print) the comic strip3 in 1938. It

(include) the appearance of Lois Lane, and the newspaper they

Thankfully, there is also a place for good luck in superstition.

(work) for

charms6 and beliefs are popular because,

(be) the Daily Star. (be) on the radio, not in the comics that Kryptonite, Superman’s famous (come) into the story.

The figures around Superman are impressive. The comic book in 1940, in which Superman

(publish)

(ask) Lois Lane to marry him (and she

(accept) ,

13

the best-seller of the series: it

good luck. Superstition is certainly part of the past and present and will probably remain with us into the future too. For people it is ignorance; for others, it is an

(sell) out in a few days.

important part of their lives.

(tell) the story of Superman’s death in November 1992. It is

Superman #75

people believed they brought

in the past,

(appear) in Action Comics #23.

Superman’s worst enemy, Luthor, only weakness4,

people never walk under a

ladder5 because it also means bad luck. New Yorkers have a

The story is well-known to all of us.

It

cultures a black cat

3

Source: Challenge. Amos, Prescher and Pasqualin. Richmond Publishing, 2006.

(sell) 6 million copies. Source: Challenge. Amos, Prescher and Pasqualin. Richmond Publishing, 2006.

• 1 unmanned • 2 raise

spaceship: nave espacial sem tripulação a child: criar, educar um filho

• 3 comic

strip: história em quadrinhos (especialmente aquelas publicadas em tiras de jornais e revistas) fraqueza

• 4 weakness:

•1 •2 •3

beliefs: crenças a broken mirror: um espelho quebrado bad luck: azar

•4 •5 •6

cross your path: cruzar seu caminho ladder: escada charm: talismã

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Exercícios para testar o uso da estrutura gramatical apresentada em textos atuais e autênticos.

Glossário com expressões mais complexas.

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4. Veja, a seguir, o esquema das unidades do livro.

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Present Perfect I I have studied, …she has done…

Formação: have / has + particípio passado do verbo principal. I

yesterday

have

You

today

Explicação em nível mais complexo.

He

Apresentação da forma e do uso da estrutura gramatical.

has

She It

lived

We have

You They

I bought a new shirt yesterday.

Interrogativa

Formas abreviadas

They have not lived here.

Have they lived here?

have not ➡ haven’t has not ➡ hasn’t

O particípio passado dos verbos regulares é igual ao passado simples. play

Look! I have bought a new shirt.

Negativa

played

played

drive

driven

drove

O present perfect é usado para se referir a ações que aconteceram num tempo indefinido no passado. I have finished my homework.

O particípio passado dos verbos irregulares não segue nenhuma regra.

Se o tempo em que a ação ocorreu for mencionado ou sugerido, usa-se o simple past. I finished my homework one hour ago. Obs: A tradução dos dois tempos verbais pode ser a mesma.

Ver a lista de verbos irregulares na página 202.

I. Write affirmative or negative sentences or questions. Use the present perfect. Example: I’ve finished my homework. (negative)

I haven’t finished my homework.

1. He has cleaned his room. (negative) 2. They have bought a house. (question) 3. She hasn’t been to Bahia. (affirmative) 4. Has he cut himself? (negative) 5. You’ve done your homework. (question)

Exercício com nível básico de dificuldade.

6. Have we been there before? (affirmative) 7. They haven’t lived here very long. (question) 120

8. It’s been very hot today. (negative)

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II. Write sentences using the present perfect or the simple past. 1. When I was a boy, I / swim / in that river. 2. You look different. What / you / do / to your hair? 3. He / buy / that old car / two years ago. 4. Look! Somebody / spill / water / on my desk. 5. It’s no good trying to call her on the phone. / She / go / out.

III. Complete the dialog with the verbs from the box. has happened Jane:

heard

did happen

was

Miranda: A cat

Exercício com nível mais complexo de dificuldade.

Jane:

called

has hurt

has jumped

has arrived

has called

went

?

What are those people looking at? What

Exercício com nível médio de dificuldade.

from the window in the building next door.

Really! The poor thing! happened?

it

itself? Tell me what

Miranda: Well, it seems that the cat on the window sill of the 9th floor apartment and fell onto the balcony of the 5th floor apartment. The owner of the 5th floor apartment the noise and to the balcony. He saw the cat and the doorman to help him. Jane:

When

this

?

Miranda: About ten minutes ago. Jane:

anyone

for help?

Miranda: Yes, a vet

already

.

IV. Complete the dialogs with the present perfect or the simple past of the verbs in parentheses. 1. A: Look! Somebody B: It 2. A:

(leave) the kitchen tap on. The sink is full of water. (not be) me. I

(not do) it.

you

(see) Lara? (not see) her.

B: No. I

(break) her arm.

3. A: Chris isn’t at work. She B: How

she

A: She

(fall) down the stairs. you

4. A: Where B: I 5. A: B: Yes, I

(do) that? (go) last night?

(go) to the theater. you

(finish) all your tests at school? (finish) them last Friday. 121

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Possessive Adjectives and Pronouns my, your..., mine, yours... Is that car yours?

Os possessivos concordam com o possuidor. I love my girlfriend, you love yours.

Possessive Pronouns

my

mine

your

yours

his

his

her

hers

its

its

Adjetivos possessivos precedem substantivos. This is my bike. His hair is brown.

Possessive Adjectives

our

ours

your

yours

their

theirs

Pronomes possessivos podem ser usados depois de of.

Pronomes possessivos substituem substantivos.

