Flowerpieces by Daniel Seghers & Abraham Mignon

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Flowerpieces by Daniel Seghers & Abraham Mignon At the time of publication the artworks in this catalogue are for sale, subject to our Terms and Conditions of Sale Jonathan Green Tel: +44 (0)7768 818 182 jonathangreen@richardgreen.com Penny Marks Tel: +44 (0)20 7493 3939 pennymarks@richardgreen.com Tamara Green Tel: +44 (0)7796 164 006 tamaragreen@richardgreen.com

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Cover detail: Daniel Seghers, Still life of roses, an iris, hyacinths, columbine and a carnation in a glass vase, with a Red Admiral butterfly (Vanessa atalanta)

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Daniel Seghers (1590–1661) and Abraham Mignon (1640–1679), creators of these two wonderful flowerpieces, came from opposite sides of the religious divide which had riven Europe ever since Martin Luther nailed his Ninety-five Theses to the door of a Wittenberg church in 1517. Seghers, from Antwerp, took the long road to ordination as a priest of the Jesuit Order, founded by St Ignatius of Loyola in 1540. Seghers was steeped in the ferment of the Counter-Reformation, Catholicism’s intellectual and artistic riposte to Protestantism. A pupil of Jan Brueghel the Elder (1568–1625), he was in Rome from 1625 to 1627, painting flower garlands to glorify a central image of the Virgin Mary or a Saint that would have been supplied by a second, specialist hand. In 1625 Seghers took his final vows, henceforth proudly signing his work Daniel Seghers Societatis Jesu. He became so famous that the Jesuits used his flowerpieces as diplomatic gifts, often to Protestant princes, as a subtle reminder of Catholic cultural superiority. They included the Dutch Stadholder Frederik Hendrik, Prince of Orange, who in return presented Seghers with a gilded palette, gilded brushes and a gilded mahlstick. Abraham Mignon’s family were French-speaking Calvinists who moved to Frankfurt to avoid persecution by the Spanish rulers of the Southern Netherlands. Mignon spent the major part of his career in Utrecht in the Protestant Dutch Republic. He was a Deacon of his church, one of the ‘lay ecclesiastical’ officers charged with giving alms to the poor and sick and the distribution of bread at Communion. The graceful, pale gold ears of wheat which catch the light in Mignon’s still life would have symbolized to his fellow Calvinists, and indeed to a seventeenth century audience generally, the bread of the Last Supper. What these two men of God and highly trained artists have in common is a reverence for, and delight in, the wonders of Creation. Seghers’s approach to painting flowers is luscious and sensual, Mignon’s more linear, with a miraculous attention to detail: the life-size ants on the white rose in his bouquet are furnished with their own shadows. They lived in an age when there was a great upsurge of interest in the natural world and huge scientific advances. The tulips which feature in both these paintings, introduced into Europe from Turkey in the sixteenth century, were a continuing source of joy and mystery in the following century: no one had worked out what caused a single-colour bulb to ‘break’ into the coveted flame-like markings. Such was their numinous quality that the celebrated Welsh gardener, Sir Thomas Hanmer, even suggested that tulips were the ‘lilies of the field’ mentioned in the Sermon on the Mount. The flowers depicted by Seghers and Mignon have long since faded, but we have their genius to thank that we can enjoy them still.

DANIE L SEG H E RS 1590 – Antwerp – 1661

Still life of roses, an iris, hyacinths, columbine and a carnation in a glass vase, with a Red Admiral butterfly (Vanessa atalanta) Signed lower right: D. Seghers. Soc.tis JESV Oil on copper: 15 × 10 ½ in / 38.1 × 26.7 cm Frame size: 21 ¾ × 17 in / 55.2 × 43.2 cm In a polished black seventeenth century Dutch style frame Painted in the 1640s PROVENANCE:

Wahlberg, Sweden Lind, Sweden, by 1886 Olof Wijk (1833–1901), Gothenburg, Sweden, after 1886; by descent in a private collection, Europe L I T E R AT U R E :

O Granberg, Catalogue Raisonné de Tableaux Anciens Inconnu Jusqu’ici dans Les Collections Privées de la Suede, Stockholm 1886, p.153, no.279, as a ‘Chef d’oeuvre’ O Granberg, Inventaire Général des Trésors d’Art en Suède, Stockholm 1912, vol. II, p.103, no.374


Daniel Seghers was a Jesuit priest famed throughout Europe for his delicate and exquisitely realistic still lifes. A pupil of Jan Brueghel the Elder (1568–1625), Seghers specialised in flower garlands, often surrounding a grisaille portrait of the Virgin May or a Saint supplied by a collaborating artist such as Erasmus Quellinus II (1607–1678). He also painted bouquets of flowers in a simple glass vase, as in this example. They are far rarer than his garlands: from an oeuvre of around 240 paintings, only thirty bouquets in vases are known to exist. The finest, including this painting, are in oil on copper, an expensive, smooth support which allowed Seghers to achieve the utmost subtlety in his delineation of flowers. Seghers’s bouquets have a mesmerising purity and directness. In this painting, as always, the bouquet is contained in an unadorned glass vase, with its tiny reflection of the studio window among the flower stalks. Seghers chooses flowers readily found in gentlemen’s gardens in Antwerp, or in the garden of his own Jesuit house or the Order’s country estate: a tulip, roses, hyacinths, an iris, a carnation and columbine (or aquilegia). They are all just coming into bloom, or in pristine maturity. Working against a very dark background, Seghers applies the paint lusciously, in a less linear manner than his teacher Jan Brueghel the Elder: shapes and shadows are created through the bold juxtaposition of colour. The waxy beauty of the white hyacinth flowers, which twist in space, is created with rich white impasto set beside thinner grey shadows. Seghers enjoys the drama of variegated flowers: the tulip, with its much-prized stripes of flame-red; the pattern on the iris petals and the dazzling mix of red and white on the columbine, which lights up the top right area of the composition. Warm colours, offset with white, are the leitmotif of this bouquet. Red and white was the most desirable colour combination for tulips, especially during the ‘Tulip mania’ in the northern Netherlands from 1634–7, when a single bulb of Semper Augustus changed hands for 10,000 guilders, the price of a substantial country estate.1 The flame effect was caused by a virus and was totally unpredictable. This was true also for the splendid bicoloured anemone at centre


Identification of flowers 1 Tulip

Tulipa hybrid

3 Columbine

Aquilegia vulgaris

2 Iris

4 White rose

Iris xiphium Rosa alba

5 Centifolia rose

Rosa centifolia

7 Carnation

Dianthus caryophyllus

6 Hyacinth 8 Anemone

Hyacinthus orientalis Anemone coronaria


right.2 The columbine and the carnation might achieve their bicoloured effect naturally, though rarely. Seghers characteristically places four dense, rounded flowers at the centre of the bouquet, emphasising the airy sinuosity of the rosebuds and the columbine stalks, which reach out to the corners of the copper panel. Given the artist’s status as a Jesuit priest, the echo of a cruciform shape is undoubtedly intentional. Founded in 1540 by the soldier St Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556), the Jesuit Order was at the intellectual and cultural forefront of the Counter-Reformation. St Ignatius exhorted the members of his Order to go out and ‘find God in all things’; Seghers would have regarded his flower paintings as celebrating the glory of God’s Creation. His still lifes were often used as diplomatic gifts, particularly to Protestant Princes, a gentle assertion of the cultural superiority of the Catholic church. As a Jesuit, in addition to his vows of poverty, chastity and obedience to the Pope, Seghers would have had a special dedication to the Virgin Mary, who held a key place in St Ignatius’s writings. This flowerpiece is shot through with Marian imagery. The rose and the iris3 (fleur-de-lis) are associated with the Virgin and are often seen with her in fifteenth century Flemish paintings. The carnation (dianthos, or flower of God, in Greek), became associated with the divine love revealed by the Incarnation, the streaks of red among the white recalling Christ’s sacrifice upon the Cross. The Red Admiral butterfly, upside-down on the tip of the white rose, would have recalled to a seventeenth century viewer the Soul’s fragility and its eventual flight to Heaven. Seghers determined his compositions by blocking in the main flowers with blobs of bright colour and adding ever more intricate layers to model the blooms. He conveys the different textures of the species, from the waxy quality of the hyacinths and tulip to the silky, translucent rose petals. His palette is clear and strong, and each flower emerges as an individual personality. Like most flower painters of his day, Seghers brings together blooms that do not flower together in nature – the hyacinths in March, the tulip in April, the


columbine in May, the roses and carnation in June. Such naturalistic-looking bouquets were assembled by reference to drawings (or perhaps oil studies) kept in the studio. A similar iris and bicoloured columbine appear in A vase of flowers in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge,4 but Seghers always modifies his blooms so that his compositions strike the viewer with a delightful freshness. NOTE ON THE PROVENANCE

In the late nineteenth century this painting was in the collection of the Gothenburg businessman, philanthropist and Member of Parliament Olof Wijk (1833–1901). It has descended in a European private collection.

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DANIE L SEG H E RS 1590 – Antwerp – 1661

Daniel Seghers was born in Antwerp on 3rd December 1590, the son of the silk merchant Pierre Seghers (d. c.1601) and Marguerite van Gheel. He was brought up in the northern Netherlands by his mother, who converted to Calvinism. He began studying painting around 1605 and was enrolled as a Master in the Guild of St Luke in Antwerp in 1611, with Jan Brueghel the Elder (1568–1625) named as his teacher. Seghers reconverted to Catholicism and in 1614 entered the Jesuit Order in Mechelen as a novice. He lived in Antwerp from 1617 to 1621. In the latter year he is recorded as a painter at the Collège de Bruxelles, producing two large Garlands of flowers for the cathedral of St Michel in Brussels. In 1625 he took his final vows as a Jesuit priest and henceforth signed his works Daniel Seghers Societatis Jesu. From 1625–27 Seghers was in Rome, painting flower garlands for ecclesiastical patrons. He returned to Antwerp and remained there until his death in 1661, working as a flower painter at the Jesuit house. Dated paintings exist only from 1635 to 1651 and it is quite difficult to construct a chronology for Seghers’s work. He painted floral garlands and bouquets, usually in a simple glass vase. The garlands, which are characteristically symmetrical, become more elaborate as his career progresses. Seghers eschewed exotic blooms in favour of exquisitely-rendered examples of cultivated garden flowers, particularly roses, tulips and carnations. They are usually depicted in a state of pristine freshness, never overblown or with decay. Seghers’s manner is less linear than that of his teacher Jan Brueghel, with a wonderful directness of brushwork. Seghers developed the idea of the flower garland round a devotional image, employed by Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) and others, introducing trompe l’oeil stone cartouches containing a statue, typically of the Virgin, or a holy portrait. These figures were supplied