She is a friend of mine. (one of my friends)

This is my homework. Where’s yours? (your homework)

They are friends of ours. (some of our friends)

I. Underline the correct alternative. Example: (Our / ours) bags are here. Where are (your / yours)? 1. Don’t interrupt me. I’m doing (my / mine) homework. 2. “Is this (her / hers) bike?” “Yes, it’s (her / hers).” 3. Look, there’s Rachel! Is she a friend of (your / yours)? 4. (Our / Ours) grandparents always come to lunch on Sundays. 5. The children don’t like (their / theirs) new school. 6. Marta and Letícia are friends of (our / ours). 7. My cat is eating (it / its) food. 8. “Where’s Cristina?” “She’s with (her / hers) father.” 9. (Theirs / Their) car is white, but (his / him) is black. 10. This isn’t (ours / our) luggage, it’s (their / theirs).

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II. Complete these sentences with possessive adjectives or pronouns. Example: My brother always checks 1. Tatiana gave

his

homework, but I never check

mine

.

friend a CD. friends at the movie theater.

2. Marcelo and I are going to meet 3. Give me your address and I’ll give you

!

4. We really like

math teacher. Do you like

5. Dan is riding

bike. Rebecca is riding

6. Diego and Luciana are our neighbors.

? .

apartment is near

7. Do you know Rafaela? She’s a friend of

. We’re in the same class.

8. Márcia and Paulo are visiting some of

relatives.

.

III. Underline the correct alternative to complete the dialogue. Steve: Look at (my / mine) exam results! They are terrible! What about (your / yours)? Ben:

(My / Mine) are OK. How are Rachel’s results?

Steve: (Her / Hers) are OK too. Ben:

And Tom’s?

Steve: (His / He) results are OK too! Ben:

Oh, no!

IV. Manuela is studying English in the U.S. Complete this letter to her friends in Brazil. Use possessive adjectives and pronouns.

Hi, guys! How’s school? I am studying hard. English classes are difficult, but teacher is really friendly and patient. And after school, I have a lot of fun with the other students in class. On Friday, we had a big party. I met a nice boy and I gave him phone number. He gave me too. An Italian boy asked all the girls for e-mail addresses. Ângela didn’t give to Carlo. But she gave it to a really cute guy called Stefan. I’ll write again soon with some more news. Bye for now! Love Manuela XXXX 15

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1

Progress Check

1. Read the text once, quickly, to get the general idea. Then underline all the possessive adjectives and pronouns. You should find nine.

my composition I’m mad at my friend Janice. The other day, I showed her teacher, Mr. Swan, and later I found out that she’d simply copied it!! Our I told him what thought that the composition was hers and not mine! When had happened, he said that it wasn’t his problem. When other friends of mine tried to help by talking to a problem Mr. Swan, he said that they shouldn’t get involved in that isn’t theirs! I had a huge argument with Janice and she finally confessed that the composition was, in fact, mine!

Source: Graded English. Amos, Prescher and Pasqualin. Moderna, 2006.

2. Read the text and choose the appropriate grammatical form to complete the dialog between Carlos and Alex. Carlos: The movie we saw last night wasn’t very good. It was all about life in a small town like ours here. Alex: So? Carlos: (There wasn’t / There are / There weren’t) any point to the story, to tell you the truth. Why would anyone want to know what life is like in a place like this? (There are / There’s / There isn’t) ever anything exciting going on round here1. Alex: You obviously didn’t hear what happened yesterday downtown then, did you? Carlos: No! What? Alex: (There weren’t / There are / There was) a series of robberies in the afternoon! Three armed robbers broke into four different banks. Carlos: And (wasn’t there / aren’t there / won’t there be) any clues2 for the police to find out who the robbers were? Alex: So far they have no idea. Carlos: Wow! (There will be / There is / There was) more going on here yesterday than at the movies then!! •

1

2

going on round here = acontecendo por aqui clues = pistas

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3. Quickly read the text to understand the general idea. Then underline the correct demonstrative pronoun given in parentheses. Take a look here! (This / These / Those) is my high school photo album. (This / These / That) three men were my teachers. (This / These / Those) one on the left was Mr. Peters. He was an excellent teacher. Everybody in the school loved him. (That / Those / This) woman on the right is Ms. Winslett, the principal. Look at (that / these / this) other four pictures. (That / These / This) are my parents and (these / that / those) little girl is my sister when she was three! She was so cute. Can you believe Mr. Peters is her teacher now! (That / This / These) last one is our summer vacation ten years ago. Can you guess which one is me? Source: Challenge. Amos, Prescher and Pasqualin. Richmond Publishing, 2006.

d

ll e h

he a ve

Almost everyone has

wish, but not

many people are able to make their wishes come true1. Once in ancient China,

n

a n

4. Read the article once and then complete the text. Use a / an or Ø (no article).

man had

strange wish. “I want to see the

difference between

heaven and

hell before I die,” he used to say. Then, one day, his wish came true. When he was visiting full of

hell he saw

table

delicious food, but everyone was hungry and angry.

They had

food, but had to sit far from the table because they

were forced to use very long chopsticks2. It was impossible for them to put any food into their mouths. When the man was visiting

heaven, he had

surprise. Everything looked the same:

big table full of

delicious food, people sitting far from the table, and using very long chopsticks to eat. It was exactly like

hell, but in

heaven the people were happy and well-fed . The difference is that in 3

heaven they have realized that

chain4

does not stop you feeding5 others!

make a wish come true = realizar um desejo chopsticks = hashi, pauzinhos 3 well-fed = bem-alimentado 4 chain = corrente 5 feed = alimentar

1

2

• • •

Source: Graded English. Amos, Prescher & Pasqualin. Moderna, 2006.

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