by collaborators, including Rubens himself, Thomas Willeboirts Bosschaert (1613/14–1654) and Simon de Vos (1603–1676). Seghers’s fame spread throughout Europe. As a Jesuit, who had taken a vow of poverty, he was not allowed to accept payment for his work. His paintings were frequently used by his Order as diplomatic gifts, often to Protestant rulers, as symbols of the cultural resurgence of the Counter-Reformation. His works entered the collections of Prince Frederik Hendrik of Orange-Nassau, Queen Christina of Sweden, Scipione Borghese and Charles I of England; the young Charles II, exiled in the Netherlands, visited Seghers’s studio in 1649. The polymath Constantijn Huygens (1596–1687), Secretary to three Dutch Stadholders, maintained a lively correspondence with Seghers and they swapped poems and recipes for paints; Huygens declared that Seghers painted flowers so lifelike that ‘he could almost smell them’. In 1644 Seghers gave Huygens a garland of flowers which decorates a grisaille portrait of Huygens by Jan Cossiers (1600–1671). It has recently been acquired by the Mauritshuis in The Hague. Unusually for his time, at the age of seventy-one Daniel Seghers made an inventory of the 239 paintings that he had made and their destinations, entitled Catalogue van de bloemstukken, die ik self met mijn hand heb geschildert en voor wie (Catalogue of the still lifes I painted and for whom).5 Seghers’s only pupil was Jan Philips van Thielen (1618– 1667), but his style was highly influential. Seghers died in Antwerp in 1661. The work of Daniel Seghers is represented in the Mauritshuis, The Hague; the Vatican Museums, Rome; the Hermitage, St Petersburg; the Prado, Madrid; the Louvre, Paris; the Royal Collection, London; the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; the Narodny Galerie, Prague; Philadelphia Museum of Art, PA and the Museum of Art, Toledo, OH.

1 See Nathalie Maciesza, Geert Mak and Sam Segal, The Tulpbook, Amsterdam 2019, pp.12–20. 2 We are grateful to Dr Celia Fisher for her identification of and comments on the flowers. 3 The iris shown by Seghers is a bulbous or Dutch iris (Iris xiphium), as in the seventeenth century no such unusual colour would have been achieved with a bearded iris (Iris germanica). 4 Oil on copper: 18 7/8 × 13 3/4 in / 48 × 35 cm. 5 Published by W Couvreur, ‘Daniel Seghers’ inventaris van door hem geschilderde bloemstukken’ in Gentse Bijdragen tot de Kunstgeschiedenis den de Oudheidkunde, xx, 1967, pp.87–158.

Jan Meyssens after Jan Lievens, Daniel Seghers. Engraving. Š The Picture Art Collection / Alamy.


ABRAHAM MIGNON Frankfurt 1640 – 1679 Utrecht

Still life of roses, tulips, poppies, morning glory, love-in-a-mist, scabious and other flowers in a glass vase in a stone niche, with insects and snails Signed lower right: AB Mignon: f. (AB in ligature) Oil on panel: 18 7/8 × 16 3/8 in / 47.9 × 41.5 cm Frame size: 26 × 23 1/4 in / 66 × 59.1 cm In a polished black seventeenth century Dutch style frame Painted after 1672 PROVENANCE:

By descent in a private collection, UK since at least the late nineteenth century



“Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin And yet…even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these” St Matthew Chapter 6: verses 28–29 (Sermon on the Mount)

“The Tulipe is the Queene of Bulbous plants, whose Flower is beautifull in its figure…Wee had it first out of Turkey about fifty years since, where it grows wild in some parts, particularly about Jerusalem as they write, and is thought to bee that flower translated ill a Lilly, which was sayd to bee more gloriously array’d than Solomon” Sir Thomas Hanmer, Garden Book (1659)


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Abraham Mignon was a descendant of Walloons – French-speaking Calvinists who emigrated to Frankfurt to avoid persecution by the Spanish rulers of the Southern Netherlands. He trained in Frankfurt with the flower painter and art- and tulip-dealer Jacob Marrell (1614–1681), following Marrell to Utrecht in the mid1660s. From 1669 to 1672 Mignon worked in the studio of Jan Davidsz. de Heem (1606–1684), one of the finest and most innovative flower painters of the century. This beautifully-preserved work, hidden away in a UK private collection for more than a century, has been dated by Fred Meijer after 1672, the year that de Heem returned to his former home in Antwerp because of the upheavals of the Dutch wars with France. Mignon was left in charge of the field as the finest still life painter in Utrecht, producing some of the most spectacular flower pieces of his career. Magdalena Kraemer-Noble characterizes this period as one of ‘freedom and brilliance’.1 Sadly, Mignon did not have long to enjoy his prominence: he died in 1679. This picture reflects Mignon’s extraordinary balance of energy and delicate observation. A bouquet of flowers is arranged in a glass vase set in a stone niche. Its abundance is barely contained within the space: a peony and a snowball flop forward over the stone ledge, so close they almost seem within the viewer’s touch. At the same time, Mignon does not let the composition tip over into baroque excess. The flowers are contained within the halo-like frame of the niche; they overlap one another, but not so much that we cannot appreciate their individual personality. The bright colours which Mignon derived from de Heem move the eye harmoniously around the panel. The top, bottom, left and right of the painting are anchored by blooms of brilliant red. A beautiful white rose glows at the centre, while the shadows are filled with more modest blue flowers. Mignon learned his acute observation of nature both from Marrell and de Heem. Marrell’s paintings are botanically very accurate. While a teenager in Marrell’s Frankfurt studio, Mignon taught drawing and painting to Marrell’s stepdaughter Maria Sybilla Merian (1647–1717), who became one of the most accomplished naturalists


Life-size details


and scientific illustrators of her day. The three tulips which are an important feature of the present work no doubt reflect Marrell’s immersion in the world of tulip bulb collecting and dealing, although the ‘Tulip Mania’ of the 1630s had long since subsided. The prized flame patterns on tulips, so superbly explored in Mignon’s painting, were caused by a virus, although this was not understood at the time. It seemed something of a miracle when a supposedly monochrome bulb shot forth tongues of scarlet and purple. The Welsh horticulturalist Sir Thomas Hanmer, in his Garden Book of 1659, likened the numinous quality of tulips to the Sermon on the Mount’s ‘lilies of the field’ that ‘toil not, neither do they spin… yet…even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these’.2 Hanmer wrote: ‘The Tulipe is the Queene of Bulbous plants, whose Flower is beautifull in its figure…Wee had it first out of Turkey about fifty years since, where it grows wild in some parts, particularly about Jerusalem as they write, and is thought to bee that flower translated ill a Lilly, which was sayd to bee more gloriously array’d than Solomon’.3 From Jan Davidsz. de Heem, Mignon imbibed the balance between realism and painterliness, the building up of layers and the use of glazes to evoke the different textures of flowers, from the waxy tulips to the tissue-thin poppy petals. De Heem also made decorative use of ears of wheat, a motif found in the strongly-lit, graceful stalks and serpentine blades of wheat in Mignon’s painting. Mignon’s mature work, with its instinct towards the graphic, makes intense play of stalks and boundaries, creating out of light the super-fine edge of the bursting pea pod, for example. He loves to grasp the unique shape of each object in nature and turns a microscopic attention on its tiniest elements. The ants on the white rose are provided – astonishingly – with their own shadows, while only the fiercest gaze on the part of the viewer will discover the spider’s web, complete with trapped scabious petals, which trails across the love-in-a-mist at the top centre of the painting.


Identification of flowers 1 Opium poppy

2 Tulip

Papaver somniferum Tulipa hybrid

3 White damask rose Rosa damascena

4 Centifolia rose

Rosa centifolia

6 Peony

Paeonia officinalis

5 Yellow/orange rose Rosa foetida

7 Guelder rose

Viburnum opulus

8 Carnation

Dianthus caryophyllus

(snowball tree)

9 Wild carrot

Daucus carota

10 Scabious

Knautia arvensis

12 Morning glory

Ipomoea tricolor

14 Peas

Pisum sativum

16 Marigold (bud)

Calendula officinalis

18 Wheat

Triticum aestivum

11 Love-in-a-mist 13 Amaranth

Nigella sativa

Amaranthus caudatus

15 Pansy/heartsease Viola tricolor

17 Feverfew

19 Wild grass

20 Cress or rocket


Tanacetum parthenium Festuca

Sisymbrium or Rorippa


Gerard de Lairesse, in his Groote Schilderboeck, noted that a flower painting specialist should have a well-stocked hortus botanicus.4 It is not known whether Mignon achieved this, but he was prosperous by the end of his career and his flowers are clearly studied from life. The present bouquet, like so many seventeenth century Dutch paintings, brings together flowers that bloom at different seasons: the tulips and pansy in spring, the roses at midsummer, the poppies tangled with the wheat at harvest time. The bouquet was probably assembled with the help of drawings or watercolours kept in the studio. The same flowers appear in more than one work. For example, a replica of the red-and-white striped tulip to the right of this painting, as well as a similar scabious, can be found in a still life of Flowers in a glass vase of c.1670 (Mauritshuis, The Hague), which was probably a commission from the House of Orange5 (Fig. 1). In the 1670s Mignon was a Deacon in the French Calvinist church in Utrecht, as Marrell had been in Frankfurt, responsible for distributing the bread at Communion and giving alms to the poor, in a church wholly founded on the authority of Scripture.6 Whether overt or not, it is impossible to ignore the part that these beliefs played in Mignon’s flower painting. The ears of wheat would recall to a seventeenth-century viewer the bread of the Eucharist, while the butterfly perched at the apex of the painting would remind them of the soul’s flight towards Heaven. The snail on the withering poppy leaf at lower left makes the point that all earthly things decay and that only in Faith could be found eternal life. In addition, the painting encompasses the Four Elements: Earth (the stone niche, flowers and wheat are products of the earth); Fire (the glass vase, blown by fire); Water (in the vase and the exquisitely painted dew-drops) and Air (the insects), together representing God’s Creation. The artist and art dealer Conraet Roepel (1678–1748), who was much influenced by Mignon, told the German scholar Zacharias von Uffenbach that Mignon was a ‘small, uninviting and ugly man’, though ‘very diligent and virtuous’. By contrast with the man, Roepel showed Uffenbach a painting by Mignon, which was ‘of incomparable beauty’.7 Such a phrase springs to mind when contemplating this Still life of roses.


Fig. 1 Abraham Mignon, Flowers in a glass vase, c.1670. Oil on canvas. © Mauritshuis, The Hague.

1 Abraham Mignon 1640–1679, Leigh-on-Sea 1973, p.11. 2 St Matthew Chapter 6: verses 28–29. 3 The Garden Book of Sir Thomas Hanmer Bart, with an Introduction by Eleanour Sinclair Rohde, Clywd 1991, p.18. 4 See Magdalena Kraemer-Noble, Abraham Mignon 1640–1679 Catalogue Raisonné, Petersberg 2007, p.24. 5 Oil on canvas: 35 3/8 × 28 ½ in / 90 × 72.5 cm; inv. no.112. The Mauritshuis painting was by 1726 in the collection of Henriette Amalia of Nassau-Dietz. See Kraemer-Noble, op. cit., p.190, no.71, illus. in colour. 6 I am grateful to Revd. Canon Dr Nicholas Cranfield for his information on the Calvinist church. 7 Quoted in Kraemer-Noble 2007, op. cit., p.10.

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Life-size detail

ABRAHAM MIGNON Frankfurt 1640 – 1679 Utrecht

Abraham Mignon was born in Frankfurt, the son of a cheese merchant and the descendant of Walloon craftsmen who had emigrated from the French-speaking part of the Catholic Southern Netherlands in order to practise their Calvinist faith. Although his parents moved to Wetzlar in 1649, Abraham became a pupil of Jacob Marrell in Frankfurt, probably towards the end of 1650. Marrell brought Mignon to Utrecht on one of his many visits to that city, where he himself had lived in the 1630s and 40s. When this move occurred exactly is uncertain. It is generally assumed it took place around 1664, but it may well have been earlier, perhaps shortly after the death of Mignon’s father in 1660. In 1669 Mignon was registered as a master by the Utrecht guild. He was strongly influenced by Jan Davidsz. de Heem, and worked in that artist’s studio probably from his arrival in Utrecht until de Heem’s departure in 1672; after that, Mignon appears to have taken over the studio. In 1675 he married the granddaughter of the marine painter Adam Willaerts. For several years, from 1672 on, he was a Deacon in the French Reformed Church in Utrecht, where he died in 1679, aged thirty-nine. He was a very prolific painter of flower and fruit pieces, and still lifes of dead birds.

Even during Mignon’s lifetime his works were in great demand. The Elector of Saxony owned thirteen of his paintings which later entered the collection of the Gemäldegalerie in Dresden; his paintings were also acquired by Louis XIV of France. Both Rachel Ruysch (1664–1750) and Coenraet Roepel (1678–1748) were inspired by Mignon’s work. The work of Abraham Mignon is represented in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; the Staatliche Kunsthalle, Karlsruhe; the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford; the Wallraf-Richartz Museum, Cologne; the Louvre, Paris; the Mauritshuis, The Hague; the Uffizi, Florence and the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.

Abraham Mignon apparently did not date any of his paintings and consequently it is quite impossible to establish a firm artistic chronology for his oeuvre, which probably spans no more than a mere fifteen years. In general, it would seem that after de Heem’s departure, Mignon’s style became more graphic and less tonal. His larger, sumptuous and most highly finished still lifes of flowers and of fruit – details of which are hardly discernable from those by de Heem – probably date from the years around 1670, when the artist was working most closely with the great master.


DANIE L SEG H E RS 1590 – Antwerp – 1661

Still life of roses, an iris, hyacinths, columbine and a carnation in a glass vase, with a Red Admiral butterfly (Vanessa atalanta) In a polished black seventeenth century Dutch style frame


ABRAHAM MIGNON Frankfurt 1640 – 1679 Utrecht

Still life of roses, tulips, poppies, morning glory, love-in-a-mist, scabious and other flowers in a glass vase in a stone niche, with insects and snails In a polished black seventeenth century Dutch style frame



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DELIVERY OF THE WORK AND PASSING OF RISK The Work will be delivered following receipt of the full Price by us in cleared funds. We will deliver the Work to the address both parties have agreed in writing unless it is agreed in writing that you should collect it from us. You are responsible for all costs of delivery or collection unless we agree otherwise in writing.




6. 6.1 6.2 6.2.1 6.2.2 6.2.3 6.2.4 6.2.5

You will be responsible for the Work, for the risk of damage to it or loss of it and also for insuring it, from the time and date agreed for its delivery and you agree that thereafter you will not hold us responsible for insuring the Work or for any loss or damage to the Work. Any loss or damage prior to delivery shall be covered by the terms of our insurance then in effect and we shall have no liability for loss of profit, business, revenue or incidental, consequential, or exemplary damages. If you fail to accept delivery of the Work at the agreed time we may charge you for the reasonable costs of storage, insurance and re-delivery and risk in the Work shall immediately pass to you and you irrevocably authorise us to deposit the Work with you if delivery has not occurred within six months. Dates quoted for delivery are approximate and we shall not be liable for delay. Time of delivery shall not be of the essence nor capable of being made of the essence. You will provide us with all necessary information and documentation to facilitate delivery. PASSING OF OWNERSHIP Full legal title to the Work will not pass to you until we have received in full in cleared funds all sums due in respect of the Work and any other amount owed by you to us and we are satisfied as to your identity and that of any third party payer. If you have possession of the Work before full payment has been made, you undertake as our fiduciary agent and bailee to: keep possession of it, not sell it, export it or hand it over to any other person or dispose of any interest in it and in the case of a Work consisting of more than one item, keep those items together; keep all identifying marks showing that we own the Work clearly displayed and store the Work on your premises and at no cost to us, separately from other property with adequate security measures; at our request, and after we have given you reasonable notice, allow us or a third party acting on our behalf to have access to the Work in order to inspect it; preserve the Work in the same state as it was on delivery and in particular, not restore, repair, clean or reframe it without our written consent and take all reasonable steps to prevent any damage to or deterioration of the Work; and keep the Work comprehensively insured for not less than the invoice Price, have our interest noted on the policy as an additional named insured and provide a copy of such notification to us.

7. 7.1

EXPORT AND LOCAL TAXES If the Work is to be exported from the United Kingdom, whether to other countries within the EU or outside the EU, we will normally make appropriate arrangements for export and shipment and may make a reasonable additional charge for doing so. Unless agreed otherwise in writing, the agreement is not conditional upon the granting of any requisite export licence or permission which both parties will use their best endeavours to obtain. 7.2 Each party will to the extent such obligation is applicable to that party in connection with the sale and/or export of the Work : 
 7.2.1 comply with all requirements of any relevant tax authorities (that is, any authority imposing, administrating or collecting any tax, duty or levy including HM Revenue and Customs), any export licensing authorities and any other relevant official bodies; and 7.2.2 obtain all the relevant documents showing proof of export without delay. 7.3 You will reimburse to us any sum claimed if any relevant tax authority or other official body makes any claim against us for VAT, sales tax, use tax or any other expense or penalties resulting from your failure to comply with any relevant requirements for export and import. 7.4 When upon its sale to you the Work is intended for export, you will be charged for VAT on the Work should it not be exported. 7.5 You will be responsible for paying any taxes including but not limited to import tax, duty, merchandise, sales or use tax that have to be paid in the country of destination whether on shipment or on import or at any other time. 8. 8.1

BREACH BY YOU If you fail to pay the Price in full (or if we agree with you payment by set instalments and you fail to pay any one or more instalment) in accordance with clause 3.1 above, or if prior to you paying the Price in full you fail to comply with the obligations set out in clauses 6 and 7 above, or otherwise do or fail to do anything which may in any way imperil our ownership of the Work or the Work itself, we are entitled (without prejudice to our other rights and remedies at law) to either: 8.1.1 terminate the contract for sale, repossess the Work and claim damages for any loss we have suffered; and/or charge you interest on the amount unpaid at the rate set out in the Late Payment of Commercial Debts (Interest) Act 1998 or where that Act does not apply at the rate of 2% per annum above Lloyds Bank plc base rate from the date when payment was due until payment is made in full; and/or retain any sums paid; and/or to further seek to mitigate the loss by selling the Work on such terms as we may reasonably consider appropriate and to claim the balance from you; or

8.1.2 at our election, treat the sale as cancelled, and repossess the Work, in which case (and only in which case) and as your sole and exclusive right and remedy we shall following the safe return of the Work, refund to you any part of the Price you have paid, after deduction of any sums due to us including but not limited to costs of recovery and restoration of the Work. 8.2 We shall also have the right to repossess the Work and cancel the sale if before you make full payment of the purchase price to us, (1) proceedings occur in the UK or elsewhere involving your solvency (or if you are more than one person, jointly and/ or severally) or (2) we reasonably apprehend that insolvency is about to occur in relation to you or otherwise have genuine doubt with respect to your capacity to pay the Price in full, then we or our agent may, at our option, immediately repossess the Work and/or terminate the sale with or without notice whereupon, without prejudice to any other rights and remedies available to us, you will return the Work to our nominated address (at your sole risk and cost), or, at our option, we or our agent may enter the premises where the Work is kept to regain possession. Nothing herein shall limit other rights available to us pursuant to applicable law. 8. 3 Where we notify you of the exercise of our right to repossession, at our option you will within seven days of such notice, return the Work to our premises at your cost and risk or tell us where the Work is kept and allow us to enter the premises where the Work is (separately) kept and take the Work away at your cost (it being understood that where the Work consists of more than one item, our rights of repossession extend to all such items). 9.

LIMITATION OF OUR LIABILITY Any claim against us must be brought within a period of six years from the date of the invoice for the Work or, if we have been guilty of any fraud or deliberately concealed a relevant fact in relation to the Work within six years after you have discovered this, or could have discovered it if you were reasonably diligent. We shall not accept any claim after these periods. We shall not be liable for loss of profits, business, revenue (whether direct or indirect) or indirect or consequential loss or damage, if any, which you may suffer in connection with buying the Work howsoever arising including negligence. Any liability to you for breach of our obligations whether in contract, tort (including negligence) or otherwise, shall be limited to the price paid for the Work provided that nothing in this clause 9 limits or excludes our liability for: (a) death or personal injury caused by our negligence or any of our agents; and/or (b) fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation; and/or (c) our wilful default.


RESCISSION We will have the right, but not the obligation, to rescind a sale without notice to you, where an adverse claim is made by a third party, including but not limited to, someone claiming ownership of the Work. Upon notice of our election to rescind the sale, you will promptly return the Work to us and we will then refund the Price paid. The refund of the Price paid will constitute your sole remedy and recourse against us with respect to such claims.


COPYRIGHT The copyright subsisting in all images and other materials produced for the sale of the Work is owned by us and such images and materials may only be used with our permission. We will have the right to use such images in our own discretion after the sale of the Work. For the avoidance of doubt, this sale does not transfer or assign or licence any copyright or other intellectual property rights to you. During the period in which the Work is protected by copyright, the copyright remains with the artist (or any person to whom that right has been assigned). You are purchasing the Work, but not the right to produce copies of the Work (including photographs thereof ) for publication or do any other act restricted by copyright. If such rights are sought, you should contact the copyright owner.


NOTICES Any notice to be given to us or that we must give to you in connection with the sale of the Work must be in writing and sent by post, or delivered by hand, to our address on our invoice or to your last known address as notified to us by you as the case may be and shall be deemed delivered on delivery if by hand or on the third day after posting if posted.


FURTHER INFORMATION: NON – TRADE BUYERS This clause applies only where the sale of the Work is to an individual acting for purposes which are wholly or mainly outside that individual’s trade, business, craft or profession (“the Consumer”). It is not our standard policy to sell works of art exclusively by electronic mail/other methods of distance communication, however, in the exceptional case where a contract for the sale of the Work is concluded exclusively through such distance communication with a Consumer and accordingly the relevant provisions of The Consumer Contracts (Information, Cancellation and Additional Charges) Regulations 2013 apply to the sale of the Work in question then:

13.1 We confirm that Richard Green (Fine Paintings) or Richard Green & Sons Ltd (as the case may be) is the party to whom any complaints or comments should be directed. 13.2 If you have concluded a transaction exclusively at a distance you have the right to cancel the contract for the purchase of the Work in question within 14 days from the day on which you acquire, or a third party other than the carrier and indicated by you acquires, physical possession of the Work. Where the Work consists of more than one item (which are to be delivered separately), such cancellation period will expire after 14 days from acquiring physical possession of the last item. 13.3 If you cancel a contract concluded exclusively at a distance for the purchase of the Work, we will reimburse to you all payments received from you, including the costs of delivery (except for the supplementary costs arising if you chose a type of delivery other than the least expensive type of standard delivery offered by us). Without prejudice to any other rights or remedies which may be available to us in law or in equity, we may make a deduction from the reimbursement for loss in value of the Work, if the loss is the result of unnecessary handling by you. We will make any reimbursement to which you are entitled without undue delay, and not later than: 13.3.1 14 days after the day we receive the Work back from you; or (if earlier) 13.3.2 14 days after the day you provide evidence that you have returned the Work. 13.4 If we do not receive the Work back from you, we may arrange for collection of the Work from you at your cost. 14.

LAW AND JURISDICTION These terms and conditions and any non-contractual obligations arising from or in connection with them shall in all respects be construed and take effect in accordance with English law and both parties agree to submit to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English Courts subject always to clause 15.

15. ARBITRATION 15.1 Notwithstanding clause 14 above, we may, by giving written notice to you, elect to have any disputes arising out of, or in connection with, the sale and purchase of the Work referred to a single arbitrator in London to be resolved in accordance with the Arbitration Act 1996. The seat of such an arbitration will be London and the language to be used in the arbitral proceedings will be English. In the event that the parties cannot agree upon an arbitrator either party may apply to the President of the Law Society of England and Wales for the time being to appoint as arbitrator a Queen’s Counsel of not less than 5 years standing. The decision of the arbitrator shall be final and binding, and enforceable in any Court having jurisdiction over you. 15.2 Save that the parties acknowledge each other’s right to seek, and the power of the High Court or other appropriate courts to grant, interim relief without a need to post a bond or other security, no Court action shall be brought in relation to any claim or dispute until the arbitrator has made a final award. Any dispute concerning this agreement, as well as the Price shall be kept confidential by you. 16. GENERAL TERMS 16.1 Both parties agree that in entering into the agreement neither party relies on, nor has any remedy in respect of, any statement, representation or warranty (“Representation”), negligently or innocently made to any person (whether party to this agreement or not) including without limitation any Representation made prior to or at the same time as the agreement is entered into, other than as expressly set out in the agreement as a warranty. The only remedy for breach of any warranty shall be for breach of contract under the agreement. Nothing in the agreement shall operate to limit or exclude any liability for fraud or fraudulent misrepresentation. 16.2 The benefit of the agreement and the rights thereunder shall not be assignable by you and any attempt to assign your obligations shall be null and void. None of our obligations under this Agreement are transferable to subsequent purchasers or other future possessors of the Work. We may sub-contract or assign our obligations. 16.3 In the case of a consumer contract within the meaning of the Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977, these conditions shall not apply to the extent that they would be rendered void or unenforceable by virtue of the provisions thereof. 16.4 Neither party intends the terms of the Contract to be enforceable by a third party pursuant to the Contracts (Rights of Third Parties) Act 1999. 16.5 We shall not be liable for any breach of the agreement due to causes or events outside our reasonable control. In such circumstances we shall be entitled to exercise our rights under clause 8.1.2. January 2015 ADDENDUM - ANTI-MONEY LAUNDERING - February 2020 update Under the terms of the anti-money laundering regulation effective from 10 January 2020 we are required to conduct customer due diligence (CDD) on all sales of works of art over €10,000 before the transaction is carried out. While therefore we may agree such a sale in principle, we will not be able to conclude (i.e. receive funds, give up possession or transfer title) it until we have received all the necessary CDD information from you and have been able to verify it as required by the regulation.

L I S T O F M U S E U M S & N AT I O N A L C O L L E C T I O N S Richard Green has assisted in the formation and development of numerous private and public collections including the following: UNITED KINGDOM

Aberdeen: City Art Gallery Altrincham: Dunham Massey (NT) Barnard Castle: Bowes Museum Bedford: Cecil Higgins Museum Canterbury: Royal Museum and Art Gallery Cheltenham: Art Gallery and Museum Chester: The Grosvenor Museum Coventry: City Museum Dedham: Sir Alfred Munnings Art Museum Hampshire: County Museums Service Hull: Ferens Art Gallery Ipswich: Borough Council Museums and Galleries Leeds: Leeds City Art Gallery Lincoln: Usher Gallery Liskeard: Thorburn Museum London: Chiswick House (English Heritage) Department of the Environment The Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood The Museum of London National Maritime Museum National Portrait Gallery National Postal Museum Tate Britain The Wimbledon Lawn Tennis Museum Lydiard Tregoze: Lydiard House Malmesbury: Athelstan Museum Norwich: Castle Museum Plymouth: City Museum and Art Gallery Richmond: London Borough of Richmond upon Thames and Orleans House Gallery St Helier: States of Jersey (Office) Southsea: Royal Marine Museum Stirling: Stirling Smith Art Gallery and Museum York: York City Art Gallery


Fredericton: Beaverbrook Art Gallery Ottawa: The National Gallery of Canada


Boston, MA: Museum of Fine Arts Cincinnati, OH: Art Museum Dayton, OH: The Dayton Art Institute Gainesville, FL: Harn Museum of Art Houston, TX: Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation Los Angeles, CA: J Paul Getty Museum New Haven, CT: Yale Center for British Art New York, NY: Dahesh Museum Ocala, FL: The Appleton Museum of Art Omaha, NE: Joslyn Art Museum Pasadena, CA: Norton Simon Museum Rochester, NY: Genessee County Museum San Marino, CA: The Huntington Library St Louis, MO: Missouri Historical Society Sharon, MA: Kendall Whaling Museum Toledo, OH: Toledo Museum of Art Ventura County, CA: Maritime Museum Washington, DC: The National Gallery The White House Williamstown, MA: Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute Winona, MN: Minnesota Marine Art Museum Worcester, MA: Worcester Art Museum



Berlin: Staatliche Kunsthalle Darmstadt: Hessisches Landesmuseum Hannover: Niedersachsisches Landesmuseum Karlsruhe: Staatliche Kunsthalle Speyer am Rhein: Historisches Museum der Pfalz


Kanagawa: The Pola Museum of Art, The Pola Art Foundation


Amsterdam: Joods Historisch Museum Rijksmuseum Amersfoort: Museum Flehite Utrecht: Centraal Museum


Durban: Art Museum


Madrid: Real Academia de Bellas Artes de Sun Fernando Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza Museo Nacional del Prado

Antwerp: Maisons Rockox Courtrai: City Art Gallery




Troense: Maritime Museum

Zurich: Schweizerisches Landesmuseum

Bangkok: Museum of Contemporary Art


Dublin: National Gallery of Ireland


Compiègne: Musée National du Chateau Paris: Fondation Custodia

Catalogue by Susan Morris. Photography by Sophie Drury. Graphic design by Chris Rees Design Limited. Published by Richard Green. © Richard Green (and any applicable image right owners/artists or their estates) 2020. Database right maker: Richard Green. All rights reserved. Paintings are sold subject to our standard terms and conditions of sale, a copy of which is included in this catalogue, and further copies of which may also be obtained on request and are also available at www.richardgreen.com. Richard Green is the registered trade mark of Richard Green Master Paintings Limited registered in the EU, the USA and other countries. Printed in England by Hampton Printing (Bristol) Ltd. Event Number: 5692.

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